WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface cloud observations

  1. Observational constraints on Arctic boundary-layer clouds, surface moisture and sensible heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Boisvert, L.; Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dry, cold environment and dynamic surface variations make the Arctic a unique but difficult region for observations, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Spaceborne platforms have been the key vantage point to capture basin-scale changes during the recent Arctic warming. Using the AIRS temperature, moisture and surface data, we found that the Arctic surface moisture flux (SMF) had increased by 7% during 2003-2013 (18 W/m2 equivalent in latent heat), mostly in spring and fall near the Arctic coastal seas where large sea ice reduction and sea surface temperature (SST) increase were observed. The increase in Arctic SMF correlated well with the increases in total atmospheric column water vapor and low-level clouds, when compared to CALIPSO cloud observations. It has been challenging for climate models to reliably determine Arctic cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 and assuming a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process with generalized subgrid-scale variability for total water content, we were able to produce a cloud distribution that is more consistent with the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. More importantly, the modified schemes decrease (increase) the cloud water (ice) content in mixed-phase clouds, which help to improve the modeled CRF and energy budget at the surface, because of the dominant role of the liquid water in CRF. Yet, the coupling between Arctic low clouds and the surface is complex and has strong impacts on ABL. Studying GPS/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) refractivity profiles in the Arctic coldest and driest months, we successfully derived ABL inversion height and surface-based inversion (SBI) frequency, and they were anti-correlated over the Arctic Ocean. For the late summer and early fall season, we further analyzed Japanese R/V Mirai ship measurements and found that the open-ocean surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) can explain 10 % of the ABL height variability, whereas mechanisms such as cloud

  2. Airborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spectral radiance measurements by a digital single-lens reflex camera were used to derive the directional reflectivity of clouds and different surfaces in the Arctic. The camera has been calibrated radiometrically and spectrally to provide accurate radiance measurements with high angular resolution. A comparison with spectral radiance measurements with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART-Albedometer showed an agreement within the uncertainties of both instruments (6% for both. The directional reflectivity in terms of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF was obtained for sea ice, ice-free ocean and clouds. The sea ice, with an albedo of ρ = 0.96 (at 530 nm wavelength, showed an almost isotropic HDRF, while sun glint was observed for the ocean HDRF (ρ = 0.12. For the cloud observations with ρ = 0.62, the cloudbow – a backscatter feature typically for scattering by liquid water droplets – was covered by the camera. For measurements above heterogeneous stratocumulus clouds, the required number of images to obtain a mean HDRF that clearly exhibits the cloudbow has been estimated at about 50 images (10 min flight time. A representation of the HDRF as a function of the scattering angle only reduces the image number to about 10 (2 min flight time.

    The measured cloud and ocean HDRF have been compared to radiative transfer simulations. The ocean HDRF simulated with the observed surface wind speed of 9 m s−1 agreed best with the measurements. For the cloud HDRF, the best agreement was obtained by a broad and weak cloudbow simulated with a cloud droplet effective radius of Reff = 4 μm. This value agrees with the particle sizes derived from in situ measurements and retrieved from the spectral radiance of the SMART-Albedometer.

  3. Comparison of CERES-MODIS cloud microphysical properties with surface observations over Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongru; Huang, Jianping; Minnis, Patrick; Yi, Yuhong; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Wang, Tianhe; Nakajima, Takashi Y.

    2015-03-01

    To enhance the utility of satellite-derived cloud properties for studying the role of clouds in climate change and the hydrological cycle in semi-arid areas, it is necessary to know their uncertainties. This paper estimates the uncertainties of several cloud properties by comparing those derived over the China Loess Plateau from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua by the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) with surface observations at the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL). The comparisons use data from January 2008 to June 2010 limited to single layer and overcast stratus conditions during daytime. Cloud optical depths (τ) and liquid water paths (LWP) from both Terra and Aqua generally track the variation of the surface counterparts with modest correlation, while cloud effective radius (re) is only weakly correlated with the surface retrievals. The mean differences between Terra and the SACOL retrievals are -4.7±12.9, 2.1±3.2 μm and 30.2±85.3 g m-2 for τ, re and LWP, respectively. The corresponding differences for Aqua are 2.1±8.4, 1.2±2.9 μm and 47.4±79.6 g m-2, respectively. Possible causes for biases of satellite retrievals are discussed through statistical analysis and case studies. Generally, the CERES-MODIS cloud properties have a bit larger biases over the Loess Plateau than those in previous studies over other locations.

  4. Shortwave surface radiation network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Madhavan, Bomidi; Kalisch, John; Macke, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high-density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km × 12 km area) from April to July 2013 to capture the small-scale variability of cloud-induced radiation fields at the surface. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network, data processing, quality control, and uncertainty assessment under variable conditions. Some exemplary days with clear, broken cloudy, and overcast skies were explored to assess the spatiotemporal observations from the network along with other collocated radiation and sky imager measurements available during the HOPE period.

  5. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  6. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  7. Homogenizing Surface and Satellite Observations of Cloud. Aspects of Bias in Surface Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-10

    both ( pannus ), usually below fractus of bad weather, or both ( pannus ), usu- Altostratus or Nimbostratus ally below Altostratus or Nimbostratus 8 Cumulus...Stratocumulus, Stratus of an anvil; either accompanied or not by Cu- or pannus mulonimbus without anvil or fibrous upper part, by Cumulus, Stratocumulus...Stratus or pannus CL clouds invisible owing to darkness, fog, / Stratocumulus, Stratus, Cumulus and Cu- blowing dust or sand, or other similar mulonimbus

  8. Temporal Changes in the Observed Relationship between Cloud Cover and Surface Air Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bomin; Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Keimig, Frank T.

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between cloud cover and near-surface air temperature and its decadal changes are examined using the hourly synoptic data for the past four to six decades from five regions of the Northern Hemisphere: Canada, the United States, the former Soviet Union, China, and tropical islands of the western Pacific. The authors define the normalized cloud cover-surface air temperature relationship, NOCET or dT/dCL, as a temperature anomaly with a unit (one-tenth) deviation of total cloud cover from its average value. Then mean monthly NOCET time series (night- and daytime, separately) are area-averaged and parameterized as functions of surface air humidity and snow cover. The day- and nighttime NOCET variations are strongly anticorrelated with changes in surface humidity. Furthermore, the daytime NOCET changes are positively correlated to changes in snow cover extent. The regionally averaged nighttime NOCET varies from 0.05 K tenth1 in the wet Tropics to 1.0 K tenth1 at midlatitudes in winter. The daytime regional NOCET ranges from 0.4 K tenth1 in the Tropics to 0.7 K tenth1 at midlatitudes in winter.The authors found a general strengthening of a daytime surface cooling during the post-World War II period associated with cloud cover over the United States and China, but a minor reduction of this cooling in higher latitudes. Furthermore, since the 1970s, a prominent increase in atmospheric humidity has significantly weakened the effectiveness of the surface warming (best seen at nighttime) associated with cloud cover.The authors apportion the spatiotemporal field of interactions between total cloud cover and surface air temperature into a bivariate relationship (described by two equations, one for daytime and one for nighttime) with surface air humidity and snow cover and two constant factors. These factors are invariant in space and time domains. It is speculated that they may represent empirical estimates of the overall cloud cover effect on the surface air

  9. Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Fraction (CF is the dominant modulator of radiative fluxes. In this study, we evaluate CF simulated in the IPCC AR4 GCMs against ARM long-term ground-based measurements, with a focus on the vertical structure, total amount of cloud and its effect on cloud shortwave transmissivity. Comparisons are performed for three climate regimes as represented by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM sites: Southern Great Plains (SGP, Manus, Papua New Guinea and North Slope of Alaska (NSA. Our intercomparisons of three independent measurements of CF or sky-cover reveal that the relative differences are usually less than 10% (5% for multi-year monthly (annual mean values, while daily differences are quite significant. The total sky imager (TSI produces smaller total cloud fraction (TCF compared to a radar/lidar dataset for highly cloudy days (CF > 0.8, but produces a larger TCF value than the radar/lidar for less cloudy conditions (CF < 0.3. The compensating errors in lower and higher CF days result in small biases of TCF between the vertically pointing radar/lidar dataset and the hemispheric TSI measurements as multi-year data is averaged. The unique radar/lidar CF measurements enable us to evaluate seasonal variation of cloud vertical structures in the GCMs.

    Both inter-model deviation and model bias against observation are investigated in this study. Another unique aspect of this study is that we use simultaneous measurements of CF and surface radiative fluxes to diagnose potential discrepancies among the GCMs in representing other cloud optical properties than TCF. The results show that the model-observation and inter-model deviations have similar magnitudes for the TCF and the normalized cloud effect, and these deviations are larger than those in surface downward solar radiation and cloud transmissivity. This implies that other dimensions of cloud in addition to cloud amount, such as cloud optical thickness and

  10. A 10-Year Climatology of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution Derived from Both Surface and GOES Observations Over the DOE ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a decade of ARM radar-lidar and GOES observations at the SGP site reveal that 0.5 and 4-hr averages of the surface cloud fraction correspond closely to 0.5deg and 2.5deg averages of GOES cloudiness, respectively. The long-term averaged surface and GOES cloud fractions agree to within 0.5%. Cloud frequency increases and cloud amount decreases as the temporal and spatial averaging scales increase. Clouds occurred most often during winter and spring. Single-layered clouds account for 61.5% of the total cloud frequency. There are distinct bimodal vertical distributions of clouds with a lower peak around 1 km and an upper one that varies from 7.5 to 10.8 km between winter and summer, respectively. The frequency of occurrence for nighttime GOES high-cloud tops agree well with the surface observations, but are underestimated during the day.

  11. Estimates for the Probabilities of Surface-to-Air Cloud-Free Lines-of-Sight and Low Cloud Statistics from Ship Observations. Part 1. Fifteen Marine Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-24

    time before and after) or cumulus fractus of bad weath’er, or both ( pannus ), usually below altostratus or nimbostratus. 8 = Cumulus and stratocumulus...vibrous upper part by cumulus, stratocumulus, stratus or pannus . + . from Surface Marine Observations Tape Deck TDF-11 *Fog All clouds in the 0-50...Fractus of bad weather, cr V both ( pannus ), usually below Alto- stratus or N~imbostratus. The term "bad weather* denotes the conditions which coenerally

  12. Clouds across the Arctic: A spatial perspective uniting surface observations of downwelling infrared radiation, reanalyses and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.

    The polar regions serve an important role in the Earth's energy balance by acting as a heat sink for the global climate system. In the Arctic, a complex distribution of continental and oceanic features support large spatial variability in environmental parameters important for climate. Additionally, feedbacks that are unique to the cryosphere cause the region to be very sensitive to climate perturbations. Environmental changes are being observed, including increasing temperatures, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, melting permafrost, changing atmospheric circulation patterns and changing cloud properties, which may be signaling a shift in climate. Despite these changes, the Arctic remains an understudied region, including with respect to the atmosphere and clouds. A better understanding of cloud properties and their geographical variability is needed to better understand observed changes and to forecast the future state of the system, to support adaptation and mitigation strategies, and understand how Arctic change impacts other regions of the globe. Surface-based observations of the atmosphere are critical measurements in this effort because they are high quality and have high temporal resolution, but there are few atmospheric observatories in the Arctic and the period of record is short. Reanalyses combine assimilated observations with models to fill in spatial and temporal data gaps, and also provide additional model-derived parameters. Reanalyses are spatially comprehensive, but are limited by large uncertainties and biases, in particular with respect to derived parameters. Infrared radiation is a large component of the surface energy budget. Infrared emission from clouds is closely tied to cloud properties, so measurements of the infrared spectrum can be used to retrieve information about clouds and can also be used to investigate the influence clouds have on the surface radiation balance. In this dissertation, spectral infrared radiances and other

  13. Electron cloud observations: a retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkay, K.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of observations of electron cloud effects (ECEs) have been reported in positron and proton rings. Low-energy, background electrons ubiquitous in high-intensity particle accelerators. Amplification of electron cloud (EC) can occur under certain operating conditions, potentially giving rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade accelerator performance. EC observations and diagnostics have contributed to a better understanding of ECEs, in particular, details of beam-induced multipacting and cloud saturation effects. Such experimental results can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters for modeling efforts and analytical calculations to improve prediction capability. Electron cloud effects are increasingly important phenomena in high luminosity, high brightness, or high intensity machines - Colliders, Storage rings, Damping rings, Heavy ion beams. EC generation and instability modeling increasingly complex and benchmarked against in situ data: (delta), (delta) 0 , photon reflectivity, and SE energy distributions important. Surface conditioning and use of solenoidal windings in field-free regions are successful cures: will they be enough? What are new observations and how do they contribute to body of work and understanding physics of EC?

  14. Remote observations of eruptive clouds and surface thermal activity during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Lopez, T. M.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Dean, K. G.; Rinkleff, P.; Dehn, J.; Cahill, C. F.; Wessels, R. L.; Bailey, J. E.; Izbekov, P.; Worden, A.

    2013-06-01

    Volcanoes often erupt explosively and generate a variety of hazards including volcanic ash clouds and gaseous plumes. These clouds and plumes are a significant hazard to the aviation industry and the ground features can be a major hazard to local communities. Here, we provide a chronology of the 2009 Redoubt Volcano eruption using frequent, low spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and ultraviolet (UV) satellite remote sensing data. The first explosion of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano occurred on March 15, 2009 (UTC) and was followed by a series of magmatic explosive events starting on March 23 (UTC). From March 23-April 4 2009, satellites imaged at least 19 separate explosive events that sent ash clouds up to 18 km above sea level (ASL) that dispersed ash across the Cook Inlet region. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the ash clouds and plumes from the 19 explosive events, detailing their cloud-top heights and discussing the variations in infrared absorption signals. We show that the timing of the TIR data relative to the event end time was critical for inferring the TIR derived height and true cloud top height. The ash clouds were high in water content, likely in the form of ice, which masked the negative TIR brightness temperature difference (BTD) signal typically used for volcanic ash detection. The analysis shown here illustrates the utility of remote sensing data during volcanic crises to measure critical real-time parameters, such as cloud-top heights, changes in ground-based thermal activity, and plume/cloud location.

  15. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  16. Comparison of cloud optical depth and cloud mask applying BRDF model-based background surface reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. W.; Yeom, J. M.; Woo, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Over the thin cloud region, satellite can simultaneously detect the reflectance from thin clouds and land surface. Since the mixed reflectance is not the exact cloud information, the background surface reflectance should be eliminated to accurately distinguish thin cloud such as cirrus. In the previous research, Kim et al (2017) was developed the cloud masking algorithm using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is one of significant instruments for Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS). Although GOCI has 8 spectral channels including visible and near infra-red spectral ranges, the cloud masking has quantitatively reasonable result when comparing with MODIS cloud mask (Collection 6 MYD35). Especially, we noticed that this cloud masking algorithm is more specialized in thin cloud detections through the validation with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data. Because this cloud masking method was concentrated on eliminating background surface effects from the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Applying the difference between TOA reflectance and the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model-based background surface reflectance, cloud areas both thick cloud and thin cloud can be discriminated without infra-red channels which were mostly used for detecting clouds. Moreover, when the cloud mask result was utilized as the input data when simulating BRDF model and the optimized BRDF model-based surface reflectance was used for the optimized cloud masking, the probability of detection (POD) has higher value than POD of the original cloud mask. In this study, we examine the correlation between cloud optical depth (COD) and its cloud mask result. Cloud optical depths mostly depend on the cloud thickness, the characteristic of contents, and the size of cloud contents. COD ranges from less than 0.1 for thin clouds to over 1000 for the huge cumulus due to scattering by droplets. With

  17. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite ...

  18. Effect of remote clouds on surface UV irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguenther, M.; Meerkoetter, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2000-06-01

    Clouds affect local surface UV irradiance, even if the horizontal distance from the radiation observation site amounts to several kilometers. In order to investigate this effect, which we call remote clouds effect, a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model is applied. Assuming the atmosphere is subdivided into a quadratic based sector and its surrounding, we quantify the influence of changing cloud coverage within this surrounding from 0% to 100% on surface UV irradiance at the sector center. To work out this remote clouds influence as a function of sector base size, we made some calculations for different sizes between 10 km x 10 km and 100 km x 100 km. It appears that in the case of small sectors (base size {<=}20 km x 20 km) the remote clouds effect is highly variable: Depending on cloud structure, solar zenith angle and wavelength, the surface UV irradiance may be enhanced up to 15% as well as reduced by more than 50%. In contrast, for larger sectors it is always the case that enhancements become smaller by 5% if sector base size exceeds 60 km x 60 km. However, these values are upper estimates of the remote cloud effects and they are found only for special cloud structures. Since these structures might occur but cannot be regarded as typical, different satellite observed cloud formations (horizontal resolution about 1 km x 1 km) have also been investigated. For these more common cloud distributions we find remote cloud effects to be distinctly smaller than the corresponding upper estimates, e.g., for a sector with base size of 25 km x 25 km the surface UV irradiance error due to ignoring the actual remote clouds and replacing their influence with periodic horizontal boundary conditions is less than 3%, whereas the upper estimate of remote clouds effect would suggest an error close to 10%. (orig.)

  19. Banner clouds observed at Mount Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wirth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic observations of banner clouds at Mount Zugspitze in the Bavarian Alps are presented and discussed. One set of observations draws on daily time lapse movies, which were taken over several years at this mountain. Identifying banner clouds with the help of these movies and using simultaneous observations of standard variables at the summit of the mountain provides climatological information regarding the banner clouds. In addition, a week-long measurement campaign with an entire suite of instruments was carried through yielding a comprehensive set of data for two specific banner cloud events.

    The duration of banner cloud events has a long-tailed distribution with a mean of about 40 min. The probability of occurrence has both a distinct diurnal and a distinct seasonal cycle, with a maximum in the afternoon and in the warm season, respectively. These cycles appear to correspond closely to analogous cycles of relative humidity, which maximize in the late afternoon and during the warm season. In addition, the dependence of banner cloud occurrence on wind speed is weak. Both results suggest that moisture conditions are a key factor for banner cloud occurrence. The distribution of wind direction during banner cloud events slightly deviates from climatology, suggesting an influence from the specific Zugspitz orography.

    The two banner cloud events during the campaign have a number of common features: the windward and the leeward side are characterized by different wind regimes, however, with mean upward flow on both sides; the leeward air is both moister and warmer than the windward air; the background atmosphere has an inversion just above the summit of Mt. Zugspitze; the lifting condensation level increases with altitude. The results are discussed, and it is argued that they are consistent with previous Large Eddy Simulations using idealized orography.

  20. Utilizing CLASIC observations and multiscale models to study the impact of improved Land surface representation on modeling cloud- convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyogi, Devdutta S. [Purdue

    2013-06-07

    The CLASIC experiment was conducted over the US southern great plains (SGP) in June 2007 with an objective to lead an enhanced understanding of the cumulus convection particularly as it relates to land surface conditions. This project was design to help assist with understanding the overall improvement of land atmosphere convection initiation representation of which is important for global and regional models. The study helped address one of the critical documented deficiency in the models central to the ARM objectives for cumulus convection initiation and particularly under summer time conditions. This project was guided by the scientific question building on the CLASIC theme questions: What is the effect of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation? The focus was on the US Southern Great Plains region. Since the CLASIC period was anomalously wet the strategy has been to use other periods and domains to develop the comparative assessment for the CLASIC data period, and to understand the mechanisms of the anomalous wet conditions on the tropical systems and convection over land. The data periods include the IHOP 2002 field experiment that was over roughly same domain as the CLASIC in the SGP, and some of the DOE funded Ameriflux datasets.

  1. Water ice clouds observations with PFS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Zasova, L. V.; Formisano, V.; Grassi, D.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Giuranna, M.; Maturilli, A.; Pfs Team

    The water ice cloud observation is one of the scientific goals of PFS. Presence and properties of the ice particles are identified from absorption features, observed in both spectral ranges of PFS. Being in the near perihelion condition, the temperature of the Martian atmosphere is pretty high and ice clouds exist only in some places, for example, related to topography or at north high latitudes et etc. The ice clouds are observed often above the tops of the volcanoes. We have found the ice clouds above Olympus (orbit 37) and Ascraeus Mons (orbit 68). Effective radius of particles according to the thermal IR is preliminary estimated of 1 μ m, which leads to the visual opacity of 0.2 -0.3 above Olympus and of maximum of 0.6 above Ascraeus Mons. In the case of Ascraeus Mons the ice clouds are observed on the south slope near the top of the volcano. The maximum surface temperature, observed there, results in the upward flux of warm air, which, cooling, provides the condensation of H2O. We will present a detailed analysis of the ice clouds, observed over the planet in the IR spectral range.

  2. Polar clouds and radiation in satellite observations, reanalyses, and climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, JTM; Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; L'Ecuyer, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Clouds play a pivotal role in the surface energy budget of the polar regions. Here we use two largely independent data sets of cloud and surface downwelling radiation observations derived by satellite remote sensing (2007–2010) to evaluate simulated clouds and radiation over both polar ice sheets

  3. Cloud Based Earth Observation Data Exploitation Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, A.; Pinto, S.; Loekken, S.; Marin, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years data produced daily by several private and public Earth Observation (EO) satellites reached the order of tens of Terabytes, representing for scientists and commercial application developers both a big opportunity for their exploitation and a challenge for their management. New IT technologies, such as Big Data and cloud computing, enable the creation of web-accessible data exploitation platforms, which offer to scientists and application developers the means to access and use EO data in a quick and cost effective way. RHEA Group is particularly active in this sector, supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the Exploitation Platforms (EP) initiative, developing technology to build multi cloud platforms for the processing and analysis of Earth Observation data, and collaborating with larger European initiatives such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). An EP is a virtual workspace, providing a user community with access to (i) large volume of data, (ii) algorithm development and integration environment, (iii) processing software and services (e.g. toolboxes, visualization routines), (iv) computing resources, (v) collaboration tools (e.g. forums, wiki, etc.). When an EP is dedicated to a specific Theme, it becomes a Thematic Exploitation Platform (TEP). Currently, ESA has seven TEPs in a pre-operational phase dedicated to geo-hazards monitoring and prevention, costal zones, forestry areas, hydrology, polar regions, urban areas and food security. On the technology development side, solutions like the multi cloud EO data processing platform provides the technology to integrate ICT resources and EO data from different vendors in a single platform. In particular it offers (i) Multi-cloud data discovery, (ii) Multi-cloud data management and access and (iii) Multi-cloud application deployment. This platform has been demonstrated with the EGI Federated Cloud, Innovation Platform Testbed Poland

  4. Observation of magnetic resonances in electron clouds in a positron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Ng, J.S.T.; Cooper, F.; Kharakh, D.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Kuekan, B.; Spencer, C.M.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Wang, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The first experimental observation of magnetic resonances in electron clouds is reported. The resonance was observed as a modulation in cloud intensity for uncoated as well as TiN-coated aluminum surfaces in the positron storage ring of the PEP-II collider at SLAC. Electron clouds frequently arise in accelerators of positively charged particles, and severely impact the machines' performance. The TiN coating was found to be an effective remedy, reducing the cloud intensity by three orders of magnitude.

  5. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  6. Observational Constraints for Modeling Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    Ground-based and space-borne observations of diffuse molecular clouds suggest a number of areas where further improvements to modeling efforts is warranted. I will highlight those that have the widest applicability. The range in CO fractionation caused by selective isotope photodissociation, in particular the large 12C16O/13C16O ratios observed toward stars in Ophiuchus, is not reproduced well by current models. Our ongoing laboratory measurements of oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions in CO isotopologues may help clarify the situtation. The CH+ abundance continues to draw attention. Small scale structure seen toward ζ Per may provide additional constraints on the possible synthesis routes. The connection between results from optical transitions and those from radio and sub-millimeter wave transitions requires further effort. A study of OH+ and OH toward background stars reveals that these species favor different environments. This brings to focus the need to model each cloud along the line of sight separately, and to allow the physical conditions to vary within an individual cloud, in order to gain further insight into the chemistry. Now that an extensive set of data on molecular excitation is available, the models should seek to reproduce these data to place further constraints on the modeling results.

  7. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  8. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  9. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  10. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  11. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  12. The cloud radiation impact from optics simulation and airborne observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Irina; Kuznetsov, Anatoly; Gatebe, Charles

    2017-02-01

    The analytical approach of inverse asymptotic formulas of the radiative transfer theory is used for solving inverse problems of cloud optics. The method has advantages because it does not impose strict constraints, but it is tied to the desired solution. Observations are accomplished in extended stratus cloudiness, above a homogeneous ocean surface. Data from NASA`s Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) during two airborne experiments (SAFARI-2000 and ARCTAS-2008) were analyzed. The analytical method of inverse asymptotic formulas was used to retrieve cloud optical parameters (optical thickness, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter of the phase function) and ground albedo in all 8 spectral channels independently. The method is free from a priori restrictions and there is no links to parameters, and it has been applied to data set of different origin and geometry of observations. Results obtained from different airborne, satellite and ground radiative experiments appeared consistence and showed common features of values of cloud parameters and its spectral dependence (Vasiluev, Melnikova, 2004; Gatebe et al., 2014). Optical parameters, retrieved here, are used for calculation of radiative divergence, reflected and transmitted irradiance and heating rates in cloudy atmosphere, that agree with previous observational data.

  13. CSIR NLC mobile lidar observation of cirrus cloud

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a night-time continuous CSIR-NLC mobile observation of highaltitude cirrus cloud. The LIDAR measurements will also elucidate the aerosol concentration, optical depth, cloud position, thickness and other general...

  14. Radiative budget and cloud radiative effect over the Atlantic from ship-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kalisch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine cloud-type resolved cloud radiative budgets and cloud radiative effects from surface measurements of broadband radiative fluxes over the Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, based on simultaneous observations of the state of the cloudy atmosphere, a radiative closure study has been performed by means of the ECHAM5 single column model in order to identify the model's ability to realistically reproduce the effects of clouds on the climate system.

    An extensive database of radiative and atmospheric measurements has been established along five meridional cruises of the German research icebreaker Polarstern. Besides pyranometer and pyrgeometer for downward broadband solar and thermal radiative fluxes, a sky imager and a microwave radiometer have been utilized to determine cloud fraction and cloud type on the one hand and temperature and humidity profiles as well as liquid water path for warm non-precipitating clouds on the other hand.

    Averaged over all cruise tracks, we obtain a total net (solar + thermal radiative flux of 144 W m−2 that is dominated by the solar component. In general, the solar contribution is large for cirrus clouds and small for stratus clouds. No significant meridional dependencies were found for the surface radiation budgets and cloud effects. The strongest surface longwave cloud effects were shown in the presence of low level clouds. Clouds with a high optical density induce strong negative solar radiative effects under high solar altitudes. The mean surface net cloud radiative effect is −33 W m−2.

    For the purpose of quickly estimating the mean surface longwave, shortwave and net cloud effects in moderate, subtropical and tropical climate regimes, a new parameterisation was created, considering the total cloud amount and the solar zenith angle.

    The ECHAM5 single column model provides a surface net cloud effect that is more

  15. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  16. Lidar Penetration Depth Observations for Constraining Cloud Longwave Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guelis, T.; Chepfer, H.; Noel, V.; Guzman, R.; Winker, D. M.; Kay, J. E.; Bonazzola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-borne active remote sensing Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations [CALIPSO; Winker et al., 2010] and CloudSat [Stephens et al., 2002] provide direct measurements of the cloud vertical distribution, with a very high vertical resolution. The penetration depth of the laser of the lidar Z_Opaque is directly linked to the LongWave (LW) Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) at Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. In addition, this measurement is extremely stable in time making it an excellent observational candidate to verify and constrain the cloud LW feedback mechanism [Chepfer et al., 2014]. In this work, we present a method to decompose the variations of the LW CRE at TOA using cloud properties observed by lidar [GOCCP v3.0; Guzman et al., 2017]. We decompose these variations into contributions due to changes in five cloud properties: opaque cloud cover, opaque cloud altitude, thin cloud cover, thin cloud altitude, and thin cloud emissivity [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. We apply this method, in the real world, to the CRE variations of CALIPSO 2008-2015 record, and, in climate model, to LMDZ6 and CESM simulations of the CRE variations of 2008-2015 period and of the CRE difference between a warm climate and the current climate. In climate model simulations, the same cloud properties as those observed by CALIOP are extracted from the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) [Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011] lidar simulator [Chepfer et al., 2008], which mimics the observations that would be performed by the lidar on board CALIPSO satellite. This method, when applied on multi-model simulations of current and future climate, could reveal the altitude of cloud opacity level observed by lidar as a strong constrain for cloud LW feedback, since the altitude feedback mechanism is physically explainable and the altitude of cloud opacity accurately observed by lidar.

  17. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  18. Reducing Surface Clutter in Cloud Profiling Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Pak, Kyung; Durden, Stephen; Im, Eastwood

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p 10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded in CloudSat L1B processing as of Release 04 (July 2007), and the estimated flat surface clutter is removed in L2B-GEOPROF product from the

  19. Examination of Regional Trends in Cloud Properties over Surface Sites Derived from MODIS and AVHRR using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Doelling, D. R.; Kato, S.; Rutan, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies analyzing long-term measurements of surface insolation at ground sites suggest that decadal-scale trends of increasing (brightening) and decreasing (dimming) downward solar flux have occurred at various times over the last century. Regional variations have been reported that range from near 0 Wm-2/decade to as large as 9 Wm-2/decade depending on the location and time period analyzed. The more significant trends have been attributed to changes in overhead clouds and aerosols, although quantifying their relative impacts using independent observations has been difficult, owing in part to a lack of consistent long-term measurements of cloud properties. This paper examines new satellite based records of cloud properties derived from MODIS (2000-present) and AVHRR (1981- present) data to infer cloud property trends over a number of surface radiation sites across the globe. The MODIS cloud algorithm was developed for the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project to provide a consistent record of cloud properties to help improve broadband radiation measurements and to better understand cloud radiative effects. The CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm has been modified to analyze other satellites including the AVHRR on the NOAA satellites. Compared to MODIS, obtaining consistent cloud properties over a long period from AVHRR is a much more significant challenge owing to the number of different satellites, instrument calibration uncertainties, orbital drift and other factors. Nevertheless, both the MODIS and AVHRR cloud properties will be analyzed to determine trends, and their level of consistency and correspondence with surface radiation trends derived from the ground-based radiometer data. It is anticipated that this initial study will contribute to an improved understanding of surface solar radiation trends and their relationship to clouds.

  20. CloudSat observations of cloud-type distribution over the Indian summer monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Subrahmanyam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional distribution of various cloud types over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM region using five years (2006–2010 of CloudSat observations during June-July-August-September months is discussed for the first time. As the radiative properties, latent heat released and microphysical properties of clouds differ largely depending on the cloud type, it becomes important to know what types of clouds occur over which region. In this regard, the present analysis establishes the three-dimensional distribution of frequency of occurrence of stratus (St, stratocumulus (Sc, nimbostratus (Ns, cumulus (Cu, altocumulus (Ac, altostratus (As, cirrus (Ci and deep convective (DC clouds over the ISM region. The results show that the various cloud types preferentially occur over some regions of the ISM, which are consistent during all the years of observations. It is found that the DC clouds frequently occur over northeast of Bay of Bengal (BoB, Ci clouds over a wide region of south BoB–Indian peninsula–equatorial Indian Ocean, and Sc clouds over the north Arabian Sea. Ac clouds preferentially occur over land, and a large amount of As clouds are found over BoB. The occurrence of both St and Ns clouds over the study region is much lower than all other cloud types.The interannual variability of all these clouds including their vertical distribution is discussed. It is envisaged that the present study opens up possibilities to quantify the feedback of individual cloud type in the maintenance of the ISM through radiative forcing and latent heat release.

  1. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES: CHARACTERIZING SIMULATED VERSUS OBSERVED CLOUD CATALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benincasa, Samantha M.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Tasker, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    We present the results of a study of simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in a Milky Way-type galactic disk with a flat rotation curve. This simulation, which does not include star formation or feedback, produces clouds with masses ranging between 10{sup 4} M{sub ☉} and 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We compare our simulated cloud population to two observational surveys: the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey and the BIMA All-Disk Survey of M33. An analysis of the global cloud properties as well as a comparison of Larson's scaling relations is carried out. We find that simulated cloud properties agree well with the observed cloud properties, with the closest agreement occurring between the clouds at comparable resolution in M33. Our clouds are highly filamentary—a property that derives both from their formation due to gravitational instability in the sheared galactic environment, as well as to cloud-cloud gravitational encounters. We also find that the rate at which potentially star-forming gas accumulates within dense regions—wherein n{sub thresh} ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}—is 3% per 10 Myr, in clouds of roughly 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉}. This suggests that star formation rates in observed clouds are related to the rates at which gas can be accumulated into dense subregions within GMCs via filamentary flows. The most internally well-resolved clouds are chosen for listing in a catalog of simulated GMCs—the first of its kind. The cataloged clouds are available as an extracted data set from the global simulation.

  2. Constraining the models' response of tropical low clouds to SST forcings using CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, G.; Del Genio, A. D.; Ackerman, A. S.; Brient, F.; Fridlind, A. M.; Kelley, M.; Elsaesser, G.

    2017-12-01

    Low-cloud response to a warmer climate is still pointed out as being the largest source of uncertainty in the last generation of climate models. To date there is no consensus among the models on whether the tropical low cloudiness would increase or decrease in a warmer climate. In addition, it has been shown that - depending on their climate sensitivity - the models either predict deeper or shallower low clouds. Recently, several relationships between inter-model characteristics of the present-day climate and future climate changes have been highlighted. These so-called emergent constraints aim to target relevant model improvements and to constrain models' projections based on current climate observations. Here we propose to use - for the first time - 10 years of CALIPSO cloud statistics to assess the ability of the models to represent the vertical structure of tropical low clouds for abnormally warm SST. We use a simulator approach to compare observations and simulations and focus on the low-layered clouds (i.e. z fraction. Vertically, the clouds deepen namely by decreasing the cloud fraction in the lowest levels and increasing it around the top of the boundary-layer. This feature is coincident with an increase of the high-level cloud fraction (z > 6.5km). Although the models' spread is large, the multi-model mean captures the observed variations but with a smaller amplitude. We then employ the GISS model to investigate how changes in cloud parameterizations affect the response of low clouds to warmer SSTs on the one hand; and how they affect the variations of the model's cloud profiles with respect to environmental parameters on the other hand. Finally, we use CALIPSO observations to constrain the model by determining i) what set of parameters allows reproducing the observed relationships and ii) what are the consequences on the cloud feedbacks. These results point toward process-oriented constraints of low-cloud responses to surface warming and environmental

  3. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  4. Aerosol indirect effects on the nighttime Arctic Ocean surface from thin, predominantly liquid clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol indirect effects have potentially large impacts on the Arctic Ocean surface energy budget, but model estimates of regional-scale aerosol indirect effects are highly uncertain and poorly validated by observations. Here we demonstrate a new way to quantitatively estimate aerosol indirect effects on a regional scale from remote sensing observations. In this study, we focus on nighttime, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds. The method is based on differences in cloud physical and microphysical characteristics in carefully selected clean, average, and aerosol-impacted conditions. The cloud subset of focus covers just ∼ 5 % of cloudy Arctic Ocean regions, warming the Arctic Ocean surface by ∼ 1–1.4 W m−2 regionally during polar night. However, within this cloud subset, aerosol and cloud conditions can be determined with high confidence using CALIPSO and CloudSat data and model output. This cloud subset is generally susceptible to aerosols, with a polar nighttime estimated maximum regionally integrated indirect cooling effect of ∼ −0.11 W m−2 at the Arctic sea ice surface (∼ 8 % of the clean background cloud effect, excluding cloud fraction changes. Aerosol presence is related to reduced precipitation, cloud thickness, and radar reflectivity, and in some cases, an increased likelihood of cloud presence in the liquid phase. These observations are inconsistent with a glaciation indirect effect and are consistent with either a deactivation effect or less-efficient secondary ice formation related to smaller liquid cloud droplets. However, this cloud subset shows large differences in surface and meteorological forcing in shallow and higher-altitude clouds and between sea ice and open-ocean regions. For example, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds are much more likely to overlay another cloud over the open ocean, which may reduce aerosol indirect effects on the surface. Also, shallow clouds over

  5. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter S. K.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5°C to -40°C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  6. Photogrammetric Analysis of Rotor Clouds Observed during T-REX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romatschke, U.; Grubišić, V.

    2017-12-01

    Stereo photogrammetric analysis is a rarely utilized but highly valuable tool for studying smaller, highly ephemeral clouds. In this study, we make use of data that was collected during the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX), which took place in Owens Valley, eastern California, in the spring of 2006. The data set consists of matched digital stereo photographs obtained at high temporal (on the order of seconds) and spatial resolution (limited by the pixel size of the cameras). Using computer vision techniques we have been able to develop algorithms for camera calibration, automatic feature matching, and ultimately reconstruction of 3D cloud scenes. Applying these techniques to images from different T-REX IOPs we capture the motion of clouds in several distinct mountain wave scenarios ranging from short lived lee wave clouds on an otherwise clear sky day to rotor clouds formed in an extreme turbulence environment with strong winds and high cloud coverage. Tracking the clouds in 3D space and time allows us to quantify phenomena such as vertical and horizontal movement of clouds, turbulent motion at the upstream edge of rotor clouds, the structure of the lifting condensation level, extreme wind shear, and the life cycle of clouds in lee waves. When placed into context with the existing literature that originated from the T-REX field campaign, our results complement and expand our understanding of the complex dynamics observed in a variety of different lee wave settings.

  7. Mixed phase clouds: observations and theoretical advances (overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Alexei

    2013-04-01

    Mixed phase clouds play important role in precipitation formation and radiation budget of the Earth. The microphysical measurements in mixed phase clouds are notoriously difficult due to many technical challenges. The airborne instrumentation for characterization of the microstructure of mixed phase clouds is discussed. The results multiyear airborne observations and measurements of frequency of occurrence of mixed phase, characteristic spatial scales, humidity in mixed phase and ice clouds are presented. A theoretical framework describing the thermodynamics and phase transformation of a three phase component system consisting of ice particles, liquid droplets and water vapor is discussed. It is shown that the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process plays different role in clouds with different dynamics. The problem of maintenance and longevity of mixed phase clouds is discussed.

  8. In-situ aircraft observations of ice concentrations within clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Grosvenor, D. P.; Choularton, T. W.; Lachlan-Cope, T.; Gallagher, M. W.; Crosier, J.; Bower, K. N.; Ladkin, R. S.; Dorsey, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    In-situ aircraft observations of ice crystal concentrations in Antarctic clouds are presented for the first time. Orographic, layer and wave clouds around the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice shelf regions were penetrated by the British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft, which was equipped with modern cloud physics probes. The clouds studied were mostly in the free troposphere and hence ice crystals blown from the surface are unlikely to have been a major source for the ice phas...

  9. Impact of additional surface observation network on short range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stations (AWS) surface observations (temperature and moisture) on the short range forecast over the Indian ... models, which are able to resolve mesoscale fea- ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. ..... terization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Climate.

  10. Combining observations and models to reduce uncertainty in the cloud response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J. R.; Myers, T.; Chellappan, S.

    2017-12-01

    Currently there is large uncertainty on how subtropical low-level clouds will respond to global warming and whether they will act as a positive feedback or negative feedback. Global climate models substantially agree on what changes in atmospheric structure and circulation will occur with global warming but greatly disagree over how clouds will respond to these changes in structure and circulation. An examination of models with the most realistic simulations of low-level cloudiness indicates that the model cloud response to atmospheric changes associated with global warming is quantitatively similar to the model cloud response to atmospheric changes at interannual time scales. For these models, the cloud response to global warming predicted by multilinear regression using coefficients derived from interannual time scales is quantitatively similar to the cloud response to global warming directly simulated by the model. Since there is a large spread among cloud response coefficients even among models with the most realistic cloud simulations, substitution of coefficients derived from satellite observations reduces the uncertainty range of the low-level cloud feedback. Increased sea surface temperature associated with global warming acts to reduce low-level cloudiness, which is partially offset by increased lower tropospheric stratification that acts to enhance low-level cloudiness. Changes in free-tropospheric relative humidity, subsidence, and horizontal advection have only a small impact on low-level cloud. The net reduction in subtropical low-level cloudiness increases absorption of solar radiation by the climate system, thus resulting in a weak positive feedback.

  11. Cloud-edge mixing: Direct numerical simulation and observations in Indian Monsoon clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bipin; Bera, Sudarsan; Prabha, Thara V.; Grabowski, Wojceich W.

    2017-03-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) with the decaying turbulence setup has been carried out to study cloud-edge mixing and its impact on the droplet size distribution (DSD) applying thermodynamic conditions observed in monsoon convective clouds over Indian subcontinent during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX). Evaporation at the cloud-edges initiates mixing at small scale and gradually introduces larger-scale fluctuations of the temperature, moisture, and vertical velocity due to droplet evaporation. Our focus is on early evolution of simulated fields that show intriguing similarities to the CAIPEEX cloud observations. A strong dilution at the cloud edge, accompanied by significant spatial variations of the droplet concentration, mean radius, and spectral width, are found in both the DNS and in observations. In DNS, fluctuations of the mean radius and spectral width come from the impact of small-scale turbulence on the motion and evaporation of inertial droplets. These fluctuations decrease with the increase of the volume over which DNS data are averaged, as one might expect. In cloud observations, these fluctuations also come from other processes, such as entrainment/mixing below the observation level, secondary CCN activation, or variations of CCN activation at the cloud base. Despite large differences in the spatial and temporal scales, the mixing diagram often used in entrainment/mixing studies with aircraft data is remarkably similar for both DNS and cloud observations. We argue that the similarity questions applicability of heuristic ideas based on mixing between two air parcels (that the mixing diagram is designed to properly represent) to the evolution of microphysical properties during turbulent mixing between a cloud and its environment.

  12. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-01-01

    affected by uncertainties in data sampling and clear-sky screening. Traditionally, cloud radiative forcing includes, not only the radiative impact of the hydrometeors, but also the changes in the environment. Taken together over the ARM SCF, changes in humidity and surface albedo between clear and cloudy conditions offset approximately 20% of the NET radiative forcing caused by the cloud hydrometeors alone. Variations in water vapor, on average, account for 10% and 83% of the SW and LW CRFs, respectively, in total cloud cover conditions. The error analysis further reveals that the cloud hydrometeors dominate the SW CRF, while water vapor changes are most important for LW flux changes in cloudy skies. Similar studies over other locales are encouraged where water and surface albedo changes from clear to cloudy conditions may be much different than observed over the ARM SCF.

  13. A cosmic ray-climate link and cloud observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunne Eimear M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite over 35 years of constant satellite-based measurements of cloud, reliable evidence of a long-hypothesized link between changes in solar activity and Earth’s cloud cover remains elusive. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: (1 monthly to decadal timescale analysis and (2 daily timescale epoch-superpositional (composite analysis. The latter analyses frequently focus on sudden high-magnitude reductions in the cosmic ray flux known as Forbush decrease events. At present, two long-term independent global satellite cloud datasets are available (ISCCP and MODIS. Although the differences between them are considerable, neither shows evidence of a solar-cloud link at either long or short timescales. Furthermore, reports of observed correlations between solar activity and cloud over the 1983–1995 period are attributed to the chance agreement between solar changes and artificially induced cloud trends. It is possible that the satellite cloud datasets and analysis methods may simply be too insensitive to detect a small solar signal. Evidence from ground-based studies suggests that some weak but statistically significant cosmic ray-cloud relationships may exist at regional scales, involving mechanisms related to the global electric circuit. However, a poor understanding of these mechanisms and their effects on cloud makes the net impacts of such links uncertain. Regardless of this, it is clear that there is no robust evidence of a widespread link between the cosmic ray flux and clouds.

  14. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A. J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong

    2009-02-02

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed average liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the average mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

  15. Comparison of convective clouds observed by spaceborne W-band radar and simulated by cloud-resolving atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jason B.

    water (TPW), surface air temperature (SAT), and 500hPa vertical velocity (W500), representing the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which the clouds form. The sorted CloudSat profiles are then compared with NICAM and SP-CAM profiles simulated with the Quickbeam CloudSat simulator. Both models have considerable difficulty representing the relationship of SAT and clouds over CONUS. For TPW and W500, shallow clouds transition to DCCs at higher values than observed. This may be an indication of the models' inability to represent the formation of DCCs in marginal convective environments. NICAM develops tall DCCs in highly favorable environments, but SP-CAM appears to be incapable of developing tall DCCs in almost any environment. The use of double moment microphysics in SP-CAM improves the frequency of deep clouds and their relationship with TPW, but not SAT. Both models underpredict radar reflectivity in the upper cloud of mature DCCs. SP-CAM with single moment microphysics has a particularly unrealistic DCC reflectivity profile, but with double moment microphysics it improves substantially. SP-CAM with double-moment microphysics unexpectedly appears to weaken DCC updraft strength as TPW increases, but otherwise both NICAM and SP-CAM represent the environment-versus-DCC relationships fairly realistically.

  16. The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maahn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance for the radiation budget, liquid-containing clouds are a key component of the Arctic climate system. Depending on season, they can cool or warm the near-surface air. The radiative properties of these clouds depend strongly on cloud drop sizes, which are governed in part by the availability of cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we investigate how cloud drop sizes are modified in the presence of local emissions from industrial facilities at the North Slope of Alaska. For this, we use aircraft in situ observations of clouds and aerosols from the 5th Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM Program's Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V campaign obtained in summer 2015. Comparison of observations from an area with petroleum extraction facilities (Oliktok Point with data from a reference area relatively free of anthropogenic sources (Utqiaġvik/Barrow represents an opportunity to quantify the impact of local industrial emissions on cloud properties. In the presence of local industrial emissions, the mean effective radii of cloud droplets are reduced from 12.2 to 9.4 µm, which leads to suppressed drizzle production and precipitation. At the same time, concentrations of refractory black carbon and condensation nuclei are enhanced below the clouds. These results demonstrate that the effects of anthropogenic pollution on local climate need to be considered when planning Arctic industrial infrastructure in a warming environment.

  17. The observed influence of local anthropogenic pollution on northern Alaskan cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahn, Maximilian; de Boer, Gijs; Creamean, Jessie M.; Feingold, Graham; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Wu, Wei; Mei, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Due to their importance for the radiation budget, liquid-containing clouds are a key component of the Arctic climate system. Depending on season, they can cool or warm the near-surface air. The radiative properties of these clouds depend strongly on cloud drop sizes, which are governed in part by the availability of cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we investigate how cloud drop sizes are modified in the presence of local emissions from industrial facilities at the North Slope of Alaska. For this, we use aircraft in situ observations of clouds and aerosols from the 5th Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) Program's Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME-V) campaign obtained in summer 2015. Comparison of observations from an area with petroleum extraction facilities (Oliktok Point) with data from a reference area relatively free of anthropogenic sources (Utqiaġvik/Barrow) represents an opportunity to quantify the impact of local industrial emissions on cloud properties. In the presence of local industrial emissions, the mean effective radii of cloud droplets are reduced from 12.2 to 9.4 µm, which leads to suppressed drizzle production and precipitation. At the same time, concentrations of refractory black carbon and condensation nuclei are enhanced below the clouds. These results demonstrate that the effects of anthropogenic pollution on local climate need to be considered when planning Arctic industrial infrastructure in a warming environment.

  18. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  19. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  20. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  1. A multilinear regression methodology to analyze the effect of atmospheric and surface forcing on Arctic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, R.; Taylor, P. C.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic cloud amount as simulated in CMIP5 models displays large intermodel spread- models disagree on the processes important for cloud formation as well as the radiative impact of clouds. The radiative response to cloud forcing can be better assessed when the drivers of Arctic cloud formation are known. Arctic cloud amount (CA) is a function of both atmospheric and surface conditions, and it is crucial to separate the influences of unique processes to understand why the models are different. This study uses a multilinear regression methodology to determine cloud changes using 3 variables as predictors: lower tropospheric stability (LTS), 500-hPa vertical velocity (ω500), and sea ice concentration (SIC). These three explanatory variables were chosen because their effects on clouds can be attributed to unique climate processes: LTS is a thermodynamic indicator of the relationship between clouds and atmospheric stability, SIC determines the interaction between clouds and the surface, and ω500 is a metric for dynamical change. Vertical, seasonal profiles of necessary variables are obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) historical simulation, an ocean-atmosphere couple model forced with the best-estimate natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing from 1850-2005, and statistical significance tests are used to confirm the regression equation. A unique heuristic model will be constructed for each climate model and for observations, and models will be tested by their ability to capture the observed cloud amount and behavior. Lastly, the intermodel spread in Arctic cloud amount will be attributed to individual processes, ranking the relative contributions of each factor to shed light on emergent constraints in the Arctic cloud radiative effect.

  2. Fog and Cloud Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M. A.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, G. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.

  3. Airborne observations of cloud properties on HALO during NARVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Heike; Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation processes is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate and weather predictions. To validate model predictions of convective processes over the Atlantic ocean, usually satellite data are used. However, satellite products provide just a coarse view with poor temporal resolution of convective maritime clouds. Aircraft-based observations offer a more detailed insight due to lower altitude and high sampling rates. The research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range Research Aircraft) is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). With a ceiling of 15 km, and a range of 10,000 km and more than 10 hours it is able to reach remote regions and operate from higher altitudes than most other research aircraft. Thus, it provides the unique opportunity to exploit regions of the atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed otherwise. Measurements conducted on HALO provide more detailed insights than achievable from satellite data. Therefore, this measurement platform bridges the gap between previous airborne measurements and satellites. The payload used for this study consists of, amongst others, a suite of passive microwave radiometers, a cloud radar, and a water vapor DIAL. To investigate cloud and precipitation properties of convective maritime clouds, the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) campaign was conducted in winter 2013/2014 out of Barbados and Keflavik (Iceland). This campaign was one of the first that took place on the HALO aircraft. During the experiment's two parts 15 research flights were conducted (8 flights during NARVAL-South out of Barbados to investigate trade-wind cumuli and 7 flights out of Keflavik with focus on mid-latitude cyclonic systems). Flight durations were between five and nine hours, amounting to roughly 118 flight hours overall. 121 dropsondes were deployed. In fall 2016 two additional aircraft campaigns with the same payload will take place: The

  4. Molecular line observations of infrared dark clouds in the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Susanna C.

    Although massive stars play many important roles in the universe, their formation is poorly understood. Recently, a class of interstellar clouds known as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) has been identified as likely progenitors of massive stars and clusters. These clouds are dense (nH 2 > 105 cm--3), cold (T Nessie Nebula," an extreme case of a filamentary IRDC, with predictions from the theory of the fluid instability and then expand the sample to other filamentary IRDCs. The observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of clump spacing, clump masses, and linear mass density. Fragmentation of filaments due to the sausage instability might be the dominant mode of star formation in the Universe.

  5. Cloud chemistry in eastern China: Observations from Mt. Tai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L.; Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.

    2010-07-01

    Until recently, studies of fog and cloud chemistry in China have been rare - even though the fate of China’s large sulfur dioxide emissions depends, in part, on the ability of regional clouds to support rapid aqueous oxidation to sulfate. Sulfur dioxide oxidized in regional clouds is more likely to be removed by wet deposition while sulfur dioxide that undergoes slower gas phase oxidation is expected to survive longer in the atmosphere and be transported over a much broader spatial scale. Two 2008 field campaigns conducted at Mt. Tai, an isolated peak on the NE China plain, provide insight into the chemical composition of regional clouds and the importance of various aqueous phase sulfur oxidation pathways. Single and two-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors were used to collect bulk and drop size-resolved samples of cloudwater. Collected cloudwater was analyzed for key species that influence in-cloud sulfate production, including pH, S(IV), H2O2, Fe and Mn. Other major cloud solutes, including inorganic ions, total organic carbon (TOC), formaldehyde, and organic acids were also analyzed, as were gas phase concentrations of SO2, O3, and H2O2. A wide range of cloud pH was observed, from below 3 to above 6. High concentrations of cloudwater sulfate were consistent with abundant sulfur dioxide emissions in the region. Sampled clouds were also found to contain high concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon. Peak TOC concentrations reached approximately 200 ppmC, among the highest concentrations ever measured in cloudwater. Hydrogen peroxide was found to be the dominant aqueous phase S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was less than approximately 5.4. Despite its fast reaction with sulfur dioxide in cloud droplets, high concentrations of residual hydrogen peroxide were measured in some clouds implying a substantial additional capacity for sulfate production. Ozone was found to be an important S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was high. Oxidation of S

  6. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  7. Observed Correlation between Aerosol and Cloud Base Height for Low Clouds at Baltimore and New York, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sium Gebremariam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between aerosol particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μ m (PM2.5 and cloud base height (CBH of low clouds (CBH lower than 1.5 km a.g.l. at Baltimore and New York, United States, for an 8 year period (2007–2014 was investigated using information from the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS observations and collocated U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA observations. The lifting condensation level (LCL heights were calculated and compared with the CBH. The monthly average observations show that PM2.5 decreases from 2007 to 2014 while there is no significant trend found for CBH and LCL. The variability of the LCL height agrees well with CBH but LCL height is systematically lower than CBH (~180 m lower. There was a significant negative correlation found between CBH–LCL and PM2.5. All of the cloud cases were separated into polluted and clean conditions based on the distribution of PM2.5 values. The distributions of CBH–LCL in the two groups show more cloud cases with smaller CBH–LCL in polluted conditions than in clean conditions.

  8. Improvements of top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiance computations with CALIPSO-, CloudSat-, and MODIS-derived cloud and aerosol properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan; Rutan, David A.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Loeb, Norman G.; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Winker, David M.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Collins, William D.

    2011-10-01

    One year of instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface shortwave and longwave irradiances are computed using cloud and aerosol properties derived from instruments on the A-Train Constellation: the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). When modeled irradiances are compared with those computed with cloud properties derived from MODIS radiances by a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud algorithm, the global and annual mean of modeled instantaneous TOA irradiances decreases by 12.5 W m-2 (5.0%) for reflected shortwave and 2.5 W m-2 (1.1%) for longwave irradiances. As a result, the global annual mean of instantaneous TOA irradiances agrees better with CERES-derived irradiances to within 0.5W m-2 (out of 237.8 W m-2) for reflected shortwave and 2.6W m-2 (out of 240.1 W m-2) for longwave irradiances. In addition, the global annual mean of instantaneous surface downward longwave irradiances increases by 3.6 W m-2 (1.0%) when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. The global annual mean of instantaneous surface downward shortwave irradiances also increases by 8.6 W m-2 (1.6%), indicating that the net surface irradiance increases when CALIOP- and CPR-derived cloud properties are used. Increasing the surface downward longwave irradiance is caused by larger cloud fractions (the global annual mean by 0.11, 0.04 excluding clouds with optical thickness less than 0.3) and lower cloud base heights (the global annual mean by 1.6 km). The increase of the surface downward longwave irradiance in the Arctic exceeds 10 W m-2 (˜4%) in winter because CALIOP and CPR detect more clouds in comparison with the cloud detection by the CERES cloud algorithm during polar night. The global annual mean surface downward longwave irradiance of

  9. Observational characteristics of cloud radiative effects over three arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Tianhe; Habib, Ammara

    2017-08-01

    Cloud-radiation processes play an important role in regional energy budgets and surface temperature changes over arid regions. Cloud radiative effects (CREs) are used to quantitatively measure the aforementioned climatic role. This study investigates the characteristics of CREs and their temporal variations over three arid regions in central Asia (CA), East Asia (EA), and North America (NA), based on recent satellite datasets. Our results show that the annual mean shortwave (SW) and net CREs (SWCRE and NCRE) over the three arid regions are weaker than those in the same latitudinal zone of the Northern Hemisphere. In most cold months (November-March), the longwave (LW) CRE is stronger than the SWCRE over the three arid regions, leading to a positive NCRE and radiative warming in the regional atmosphere-land surface system. The cold-season mean NCRE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) averaged over EA is 4.1 W m-2, with a positive NCRE from November to March, and the intensity and duration of the positive NCRE is larger than that over CA and NA. The CREs over the arid regions of EA exhibit remarkable annual cycles due to the influence of the monsoon in the south. The TOA LWCRE over arid regions is closely related to the high-cloud fraction, and the SWCRE relates well to the total cloud fraction. In addition, the relationship between the SWCRE and the low-cloud fraction is good over NA because of the considerable occurrence of low cloud. Further results show that the interannual variation of TOA CREs is small over the arid regions of CA and EA, but their surface LWCREs show certain decreasing trends that correspond well to their decreasing total cloud fraction. It is suggested that combined studies of more observational cloud properties and meteorological elements are needed for indepth understanding of cloud-radiation processes over arid regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. SUNYA Regional Climate Model Simulations of East Asia Summer Monsoon: Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on the Surface Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong and Wei-Chyung Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA regional climate model to study the effect of cloud vertical distribution in affecting the surface energy balance of the East Asia summer monsoon (EASM. Simulations were conducted for the summers of 1988 and 1989, during which large contrast in the intra-seasonal cloud radiative forcing (CRF was observed at the top of the atmosphere. The model results indicate that both the high and low clouds are persistent throughout the summer months in both years. Because of large cloud water, low clouds significantly reduce the solar radiation flux reaching the surface, which nevertheless still dominate the surface energy balance, accounting for more than 50% of the surface heating. The low clouds also contribute significantly the downward longwave radiation to the surface with values strongly dependent on the cloud base temperature. The presence of low clouds effectively decreases the temperature and moisture gradients near surface, resulting in a substantial decrease in the sensible and latent heat fluxes from surface, which partially compensate the decrease of the net radiative cooling of the surface. For example, in the two days, May 8 and July 11 of 1988, the total cloud cover of 80% is simulated, but the respective low cloud cover (water was 63% (114 gm-2 and 22% (21 gm-2. As a result, the downward solar radiation is smaller by 161 Wm-2 in May 8. On the other hand, the cloud temperature was _ lower, yielding 56 Wm-2 smaller downward longwave radiation. The near surface temperature and gradient is more than _ smaller (and moisture gradient, leading to 21 and 81 Wm-2 smaller sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. It is also demonstrated that the model is capable to reproduce the intraseasonal variation of shortwave CRF, and catches the relationship between total cloud cover and SW CRF. The model results show the dominance of high cloud on the regional mean longwave CRF and low cloud on the intra

  11. High speed observation of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud near curved rigid boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Z G; Wang, F B; Liu, S H; Wu, S J

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental study of the influence of surface curvature to the behaviour of HIFU-induced cavitation cloud. A Q-switched ruby pulse laser is used to induce cavitation nuclei in deionized water. A piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer (1.7 MHz) provides a focused ultrasound field to inspire the nucleus to cavitation cloud. A PZT probe type hydrophone is applied for measuring the HIFU sound field. It was observed that the motion of cavitation cloud located near the boundary is significantly influenced by the distance between cloud and boundary, as well as the curvature of the boundary. The curvature was defined by parameters λ and ξ. Convex boundary, concave boundary, and flat boundary correspond to ξ <1, ξ >1 and ξ = 1, respectively. Different behaviours of the cloud, including the migration of the cloud, the characteristics of oscillation, etc., were observed under different boundary curvatures by high-speed photography. Sonoluminescence of the acoustic cavitation bubble clouds were also studied to illustrate the characteristics of acoustic streaming

  12. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    .Smith's group used the Hubble Space Telescope's WideField/Planetary Camera 2 at near-infrared wavelengths (between .85 and 1.05 microns). Titan's haze is transparent enough in this wavelength range to allow mapping of surface features according to their reflectivity. Only Titan's polar regions could not be mapped this way, due to the telescope's viewing angle of the poles and the thick haze near the edge of the disk. Their image-resolution (that is, the smallest distance seen in detail) with the WFPC2 at the near-infrared wavelength is 360 miles. The 14 images processed and compiled into the Titan surface map were as 'noise' free, or as free of signal interference, as the space telescope allows, Smith said.Titan makes one complete orbit around Saturn in 16 days, roughly the duration of the imaging project. Scientists have suspected that Titan's rotation also takes 16 days, so that the same hemisphere of Titan always faces Saturn, just as the same hemisphere of the Earth's moon always faces the Earth. Recent observations by Lemmon and colleagues at the University of Arizona confirm this true.It's too soon to conclude much about what the dark and bright areas in the Hubble Space Telescope images are -- continents, oceans, impact craters or other features, Smith said. Scientists have long suspected that Titan's surface was covered with a global ehtane-methane ocean. The new images show that there is at least some solid surface.Smith's team made a total 50 images of Titan last month in their program, a project to search for small scale features in Titan's lower atmosphere and surface. They have yet to analyze images for information about Titan's clouds and winds. That analysis could help explain if the bright areas are major impact craters in the frozen water ice-and-rock or higher-altitude features.The images are important information for the Cassini mission, which is to launch a robotic spacecraft on a 7-year journey to Saturn in October 1997. About three weeks before Cassini

  13. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  14. Spectral Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing as Observed by AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, John M.; Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    AIRS V6 products contain the spectral contributions to Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), clear-sky OLR (OLR(sub CLR)), and Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing (LWCRF) in 16 bands from 100 cm(exp -1) to 3260 cm(exp -1). We show climatologies of selected spectrally resolved AIRS V6 products over the period of September 2002 through August 2016. Spectrally resolved LWCRF can better describe the response of the Earth system to cloud and cloud feedback processes. The spectral LWCRF enables us to estimate the fraction of each contributing factor to cloud forcing, i.e.: surface temperature, mid to upper tropospheric water vapor, and tropospheric temperature. This presentation also compares the spatial characteristics of LWCRF from AIRS, CERES_EBAF Edition-2.8, and MERRA-2. AIRS and CERES LWCRF products show good agreement. The OLR bias between AIRS and CERES is very close to that of OLR(sub CLR). This implies that both AIRS and CERES OLR products accurately account for the effect of clouds on OLR.

  15. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required

  16. Carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds: Theory and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    For the most part, gas phase models of the chemistry of dense molecular clouds predict the abundances of simple species rather well. However, for larger molecules and even for small systems rich in carbon these models often fail spectacularly. Researchers present a brief review of the basic assumptions and results of large scale modeling of the carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds. Particular attention is to the influence of the gas phase C/O ratio in molecular clouds, and the likely role grains play in maintaining this ratio as clouds evolve from initially diffuse objects to denser cores with associated stellar and planetary formation. Recent spectral line surveys at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths along with selected observations in the submillimeter have now produced an accurate inventory of the gas phase carbon budget in several different types of molecular clouds, though gaps in our knowledge clearly remain. The constraints these observations place on theoretical models of interstellar chemistry can be used to gain insights into why the models fail, and show also which neglected processes must be included in more complete analyses. Looking toward the future, larger molecules are especially difficult to study both experimentally and theoretically in such dense, cold regions, and some new methods are therefore outlined which may ultimately push the detectability of small carbon chains and rings to much heavier species

  17. Are CO Observations of Interstellar Clouds Tracing the H2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federrath, Christoph; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interstellar clouds are commonly observed through the emission of rotational transitions from carbon monoxide (CO). However, the abundance ratio of CO to molecular hydrogen (H2), which is the most abundant molecule in molecular clouds is only about 10-4. This raises the important question of whether the observed CO emission is actually tracing the bulk of the gas in these clouds, and whether it can be used to derive quantities like the total mass of the cloud, the gas density distribution function, the fractal dimension, and the velocity dispersion--size relation. To evaluate the usability and accuracy of CO as a tracer for H2 gas, we generate synthetic observations of hydrodynamical models that include a detailed chemical network to follow the formation and photo-dissociation of H2 and CO. These three-dimensional models of turbulent interstellar cloud formation self-consistently follow the coupled thermal, dynamical and chemical evolution of 32 species, with a particular focus on H2 and CO (Glover et al. 2009). We find that CO primarily traces the dense gas in the clouds, however, with a significant scatter due to turbulent mixing and self-shielding of H2 and CO. The H2 probability distribution function (PDF) is well-described by a log-normal distribution. In contrast, the CO column density PDF has a strongly non-Gaussian low-density wing, not at all consistent with a log-normal distribution. Centroid velocity statistics show that CO is more intermittent than H2, leading to an overestimate of the velocity scaling exponent in the velocity dispersion--size relation. With our systematic comparison of H2 and CO data from the numerical models, we hope to provide a statistical formula to correct for the bias of CO observations. CF acknowledges financial support from a Kade Fellowship of the American Museum of Natural History.

  18. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Kulmala, M.; Nieminen, T.; Roebeling, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD) in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An

  19. Influence of cloud fraction and snow cover to the variation of surface UV radiation at King Sejong station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated how cloud fraction and snow cover affect the variation of surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation by using surface Erythemal UV (EUV) and Near UV (NUV) observed at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica. First the Radiative Amplification Factor (RAF), the relative change of surface EUV according to the total-column ozone amount, is compared for different cloud fractions and solar zenith angles (SZAs). Generally, all cloudy conditions show that the increase of RAF as SZA becomes larger, showing the larger effects of vertical columnar ozone. For given SZA cases, the EUV transmission through mean cloud layer gradually decreases as cloud fraction increases, but sometimes the maximum of surface EUV appears under partly cloudy conditions. The high surface EUV transmittance under broken cloud conditions seems due to the re-radiation of scattered EUV by cloud particles. NUV transmission through mean cloud layer also decreases as cloud amount increases but the sensitivity to the cloud fraction is larger than EUV. Both EUV and NUV radiations at the surface are also enhanced by the snow cover, and their enhancement becomes higher as SZA increases implying the diurnal variation of surface albedo. This effect of snow cover seems large under the overcast sky because of the stronger interaction between snow surface and cloudy sky.

  20. Instantaneous Linkages between Clouds and Large-Scale Meteorology over the Southern Ocean in Observations and a Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Casey J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Hartmann, Dennis L. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-12-01

    Instantaneous, coincident, footprint-level satellite observations of cloud properties and radiation taken during austral summer over the Southern Ocean are used to study relationships between clouds and large-scale meteorology. Cloud properties are very sensitive to the strength of vertical motion in the middle-troposphere, and low-cloud properties are sensitive to estimated inversion strength, low-level temperature advection, and sea surface temperature. These relationships are quantified. An index for the meteorological anomalies associated with midlatitude cyclones is presented, and it is used to reveal the sensitivity of clouds to the meteorology within the warm- and cold-sector of cyclones. The observed relationships between clouds and meteorology are compared to those in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) using satellite simulators. Low-clouds simulated by CAM5 are too few, too bright, and contain too much ice, and low-clouds located in the cold-sector of cyclones are too sensitive to variations in the meteorology. The latter two biases are dramatically reduced when CAM5 is coupled with an updated boundary layer parameterization know as Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB). More generally, this study demonstrates that examining the instantaneous timescale is a powerful approach to understanding the physical processes that control clouds and how they are represented in climate models. Such an evaluation goes beyond the cloud climatology and exposes model bias under various meteorological conditions.

  1. Can CFMIP2 models reproduce the leading modes of cloud vertical structure in the CALIPSO-GOCCP observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Song

    2018-02-01

    Using principal component (PC) analysis, three leading modes of cloud vertical structure (CVS) are revealed by the GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (GOCCP), i.e. tropical high, subtropical anticyclonic and extratropical cyclonic cloud modes (THCM, SACM and ECCM, respectively). THCM mainly reflect the contrast between tropical high clouds and clouds in middle/high latitudes. SACM is closely associated with middle-high clouds in tropical convective cores, few-cloud regimes in subtropical anticyclonic clouds and stratocumulus over subtropical eastern oceans. ECCM mainly corresponds to clouds along extratropical cyclonic regions. Models of phase 2 of Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP2) well reproduce the THCM, but SACM and ECCM are generally poorly simulated compared to GOCCP. Standardized PCs corresponding to CVS modes are generally captured, whereas original PCs (OPCs) are consistently underestimated (overestimated) for THCM (SACM and ECCM) by CFMIP2 models. The effects of CVS modes on relative cloud radiative forcing (RSCRF/RLCRF) (RSCRF being calculated at the surface while RLCRF at the top of atmosphere) are studied in terms of principal component regression method. Results show that CFMIP2 models tend to overestimate (underestimated or simulate the opposite sign) RSCRF/RLCRF radiative effects (REs) of ECCM (THCM and SACM) in unit global mean OPC compared to observations. These RE biases may be attributed to two factors, one of which is underestimation (overestimation) of low/middle clouds (high clouds) (also known as stronger (weaker) REs in unit low/middle (high) clouds) in simulated global mean cloud profiles, the other is eigenvector biases in CVS modes (especially for SACM and ECCM). It is suggested that much more attention should be paid on improvement of CVS, especially cloud parameterization associated with particular physical processes (e.g. downwelling regimes with the Hadley circulation, extratropical storm tracks and others), which

  2. Observations of Co-variation in Cloud Properties and their Relationships with Atmospheric State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Arnold, T. G.; Yorks, J. E.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Um, J.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative properties of upper tropospheric ice clouds are generally not well represented in global and cloud models. Cloud top height, cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical thickness, cloud water path, particle size and ice crystal shape all serve as observational targets for models to constrain cloud properties. Trends or biases in these cloud properties could have profound effects on the climate since they affect cloud radiative properties. Better understanding of co-variation between these cloud properties and linkages with atmospheric state variables can lead to better representation of clouds in models by reducing biases in their micro- and macro-physical properties as well as their radiative properties. This will also enhance our general understanding of cloud processes. In this analysis we look at remote sensing, in situ and reanalysis data from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), Cloud Radar System (CRS), GEOS-5 reanalysis data and GOES imagery obtained during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) airborne campaign. The MAS, CPL and CRS were mounted on the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during this campaign. In situ observations of ice size and shape were made aboard the DC8 and WB57 aircrafts. We explore how thermodynamic phase, ice effective radius, particle shape and radar reflectivity vary with altitude and also investigate how these observed cloud properties vary with cloud type, cloud top temperature, relative humidity and wind profiles. Observed systematic relationships are supported by physical interpretations of cloud processes and any unexpected differences are examined.

  3. Modelling dust polarization observations of molecular clouds through MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patrick K.; Fissel, Laura M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2018-03-01

    The BLASTPol observations of Vela C have provided the most detailed characterization of the polarization fraction p and dispersion in polarization angles S for a molecular cloud. We compare the observed distributions of p and S with those obtained in synthetic observations of simulations of molecular clouds, assuming homogeneous grain alignment. We find that the orientation of the mean magnetic field relative to the observer has a significant effect on the p and S distributions. These distributions for Vela C are most consistent with synthetic observations where the mean magnetic field is close to the line of sight. Our results point to apparent magnetic disorder in the Vela C molecular cloud, although it can be due to either an inclination effect (i.e. observing close to the mean field direction) or significant field tangling from strong turbulence/low magnetization. The joint correlations of p with column density and of S with column density for the synthetic observations generally agree poorly with the Vela C joint correlations, suggesting that understanding these correlations requires a more sophisticated treatment of grain alignment physics.

  4. The highs and lows of cloud radiative feedback: Comparing observational data and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenney, A.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds play a complex role in the climate system, and remain one of the more difficult aspects of the future climate to predict. Over subtropical eastern ocean basins, particularly next to California, Peru, and Southwest Africa, low marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) help to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface by reflecting incident sunlight. The climate feedback associated with these clouds is thought to be positive. This project looks at CMIP5 models and compares them to observational data from CERES and ERA-Interim to try and find observational evidence and model agreement for low, marine stratocumulus cloud feedback. Although current evidence suggests that the low cloud feedback is positive (IPCC, 2014), an analysis of the simulated relationship between July lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and shortwave cloud forcing in MSC regions suggests that this feedback is not due to changes in LTS. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

  5. Observations of cloud and rainfall enhancement over irrigated agriculture in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    The impact of irrigated agriculture on clouds and rainfall remains uncertain, particularly in less studied arid regions. Irrigated crops account for 20% of global cropland area, and non-renewable groundwater accounts for 20% of global irrigation water demand. Quantifying the feedbacks between agriculture and the atmosphere are therefore not only necessary to better understand the climate impacts of land-use change, but are also crucial for predicting long-term water use in water-scarce regions. Here we use high spatial-resolution satellite data to show the impact of irrigated crops in the arid environment of northern Saudi Arabia on cloud cover and rainfall patterns. Land surface temperatures over the crops are 5-10 K lower than their surroundings, linked to evapotranspiration rates of up to 20 mm/ month. Daytime cloud cover is up to 30% higher over the cropland compared to its immediate surroundings, and this enhancement is highly correlated with the seasonal variability in leaf area index. The cloud enhancement is associated with a much more rapid cloud cloud development during the morning. Afternoon rainfall is 85% higher over, and just downwind, of the cropland during the growing season, although rainfall remains very low in absolute terms. The feedback sign we find is the opposite to what has been observed in tropical and semiarid regions, where temperature gradients promote convergence and clouds on the warmer side of land-surface type discontinuities. This suggests that different processes are responsible for the land-atmosphere feedback in very dry environments, where lack of moisture may be a stronger constraint. Increased cloud and rainfall, and associated increases in diffuse radiation and reductions in temperature, can affect vegetation growth thus producing an internal feedback. These effects will therefore need to be taken into account to properly assess the impact of climate change on crop productivity and water use, as well as how global land

  6. Cloud Tolerance of Remote-Sensing Technologies to Measure Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared(TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave(MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product. This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  7. Characterization of the cloud conditions at Ny-Ålesund using sensor synergy and representativeness of the observed clouds across Arctic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomokonova, Tatiana; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Maturilli, Marion

    2017-04-01

    Clouds are one of the crucial components of the hydrological and energy cycles and thus affecting the global climate. Their special importance in Arctic regions is defined by cloud's influence on the radiation budget. Arctic clouds usually occur at low altitudes and often contain highly concentrated tiny liquid drops. During winter, spring, and autumn periods such clouds tend to conserve the long-wave radiation in the atmosphere and, thus, produce warming of the Arctic climate. In summer though clouds efficiently scatter the solar radiation back to space and, therefore, induce a cooling effect. An accurate characterization of the net effect of clouds on the Arctic climate requires long-term and precise observations. However, only a few measurement sites exist which perform continuous, vertically resolved observations of clouds in the Arctic, e.g. in Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. These sites typically make use of a combination of different ground-based remote sensing instruments, e.g. cloud radar, ceilometer and microwave radiometer in order to characterize clouds. Within the Transregional Collaborative Research Center (TR 172) "Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3" comprehensive observations of the atmospheric column are performed at the German-French Research Station AWIPEV at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Ny-Ålesund is located in the warmest part of the Arctic where climate is significantly influenced by adiabatic heating from the warm ocean. Thus, measurements at Ny-Ålesund will complement our understanding of cloud formation and development in the Arctic. This particular study is devoted to the characterization of the cloud macro- and microphysical properties at Ny-Ålesund and of the atmospheric conditions, under which these clouds form and develop. To this end, the information of the various instrumentation at the AWIPEV observatory is synergistically analysed: information about the thermodynamic

  8. Uncertainty Estimate of Surface Irradiances Computed with MODIS-, CALIPSO-, and CloudSat-Derived Cloud and Aerosol Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Chen, Yan

    2012-07-01

    Differences of modeled surface upward and downward longwave and shortwave irradiances are calculated using modeled irradiance computed with active sensor-derived and passive sensor-derived cloud and aerosol properties. The irradiance differences are calculated for various temporal and spatial scales, monthly gridded, monthly zonal, monthly global, and annual global. Using the irradiance differences, the uncertainty of surface irradiances is estimated. The uncertainty (1σ) of the annual global surface downward longwave and shortwave is, respectively, 7 W m-2 (out of 345 W m-2) and 4 W m-2 (out of 192 W m-2), after known bias errors are removed. Similarly, the uncertainty of the annual global surface upward longwave and shortwave is, respectively, 3 W m-2 (out of 398 W m-2) and 3 W m-2 (out of 23 W m-2). The uncertainty is for modeled irradiances computed using cloud properties derived from imagers on a sun-synchronous orbit that covers the globe every day (e.g., moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer) or modeled irradiances computed for nadir view only active sensors on a sun-synchronous orbit such as Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation and CloudSat. If we assume that longwave and shortwave uncertainties are independent of each other, but up- and downward components are correlated with each other, the uncertainty in global annual mean net surface irradiance is 12 W m-2. One-sigma uncertainty bounds of the satellite-based net surface irradiance are 106 W m-2 and 130 W m-2.

  9. Electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pertica, A.

    2013-04-22

    The build up of electron clouds inside a particle accelerator vacuum chamber can produce strong transverse and longitudinal beam instabilities which in turn can lead to high levels of beam loss often requiring the accelerator to be run below its design specification. To study the behaviour of electron clouds at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron, a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) based electron cloud detector has been developed. The detector is based on the Retarding Field Analyser (RFA) design and consists of a retarding grid, which allows energy analysis of the electron signal, and a MCP assembly placed in front of the collector plate. The MCP assembly provides a current gain over the range 300 to 25K, thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio and dynamic range of the measurements. This paper presents the first electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron. These results are compared against signals from a beam position monitor and a fast beam loss monitor installed at the same location.

  10. Cloud condensation nuclei in Western Colorado: Observations and model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel Stewart

    Variations in the warm cloud-active portion of atmospheric aerosols, or cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), have been shown to impact cloud droplet number concentration and subsequently cloud and precipitation processes. This issue carries special significance in western Colorado where a significant portion of the region's water resources is supplied by precipitation from winter season, orographic clouds, which are particularly sensitive to variations in CCN. Temporal and spatial variations in CCN in western Colorado were investigated using a combination of observations and a new method for modeling CCN. As part of the Inhibition of Snowfall by Pollution Aerosols (ISPA-III) field campaign, total particle and CCN number concentration were measured for a 24-day period in Mesa Verde National Park, climatologically upwind of the San Juan Mountains. These data were combined with CCN observations from Storm Peak Lab (SPL) in northwestern Colorado and from the King Air platform, flying north to south along the Western Slope. Altogether, the sampled aerosols were characteristic of a rural continental environment and the cloud-active portion varied slowly in time, and little in space. Estimates of the is hygroscopicity parameter indicated consistently low aerosol hygroscopicity typical of organic aerosol species. The modeling approach included the addition of prognostic CCN to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The RAMS droplet activation scheme was altered using parcel model simulations to include variations in aerosol hygroscopicity, represented by K. Analysis of the parcel model output and a supplemental sensitivity study showed that model CCN will be sensitive to changes in aerosol hygroscopicity, but only for conditions of low supersaturation or small particle sizes. Aerosol number, size distribution median radius, and hygroscopicity (represented by the K parameter) in RAMS were constrained by nudging to forecasts of these quantities from the Weather

  11. Dust and gas distribution in molecular clouds: an observational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeggio, Loretta; Elia, Davide; Maiolo, Berlinda M T; Strafella, Francesco; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM), gas and dust, appears to be arranged in clouds, whose dimensions, masses and densities span a large range of scales: from giant molecular clouds to small isolated globules. The structure of these objects show a high degree of complexity appearing, in the range of the observed scales, as a non-homogeneous ('clumpy') distribution of matter. The arrangement of the ISM is clearly relevant for the study of the fragmentation of the clouds and then of the star formation processes. To quantify observationally the ISM structure, many methods have been developed and our study is focused on some of them, exploiting multiwavelength observations of IS objects. The investigations presented here have been carried out by considering both the dust absorption (in optical and near IR wavelengths) and the gas emission (in the submm-radio spectral range). We present the maps obtained from the reduction of raw data and a first tentative analysis by means of methods as the structure function, the autocorrelation, and the Δ-variance. These are appropriate tools to highlight the complex structure of the ISM with reference to the paradigm given by the supersonic turbulence. Three observational cases are briefly discussed. In order to analyse the structure of objects characterized by different sizes, we applied the above-mentioned algorithms to the extinction map of the dark globule CB 107 and to the CO(J = 1-0) integrated intensity map of Vela Molecular Ridge, D Cloud. Finally we compare the results obtained with synthetic fractal maps known as 'fractional Brownian motion' fBm images

  12. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    influences the weather and climate of a place, thus acting as an ... earth by absorbing the most energetic part of the ... effect of cloud coverage on the surface ozone over. Kolkata. 2. ..... Burrows W R 1997 CART regression models for predicting.

  13. Sensitivity of surface radiation budget to clouds over the Asian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Climate Centre, India Meteorological Department, Pune 400 005. ... down on the earth surface–atmosphere system also as an imbalance between surface netcloud ... the clouds produce more cooling effect in short-wave band than the warming effect in long-wave .... In the present study, we use the analysis method.

  14. Water clouds and dust aerosols observations with PFS MEX at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V.; Grassi, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Giuranna, M.; Hansen, G.; Blecka, M.; Ekonomov, A.; Lellouch, E.; Fonti, S.; Grigoriev, A.; Hirsch, H.; Khatuntsev, I.; Mattana, A.; Maturilli, A.; Moshkin, B.; Patsaev, D.; Piccioni, G.; Rataj, M.; Saggin, B.

    2005-08-01

    Observations of water ice clouds and dust are among the main scientific goals of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS), a payload instrument of the European Mars Express mission. We report some results, obtained in three orbits: 37, 41 and 68. The temperature profile, and dust and water ice cloud opacities are retrieved from the thermal infrared (long-wavelength channel of PFS) in a self-consistent way using the same spectrum. Orographic ice clouds are identified above Olympus (orbit 37) and Ascraeus Mons (orbit 68). Both volcanoes were observed near noon at Ls=337° and 342°, respectively. The effective radius of ice particles is preliminary estimated as 1-3 μm, changing along the flanks. The corresponding visual opacity changes in the interval 0.2-0.4 above Olympus and 0.1-0.6 above Ascraeus Mons. In the case of Ascraeus Mons, the ice clouds were observed mainly above the Southern flank of the volcano with maximum opacity near the summit. In the case of Olympus, the clouds were found above both sides of the top. A different type of ice cloud is observed at latitudes above 50°N (orbit 68) in the polar hood: the effective particle radius is estimated to be 4 μm. Below the 1 mb level an inversion in the temperature profiles is found with maximum temperature at around 0.6 mb. Along orbit 68 it appears above Alba Patera, then it increases to the north and decreases above the CO 2 polar cap. Beginning from latitude 20°S above Tharsis (orbit 68), the ice clouds and dust contribute equally to the spectral shape. Further on, the ice clouds are found everywhere along orbit 68 up to the Northern polar cap, except the areas between the Northern flank of Ascraeus Mons (below 10 km) and the edge of Alba Patera. Orbit 41 is shifted from the orbit 68 by roughly 180° longitude and passes through Hellas. Ice clouds are not visible in this orbit at latitudes below 80°S. The dust opacity is anticorrelated with the surface altitude. From 70°S to 25°N latitude the vertical

  15. CO observations of southern high-latitude clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, E.R.; Myers, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Results from a survey of 2.6 mm emission in the J = 1 to 0 transition of CO of clouds are reported for 15 high Galactic latitude clouds and three clouds located on the fringe of a large molecular cloud in the Chameleon dark cloud complex. The line widths, excitation temperatures, sizes, and n(CO)/N(H2) ratio of these clouds are similar to those seen in dark clouds. The densities, extinctions, and masses of the high-latitude clouds are one order of magnitude less than those found in dark clouds. For its size and velocity dispersion, the typical cloud has a mass of at least 10 times less than that needed to bind the cloud by self-gravity alone. External pressures are needed to maintain the typical cloud in equilibrium, and these values are consistent with several estimates of the intercloud pressure. 32 references

  16. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  17. A Ten-Year Global Record of Absorbing Aerosols Above Clouds from OMI's Near-UV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosol-cloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong 'color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  18. Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling in Observations and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle and the daily mean at the land-surface result from the coupling of many physical processes. The framework of this review is largely conceptual; looking for relationships and information in the coupling of processes in models and observations. Starting from the surface energy balance, the role of the surface and cloud albedos in the shortwave and longwave fluxes is discussed. A long-wave radiative scaling of the diurnal temperature range and the night-time boundary layer is summarized. Several aspects of the local surface energy partition are presented: the role of soilwater availability and clouds; vector methods for understanding mixed layer evolution, and the coupling between surface and boundary layer that determines the lifting condensation level. Moving to larger scales, evaporation-precipitation feedback in models is discussed; and the coupling of column water vapor, clouds and precipitation to vertical motion and moisture convergence over the Amazon. The final topic is a comparison of the ratio of surface shortwave cloud forcing to the diabatic precipitation forcing of the atmosphere in ERA-40 with observations.

  19. Insight into Chemistry on Cloud/Aerosol Water Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2018-05-15

    Cloud/aerosol water surfaces exert significant influence over atmospheric chemical processes. Atmospheric processes at the water surface are observed to follow mechanisms that are quite different from those in the gas phase. This Account summarizes our recent findings of new reaction pathways on the water surface. We have studied these surface reactions using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provide useful information on the reaction time scale, the underlying mechanism of surface reactions, and the dynamic behavior of the product formed on the aqueous surface. According to these studies, the aerosol water surfaces confine the atmospheric species into a specific orientation depending on the hydrophilicity of atmospheric species or the hydrogen-bonding interactions between atmospheric species and interfacial water. As a result, atmospheric species are activated toward a particular reaction on the aerosol water surface. For example, the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH 2 OO) exhibits high reactivity toward the interfacial water and hydrogen sulfide, with the reaction times being a few picoseconds, 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than that in the gas phase. The presence of interfacial water molecules induces proton-transfer-based stepwise pathways for these reactions, which are not possible in the gas phase. The strong hydrophobicity of methyl substituents in larger Criegee intermediates (>C1), such as CH 3 CHOO and (CH 3 ) 2 COO, blocks the formation of the necessary prereaction complexes for the Criegee-water reaction to occur at the water droplet surface, which lowers their proton-transfer ability and hampers the reaction. The aerosol water surface provides a solvent medium for acids (e.g., HNO 3 and HCOOH) to participate in reactions via mechanisms that are different from those in the gas and bulk aqueous phases. For example, the anti-CH 3 CHOO-HNO 3 reaction in the gas phase follows a direct reaction between anti-CH 3 CHOO and HNO 3

  20. Electron Cloud Observations during LHC Operation with 25 ns Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kevin; Iadarola, Giovanni; Mether, Lotta; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Schenk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While during the Run 1 (2010-2012) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) most of the integrated luminosity was produced with 50 ns bunch spacing, for the Run 2 start-up (2015) it was decided to move to the nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns. As expected, with this beam configuration strong electron cloud effects were observed in the machine, which had to be mitigated with dedicated 'scrubbing' periods at injection energy. This enabled to start the operation with 25 ns beams at 6.5 TeV, but e-cloud effects continued to pose challenges while gradually increasing the number of circulating bunch trains. This contribution will review the encountered limitations and the mitigation measures that where put in place and will discuss possible strategies for further performance gain.

  1. Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berné, Olivier; Marcelino, Núria; Cernicharo, José

    2010-08-19

    Massive stars influence their parental molecular cloud, and it has long been suspected that the development of hydrodynamical instabilities can compress or fragment the cloud. Identifying such instabilities has proved difficult. It has been suggested that elongated structures (such as the 'pillars of creation') and other shapes arise because of instabilities, but alternative explanations are available. One key signature of an instability is a wave-like structure in the gas, which has hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of 'waves' at the surface of the Orion molecular cloud near where massive stars are forming. The waves seem to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises during the expansion of the nebula as gas heated and ionized by massive stars is blown over pre-existing molecular gas.

  2. Ship track observations of a reduced shortwave aerosol indirect effect in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. W.; Suzuki, K.; Zambri, B.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol influences on clouds are a major source of uncertainty to our understanding of forced climate change. Increased aerosol can enhance solar reflection from clouds countering greenhouse gas warming. Recently, this indirect effect has been extended from water droplet clouds to other types including mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds are important because of their fundamental role on sea ice loss and polar climate change, but very little is known about aerosol effects on these clouds. Here we provide the first analysis of the effects of aerosol emitted from ship stacks into mixed-phase clouds. Satellite observations of solar reflection in numerous ship tracks reveal that cloud albedo increases 5 times more in liquid clouds when polluted and persist 2 h longer than in mixed-phase clouds. These results suggest that seeding mixed-phase clouds via shipping aerosol is unlikely to provide any significant counterbalancing solar radiative cooling effects in warming polar regions.

  3. A comparison of ground and satellite observations of cloud cover to saturation pressure differences during a cold air outbreak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliss, R.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The role of clouds in the atmospheric general circulation and the global climate is twofold. First, clouds owe their origin to large-scale dynamical forcing, radiative cooling in the atmosphere, and turbulent transfer at the surface. In addition, they provide one of the most important mechanisms for the vertical redistribution of momentum and sensible and latent heat for the large scale, and they influence the coupling between the atmosphere and the surface as well as the radiative and dynamical-hydrological balance. In existing diagnostic cloudiness parameterization schemes, relative humidity is the most frequently used variable for estimating total cloud amount or stratiform cloud amount. However, the prediction of relative humidity in general circulation models (GCMs) is usually poor. Even for the most comprehensive GCMs, the predicted relative humidity may deviate greatly from that observed, as far as the frequency distribution of relative humidity is concerned. Recently, there has been an increased effort to improve the representation of clouds and cloud-radiation feedback in GCMs, but the verification of cloudiness parameterization schemes remains a severe problem because of the lack of observational data sets. In this study, saturation pressure differences (as opposed to relative humidity) and satellite-derived cloud heights and amounts are compared with ground determinations of cloud cover over the Gulf Stream Locale (GSL) during a cold air outbreak.

  4. DETERMINING REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SURFACES AND CLOUDS ON EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, Talia E., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr., IL 60208 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Planned missions will spatially resolve temperate terrestrial planets from their host star. Although reflected light from such a planet encodes information about its surface, it has not been shown how to establish surface characteristics of a planet without assuming known surfaces to begin with. We present a reanalysis of disk-integrated, time-resolved, multiband photometry of Earth obtained by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI Mission of Opportunity. We extract reflectance spectra of clouds, ocean, and land without a priori knowledge of the numbers or colors of these surfaces. We show that the inverse problem of extracting surface spectra from such data is a novel and extreme instance of spectral unmixing, a well-studied problem in remote sensing. Principal component analysis is used to determine an appropriate number of model surfaces with which to interpret the data. Shrink-wrapping a simplex to the color excursions of the planet yields a conservative estimate of the planet's endmember spectra. The resulting surface maps are unphysical, however, requiring negative or larger-than-unity surface coverage at certain locations. Our ''rotational unmixing'' supersedes the endmember analysis by simultaneously solving for the surface spectra and their geographical distributions on the planet, under the assumption of diffuse reflection and known viewing geometry. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo to determine best-fit parameters and their uncertainties. The resulting albedo spectra are similar to clouds, ocean, and land seen through a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere. This study suggests that future direct-imaging efforts could identify and map unknown surfaces and clouds on exoplanets.

  5. Simultaneous observations of solar MeV particles in a magnetic cloud and in the earth's northern tail lobe - Implications for the global field line topology of magnetic clouds and for the entry of solar particles into the magnetosphere during cloud passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Richardson, I. G.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Osherovich, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft observations of magnetic fields and flow anisotropies of solar energetic protons and electrons during the passage of an interplanetary magnetic cloud show various particle signature differences at the two spacecraft. These differences are interpretable in terms of the magnetic line topology of the cloud, the connectivity of the cloud field lines to the solar surface, and the interconnection between the magnetic fields of the magnetic clouds and of the earth. These observations are consistent with a magnetic cloud model in which these mesoscale configurations are curved magnetic flux ropes attached at both ends to the sun's surface, extending out to 1 AU.

  6. Sensitivity to deliberate sea salt seeding of marine clouds - observations and model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Seland, O.

    2012-01-01

    Sea salt seeding of marine clouds to increase their albedo is a proposed technique to counteract or slow global warming. In this study, we first investigate the susceptibility of marine clouds to sea salt injections, using observational data of cloud droplet number concentration, cloud optical depth, and liquid cloud fraction from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. We then compare the derived susceptibility function to...

  7. Models of surface convection and dust clouds in brown dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, B; Allard, F; Ludwig, H-G; Homeier, D; Steffen, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dust grains on the atmospheres of brown dwarfs is visible in observed spectra. To investigate what prevents the dust grains from falling down, or how fresh condensable material is mixed up in the atmosphere to allow new grains to form, we performed 2D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with CO5BOLD of the upper part of the convection zone and the atmosphere containing the dust cloud layers. We find that unlike in models of Cepheids, the convective overshoot does not play a major role. Instead, the mixing in the dust clouds is controlled by gravity waves.

  8. PolyFit: Polygonal Surface Reconstruction from Point Clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for reconstructing lightweight polygonal surfaces from point clouds. Unlike traditional methods that focus on either extracting good geometric primitives or obtaining proper arrangements of primitives, the emphasis of this work lies in intersecting the primitives (planes only) and seeking for an appropriate combination of them to obtain a manifold polygonal surface model without boundary.,We show that reconstruction from point clouds can be cast as a binary labeling problem. Our method is based on a hypothesizing and selection strategy. We first generate a reasonably large set of face candidates by intersecting the extracted planar primitives. Then an optimal subset of the candidate faces is selected through optimization. Our optimization is based on a binary linear programming formulation under hard constraints that enforce the final polygonal surface model to be manifold and watertight. Experiments on point clouds from various sources demonstrate that our method can generate lightweight polygonal surface models of arbitrary piecewise planar objects. Besides, our method is capable of recovering sharp features and is robust to noise, outliers, and missing data.

  9. PolyFit: Polygonal Surface Reconstruction from Point Clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2017-12-25

    We propose a novel framework for reconstructing lightweight polygonal surfaces from point clouds. Unlike traditional methods that focus on either extracting good geometric primitives or obtaining proper arrangements of primitives, the emphasis of this work lies in intersecting the primitives (planes only) and seeking for an appropriate combination of them to obtain a manifold polygonal surface model without boundary.,We show that reconstruction from point clouds can be cast as a binary labeling problem. Our method is based on a hypothesizing and selection strategy. We first generate a reasonably large set of face candidates by intersecting the extracted planar primitives. Then an optimal subset of the candidate faces is selected through optimization. Our optimization is based on a binary linear programming formulation under hard constraints that enforce the final polygonal surface model to be manifold and watertight. Experiments on point clouds from various sources demonstrate that our method can generate lightweight polygonal surface models of arbitrary piecewise planar objects. Besides, our method is capable of recovering sharp features and is robust to noise, outliers, and missing data.

  10. Benchmarking headtail with electron cloud instabilities observed in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, H.; Iadarola, G.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    After a successful scrubbing run in the beginning of 2011, the LHC can be presently operated with high intensity proton beams with 50 ns bunch spacing. However, strong electron cloud effects were observed during machine studies with the nominal beam with 25 ns bunch spacing. In particular, fast transverse instabilities were observed when attempting to inject trains of 48 bunches into the LHC for the first time. An analysis of the turn-by-turn bunch-bybunch data from the transverse damper pick-ups during these injection studies is presented, showing a clear signature of the electron cloud effect. These experimental observations are reproduced using numerical simulations: the electron distribution before each bunch passage is generated with PyECLOUD and used as input for a set of HEADTAIL simulations. This paper describes the simulation method as well as the sensitivity of the results to the initial conditions for the electron build-up. The potential of this type of simulations and their clear limitations on th...

  11. Bipolar cloud-to-ground lightning flash observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Warner, Tom A.; Helsdon, John H.; Schulz, Wolfgang; Orville, Richard E.

    2013-10-01

    lightning is usually defined as a lightning flash where the current waveform exhibits a polarity reversal. There are very few reported cases of cloud-to-ground (CG) bipolar flashes using only one channel in the literature. Reports on this type of bipolar flashes are not common due to the fact that in order to confirm that currents of both polarities follow the same channel to the ground, one necessarily needs video records. This study presents five clear observations of single-channel bipolar CG flashes. High-speed video and electric field measurement observations are used and analyzed. Based on the video images obtained and based on previous observations of positive CG flashes with high-speed cameras, we suggest that positive leader branches which do not participate in the initial return stroke of a positive cloud-to-ground flash later generate recoil leaders whose negative ends, upon reaching the branch point, traverse the return stroke channel path to the ground resulting in a subsequent return stroke of opposite polarity.

  12. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea ice to open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne observations of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean are presented from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA campaign. A case study from 23 March 2013 provides a unique view of the cloud microphysical changes over this transition under cold-air outbreak conditions. Cloud base lifted and cloud depth increased over the transition from sea ice to ocean. Mean droplet number concentrations, Ndrop, also increased from 110 ± 36 cm−3 over the sea ice to 145 ± 54 cm−3 over the marginal ice zone (MIZ. Downstream over the ocean, Ndrop decreased to 63 ± 30 cm−3. This reduction was attributed to enhanced collision-coalescence of droplets within the deep ocean cloud layer. The liquid water content increased almost four fold over the transition and this, in conjunction with the deeper cloud layer, allowed rimed snowflakes to develop and precipitate out of cloud base downstream over the ocean. The ice properties of the cloud remained approximately constant over the transition. Observed ice crystal number concentrations averaged approximately 0.5–1.5 L−1, suggesting only primary ice nucleation was active; however, there was evidence of crystal fragmentation at cloud base over the ocean. Little variation in aerosol particle number concentrations was observed between the different surface conditions; however, some variability with altitude was observed, with notably greater concentrations measured at higher altitudes ( >  800 m over the sea ice. Near-surface boundary layer temperatures increased by 13 °C from sea ice to ocean, with corresponding increases in surface heat fluxes and turbulent kinetic energy. These significant thermodynamic changes were concluded to be the primary driver of the microphysical evolution of the cloud. This study represents the first investigation, using in situ

  13. Comparison of Monthly Mean Cloud Fraction and Cloud Optical depth Determined from Surface Cloud Radar, TOVS, AVHRR, and MODIS over Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Frisch, Shelby; Wang, Xuan-Ji; Key, Jeff; Schweiger, Axel; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A one year comparison is made of mean monthly values of cloud fraction and cloud optical depth over Barrow, Alaska (71 deg 19.378 min North, 156 deg 36.934 min West) between 35 GHz radar-based retrievals, the TOVS Pathfinder Path-P product, the AVHRR APP-X product, and a MODIS based cloud retrieval product from the CERES-Team. The data sets represent largely disparate spatial and temporal scales, however, in this paper, the focus is to provide a preliminary analysis of how the mean monthly values derived from these different data sets compare, and determine how they can best be used separately, and in combination to provide reliable estimates of long-term trends of changing cloud properties. The radar and satellite data sets described here incorporate Arctic specific modifications that account for cloud detection challenges specific to the Arctic environment. The year 2000 was chosen for this initial comparison because the cloud radar data was particularly continuous and reliable that year, and all of the satellite retrievals of interest were also available for the year 2000. Cloud fraction was chosen as a comparison variable as accurate detection of cloud is the primary product that is necessary for any other cloud property retrievals. Cloud optical depth was additionally selected as it is likely the single cloud property that is most closely correlated to cloud influences on surface radiation budgets.

  14. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-01-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P_1_2 for scattering angles between 20°–120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P_1_2 slightly from 60°–120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered. - Highlights: • Surface roughness and air bubble inclusions affect optical properties of ice crystals significantly. • Including both factors improves simulations of ice cloud.• Cirrus cloud particle habit model of the MODIS collection 6 achieves better self-consistency and consistency with

  15. Observations of high droplet number concentrations in Southern Ocean boundary layer clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chubb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud physics data collected during the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns provide a snapshot of unusual wintertime microphysical conditions in the boundary layer over the Southern Ocean. On 29 June 2011, the HIAPER sampled the boundary layer in a region of pre-frontal warm air advection between 58 and 48° S to the south of Tasmania. Cloud droplet number concentrations were consistent with climatological values in the northernmost profiles but were exceptionally high for wintertime in the Southern Ocean at 100–200 cm−3 in the southernmost profiles. Sub-micron (0.06  < D <  1 µm aerosol concentrations for the southern profiles were up to 400 cm−3. Analysis of back trajectories and atmospheric chemistry observations revealed that while conditions in the troposphere were more typical of a clean remote ocean airmass, there was some evidence of continental or anthropogenic influence. However, the hypothesis of long-range transport of continental aerosol fails to explain the magnitude of the aerosol and cloud droplet concentration in the boundary layer. Instead, the gale force surface winds in this case (wind speed at 167 m above sea level was  > 25 m s−1 were most likely responsible for production of sea spray aerosol which influenced the microphysical properties of the boundary layer clouds. The smaller size and higher number concentration of cloud droplets is inferred to increase the albedo of these clouds, and these conditions occur regularly, and are expected to increase in frequency, over windy parts of the Southern Ocean.

  16. Global synthesis of long-term cloud condensation nuclei observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank; Henzing, Bas; Schlag, Patrick; Aalto, Pasi; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Krüger, Mira; Jefferson, Anne; Whitehead, James; Carslaw, Ken; Yum, Seong Soo; Kristensson, Adam; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are aerosol particles with the ability to activate into droplets at a given super saturation and therefore influence the microphysical and optical properties of clouds. To predict cloud radiative properties understanding the spatial and temporal variability of CCN concentrations in different environments is important. However, currently, the effects of atmospheric particles on changes in cloud radiative forcing are still the largest contribution of uncertainty in climate forcing prediction (IPCC, 2013). Numerous intensive field campaigns have already explored detailed characteristics of CCN in many locations around the world. However, these rather short-term observations can generally not address seasonal or inter-annual variations and a comparison between campaign sites is difficult due to the higher influence of specific environmental circumstances on short-term measurements results. Here, we present results of more long-term CCN and aerosol number concentrations as well as size distribution data covering at least one full year between 2006 and 2014. The 12 locations include ACTRIS stations (http://www.actris.net/) in Europe, and further sites in North America, Brazil and Korea. The sites are located in different environments allowing for temporal and spatial characterization of CCN variability in different atmospheric regimes. Those include marine, remote-continental, boreal forest, rain forest, Arctic and monsoon-influenced environments, as well as boundary layer and free tropospheric conditions. The aerosol populations and their activation behavior show significant differences across the stations. While peak concentrations of CCN are observed in summer at the high altitude sites, in the Arctic the highest concentrations occur during the Haze period in spring. The rural-marine and rural-continental sites exhibit similar CCN concentration characteristics with a relatively flat annual cycle. At some stations, e.g. in the boreal

  17. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... the highest over the Western Ghats and the eastern Arabian Sea. ... Shallow clouds; mixed phase clouds; TRMM PR; Western Ghats; radar reflectivity. ..... The focus in the present work is on iden- ... A similar behaviour, but at.

  18. Observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Bierwirth, E.; Ehrlich, A.; Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on airborne spectral imaging observations three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes have been identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate sea ice and open water in case of clouds from imaging radiance measurements. This separation simultaneously reveals that in case of clouds the transition of radiance between open water and sea ice is not instantaneously but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce the nadir radiance above bright surfaces in the vicinity of sea ice - open water boundaries, while the nadir radiance above dark surfaces is enhanced compared to situations with clouds located above horizontal homogeneous surfaces. With help of the observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge. This affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both, cloud and sea ice properties. For a ground overlaying cloud in 0-200 m altitude, increasing the cloud optical thickness from τ = 1 to τ = 10 decreases Δ L from 600 to 250 m, while increasing cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness can increase Δ L; Δ L(τ = 1/10) = 2200 m/1250 m for 500-1000 m cloud altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of the ice floes, various albedo fields (infinite straight ice edge, circles, squares, realistic ice floe field) were modelled. Simulations show that Δ L increases by the radius of the ice floe and for sizes larger than 6 km (500-1000 m cloud altitude) asymptotically reaches maximum values, which corresponds to an infinite straight ice edge. Furthermore, the impact of these 3-D-radiative effects on retrieval of cloud optical properties was investigated. The enhanced brightness of a dark pixel next to an ice edge results in uncertainties of up to 90 and 30% in retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective radius reff, respectively. With help of Δ L quantified here, an

  19. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  20. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  1. SURFACE FITTING FILTERING OF LIDAR POINT CLOUD WITH WAVEFORM INFORMATION

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    S. Xing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from “WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research” are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  2. Observation of Clouds Using the CSIR Transportable LIDAR: A Case Study over Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerato Shikwambana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR transportable Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR was used to collect data over Durban (29.9°S, 30.9°E during 20–23 November 2012. Aerosol measurements have been carried out in the past over Durban; however, no cloud measurements using LIDAR have ever been performed. Therefore, this study further motivates the continuation of LIDAR for atmospheric research over Durban. Low level clouds were observed on 20–22 November 2012 and high level clouds were observed on 23 November 2012. The low level cloud could be classified as stratocumulus clouds, whereas the high level clouds could be classified as cirrus clouds. Low level cloud layers showed high extinction coefficients values ranging between 0.0009 and 0.0044 m−1, whereas low extinction coefficients for high level clouds were observed at values ranging between 0.000001 and 0.000002 m−1. Optical depth showed a high variability for 20 and 21 November 2012. This indicates a change in the composition and/or thickness of the cloud. For 22 and 23 November 2012, almost similar values of optical depth were observed. Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO revealed high level clouds while the CSIR LIDAR could not. However, the two instruments complement each other well to describe the cloudy condition.

  3. Sensitivity to deliberate sea salt seeding of marine cloudsobservations and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alterskjær

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea salt seeding of marine clouds to increase their albedo is a proposed technique to counteract or slow global warming. In this study, we first investigate the susceptibility of marine clouds to sea salt injections, using observational data of cloud droplet number concentration, cloud optical depth, and liquid cloud fraction from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instruments on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. We then compare the derived susceptibility function to a corresponding estimate from the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM. Results compare well between simulations and observations, showing that stratocumulus regions off the west coast of the major continents along with large regions over the Pacific and the Indian Oceans are susceptible. At low and mid latitudes the signal is dominated by the cloud fraction.

    We then carry out geo-engineering experiments with a uniform increase over ocean of 10−9 kg m−2 s−1 in emissions of sea salt particles with a dry modal radius of 0.13 μm, an emission strength and areal coverage much greater than proposed in earlier studies. The increased sea salt concentrations and the resulting change in marine cloud properties lead to a globally averaged forcing of −4.8 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere, more than cancelling the forcing associated with a doubling of CO2 concentrations. The forcing is large in areas found to be sensitive by using the susceptibility function, confirming its usefulness as an indicator of where to inject sea salt for maximum effect.

    Results also show that the effectiveness of sea salt seeding is reduced because the injected sea salt provides a large surface area for water vapor and gaseous sulphuric acid to condense on, thereby lowering the maximum supersaturation and suppressing the formation and lifetime of sulphate particles. In some areas, our simulations show an

  4. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  5. An assessment of thin cloud detection by applying bidirectional reflectance distribution function model-based background surface reflectance using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI): A case study for South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Won; Yeom, Jong-Min; Shin, Daegeun; Choi, Sungwon; Han, Kyung-Soo; Roujean, Jean-Louis

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a new assessment of thin cloud detection with the application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model-based background surface reflectance was undertaken by interpreting surface spectra characterized using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) over a land surface area. Unlike cloud detection over the ocean, the detection of cloud over land surfaces is difficult due to the complicated surface scattering characteristics, which vary among land surface types. Furthermore, in the case of thin clouds, in which the surface and cloud radiation are mixed, it is difficult to detect the clouds in both land and atmospheric fields. Therefore, to interpret background surface reflectance, especially underneath cloud, the semiempirical BRDF model was used to simulate surface reflectance by reflecting solar angle-dependent geostationary sensor geometry. For quantitative validation, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data were used to make a comparison with the proposed cloud masking result. As a result, the new cloud masking scheme resulted in a high probability of detection (POD = 0.82) compared with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (POD = 0.808) for all cloud cases. In particular, the agreement between the CALIPSO cloud product and new GOCI cloud mask was over 94% when detecting thin cloud (e.g., altostratus and cirrus) from January 2014 to June 2015. This result is relatively high in comparison with the result from the MODIS Collection 6 cloud mask product (MYD35).

  6. "Analysis of the multi-layered cloud radiative effects at the surface using A-train data"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viudez-Mora, A.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Kato, S.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds cover about 74% of the planet and they are an important part of the climate system and strongly influence the surface energy budget. The cloud vertical distribution has important implications in the atmospheric heating and cooling rates. Based on observations by active sensors in the A-train satellite constellation, CALIPSO [Winker et. al, 2010] and CloudSat [Stephens et. al, 2002], more than 1/3 of all clouds are multi-layered. Detection and retrieval of multi-layer cloud physical properties are needed in understanding their effects on the surface radiation budget. This study examines the sensitivity of surface irradiances to cloud properties derived from satellite sensors. Surface irradiances were computed in two different ways, one using cloud properties solely from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the other using MODIS data supplemented with CALIPSO and CloudSat (hereafter CLCS) cloud vertical structure information [Kato et. al, 2010]. Results reveal that incorporating more precise and realistic cloud properties from CLCS into radiative transfer calculations yields improved estimates of cloud radiative effects (CRE) at the surface (CREsfc). The calculations using only MODIS cloud properties, comparisons of the computed CREsfc for 2-layer (2L) overcast CERES footprints, CLCS reduces the SW CRE by 1.5±26.7 Wm-2, increases the LW CRE by 4.1±12.7 Wm-2, and increases the net CREsfc by 0.9±46.7 Wm-2. In a subsequent analysis, we classified up to 6 different combinations of multi-layered clouds depending on the cloud top height as: High-high (HH), high-middle (HM), high-low (HL), middle-middle (MM), middle-low (ML) and low-low (LL). The 3 most frequent 2L cloud systems were: HL (56.1%), HM (22.3%) and HH (12.1%). For these cases, the computed CREsfc estimated using CLCS data presented the most significant differences when compared using only MODIS data. For example, the differences for the SW and Net CRE in the case HH was 12.3±47

  7. NOEMA Observations of a Molecular Cloud in the Low-metallicity Galaxy Kiso 5639

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Herrera, Cinthya; Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Olmo-García, Amanda

    2018-06-01

    A giant star-forming region in a metal-poor dwarf galaxy has been observed in optical lines with the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and in the emission line of CO(1–0) with the Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) mm-wave interferometer. The metallicity was determined to be 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.83+/- 0.09, from which we estimate a conversion factor of α CO ∼ 100 M ⊙ pc‑2(K km s‑1)‑1 and a molecular cloud mass of ∼2.9 × 107 M ⊙. This is an enormous concentration of molecular mass at one end of a small galaxy, suggesting a recent accretion. The molecular cloud properties seem normal: the surface density, 120 M ⊙ pc‑2, is comparable to that of a standard giant molecular cloud; the cloud’s virial ratio of ∼1.8 is in the star formation range; and the gas consumption time, 0.5 Gyr, at the present star formation rate is typical for molecular regions. The low metallicity implies that the cloud has an average visual extinction of only 0.8 mag, which is close to the threshold for molecule formation. With such an extinction threshold, molecular clouds in metal-poor regions should have high surface densities and high internal pressures. If high pressure is associated with the formation of massive clusters, then metal-poor galaxies such as dwarfs in the early universe could have been the hosts of metal-poor globular clusters.

  8. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  9. CloudSat-Based Assessment of GPM Microwave Imager Snowfall Observation Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Panegrossi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM Microwave Imager (GMI high-frequency channels to snowfall at higher latitudes (around 60°N/S is investigated using coincident CloudSat observations. The 166 GHz channel is highlighted throughout the study due to its ice scattering sensitivity and polarization information. The analysis of three case studies evidences the important combined role of total precipitable water (TPW, supercooled cloud water, and background surface composition on the brightness temperature (TB behavior for different snow-producing clouds. A regression tree statistical analysis applied to the entire GMI-CloudSat snowfall dataset indicates which variables influence the 166 GHz polarization difference (166 ∆TB and its relation to snowfall. Critical thresholds of various parameters (sea ice concentration (SIC, TPW, ice water path (IWP are established for optimal snowfall detection capabilities. The 166 ∆TB can identify snowfall events over land and sea when critical thresholds are exceeded (TPW > 3.6 kg·m−2, IWP > 0.24 kg·m−2 over land, and SIC > 57%, TPW > 5.1 kg·m−2 over sea. The complex combined 166 ∆TB-TB relationship at higher latitudes and the impact of supercooled water vertical distribution are also investigated. The findings presented in this study can be exploited to improve passive microwave snowfall detection algorithms.

  10. Observation of String Ion Cloud in a Linear RF Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, M.; Kameyama, S.; Kono, A.; Sakawa, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2009-01-01

    We aim to study the effect of the long-range correlation among ions on their statistical characteristics using ion clouds confined in a linear rf ion trap. It is important to keep the ion cloud in one dimension, where the influence of the rf heating is negligible, for the detailed research on the effect of the Coulomb interaction on the statistical characteristics of the ion cloud. In this paper, the method of the generation of an ideal ion string is proposed. We also briefly report the performances of our experimental equipment and the preliminary results of generation of ideal 1D ion cloud.

  11. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Peter T.; Long, Charles N.; Protat, Alain

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of convection and associated cloud and radiative properties remains a significant issue in global NWP and climate models. This study analyzes observed diurnal variability of convection in a coastal monsoonal environment examining the interaction of convective rain clouds, their associated cloud properties, and the impact on the surface radiation and corresponding boundary layer structure during periods where convection is suppressed or active on the large scale. The analysis uses data from the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) as well as routine measurements from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Both active monsoonal and large-scale suppressed (buildup and break) conditions are examined and demonstrate that the diurnal variation of rainfall is much larger during the break periods and the spatial distribution of rainfall is very different between the monsoon and break regimes. During the active monsoon the total net radiative input to the surface is decreased by more than 3 times the amount than during the break regime - this total radiative cloud forcing is found to be dominated by the shortwave (SW) cloud effects because of the much larger optical thicknesses and persistence of long-lasting anvils and cirrus cloud decks associated with the monsoon regime. These differences in monsoon versus break surface radiative energy contribute to low-level air temperature differences in the boundary layer over the land surfaces.

  12. Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Várnai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at helping synergistic studies in combining data from different satellites for gaining new insights into two critical yet poorly understood aspects of anthropogenic climate change, aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects. In particular, the paper examines the way cloud information from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer imager can refine our perceptions based on CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization lidar measurements about the systematic aerosol changes that occur near clouds.

    The statistical analysis of a yearlong dataset of co-located global maritime observations from the Aqua and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellites reveals that MODIS's multispectral imaging ability can greatly help the interpretation of CALIOP observations. The results show that imagers on Aqua and CALIPSO yield very similar pictures, and that the discrepancies – due mainly to wind drift and differences in view angle – do not significantly hinder aerosol measurements near clouds. By detecting clouds outside the CALIOP track, MODIS reveals that clouds are usually closer to clear areas than CALIOP data alone would suggest. The paper finds statistical relationships between the distances to clouds in MODIS and CALIOP data, and proposes a rescaling approach to statistically account for the impact of clouds outside the CALIOP track even when MODIS cannot reliably detect low clouds, for example at night or over sea ice. Finally, the results show that the typical distance to clouds depends on both cloud coverage and cloud type, and accordingly varies with location and season. In maritime areas perceived cloud free, the global median distance to clouds below 3 km altitude is in the 4–5 km range.

  13. 3D Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Interaction Observed in Collocated MODIS and ASTER Images of Cumulus Cloud Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.

  14. PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC CIRRUS CLOUDS OBSERVED BY BOOMERANG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Bock, J. J.; Crill, B. P.; Lange, A. E.; Boscaleri, A.; De Gasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Natoli, P.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Stefano, G. Di; Ganga, K. M.; Jones, W. C.; Kisner, T. S.; Montroy, T. E.; MacTavish, C. J.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of galactic cirrus emission are not well characterized. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background at high angular resolution in the millimeter range. The BOOMERANG 245 and 345 GHz channels are sensitive to interstellar signals, in a spectral range intermediate between FIR and microwave frequencies. We look for physical characteristics of cirrus structures in a region at high galactic latitudes (b ∼ -40 deg.) where BOOMERANG performed its deepest integration, combining the BOOMERANG data with other available data sets at different wavelengths. We have detected eight emission patches in the 345 GHz map, consistent with cirrus dust in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite maps. The analysis technique we have developed allows us to identify the location and the shape of cirrus clouds, and to extract the flux from observations with different instruments at different wavelengths and angular resolutions. We study the integrated flux emitted from these cirrus clouds using data from Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), DIRBE, BOOMERANG and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe in the frequency range 23-3000 GHz (13 mm-100 μm wavelength). We fit the measured spectral energy distributions with a combination of a gray body and a power-law spectra considering two models for the thermal emission. The temperature of the thermal dust component varies in the 7-20 K range and its emissivity spectral index is in the 1-5 range. We identified a physical relation between temperature and spectral index as had been proposed in previous works. This technique can be proficiently used for the forthcoming Planck and Herschel missions data.

  15. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  16. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, palbedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, palbedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to lower the albedo. Clouds cool the darker and warmer surfaces, inhibiting snow melt, which increases albedo, and thus stabilizes surface melt. This stabilizing mechanism may also occur over sea ice, helping to forestall surface melt as the Arctic becomes dimmer.

  17. CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds(C3Winds) A New Wind Observing System to Study Mesoscale Cloud Dynamics and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Kelly, M.A.; Yee, J.-H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E. L.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L. D.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to better understand mesoscale dynamics and their structures in severe weather systems. With potential catastrophic damage and loss of life, strong extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) have profound three-dimensional impacts on the atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamic structures, producing complex cloud precipitation patterns, strong low-level winds, extensive tropopause folds, and intense stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Employing a compact, stereo IR-visible imaging technique from two formation-flying CubeSats, C3Winds seeks to measure and map high-resolution (2 km) cloud motion vectors (CMVs) and cloud geometric height (CGH) accurately by tracking cloud features within 5-15 min. Complementary to lidar wind observations from space, the high-resolution wind fields from C3Winds will allow detailed investigations on strong low-level wind formation in an occluded ETC development, structural variations of TC inner-core rotation, and impacts of tropopause folding events on tropospheric ozone and air quality. Together with scatterometer ocean surface winds, C3Winds will provide a more comprehensive depiction of atmosphere-boundary-layer dynamics and interactive processes. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with potential of increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  18. Precipitating clouds observed by 1.3-GHz boundary layer radars in equatorial Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Renggono

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of precipitating clouds in equatorial Indonesia have been studied based on observations with 1357.5 MHz boundary layer radars at Serpong (6.4° S, 106.7° E near Jakarta and Bukittinggi (0.2° S, 100.3° E in West Sumatera. We have classified precipitating clouds into four types: stratiform, mixed stratiform-convective, deep convective, and shallow convective clouds, using the Williams et al. (1995 method. Diurnal variations of the occurrence of precipitating clouds at Serpong and Bukittinggi have showed the same characteristics, namely, that the precipitating clouds primarily occur in the afternoon and the peak of the stratiform cloud comes after the peak of the deep convective cloud. The time delay between the peaks of stratiform and deep convective clouds corresponds to the life cycle of the mesoscale convective system. The precipitating clouds which occur in the early morning at Serpong are dominated by stratiform cloud. Concerning seasonal variations of the precipitating clouds, we have found that the occurrence of the stratiform cloud is most frequent in the rainy season, while the occurrence of the deep convective cloud is predominant in the dry season.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (convective processes; precipitation; tropical meteorology

  19. Recent variations of cloudiness over Russia from surface daytime observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernokulsky, A V; Mokhov, I I; Bulygina, O N

    2011-01-01

    Changes of total and low cloud fraction and the occurrence of different cloud types over Russia were assessed. The analysis was based on visual observations from more than 1600 meteorological stations. Differences between the 2001-10 and 1991-2000 year ranges were evaluated. In general, cloud fraction has tended to increase during recent years. A major increase of total cloud fraction and a decrease of the number of days without clouds are revealed in spring and autumn mostly due to an increase of the occurrence of convective and non-precipitating stratiform clouds. In contrast, the occurrence of nimbostratus clouds has tended to decrease. In general, the ratio between the occurrence of cumulonimbus and nimbostratus clouds has increased for the period 2001-10 relative to 1991-2000. Over particular regions, a decrease of total cloud fraction and an increase of the number of days without clouds are noted.

  20. FAME-C: cloud property retrieval using synergistic AATSR and MERIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Carbajal Henken

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed daytime cloud property retrieval algorithm, FAME-C (Freie Universität Berlin AATSR MERIS Cloud, is presented. Synergistic observations from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, both mounted on the polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (Envisat, are used for cloud screening. For cloudy pixels two main steps are carried out in a sequential form. First, a cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval is performed using an AATSR near-infrared and visible channel. Cloud phase, cloud optical thickness, and effective radius are retrieved, and subsequently cloud water path is computed. Second, two cloud top height products are retrieved based on independent techniques. For cloud top temperature, measurements in the AATSR infrared channels are used, while for cloud top pressure, measurements in the MERIS oxygen-A absorption channel are used. Results from the cloud optical and microphysical property retrieval serve as input for the two cloud top height retrievals. Introduced here are the AATSR and MERIS forward models and auxiliary data needed in FAME-C. Also, the optimal estimation method, which provides uncertainty estimates of the retrieved property on a pixel basis, is presented. Within the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project, the first global cloud property retrievals have been conducted for the years 2007–2009. For this time period, verification efforts are presented, comparing, for four selected regions around the globe, FAME-C cloud optical and microphysical properties to cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from measurements of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on the Terra satellite. The results show a reasonable agreement between the cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals. Biases are generally smallest for marine stratocumulus clouds: −0.28, 0.41 μm and

  1. Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern Versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. An ubiquitous problem amongst General Circulation Models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of clouds in cyclones. We analyze CloudSat, CALIPSO and AMSR-E observations for 3 austral and boreal cold seasons and composite cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation at the warm fronts for northern and southern hemisphere oceanic cyclones. We find that cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation rate are similar in the early stage of the cyclone life cycle in both northern and southern hemispheres. As cyclones evolve and reach their mature stage, cloudiness and precipitation at the warm front increase in the northern hemisphere but decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is partly caused by lower amounts of precipitable water being available to southern hemisphere cyclones, and smaller increases in wind speed as the cyclones evolve. Southern hemisphere cloud occurrence at the warm front is found to be more sensitive to the amount of moisture in the warm sector than to wind speeds. This suggests that cloudiness in southern hemisphere storms may be more susceptible to changes in atmospheric water vapor content, and thus to changes in surface temperature than their northern hemisphere counterparts. These differences between northern and southern hemisphere cyclones are statistically robust, indicating A-Train-based analyses as useful tools for evaluation of GCMs in the next IPCC report.

  2. Observed linkages between the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation, cloud incidence, and cloud radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Thompson, David W. J.; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Minghong

    2014-03-01

    The signature of the northern annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAM/NAO) in the vertical and horizontal distribution of tropospheric cloudiness is investigated in CloudSat and CALIPSO data from June 2006 to April 2011. During the Northern Hemisphere winter, the positive polarity of the NAM/NAO is marked by increases in zonally averaged cloud incidence north of ~60°N, decreases between ~25 and 50°N, and increases in the subtropics. The tripolar-like anomalies in cloud incidence associated with the NAM/NAO are largest over the North Atlantic Ocean basin/Middle East and are physically consistent with the NAM/NAO-related anomalies in vertical motion. Importantly, the NAM/NAO-related anomalies in tropospheric cloud incidence lead to significant top of atmosphere cloud radiative forcing anomalies that are comparable in amplitude to those associated with the NAM/NAO-related temperature anomalies. The results provide observational evidence that the most prominent pattern of Northern Hemisphere climate variability is significantly linked to variations in cloud radiative forcing. Implications for two-way feedback between extratropical dynamics and cloud radiative forcing are discussed.

  3. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. On phantom point clouds, their method achieved submillimeter

  4. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To accurately and efficiently reconstruct a continuous surface from noisy point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). Methods: The authors have developed a level-set based surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured by a surface photogrammetry system (VisionRT). The proposed method reconstructs an implicit and continuous representation of the underlying patient surface by optimizing a regularized fitting energy, offering extra robustness to noise and missing measurements. By contrast to explicit/discrete meshing-type schemes, their continuous representation is particularly advantageous for subsequent surface registration and motion tracking by eliminating the need for maintaining explicit point correspondences as in discrete models. The authors solve the proposed method with an efficient narrowband evolving scheme. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both phantom and human subject data with two sets of complementary experiments. In the first set of experiment, the authors generated a series of surfaces each with different black patches placed on one chest phantom. The resulting VisionRT measurements from the patched area had different degree of noise and missing levels, since VisionRT has difficulties in detecting dark surfaces. The authors applied the proposed method to point clouds acquired under these different configurations, and quantitatively evaluated reconstructed surfaces by comparing against a high-quality reference surface with respect to root mean squared error (RMSE). In the second set of experiment, the authors applied their method to 100 clinical point clouds acquired from one human subject. In the absence of ground-truth, the authors qualitatively validated reconstructed surfaces by comparing the local geometry, specifically mean curvature distributions, against that of the surface extracted from a high-quality CT obtained from the same patient. Results: On phantom point clouds, their method

  5. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  6. Observational Constraints on Cloud Feedbacks: The Role of Active Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David; Chepfer, Helene; Noel, Vincent; Cai, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Cloud profiling from active lidar and radar in the A-train satellite constellation has significantly advanced our understanding of clouds and their role in the climate system. Nevertheless, the response of clouds to a warming climate remains one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change and for the development of adaptions to change. Both observation of long-term changes and observational constraints on the processes responsible for those changes are necessary. We review recent progress in our understanding of the cloud feedback problem. Capabilities and advantages of active sensors for observing clouds are discussed, along with the importance of active sensors for deriving constraints on cloud feedbacks as an essential component of a global climate observing system.

  7. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO: From AMIE Field Observations to Global Cloud-Permiting Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chidong [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2016-08-14

    Motivated by the success of the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign, which collected unprecedented observations of cloud and precipitation from the tropical Indian Ocean in Octber 2011 – March 2012, this project explored how such observations can be applied to assist the development of global cloud-permitting models through evaluating and correcting model biases in cloud statistics. The main accomplishment of this project were made in four categories: generating observational products for model evaluation, using AMIE/DYNAMO observations to validate global model simulations, using AMIE/DYNAMO observations in numerical studies of cloud-permitting models, and providing leadership in the field. Results from this project provide valuable information for building a seamless bridge between DOE ASR program’s component on process level understanding of cloud processes in the tropics and RGCM focus on global variability and regional extremes. In particular, experience gained from this project would be directly applicable to evaluation and improvements of ACME, especially as it transitions to a non-hydrostatic variable resolution model.

  8. The Diversity of Cloud Responses to Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L. G.; Paynter, D.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of the global temperature response to forcing. Previous work has shown strong connections between cloud feedbacks and climate change, and between these feedbacks and changing patterns of surface temperature. We show that strong variability of the climate feedback parameter is present in three GFDL atmospheric general circulation models (AM2.1, AM3, AM4) over the twentieth century. This variability is highly correlated with the global mean cloud radiative effect (CRE) and low-cloud cover (LCC) anomalies. The decadal variability is characterized by a period of high climate sensitivity (1925-1955) and a period of low climate sensitivity (1975-2005). Observed trends of surface temperature also show distinct differences over these two periods. Although it is the SST that drives the atmospheric response, the estimated inversion strength (EIS) is necessary to reproduce the changing LCC field. During both periods, trends of EIS are shown to closely mirror trends of LCC over much of the globe, not only in the typical stratocumulus regions. Trends of the shortwave CRE (SWCRE), LCC, and the EIS are analyzed in particular geographic regions. All of these regions show a consistent relationship between LCC, SWCRE, and EIS, as well as significant differences between the two time periods. This study uses a 15 member ensemble of amip-piForcing simulations from 1870 -2005. These experiments are driven by observed SST patterns and hold greenhouse gases and other atmospheric forcing agents fixed at constant pre-industrial levels. This allows for a clean analysis of how clouds respond to changing patterns of SST and the resulting influence on the climate feedback parameter. The cloudy response of the atmosphere to changing SST patterns is critical in driving the variability of the climate feedback parameter during periods of both high and low climate sensitivity.

  9. Verification of cloud cover forecast with INSAT observation over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and recent trends in forecast quality, improving ... general framework for forecast verification based on the joint ... clouds is given by POD, and FAR offers a metric for how often the .... Kain J S and Fritsch J M 1993 Convective parameterizations.

  10. 1 Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    The present study explores the vertical structure of precipitating clouds associated with orographic features in South .... The PR, by design, detects PLW and not CLW. Dryness of ...... Organization of Asian Monsoon Convection*; J. Clim. 19(14) ...

  11. Airborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M.; Bierwirth, E.; Ehrlich, A.; Jäkel, E.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-07-01

    Based on airborne spectral imaging observations, three-dimensional (3-D) radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and highly variable Arctic surfaces were identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate between sea ice and open water under cloudy conditions based on airborne nadir reflectivity γλ measurements in the visible spectral range. In cloudy cases the transition of γλ from open water to sea ice is not instantaneous but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce γλ above bright surfaces in the vicinity of open water, while γλ above open sea is enhanced. With the help of observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge (for a dark-ocean albedo of αwater = 0.042 and a sea-ice albedo of αice = 0.91 at 645 nm wavelength). The affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both cloud and sea ice properties. For a low-level cloud at 0-200 m altitude, as observed during the Arctic field campaign VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI) in 2012, an increase in the cloud optical thickness τ from 1 to 10 leads to a decrease in Δ L from 600 to 250 m. An increase in the cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness results in an increase in Δ L; for τ = 1/10 Δ L = 2200 m/1250 m in case of a cloud at 500-1000 m altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of ice floes, radiative transfer simulations were performed with various albedo fields (infinitely long straight ice edge, circular ice floes, squares, realistic ice floe field). The simulations show that Δ L increases with increasing radius of the ice floe and reaches maximum values for ice floes with radii larger than 6 km (500-1000 m cloud altitude), which matches the results found for an infinitely long, straight ice edge. Furthermore, the influence of these 3-D radiative effects on the retrieved cloud optical properties was investigated

  12. Airborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schäfer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on airborne spectral imaging observations, three-dimensional (3-D radiative effects between Arctic boundary layer clouds and highly variable Arctic surfaces were identified and quantified. A method is presented to discriminate between sea ice and open water under cloudy conditions based on airborne nadir reflectivity γλ measurements in the visible spectral range. In cloudy cases the transition of γλ from open water to sea ice is not instantaneous but horizontally smoothed. In general, clouds reduce γλ above bright surfaces in the vicinity of open water, while γλ above open sea is enhanced. With the help of observations and 3-D radiative transfer simulations, this effect was quantified to range between 0 and 2200 m distance to the sea ice edge (for a dark-ocean albedo of αwater = 0.042 and a sea-ice albedo of αice = 0.91 at 645 nm wavelength. The affected distance Δ L was found to depend on both cloud and sea ice properties. For a low-level cloud at 0–200 m altitude, as observed during the Arctic field campaign VERtical Distribution of Ice in Arctic clouds (VERDI in 2012, an increase in the cloud optical thickness τ from 1 to 10 leads to a decrease in Δ L from 600 to 250 m. An increase in the cloud base altitude or cloud geometrical thickness results in an increase in Δ L; for τ = 1/10 Δ L = 2200 m/1250 m in case of a cloud at 500–1000 m altitude. To quantify the effect for different shapes and sizes of ice floes, radiative transfer simulations were performed with various albedo fields (infinitely long straight ice edge, circular ice floes, squares, realistic ice floe field. The simulations show that Δ L increases with increasing radius of the ice floe and reaches maximum values for ice floes with radii larger than 6 km (500–1000 m cloud altitude, which matches the results found for an infinitely long, straight ice edge. Furthermore, the influence of these 3-D radiative effects on the retrieved cloud optical

  13. The Relationship Between Surface Temperature Anomaly Time Series and those of OLR, Water Vapor, and Cloud Cover as Observed Using Nine Years of AIRS Version-5 Level-3 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Comparison of AIRS and CERES anomaly time series of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and OLR(sub CLR), i.e. Clear Sky OLR (2) Explanation of recent decreases in global and tropical mean values of OLR (3) AIRS "Short-term" Longwave Cloud Radiative Feedback -- A new product

  14. Observed aerosol suppression of cloud ice in low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Norgren, Matthew S.; Boer, Gijs; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    The interactions that occur between aerosols and a mixed-phase cloud system, and the subsequent alteration of the microphysical state of such clouds, is a problem that has yet to be well constrained. Advancing our understanding of aerosol-ice processes is necessary to determine the impact of natural and anthropogenic emissions on Earth’s climate and to improve our capability to predict future climate states. This paper deals specifically with how aerosols influence ice mass production in low-...

  15. Lidar Measurements of Ozone, Aerosols, and Clouds Observed in the Tropics Near Central America During TC4-Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, J. W.; Browell, E.; Butler, C.; Fenn, M.; Notari, A.; Simpson, S.; Ismail, S.; Avery, M.

    2007-12-01

    Large-scale measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the TC4 (Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling) field experiment conducted from June 28 - August 10, 2007 based in San Jose, Costa Rica. Remote measurements were made with an airborne lidar to provide ozone and multiple-wavelength aerosol and cloud backscatter profiles from near the surface to above the tropopause along the flight track. Aerosol depolarization measurements were also made for the detection of nonspherical aerosols, such as mineral dust, biomass burning, and recent emissions from South American volcanoes. Long-range transport of Saharan dust with depolarizing aerosols was frequently observed in the lower troposphere both over the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean and within the marine boundary layer. In addition, visible and sub-visible cirrus clouds were observed with the multi-wavelength backscatter and depolarization measurements. Initial distributions of ozone, aerosol, and cloud are presented which will be used to interpret large-scale atmospheric processes. In situ measurements of ozone and aerosols made onboard the DC-8 will be compared to the remote lidar measurements. This paper provides a first look at the characteristics of ozone, aerosol, and cloud distributions that were encountered during this field experiment and provide a unique dataset that will be further related through satellite data, backward trajectories, and chemical transport models (CTM) to sources and sinks of ozone, aerosols, and clouds and to dynamical, chemical, and radiative processes.

  16. Microphysical variability of vigorous Amazonian deep convection observed by CloudSat, and relevance for cloud-resolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J. B.; Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    The number and varieties of both satellite cloud observations and cloud simulations are increasing rapidly. This create a challenge in identifying the best methods for quantifying the physical processes associated with deep convection, and then comparing convective observations with simulations. The use of satellite simulators in conjunction with model output is an increasingly popular method of comparison studies. However, the complexity of deep convective systems renders simplistic comparison metrics hazardous, possibly resulting is misleading or even contradicting conclusions. To investigate this, CloudSat observations of Amazonian deep convective cores (DCCs) and associated anvils are compared and contrasted with output from cloud resolving models in a manner that both highlights microphysical proprties of observed convection, and displays the effects of microphysical parameterizations on allowing robust comparisons. First, contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFAD) are calculated from the reflectivity fields of DCCs observed by CloudSat. This reveals two distinct modes of hydrometeor variability in the high level cloud region, with one dominated by snow and aggregates, and the other by large graupel and hail. Second, output from the superparameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM) data are processed with the Quickbeam radar simulator to produce CFADs which can be compared with the observed CFADs. Two versions of SP-CAM are used, with one (version 4) having single-moment microphysics which excludes graupel/hail, and the other (version 5) a double-moment scheme with graupel. The change from version 4 to 5 improves the reflectivity CFAD, even without corresponding changes to non-hydrometeor fields such as vertical velocity. However, it does not produce a realistic double hydrometeor mode. Finally, the influences of microphysics are further tested in the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM), which allows for higher control over model parameters than

  17. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  18. An Uncertainty Data Set for Passive Microwave Satellite Observations of Warm Cloud Liquid Water Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Bennartz, Ralf; Lebsock, Matthew; Teixeira, João.

    2018-04-01

    The first extended comprehensive data set of the retrieval uncertainties in passive microwave observations of cloud liquid water path (CLWP) for warm oceanic clouds has been created for practical use in climate applications. Four major sources of systematic errors were considered over the 9-year record of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E): clear-sky bias, cloud-rain partition (CRP) bias, cloud-fraction-dependent bias, and cloud temperature bias. Errors were estimated using a unique merged AMSR-E/Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Level 2 data set as well as observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. To quantify the CRP bias more accurately, a new parameterization was developed to improve the inference of CLWP in warm rain. The cloud-fraction-dependent bias was found to be a combination of the CRP bias, an in-cloud bias, and an adjacent precipitation bias. Globally, the mean net bias was 0.012 kg/m2, dominated by the CRP and in-cloud biases, but with considerable regional and seasonal variation. Good qualitative agreement between a bias-corrected AMSR-E CLWP climatology and ship observations in the Northeast Pacific suggests that the bias estimates are reasonable. However, a possible underestimation of the net bias in certain conditions may be due in part to the crude method used in classifying precipitation, underscoring the need for an independent method of detecting rain in warm clouds. This study demonstrates the importance of combining visible-infrared imager data and passive microwave CLWP observations for estimating uncertainties and improving the accuracy of these observations.

  19. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  20. The Diversity of Cloud Responses to Twentieth Century Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Levi G.; Paynter, David; Zhao, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Low-level clouds are shown to be the conduit between the observed sea surface temperatures (SST) and large decadal fluctuations of the top of the atmosphere radiative imbalance. The influence of low-level clouds on the climate feedback is shown for global mean time series as well as particular geographic regions. The changes of clouds are found to be important for a midcentury period of high sensitivity and a late century period of low sensitivity. These conclusions are drawn from analysis of amip-piForcing simulations using three atmospheric general circulation models (AM2.1, AM3, and AM4.0). All three models confirm the importance of the relationship between the global climate sensitivity and the eastern Pacific trends of SST and low-level clouds. However, this work argues that the variability of the climate feedback parameter is not driven by stratocumulus-dominated regions in the eastern ocean basins, but rather by the cloudy response in the rest of the tropics.

  1. Evaluation and Improvement of Cloud and Convective Parameterizations from Analyses of ARM Observations and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, Anthony D. [NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Over this period the PI and his performed a broad range of data analysis, model evaluation, and model improvement studies using ARM data. These included cloud regimes in the TWP and their evolution over the MJO; M-PACE IOP SCM-CRM intercomparisons; simulations of convective updraft strength and depth during TWP-ICE; evaluation of convective entrainment parameterizations using TWP-ICE simulations; evaluation of GISS GCM cloud behavior vs. long-term SGP cloud statistics; classification of aerosol semi-direct effects on cloud cover; depolarization lidar constraints on cloud phase; preferred states of the winter Arctic atmosphere, surface, and sub-surface; sensitivity of convection to tropospheric humidity; constraints on the parameterization of mesoscale organization from TWP-ICE WRF simulations; updraft and downdraft properties in TWP-ICE simulated convection; insights from long-term ARM records at Manus and Nauru.

  2. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer C ore to Disk(c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ∼79% in Lupus V and ∼87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A V ∼ 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  3. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  4. GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations, 1998-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations: Ship, fixed/drifting buoy, and CMAN in-situ surface temperature. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Data. The...

  5. Background Noises Versus Intraseasonal Variation Signals: Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects From CERES Aqua Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2015-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) observations between July 2006 and June 2010 for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index, which assigns the tropics to one of the eight MJO phases each day. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The criteria for defining these cloud types are overcast footprints and cloud top pressures less than 400 hPa, but DC has higher cloud optical depths (=10) than those of CS (background noises resulting from various types of the tropical waves with different wavenumbers and propagation speeds/directions.

  6. LSAH: a fast and efficient local surface feature for point cloud registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongrong; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Kong, Yanzi

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud registration is a fundamental task in high level three dimensional applications. Noise, uneven point density and varying point cloud resolutions are the three main challenges for point cloud registration. In this paper, we design a robust and compact local surface descriptor called Local Surface Angles Histogram (LSAH) and propose an effectively coarse to fine algorithm for point cloud registration. The LSAH descriptor is formed by concatenating five normalized sub-histograms into one histogram. The five sub-histograms are created by accumulating a different type of angle from a local surface patch respectively. The experimental results show that our LSAH is more robust to uneven point density and point cloud resolutions than four state-of-the-art local descriptors in terms of feature matching. Moreover, we tested our LSAH based coarse to fine algorithm for point cloud registration. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust and efficient as well.

  7. A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-04-01

    Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

  8. Water and complex organic chemistry in the cold dark cloud Barnard 5: Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirström, Eva; Charnley, Steven B.; Taquet, Vianney; Persson, Carina M.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of complex organic molecule (COM) formation have traditionally been focused on hot cores in regions of massive star formation, where chemistry is driven by the elevated temperatures - evaporating ices and allowing for endothermic reactions in the gas-phase. As more sensitive instruments have become available, the types of objects known to harbour COMs like acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methyl formate (CH3OCHO), and ketene (CH2CO) have expanded to include low mass protostars and, recently, even pre-stellar cores. We here report on the first in a new category of objects harbouring COMs: the cold dark cloud Barnard 5 where non-thermal ice desorption induce complex organic chemistry entirely unrelated to local star-formation.Methanol, which only forms efficiently on the surfaces of dust grains, provide evidence of efficient non-thermal desorption of ices in the form of prominent emission peaks offset from protostellar activity and high density tracers in cold molecular clouds. A study with Herschel targeting such methanol emission peaks resulted in the first ever detection of gas-phase water offset from protostellar activity in a dark cloud, at the so called methanol hotspot in Barnard 5.To model the effect a transient injection of ices into the gas-phase has on the chemistry of a cold, dark cloud we have included gas-grain interactions in an existing gas-phase chemical model and connected it to a chemical reaction network updated and expanded to include the formation and destruction paths of the most common COMs. Results from this model will be presented.Ground-based follow-up studies toward the methanol hotspot in B5 have resulted in the detection of a number of COMs, including CH2CO, CH3CHO, CH3OCH3, and CH3OCHO, as well as deuterated methanol (CH2DOH). Observations have also confirmed that COM emission is extended and not localised to a core structure. The implications of these observational and theoretical studies of B5 will be discussed

  9. The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, Graham [NOAA ESRL; McComiskey, Allison [CIRES, University of Colorado

    2013-09-25

    Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

  10. Quantifying and Modelling the Effect of Cloud Shadows on the Surface Irradiance at Tropical and Midlatitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivalov, Sergey N.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2018-02-01

    Cloud shadows lead to alternating light and dark periods at the surface, with the most abrupt changes occurring in the presence of low-level forced cumulus clouds. We examine multiyear irradiance time series observed at a research tower in a midlatitude mixed deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA: 42.53{°}N, 72.17{°}W) and one made at a similar tower in a tropical rain forest (Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil: 2.86{°}S, 54.96{°}W). We link the durations of these periods statistically to conventional meteorological reports of sky type and cloud height at the two forests and present a method to synthesize the surface irradiance time series from sky-type information. Four classes of events describing distinct sequential irradiance changes at the transition from cloud shadow and direct sunlight are identified: sharp-to-sharp, slow-to-slow, sharp-to-slow, and slow-to-sharp. Lognormal and the Weibull statistical distributions distinguish among cloudy-sky types. Observers' qualitative reports of `scattered' and `broken' clouds are quantitatively distinguished by a threshold value of the ratio of mean clear to cloudy period durations. Generated synthetic time series based on these statistics adequately simulate the temporal "radiative forcing" linked to sky type. Our results offer a quantitative way to connect the conventional meteorological sky type to the time series of irradiance experienced at the surface.

  11. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  12. Ezilla Cloud Service with Cassandra Database for Sensor Observation System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yang Cheng; Yi-Lun Pan; Chang-Hsing Wu; His-En Yu; Hui-Shan Chen; Weicheng Huang

    2012-01-01

    The main mission of Ezilla is to provide a friendly interface to access the virtual machine and quickly deploy the high performance computing environment. Ezilla has been developed by Pervasive Computing Team at National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC). Ezilla integrates the Cloud middleware, virtualization technology, and Web-based Operating System (WebOS) to form a virtual computer in distributed computing environment. In order to upgrade the dataset and sp...

  13. CYGNSS Surface Wind Observations and Surface Flux Estimates within Low-Latitude Extratropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, J.; Posselt, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), launched in December 2016, aims to improve estimates of surface wind speeds over the tropical oceans. While CYGNSS's core mission is to provide better estimates of surface winds within the core of tropical cyclones, previous research has shown that the constellation, with its orbital inclination of 35°, also has the ability to observe numerous extratropical cyclones that form in the lower latitudes. Along with its high spatial and temporal resolution, CYGNSS can provide new insights into how extratropical cyclones develop and evolve, especially in the presence of thick clouds and precipitation. We will demonstrate this by presenting case studies of multiple extratropical cyclones observed by CYGNSS early on in its mission in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. By using the improved estimates of surface wind speeds from CYGNSS, we can obtain better estimates of surface latent and sensible heat fluxes within and around extratropical cyclones. Surface heat fluxes, driven by surface winds and strong vertical gradients of water vapor and temperature, play a key role in marine cyclogenesis as they increase instability within the boundary layer and may contribute to extreme marine cyclogenesis. In the past, it has been difficult to estimate surface heat fluxes from space borne instruments, as these fluxes cannot be observed directly from space, and deficiencies in spatial coverage and attenuation from clouds and precipitation lead to inaccurate estimates of surface flux components, such as surface wind speeds. While CYGNSS only contributes estimates of surface wind speeds, we can combine this data with other reanalysis and satellite data to provide improved estimates of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes within and around extratropical cyclones and throughout the entire CYGNSS mission.

  14. Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L. X.; Yan, G. J.; Huang, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases.

  15. Observations and Measurements on Unsteady Cloud Cavitation Flow Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, L X; Yan, G J; Huang, B

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to investigate the unsteady structures and hydrodynamics of cavitating flows. Experimental results are presented for a Clark-Y hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=0°, 5° and 8°. The high-speed video camera and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applied to investigate the transient flow structures. The dynamic measurement system is used to record the dynamic characteristics. The cloud cavitation exhibits noticeable unsteady characteristics. For the case of α=0°, there exit strong interactions between the attached cavity and the re-entrant flow. While for the case of α=8°, the re-entrant flow is relatively thin and the interaction between the cavity and re-entrant flow is limited. The results also present that the periodic collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavitation, which leads to substantial increase of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the cavity region. Experimental evidence indicates that the hydrodynamics are clearly affected by the cavitating flow structures, the amplitude of load fluctuation are much higher for the cloud cavitating cases. (paper)

  16. Observation of interstellar lithium in the low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J Christopher; Lehner, Nicolas; Fields, Brian D; Mathews, Grant J

    2012-09-06

    The primordial abundances of light elements produced in the standard theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) depend only on the cosmic ratio of baryons to photons, a quantity inferred from observations of the microwave background. The predicted primordial (7)Li abundance is four times that measured in the atmospheres of Galactic halo stars. This discrepancy could be caused by modification of surface lithium abundances during the stars' lifetimes or by physics beyond the Standard Model that affects early nucleosynthesis. The lithium abundance of low-metallicity gas provides an alternative constraint on the primordial abundance and cosmic evolution of lithium that is not susceptible to the in situ modifications that may affect stellar atmospheres. Here we report observations of interstellar (7)Li in the low-metallicity gas of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a nearby galaxy with a quarter the Sun's metallicity. The present-day (7)Li abundance of the Small Magellanic Cloud is nearly equal to the BBN predictions, severely constraining the amount of possible subsequent enrichment of the gas by stellar and cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis. Our measurements can be reconciled with standard BBN with an extremely fine-tuned depletion of stellar Li with metallicity. They are also consistent with non-standard BBN.

  17. Trends in Upper-Level Cloud Cover and Surface Divergence Over the Tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean Between 1952 And 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial pattern of linear trends in surface-observed upper-level (combined mid-level and High-level) cloud cover, precipitation, and surface divergence over the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean during 1952-1957. Cloud values were obtained from the Extended Edited Cloud Report Archive (EECRA), precipitation values were obtained from the Hulme/Climate Research Unit Data Set, and surface divergence was alternatively calculated from wind reported Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set and from Smith and Reynolds Extended Reconstructed sea level pressure data.

  18. The tropical Atlantic surface wind divergence belt and its effect on clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tubul; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2015-01-01

    A well-defined surface wind divergence (SWD) belt with distinct cloud properties forms over the equatorial Atlantic during the boreal summer months. This belt separates the deep convective clouds of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from the shallow marine stratocumulus cloud decks forming over the cold-water subtropical region of the southern Hadley cell. Using the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds and Aqua-MODIS instruments, we examined the large-scale spatiotemporal ...

  19. The tropical Atlantic surface wind divergence belt and its effect on clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tubul; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2015-01-01

    A well-defined surface wind divergence (SWD) belt with distinct cloud properties forms over the equatorial Atlantic during the boreal summer months. This belt separates the deep convective clouds of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from the shallow marine stratocumulus cloud decks forming over the cold-water subtropical region of the southern branch of the Hadley cell in the Atlantic. Using the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds and Aqua-MODIS instruments, we examined the large-scal...

  20. Quantifying Uncertainty in Satellite-Retrieved Land Surface Temperature from Cloud Detection Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Bulgin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clouds remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in remote sensing of surface temperature in the infrared, but this uncertainty has not generally been quantified. We present a new approach to do so, applied here to the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR. We use an ensemble of cloud masks based on independent methodologies to investigate the magnitude of cloud detection uncertainties in area-average Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieval. We find that at a grid resolution of 625 km 2 (commensurate with a 0.25 ∘ grid size at the tropics, cloud detection uncertainties are positively correlated with cloud-cover fraction in the cell and are larger during the day than at night. Daytime cloud detection uncertainties range between 2.5 K for clear-sky fractions of 10–20% and 1.03 K for clear-sky fractions of 90–100%. Corresponding night-time uncertainties are 1.6 K and 0.38 K, respectively. Cloud detection uncertainty shows a weaker positive correlation with the number of biomes present within a grid cell, used as a measure of heterogeneity in the background against which the cloud detection must operate (e.g., surface temperature, emissivity and reflectance. Uncertainty due to cloud detection errors is strongly dependent on the dominant land cover classification. We find cloud detection uncertainties of a magnitude of 1.95 K over permanent snow and ice, 1.2 K over open forest, 0.9–1 K over bare soils and 0.09 K over mosaic cropland, for a standardised clear-sky fraction of 74.2%. As the uncertainties arising from cloud detection errors are of a significant magnitude for many surface types and spatially heterogeneous where land classification varies rapidly, LST data producers are encouraged to quantify cloud-related uncertainties in gridded products.

  1. The thin border between cloud and aerosol: Sensitivity of several ground based observation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbó, Josep; Long, Charles N.; González, Josep-Abel; Augustine, John; McComiskey, Allison

    2017-11-01

    Cloud and aerosol are two manifestations of what it is essentially the same physical phenomenon: a suspension of particles in the air. The differences between the two come from the different composition (e.g., much higher amount of condensed water in particles constituting a cloud) and/or particle size, and also from the different number of such particles (10-10,000 particles per cubic centimeter depending on conditions). However, there exist situations in which the distinction is far from obvious, and even when broken or scattered clouds are present in the sky, the borders between cloud/not cloud are not always well defined, a transition area that has been coined as the ;twilight zone;. The current paper presents a discussion on the definition of cloud and aerosol, the need for distinguishing or for considering the continuum between the two, and suggests a quantification of the importance and frequency of such ambiguous situations, founded on several ground-based observing techniques. Specifically, sensitivity analyses are applied on sky camera images and broadband and spectral radiometric measurements taken at Girona (Spain) and Boulder (Co, USA). Results indicate that, at these sites, in more than 5% of the daytime hours the sky may be considered cloudless (but containing aerosols) or cloudy (with some kind of optically thin clouds) depending on the observing system and the thresholds applied. Similarly, at least 10% of the time the extension of scattered or broken clouds into clear areas is problematic to establish, and depends on where the limit is put between cloud and aerosol. These findings are relevant to both technical approaches for cloud screening and sky cover categorization algorithms and radiative transfer studies, given the different effect of clouds and aerosols (and the different treatment in models) on the Earth's radiation balance.

  2. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  3. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Istomina, Larysa; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow). Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C. In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S) and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S), λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ), and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C) are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice edge are analysed. The retrieved values of τ, reff

  4. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow. Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C.In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S, λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ, and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012 were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice

  5. Improving Convection and Cloud Parameterization Using ARM Observations and NCAR Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The fundamental scientific objectives of our research are to use ARM observations and the NCAR CAM5 to understand the large-scale control on convection, and to develop improved convection and cloud parameterizations for use in GCMs.

  6. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Motty G; Satyanarayana, M.; Krishnakumar, V.; Dhaman, Reji k.

    2014-01-01

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5 0 N, 79.2 0 E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology

  7. Using long-term ARM observations to evaluate Arctic mixed-phased cloud representation in the GISS ModelE GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Fridlind, A. M.; Luke, E. P.; Tselioudis, G.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of supercooled liquid in clouds affects surface radiative and hydrological budgets, especially at high latitudes. Capturing these effects is crucial to properly quantifying climate sensitivity. Currently, a number of CGMs disagree on the distribution of cloud phase. Adding to the challenge is a general lack of observations on the continuum of clouds, from high to low-level and from warm to cold. In the current study, continuous observations from 2011 to 2014 are used to evaluate all clouds produced by the GISS ModelE GCM over the ARM North Slope of Alaska site. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Global Weather State (GWS) approach reveals that fair-weather (GWS 7, 32% occurrence rate), as well as mid-level storm related (GWS 5, 28%) and polar (GWS 4, 14%) clouds, dominate the large-scale cloud patterns at this high latitude site. At higher spatial and temporal resolutions, ground-based cloud radar observations reveal a majority of single layer cloud vertical structures (CVS). While clear sky and low-level clouds dominate (each with 30% occurrence rate) a fair amount of shallow ( 10%) to deep ( 5%) convection are observed. Cloud radar Doppler spectra are used along with depolarization lidar observations in a neural network approach to detect the presence, layering and inhomogeneity of supercooled liquid layers. Preliminary analyses indicate that most of the low-level clouds sampled contain one or more supercooled liquid layers. Furthermore, the relationship between CVS and the presence of supercooled liquid is established, as is the relationship between the presence of supercool liquid and precipitation susceptibility. Two approaches are explored to bridge the gap between large footprint GCM simulations and high-resolution ground-based observations. The first approach consists of comparing model output and ground-based observations that exhibit the same column CVS type (i.e. same cloud depth, height and layering

  8. Inverse modeling of cloud-aerosol interactions -- Part 1: Detailed response surface analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partridge, D.G.; Vrugt, J.A.; Tunved, P.; Ekman, A.M.L.; Gorea, D.; Sooroshian, A.

    2011-01-01

    New methodologies are required to probe the sensitivity of parameters describing cloud droplet activation. This paper presents an inverse modeling-based method for exploring cloud-aerosol interactions via response surfaces. The objective function, containing the difference between the measured and

  9. Cloud tolerance of remote sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional means to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space relies on the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave (MW) obse...

  10. Aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the North Atlantic trades observed during the Barbados aerosol cloud experiment – Part 1: Distributions and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shallow marine cumulus clouds are by far the most frequently observed cloud type over the Earth's oceans; but they are poorly understood and have not been investigated as extensively as stratocumulus clouds. This study describes and discusses the properties and variations of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed in the North Atlantic trades during a field campaign (Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment- BACEX, March–April 2010, which took place off Barbados where African dust periodically affects the region. The principal observing platform was the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS Twin Otter (TO research aircraft, which was equipped with standard meteorological instruments, a zenith pointing cloud radar and probes that measured aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics.The temporal variation and vertical distribution of aerosols observed from the 15 flights, which included the most intense African dust event during all of 2010 in Barbados, showed a wide range of aerosol conditions. During dusty periods, aerosol concentrations increased substantially in the size range between 0.5 and 10 µm (diameter, particles that are large enough to be effective giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The 10-day back trajectories showed three distinct air masses with distinct vertical structures associated with air masses originating in the Atlantic (typical maritime air mass with relatively low aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer, Africa (Saharan air layer, and mid-latitudes (continental pollution plumes. Despite the large differences in the total mass loading and the origin of the aerosols, the overall shapes of the aerosol particle size distributions were consistent, with the exception of the transition period.The TO was able to sample many clouds at various phases of growth. Maximum cloud depth observed was less than ∼ 3 km, while most

  11. Long-term Behaviour Of Venus Winds At Cloud Level From Virtis/vex Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for more than three years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present an analysis of the overall dynamics of Venus’ atmosphere at both levels using observations that cover a large fraction of the VIRTIS dataset. We will present our latest results concerning the zonal winds, the overall stability in the lower cloud deck motions and the variability in the upper cloud. Meridional winds are also observed in the upper and lower cloud in the UV and IR images obtained with VIRTIS. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present more irregular, variable and less intense motions in the meridional direction. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  12. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  13. CO observations of a molecular cloud complex associated with the bright rim near VY Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, C.J.; Reid, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive CO observations of a large molecular cloud complex (approx. 15 pc) associated with a bright rim near the peculiar star VY CMa are presented. CO emission peaks in a region along and adjacent to the bright rim which forms the western border of the cloud complex. This emission abruptly decreases across the bright rim, and this decrease suggests a physical association of the rim with the cloud. The molecular complex is found to consist of two clouds which have different radial velocities and physical properties. The possibility that these two clouds may be in near-collision is discussed. The physical association of the bright rim with the cloud complex indicates that the clouds are at the same distance, 1.5 kpc, as the stars which excite the rim. Since VY CMa appears to be located at the tip of the bright rim and has a velocity similar to that of the molecular cloud complex and the stars of the cluster NGC 2362, it is concluded that VY CMa is also at the same distance. The resulting luminosity of VY CMa (5 x 10 5 L sub solar) indicates that the star is very massive, and places constraints on interpretation of its evolutionary state. 5 figures, 2 tables

  14. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W, located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  15. Cirrus cloud mimic surfaces in the laboratory: organic acids, bases and NOx heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeau, J.; Oriordan, B.

    2003-04-01

    CIRRUS CLOUD MIMIC SURFACES IN THE LABORATORY:ORGANIC ACIDS, BASES AND NOX HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS. B. ORiordan, J. Sodeau Department of Chemistry and Environment Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland j.sodeau@ucc.ie /Fax: +353-21-4902680 There are a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources for the simple carboxylic acids to be found in the troposphere giving rise to levels as high as 45 ppb in certain urban areas. In this regard it is of note that ants of genus Formica produce some 10Tg of formic acid each year; some ten times that produced by industry. The expected sinks are those generally associated with tropospheric chemistry: the major routes studied, to date, being wet and dry deposition. No studies have been carried out hitherto on the role of water-ice surfaces in the atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids and the purpose of this paper is to indicate their potential function in the heterogeneous release of atmospheric species such as HONO. The deposition of formic acid on a water-ice surface was studied using FT-RAIR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures between 100 and 165K. In all cases ionization to the formate (and oxonium) ions was observed. The results were confirmed by TPD (Temperature Programmed Desorption) measurements, which indicated that two distinct surface species adsorb to the ice. Potential reactions between the formic acid/formate ion surface and nitrogen dioxide were subsequently investigated by FT-RAIRS. Co-deposition experiments showed that N2O3 and the NO+ ion (associated with water) were formed as products. A mechanism is proposed to explain these results, which involves direct reaction between the organic acid and nitrogen dioxide. Similar experiments involving acetic acid also indicate ionization on a water-ice surface. The results are put into the context of atmospheric chemistry potentially occuring on cirrus cloud surfaces.

  16. Interannual and Diurnal Variability in Water Ice Clouds Observed from MSL Over Two Martian Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, J. L.; Moores, J. E.; Whiteway, J. A.; Aggarwal, M.

    2018-01-01

    We update the results of cloud imaging sequences from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity to complete two Mars years of observations (LS=160° of Mars year (MY) 31 to LS=160° of MY 33). Relatively good seasonal coverage is achieved within the study period, with just over 500 observations obtained, averaging one observation every 2-3 sols. Cloud opacity measurements are made using differential photometry and a simplified radiative transfer method. These opacity measurements are used to assess the interannual variability of the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) for MY 32 and 33. Upon accounting for a statistical bias in the data set, the variation is found to be year. Although a gap in data around local noon prevents a complete assessment, we find that cloud opacity is moderately increased in the morning hours (07:00-09:00) compared to the late afternoon (15:00-17:00).

  17. Cloud and surface textural features in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ronald M.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Sengupta, Sailes K.

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the textural signatures of clouds, ice-covered mountains, solid and broken sea ice and floes, and open water. The textural features are computed from sum and difference histogram and gray-level difference vector statistics defined at various pixel displacement distances derived from Landsat multispectral scanner data. Polar cloudiness, snow-covered mountainous regions, solid sea ice, glaciers, and open water have distinguishable texture features. This suggests that textural measures can be successfully applied to the detection of clouds over snow-covered mountains, an ability of considerable importance for the modeling of snow-melt runoff. However, broken stratocumulus cloud decks and thin cirrus over broken sea ice remain difficult to distinguish texturally. It is concluded that even with high spatial resolution imagery, it may not be possible to distinguish broken stratocumulus and thin clouds from sea ice in the marginal ice zone using the visible channel textural features alone.

  18. Analysis of Co-Located MODIS and CALIPSO Observations Near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help researchers combine data from different satellites and thus gain new insights into two critical yet poorly understood aspects of anthropogenic climate change, aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects, For this, the paper explores whether cloud information from the Aqua satellite's MODIS instrument can help characterize systematic aerosol changes near clouds by refining earlier perceptions of these changes that were based on the CALIPSO satellite's CALIOP instrument. Similar to a radar but using visible and ncar-infrared light, CALIOP sends out laser pulses and provides aerosol and cloud information along a single line that tracks the satellite orbit by measuring the reflection of its pulses. In contrast, MODIS takes images of reflected sunlight and emitted infrared radiation at several wavelengths, and covers wide areas around the satellite track. This paper analyzes a year-long global dataset covering all ice-free oceans, and finds that MODIS can greatly help the interpretation of CALIOP observations, especially by detecting clouds that lie outside the line observed by CALlPSO. The paper also finds that complications such as differences in view direction or clouds drifting in the 72 seconds that elapse between MODIS and CALIOP observations have only a minor impact. The study also finds that MODIS data helps refine but does not qualitatively alter perceptions of the systematic aerosol changes that were detected in earlier studies using only CALIOP data. It then proposes a statistical approach to account for clouds lying outside the CALIOP track even when MODIS cannot as reliably detect low clouds, for example at night or over ice. Finally, the paper finds that, because of variations in cloud amount and type, the typical distance to clouds in maritime clear areas varies with season and location. The overall median distance to clouds in maritime clear areas around 4-5 km. The fact that half of all clear areas is

  19. Estimation of time-series properties of gourd observed solar irradiance data using cloud properties derived from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Nohara, D.

    2017-12-01

    The shorter temporal scale variation in the downward solar irradiance at the ground level (DSI) is not understood well because researches in the shorter-scale variation in the DSI is based on the ground observation and ground observation stations are located coarsely. Use of dataset derived from satellite observation will overcome such defect. DSI data and MODIS cloud properties product are analyzed simultaneously. Three metrics: mean, standard deviation and sample entropy, are used to evaluate time-series properties of the DSI. Three metrics are computed from two-hours time-series centered at the observation time of MODIS over the ground observation stations. We apply the regression methods to design prediction models of each three metrics from cloud properties. The validation of the model accuracy show that mean and standard deviation are predicted with a higher degree of accuracy and that the accuracy of prediction of sample entropy, which represents the complexity of time-series, is not high. One of causes of lower prediction skill of sample entropy is the resolution of the MODIS cloud properties. Higher sample entropy is corresponding to the rapid fluctuation, which is caused by the small and unordered cloud. It seems that such clouds isn't retrieved well.

  20. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  1. Observation of gliding arc surface treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, A.

    2015-01-01

    . Water contact angle measurements indicate that the treatment uniformity improves significantly when the AC gliding arc is tilted to the polymer surface. Thickness reduction of the gas boundary layer, explaining the improvement of surface treatment, by the ultrasonic irradiation was directly observed...

  2. Mean diurnal variations of noctilucent clouds during 7 years of lidar observations at ALOMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fiedler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1997 to 2003, noctilucent clouds (NLC were observed by lidar above the ALOMAR observatory in Northern Norway (69° N during a total of 1880 measurement hours. This data set contains NLC signatures for 640h, covering all local times, even during the highest solar background conditions. After data limitation imposing a threshold value of 4x10-10m-1sr-1 for the volume backscatter coefficient of the NLC particles, a measure for the cloud brightness, local time dependencies of the NLC occurrence frequency, altitude, and brightness were determined. On average, over the 7 years NLC occurred during the whole day and preferably in the early morning hours, with a maximum occurrence frequency of ~40% between 4 and 7 LT. Splitting the data into weak and strong clouds yields almost identical amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal variations for the occurrence of weak clouds, whereas the strong clouds are dominated by the diurnal variation. NLC occurrence, altitude, as well as brightness, show a remarkable persistence concerning diurnal and semidiurnal variations from 1997 to 2003, suggesting that NLC above ALOMAR are significantly controlled by atmospheric tides. The observed mean anti-phase behavior between cloud altitude and brightness is attributed to a phase shift between the semidiurnal components by ~6h. Investigation of data for each individual year regarding the prevailing oscillation periods of the NLC parameters showed different phase relationships, leading to a complex variability in the cloud parameters.

  3. Submillimeter/millimeter observations of the molecular clouds associated with Tycho's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Miller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out CO J = 2 - 1 and CO J = 3 - 2 observations toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) using the KOSMA 3m-telescope. From these observations, we identified three molecular clouds (MCs) around the SNR. The small cloud in the southwest was discovered for the first time. In the north and east, two MCs (Cloud A and Cloud B) adjacent in space display a bow-shaped morphology, and have broad emission lines, which provide some direct evidences of the SNR-MCs interaction. The MCs are revealed at -69∼ -59 km s -1 , coincident with Tycho's SNR. The MCs associated with Tycho's SNR have a mass of ∼ 2.13 x 10 3 M circleddot . Position-velocity diagrams show the two clouds to be adjacent in velocity, which means cloud-cloud collision could occur in this region. The maximum value (0.66 ± 0.10) of the integrated CO line intensity ratio (I COJ=3-2 /I COJ=2-1 ) for the three MCs agrees well with the previous measurement of individual Galactic MCs, implying that the SNR shock drove into the MCs. The two MCs have a line intensity ratio gradient. The distribution of the ratio appears to indicate that the shock propagates from the southwest to the northeast.

  4. Electron temperatures within magnetic clouds between 2 and 4 AU: Voyager 2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1998-08-01

    We have performed an analysis of Voyager 2 plasma electron observations within magnetic clouds between 2 and 4 AU identified by Burlaga and Behannon [1982]. The analysis has been confined to three of the magnetic clouds identified by Burlaga and Behannon that had high-quality data. The general properties of the plasma electrons within a magnetic cloud are that (1) the moment electron temperature anticorrelates with the electron density within the cloud, (2) the ratio Te/Tp tends to be >1, and (3) on average, Te/Tp~7.0. All three results are consistent with previous electron observations within magnetic clouds. Detailed analyses of the core and halo populations within the magnetic clouds show no evidence of either an anticorrelation between the core temperature TC and the electron density Ne or an anticorrelation between the halo temperature TH and the electron density. Within the magnetic clouds the halo component can contribute more than 50% of the electron pressure. The anticorrelation of Te relative to Ne can be traced to the density of the halo component relative to the density of the core component. The core electrons dominate the electron density. When the density goes up, the halo electrons contribute less to the electron pressure, so we get a lower Te. When the electron density goes down, the halo electrons contribute more to the electron pressure, and Te goes up. We find a relation between the electron pressure and density of the form Pe=αNeγ with γ~0.5.

  5. Microphysical and radiative effects of aerosols on warm clouds during the Amazon biomass burning season as observed by MODIS: impacts of water vapor and land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Ten Hoeve

    2011-04-01

    aerosols and both CWV and clouds over varying land surface types is also analyzed. The study finds that the difference in CWV between forested and deforested land is not correlated with aerosol loading, supporting the assumption that temporal variation of CWV is primarily a function of the larger-scale meteorology. However, a difference in the response of CF to increasing AOD is observed between forested and deforested land. This suggests that dissimilarities between other meteorological factors, such as atmospheric stability, may have an impact on aerosol-cloud correlations between different land cover types.

  6. Aerosol Indirect Effect on Warm Clouds over Eastern China Using Combined CALIOP and MODIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Wang, Fu; Huang, Jingfeng; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol, one of key components of the climate system, is highly variable, both temporally and spatially. It often exerts great influences on the cloud-precipitation chain processes by serving as CCN/IN, altering cloud microphysics and its life cycle. Yet, the aerosol indirect effect on clouds remains largely unknown, because the initial changes in clouds due to aerosols may be enhanced or dampened by such feedback processes as modified cloud dynamics, or evaporation of the smaller droplets due to the competition for water vapor. In this study, we attempted to quantify the aerosol effects on warm cloud over eastern China, based on near-simultaneous retrievals from MODIS/AQUA, CALIOP/CALIPSO and CPR/CLOUDSAT during the period 2006 to 2010. The seasonality of aerosol from ground-based PM10 is quite different from that estimated from MODIS AOD. This result is corroborated by lower level profile of aerosol occurrence frequency from CALIOP, indicating the significant role CALIOP could play in aerosol-cloud interaction. The combined use of CALIOP and CPR facilitate the process to exactly determine the (vertical) position of warm cloud relative to aerosol, out of six scenarios in terms of aerosol-cloud mixing status in terms of aerosol-cloud mixing status, which shows as follows: AO (Aerosol only), CO (Cloud only), SASC (Single aerosol-single cloud), SADC (single aerosol-double cloud), DASC (double aerosol-single cloud), and others. Results shows that about 54% of all the cases belong to mixed status, among all the collocated aerosol-cloud cases. Under mixed condition, a boomerang shape is observed, i.e., reduced cloud droplet radius (CDR) is associated with increasing aerosol at moderate aerosol pollution (AODcases. We categorize dataset into warm-season and cold-season subsets to figure out how the boomerang shape varies with season. For moderate aerosol loading (AODMixed" cases is greater during cold season (denoted by a large slope), as compared with that during warm

  7. Reliability Evaluation for the Surface to Air Missile Weapon Based on Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuzziness and randomness is integrated by using digital characteristics, such as Expected value, Entropy and Hyper entropy. The cloud model adapted to reliability evaluation is put forward based on the concept of the surface to air missile weapon. The cloud scale of the qualitative evaluation is constructed, and the quantitative variable and the qualitative variable in the system reliability evaluation are corresponded. The practical calculation result shows that it is more effective to analyze the reliability of the surface to air missile weapon by this way. The practical calculation result also reflects the model expressed by cloud theory is more consistent with the human thinking style of uncertainty.

  8. Study on the cloud detection of GOCI by using the simulated surface reflectance from BRDF-model for the land application and meteorological utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Won; Yeom, Jong-Min; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chae, Tae-Byeong

    2016-04-01

    COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite) was launched at French Guiana Kourou space center on 27 June 2010. Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is the first ocean color geostationary satellite in the world for observing the ocean phenomena, is able to obtain the scientific data per an hour from 00UTC to 07UTC. Moreover, the spectral channels of GOCI would enable not only monitoring for the ocean, but for extracting the information of the land surface over the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Eastern China. Since it is extremely important to utilize GOCI data accurately for the land application, cloud pixels over the surface have to be removed. Unfortunately, infra-red (IR) channels that can easily detect the water vapor with the cloud top temperature, are not included in the GOCI sensor. In this paper, the advanced cloud masking algorithm will be proposed with visible and near-IR (NIR) bands that are within GOCI bands. The main obstacle of cloud masking with GOCI is how to handle the high variable surface reflectance, which is mainly depending on the solar zenith angle. In this study, we use semi-empirical BRDF model to simulate the surface reflectance by using 16 day composite cloudy free image. When estimating the simulated surface reflectance, same geometry for GOCI observation was applied. The simulated surface reflectance is used to discriminate cloud areas especially for the thin cloud and shows more reasonable result than original threshold methods.

  9. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced occlusions. The authors have

  10. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  11. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  12. Direct Observations of Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Ambient Cloud Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Bell, D.; Thornton, J. A.; Fast, J. D.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Berg, L. K.; Imre, D. G.; Mei, F.; Shilling, J.; Suski, K. J.; Liu, J.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiphase chemistry of isoprene photooxidation products has been shown to be one of the major sources of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. A number of recent studies indicate that aqueous aerosol phase provides a medium for reactive uptake of isoprene photooxidation products, and in particular, isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), with reaction rates and yields being dependent on aerosol acidity, water content, sulfate concentration, and organic coatings. However, very few studies focused on chemistry occurring within actual cloud droplets. We will present data acquired during recent Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign, which provide direct evidence for IEPOX-SOA formation in cloud droplets. Single particle mass spectrometer, miniSPLAT, and a high-resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer were used to characterize the composition of aerosol particles and cloud droplet residuals, while a high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) was used to characterize gas-phase compounds. We find that the composition of cloud droplet residuals was markedly different than that of aerosol particles sampled outside the cloud. Cloud droplet residuals were comprised of individual particles with high relative fractions of sulfate and nitrate and significant fraction of particles with mass spectra that are nearly identical to those of laboratory-generated IEPOX-SOA particles. The observed cloud-induced formation of IEPOX-SOA was accompanied by simultaneous decrease in measured concentrations of IEPOX and other gas-phase isoprene photooxidation products. Ultimately, the combined cloud, aerosol, and gas-phase measurements conducted during HI-SCALE will be used to develop and evaluate model treatments of aqueous-phase isoprene SOA formation.

  13. Modeling Optical and Radiative Properties of Clouds Constrained with CARDEX Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Praveen, P. S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols (CA) have important effects on climate by directly absorbing solar radiation and indirectly changing cloud properties. These particles tend to be a complex mixture of graphitic carbon and organic compounds. The graphitic component, called as elemental carbon (EC), is characterized by significant absorption of solar radiation. Recent studies showed that organic carbon (OC) aerosols absorb strongly near UV region, and this faction is known as Brown Carbon (BrC). The indirect effect of CA can occur in two ways, first by changing the thermal structure of the atmosphere which further affects dynamical processes governing cloud life cycle; secondly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that can change cloud radiative properties. In this work, cloud optical properties have been numerically estimated by accounting for CAEDEX (Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment) observed cloud parameters and the physico-chemical and optical properties of aerosols. The aerosol inclusions in the cloud drop have been considered as core shell structure with core as EC and shell comprising of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sea salt and organic carbon (organic acids, OA and brown carbon, BrC). The EC/OC ratio of the inclusion particles have been constrained based on observations. Moderate and heavy pollution events have been decided based on the aerosol number and BC concentration. Cloud drop's co-albedo at 550nm was found nearly identical for pure EC sphere inclusions and core-shell inclusions with all non-absorbing organics in the shell. However, co-albedo was found to increase for the drop having all BrC in the shell. The co-albedo of a cloud drop was found to be the maximum for all aerosol present as interstitial compare to 50% and 0% inclusions existing as interstitial aerosols. The co-albedo was found to be ~ 9.87e-4 for the drop with 100% inclusions existing as interstitial aerosols externally mixed with micron size mineral dust with 2

  14. Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Voelger, P; Sugimoto, N

    2000-06-20

    We carried out a simulation study for the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Japanese Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment (ELISE), which is a two-wavelength backscatter lidar with three detection channels. The National Space Development Agency of Japan plans to launch the ELISE on the Mission Demonstrate Satellite 2 (MDS-2). In the simulations, the lidar return signals for the ELISE are calculated for an artificial, two-dimensional atmospheric model including different types of clouds and aerosols. The signal detection processes are simulated realistically by inclusion of various sources of noise. The lidar signals that are generated are then used as input for simulations of data analysis with inversion algorithms to investigate retrieval of the optical properties of clouds and aerosols. The results demonstrate that the ELISE can provide global data on the structures and optical properties of clouds and aerosols. We also conducted an analysis of the effects of cloud inhomogeneity on retrievals from averaged lidar profiles. We show that the effects are significant for space lidar observations of optically thick broken clouds.

  15. The 3-D Tropical Convective Cloud Spectrum in AMIE Radar Observations and Global Climate Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Courtney [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2015-08-31

    During the three years of this grant performance, the PI and her research group have made a number of significant contributions towards determining properties of tropical deep convective clouds and how models depict and respond to the heating associated with tropical convective systems. The PI has also been an active ARM/ASR science team member, including playing a significant role in AMIE and GoAmazon2014/5. She served on the DOE ASR radar science steering committee and was a joint chair of the Mesoscale Convective Organization group under the Cloud Life Cycle working group. This grant has funded a number of graduate students, many of them women, and the PI and her group have presented their DOE-supported work at various universities and national meetings. The PI and her group participated in the AMIE (2011-12) and GoAmazon2014/5 (2014-15) DOE field deployments that occurred in the tropical Indian Ocean and Brazilian Amazon, respectively. AMIE observational results (DePasquale et al. 2014, Feng et al. 2014, Ahmed and Schumacher 2015) focus on the variation and possible importance of Kelvin waves in various phases of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), on the synergy of the different wavelength radars deployed on Addu Atoll, and on the importance of humidity thresholds in the tropics on stratiform rain production. Much of the PIs GoAmazon2014/5 results to date relate to overviews of the observations made during the field campaign (Martin et al. 2015, 2016; Fuentes et al. 2016), but also include the introduction of the descending arm and its link to ozone transport from the mid-troposphere to the surface (Gerken et al. 2016). Vertical motion and mass flux profiles from GoAmazon (Giangrande et al. 2016) also show interesting patterns between seasons and provide targets for model simulations. Results from TWP-ICE (Schumacher et al. 2015), which took place in Darwin, Australia in 2006 show that vertical velocity retrievals from the profilers provide structure to

  16. Satellite-Observed Vertical Structures of Clouds over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Lee, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The long wet season of the Amazon basin currently plays a critical role in the terrestrial ecosystem, regulating carbon balance and supporting high biodiversity. It has been argued that the land surface processes are important in maintaining high precipitation; yet, how the land-atmosphere interactions modulate the atmospheric processes are not completely understood. As a first step toward solving this problem, here we examine the vertical structures of clouds and the thermodynamics of the atmosphere over the entire basin at the different time of the year. We combine the vertical distribution of cloud water content from CloudSat, and the atmospheric thermodynamic conditions from the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis to compare and contrast the atmospheric condition at different time of the year-the wet, dry, and dry-to-wet transition seasons-and in different regions-ever-wet evergreen broadleaf forests, wet evergreen broadleaf forests with a dry season, and dry wooded grasslands/woodlands-following water stress gradient. In the ever-wet and wet regions, a large amount of cloud ice water is present in the upper atmosphere (above 11km) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) is high during the transition season, supporting the claim that the convective activity is strongest during the transition season. In the dry region, there are more cloud water above 8km over woodlands than over wooded grasslands during the dry and transition seasons, indicating the influence of the land cover. We also classified our data following the large-scale circulation pattern, and the CloudSat data support more deep convective activities in the wet and dry regions when the wind blows from the east during the wet and transition seasons. As a next step, we will focus more on linking the cloud structure to the large-scale circulation and surface processes.

  17. In-situ aircraft observations of ice concentrations within clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Grosvenor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ aircraft observations of ice crystal concentrations in Antarctic clouds are presented for the first time. Orographic, layer and wave clouds around the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice shelf regions were penetrated by the British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft, which was equipped with modern cloud physics probes. The clouds studied were mostly in the free troposphere and hence ice crystals blown from the surface are unlikely to have been a major source for the ice phase. The temperature range covered by the experiments was 0 to −21 °C. The clouds were found to contain supercooled liquid water in most regions and at heterogeneous ice formation temperatures ice crystal concentrations (60 s averages were often less than 0.07 l−1, although values up to 0.22 l−1 were observed. Estimates of observed aerosol concentrations were used as input into the DeMott et al. (2010 ice nuclei (IN parameterisation. The observed ice crystal number concentrations were generally in broad agreement with the IN predictions, although on the whole the predicted values were higher. Possible reasons for this are discussed and include the lack of IN observations in this region with which to characterise the parameterisation, and/or problems in relating ice concentration measurements to IN concentrations. Other IN parameterisations significantly overestimated the number of ice particles. Generally ice particle concentrations were much lower than found in clouds in middle latitudes for a given temperature.

    Higher ice crystal concentrations were sometimes observed at temperatures warmer than −9 °C, with values of several per litre reached. These were attributable to secondary ice particle production by the Hallett Mossop process. Even in this temperature range it was observed that there were regions with little or no ice that were dominated by supercooled liquid water. It is likely that in some cases this was due to a

  18. Uncertainties of Large-Scale Forcing Caused by Surface Turbulence Flux Measurements and the Impacts on Cloud Simulations at the ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Xie, S.; Tang, Q.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Two types of instruments, the eddy correlation flux measurement system (ECOR) and the energy balance Bowen ratio system (EBBR), are used at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to measure surface latent and sensible fluxes. ECOR and EBBR typically sample different land surface types, and the domain-mean surface fluxes derived from ECOR and EBBR are not always consistent. The uncertainties of the surface fluxes will have impacts on the derived large-scale forcing data and further affect the simulations of single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulation models (LES), especially for the shallow-cumulus clouds which are mainly driven by surface forcing. This study aims to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing caused by surface turbulence flux measurements and investigate the impacts on cloud simulations using long-term observations from the ARM SGP site.

  19. The influence of surface roughness on cloud cavitation flow around hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiafeng; Zhang, Mindi; Huang, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of surface roughness on cloud cavitation around Clark-Y hydrofoils. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to obtain cavitation patterns images (Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 37: 551-581, 2001), as well as velocity and vorticity fields. Results are presented for cloud cavitating conditions around a Clark-Y hydrofoil fixed at angle of attack of α =8{°} for moderate Reynolds number of Re=5.6 × 105. The results show that roughness had a great influence on the pattern, velocity and vorticity distribution of cloud cavitation. For cavitating flow around a smooth hydrofoil (A) and a rough hydrofoil (B), cloud cavitation occurred in the form of finger-like cavities and attached subulate cavities, respectively. The period of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A was shorter than for hydrofoil B. Surface roughness had a great influence on the process of cloud cavitation. The development of cloud cavitation around hydrofoil A consisted of two stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge; (2) A reentrant jet developed, resulting in shedding and collapse of cluster bubbles or vortex structure. Meanwhile, its development for hydrofoil B included three stages: (1) Attached cavities developed along the surface to the trailing edge, with accumulation and rotation of bubbles at the trailing edge of the hydrofoil affecting the flow field; (2) Development of a reentrant jet resulted in the first shedding of cavities. Interaction and movement of flows from the pressure side and suction side brought liquid water from the pressure side to the suction side of the hydrofoil, finally forming a reentrant jet. The jet kept moving along the surface to the leading edge of the hydrofoil, resulting in large-scale shedding of cloud bubbles. Several vortices appeared and dissipated during the process; (3) Cavities grew and shed again.

  20. Observations of X-ray sources in the Large Magellanic cloud by the OSO-7 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Clark, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with the 1-40 keV X-ray detectors on the OSO-7 satellite are reported. Results include the discovery of a previously unreported source LMC X-5, measurements of the spectral characteristics of four sources, and observations of their variability on time scales of months

  1. Observations of temporal change of nighttime cloud cover from Himawari 8 and ground-based sky camera over Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Kuze, H.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nighttime cloud from Himawari 8 is implemented using the difference of digital numbers from bands 13 (10.4µm) and 7 (3.9µm). The digital number difference of -1.39x104 can be used as a threshold to separate clouds from clear sky conditions. To look at observations from the ground over Chiba, a digital camera (Canon Powershot A2300) is used to take images of the sky every 5 minutes at an exposure time of 5s at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. From these images, cloud cover values are obtained using threshold algorithm (Gacal, et al, 2016). Ten minute nighttime cloud cover values from these two datasets are compared and analyzed from 29 May to 05 June 2017 (20:00-03:00 JST). When compared with lidar data, the camera can detect thick high level clouds up to 10km. The results show that during clear sky conditions (02-03 June), both camera and satellite cloud cover values show 0% cloud cover. During cloudy conditions (05-06 June), the camera shows almost 100% cloud cover while satellite cloud cover values range from 60 to 100%. These low values can be attributed to the presence of low-level thin clouds ( 2km above the ground) as observed from National Institute for Environmental Studies lidar located inside Chiba University. This difference of cloud cover values shows that the camera can produce accurate cloud cover values of low level clouds that are sometimes not detected by satellites. The opposite occurs when high level clouds are present (01-02 June). Derived satellite cloud cover shows almost 100% during the whole night while ground-based camera shows cloud cover values that range from 10 to 100% during the same time interval. The fluctuating values can be attributed to the presence of thin clouds located at around 6km from the ground and the presence of low level clouds ( 1km). Since the camera relies on the reflected city lights, it is possible that the high level thin clouds are not observed by the camera but is

  2. A study of cloud microphysics and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau by radar observations and cloud-resolving model simulations: Cloud Microphysics over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenhua [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sui, Chung-Hsiung [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei Taiwan; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hu, Zhiqun [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhong, Lingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China

    2016-11-27

    Cloud microphysical properties and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique because of the high terrains, clean atmosphere, and sufficient water vapor. With dual-polarization precipitation radar and cloud radar measurements during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III), the simulated microphysics and precipitation by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) microphysics and other microphysical schemes are investigated through a typical plateau rainfall event on 22 July 2014. Results show that the WRF-CAMS simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-h accumulated precipitation, but has limitations in simulating time evolution of precipitation rates. The model-calculated polarimetric radar variables have biases as well, suggesting bias in modeled hydrometeor types. The raindrop sizes in convective region are larger than those in stratiform region indicated by the small intercept of raindrop size distribution in the former. The sensitivity experiments show that precipitation processes are sensitive to the changes of warm rain processes in condensation and nucleated droplet size (but less sensitive to evaporation process). Increasing droplet condensation produces the best area-averaged rain rate during weak convection period compared with the observation, suggesting a considerable bias in thermodynamics in the baseline simulation. Increasing the initial cloud droplet size causes the rain rate reduced by half, an opposite effect to that of increasing droplet condensation.

  3. Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqin; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhou, Putian; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Hong, Juan; Wang, Yonghong; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Krüger, Olaf; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2017-05-01

    Aerosol effects on low warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, eastern China) are examined using co-located MODIS, CALIOP and CloudSat observations. By taking the vertical locations of aerosol and cloud layers into account, we use simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud data to investigate relationships between cloud properties and the amount of aerosol particles (using aerosol optical depth, AOD, as a proxy). Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. Finally, we explore how meteorological conditions affect these relationships using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. This study shows that the relation between cloud properties and AOD depends on the aerosol abundance, with a different behaviour for low and high AOD (i.e. AOD 0.35). This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR) and cloud fraction (CF), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). COT is found to decrease when AOD increases, which may be due to radiative effects and retrieval artefacts caused by absorbing aerosol. Conversely, CTP tends to increase with elevated AOD, indicating that the aerosol is not always prone to expand the vertical extension. It also shows that the COT-CDR and CWP (cloud liquid water path)-CDR relationships are not unique, but affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. Furthermore, separation of cases with either polluted dust or smoke aerosol shows that aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust, which is ascribed to the higher absorption efficiency of smoke than dust. The variation of cloud properties with AOD is analysed for various relative humidity and boundary layer thermodynamic and dynamic conditions, showing that high relative humidity favours larger cloud droplet particles and increases cloud formation, irrespective of vertical or horizontal level. Stable atmospheric conditions enhance cloud cover horizontally

  4. A STEREO Survey of Magnetic Cloud Coronal Mass Ejections Observed at Earth in 2008–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian E.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Howard, Russell A.; Linton, Mark G.; Socker, Dennis G. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lepping, Ronald P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa, E-mail: brian.wood@nrl.navy.mil [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We identify coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with magnetic clouds (MCs) observed near Earth by the Wind spacecraft from 2008 to mid-2012, a time period when the two STEREO spacecraft were well positioned to study Earth-directed CMEs. We find 31 out of 48 Wind MCs during this period can be clearly connected with a CME that is trackable in STEREO imagery all the way from the Sun to near 1 au. For these events, we perform full 3D reconstructions of the CME structure and kinematics, assuming a flux rope (FR) morphology for the CME shape, considering the full complement of STEREO and SOHO imaging constraints. We find that the FR orientations and sizes inferred from imaging are not well correlated with MC orientations and sizes inferred from the Wind data. However, velocities within the MC region are reproduced reasonably well by the image-based reconstruction. Our kinematic measurements are used to provide simple prescriptions for predicting CME arrival times at Earth, provided for a range of distances from the Sun where CME velocity measurements might be made. Finally, we discuss the differences in the morphology and kinematics of CME FRs associated with different surface phenomena (flares, filament eruptions, or no surface activity).

  5. Engaging observers to look at clouds from both sides: connecting NASA mission science with authentic STEM experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Taylor, J.; Ellis, T. D.; McCrea, S.; Rogerson, T. M.; Falcon, P.

    2016-12-01

    In 1997, NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) team began engaging K-12 schools as ground truth observers of clouds. CERES seeks to understand cloud effects on Earth's energy budget; thus accurate detection and characterization of clouds is key. While satellite remote sensing provides global information about clouds, it is limited in time and resolution. Ground observers, on the other hand, can observe clouds at any time of day (and sometimes night), and can see small and thin clouds that are challenging to detect from space. In 2006, two active sensing satellites, CloudSat and CALIPSO, were launched into the A-Train, which already contained 2 CERES instruments on the Aqua spacecraft. The CloudSat team also engaged K-12 schools to observe clouds, through The GLOBE Program, with a specialized observation protocol customized for the narrow radar swath. While providing valuable data for satellite assessment, these activities also engage participants in accessible, authentic science that gets people outdoors, helps them develop observation skills, and is friendly to all ages. The effort has evolved substantially since 1997, adopting new technology to provide a more compelling experience to citizen observers. Those who report within 15 minutes of the passage of a wide range of satellites (Terra, Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, NPP, as well as a number of geostationary satellites) are sent a satellite image centered on their location and are invited to extend the experience beyond simple observation to include analysis of the two different viewpoints. Over the years these projects have collected large amounts of cloud observations from every continent and ocean basin on Earth. A number of studies have been conducted comparing the ground observations to the satellite results. This presentation will provide an overview of those results and also describe plans for a coordinated, thematic cloud observation and data analysis activity going forward.

  6. Cloud-radiation-precipitation associations over the Asian monsoon region: an observational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Dong, Xiquan; Mao, Jiangyu

    2017-11-01

    This study uses 2001-2014 satellite observations and reanalyses to investigate the seasonal characteristics of Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) and their associations with cloud fraction (CF) and precipitation over the Asian monsoon region (AMR) covering Eastern China (EC) and South Asia (SA). The CREs exhibit strong seasonal variations but show distinctly different relationships with CFs and precipitation over the two regions. For EC, the CREs is dominated by shortwave (SW) cooling, with an annual mean value of - 40 W m- 2 for net CRE, and peak in summer while the presence of extensive and opaque low-level clouds contributes to large Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo (>0.5) in winter. For SA, a weak net CRE exists throughout the year due to in-phase compensation of SWCRE by longwave (LW) CRE associated with the frequent occurrence of high clouds. For the entire AMR, SWCRE strongly correlates with the dominant types of CFs, although the cloud vertical structure plays important role particularly in summer. The relationships between CREs and precipitation are stronger in SA than in EC, indicating the dominant effect of monsoon circulation in the former region. SWCRE over EC is only partly related to precipitation and shows distinctive regional variations. Further studies need to pay more attention to vertical distributions of cloud micro- and macro-physical properties, and associated precipitation systems over the AMR.

  7. Observations of HC3N, HC5N, and HC7N in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Schloerb, F.P.; Young, J.S.; Hjalmarson, A.; Friberg, P.

    1981-01-01

    We present observations of HC 3 N, HC 5 N, and HC 7 N in five molecular clouds. Statistical equilibrium calculations have been performed for HC 5 N and HC 7 N and compared with our data and data on other transitions of these molecules reported in the literature to derive the densities and the column densities of the cyanopolyynes in these clouds. We derive densities for TMC 1, TMC 2, and L1544 of between 1 and 4 x 10 4 cm -3 . We have found that the ratios of the cyanopolyynes in these three clouds are the following: HC 3 N/HC 5 Nroughly-equal1.4 and HC 5 N/HC 7 Nroughly-equal3. In L134 N and DR 21(OH) we have measured limits on the HC 5 N emission and find the HC 3 N/HC 5 N ratio to be substantially greater than in the three Taurus clouds. We have also compared the cyanopolyyne column densities with those of 13 CO and find that the abundance of HC 3 N in L134 N and DR 21(OH) is an order of magnitude smaller than that found in the Taurus clouds. The chemical differences between L134 N and the Taurus clouds are particularly interesting in view of their similar physical properties

  8. Analysis of Observation Data of Earth-Rockfill Dam Based on Cloud Probability Distribution Density Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liwei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring data on an earth-rockfill dam constitutes a form of spatial data. Such data include much uncertainty owing to the limitation of measurement information, material parameters, load, geometry size, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the calculation model. So the cloud probability density of the monitoring data must be addressed. In this paper, the cloud theory model was used to address the uncertainty transition between the qualitative concept and the quantitative description. Then an improved algorithm of cloud probability distribution density based on a backward cloud generator was proposed. This was used to effectively convert certain parcels of accurate data into concepts which can be described by proper qualitative linguistic values. Such qualitative description was addressed as cloud numerical characteristics-- {Ex, En, He}, which could represent the characteristics of all cloud drops. The algorithm was then applied to analyze the observation data of a piezometric tube in an earth-rockfill dam. And experiment results proved that the proposed algorithm was feasible, through which, we could reveal the changing regularity of piezometric tube’s water level. And the damage of the seepage in the body was able to be found out.

  9. ALMA Observations of Molecular Clouds in Three Group-centered Elliptical Galaxies: NGC 5846, NGC 4636, and NGC 5044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Amblard, Alexandre; Gitti, Myriam; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gaspari, Massimo; Mathews, William G.; David, Laurence

    2018-05-01

    We present new ALMA CO(2–1) observations of two well-studied group-centered elliptical galaxies: NGC 4636 and NGC 5846. In addition, we include a revised analysis of Cycle 0 ALMA observations of the central galaxy in the NGC 5044 group. We find evidence that molecular gas is a common presence in bright group-centered galaxies (BGG). CO line widths are broader than Galactic molecular clouds, and using the reference Milky Way X CO, the total molecular mass ranges from 2.6 × 105 M ⊙ in NGC 4636 to 6.1 × 107 M ⊙ in NGC 5044. Complementary observations using the ALMA Compact Array do not exhibit any detection of a CO diffuse component at the sensitivity level achieved by current exposures. The origin of the detected molecular features is still uncertain, but these ALMA observations suggest that they are the end product of the hot gas cooling process and not the result of merger events. Some of the molecular clouds are associated with dust features as revealed by HST dust extinction maps, suggesting that these clouds formed from dust-enhanced cooling. The global nonlinear condensation may be triggered via the chaotic turbulent field or buoyant uplift. The large virial parameter of the molecular structures and correlation with the warm ({10}3{--}{10}5 {{K}})/hot (≥106) phase velocity dispersion provide evidence that they are unbound giant molecular associations drifting in the turbulent field, consistent with numerical predictions of the chaotic cold accretion process. Alternatively, the observed large CO line widths may be generated by molecular gas flowing out from cloud surfaces due to heating by the local hot gas atmosphere.

  10. Jupiter's Deep Cloud Structure Revealed Using Keck Observations of Spectrally Resolved Line Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Wong, M.H.; de Pater, I.; Adamkovics, M.

    2015-01-01

    Technique: We present a method to determine the pressure at which significant cloud opacity is present between 2 and 6 bars on Jupiter. We use: a) the strength of a Fraunhofer absorption line in a zone to determine the ratio of reflected sunlight to thermal emission, and b) pressure- broadened line profiles of deuterated methane (CH3D) at 4.66 meters to determine the location of clouds. We use radiative transfer models to constrain the altitude region of both the solar and thermal components of Jupiter's 5-meter spectrum. Results: For nearly all latitudes on Jupiter the thermal component is large enough to constrain the deep cloud structure even when upper clouds are present. We find that Hot Spots, belts, and high latitudes have broader line profiles than do zones. Radiative transfer models show that Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) typically do not have opaque clouds at pressures greater than 2 bars. The South Tropical Zone (STZ) at 32 degrees South has an opaque cloud top between 4 and 5 bars. From thermochemical models this must be a water cloud. We measured the variation of the equivalent width of CH3D with latitude for comparison with Jupiter's belt-zone structure. We also constrained the vertical profile of H2O in an SEB Hot Spot and in the STZ. The Hot Spot is very dry for a probability less than 4.5 bars and then follows the H2O profile observed by the Galileo Probe. The STZ has a saturated H2O profile above its cloud top between 4 and 5 bars.

  11. SULFATE PRODUCTION IN CLOUDS IN EASTERN CHINA: OBSERVATIONS FROM MT. TAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L.; Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.

    2009-12-01

    The fate of China’s sulfur dioxide emissions depends, in part, on the ability of regional clouds to support rapid aqueous oxidation of these emissions to sulfate. Sulfur dioxide oxidized in regional clouds is more likely to be removed by wet deposition while sulfur dioxide that undergoes slower gas phase oxidation is expected to survive longer in the atmosphere and exert a radiative forcing impact over a broader spatial scale. Two 2008 field campaigns conducted at Mt. Tai, an isolated peak on the NE China plain, provide insight into the importance of various aqueous phase sulfur oxidation pathways in the region. Single and two-stage cloudwater collectors were used to collect bulk and drop size-resolved samples of cloudwater. Collected cloudwater was analyzed for key species that influence in-cloud sulfate production, including pH, S(IV), H2O2, Fe and Mn. Other major cloud solutes, including inorganic ions, total organic carbon, formaldehyde, and organic acids were also analyzed, as were gas phase concentrations of SO2, O3, and H2O2. A wide range of cloud pH was observed, from below 3 to above 6. High concentrations of cloudwater sulfate were consistent with abundant sulfur dioxide emissions in the region. Despite its fast aqueous reaction with sulfur dioxide, high concentrations of residual hydrogen peroxide were measured in some clouds implying a substantial capacity for additional sulfate production. Ozone was found to be an important S(IV) oxidant in some periods when cloud pH was high. This presentation will examine the importance of different oxidants (H2O2, O3, and O2 catalyzed by trace metals) for sulfur oxidation and the overall capacity of regional clouds to support rapid aqueous phase sulfate production.

  12. Cloud-enabled large-scale land surface model simulations with the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Vaughan, G.; Clark, M. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Nijssen, B.; Nearing, G. S.; Rheingrover, S.; Kumar, S.; Geiger, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Developed by the Hydrological Sciences Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Land Information System (LIS) is a high-performance software framework for terrestrial hydrology modeling and data assimilation. LIS provides the ability to integrate satellite and ground-based observational products and advanced modeling algorithms to extract land surface states and fluxes. Through a partnership with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the University of Washington, the LIS model is currently being extended to include the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA). With the addition of SUMMA in LIS, meaningful simulations containing a large multi-model ensemble will be enabled and can provide advanced probabilistic continental-domain modeling capabilities at spatial scales relevant for water managers. The resulting LIS/SUMMA application framework is difficult for non-experts to install due to the large amount of dependencies on specific versions of operating systems, libraries, and compilers. This has created a significant barrier to entry for domain scientists that are interested in using the software on their own systems or in the cloud. In addition, the requirement to support multiple run time environments across the LIS community has created a significant burden on the NASA team. To overcome these challenges, LIS/SUMMA has been deployed using Linux containers, which allows for an entire software package along with all dependences to be installed within a working runtime environment, and Kubernetes, which orchestrates the deployment of a cluster of containers. Within a cloud environment, users can now easily create a cluster of virtual machines and run large-scale LIS/SUMMA simulations. Installations that have taken weeks and months can now be performed in minutes of time. This presentation will discuss the steps required to create a cloud-enabled large-scale simulation, present examples of its use, and

  13. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  14. How Often and Why MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Fail for Liquid-Phase Clouds over Ocean? a Comprehensive Analysis Based on a-Train Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, H. M.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Lebsock, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    least one or more potential reasons mentioned above. Collocated radar reflectivity observations from CloudSat suggest that the remaining 20% are unlikely to be retrieval artifacts, but reflection of true cloud microphysics, i.e., the true is either truly very small or very large.

  15. Investigating stellar surface rotation using observations of starspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena

    2011-01-01

    Rapid rotation enhances the dynamo operating in stars, and thus also introduces significantly stronger magnetic activity than is seen in slower rotators. Many young cool stars still have the rapid, primordial rotation rates induced by the interstellar molecular cloud from which they were formed....... Also older stars in close binary systems are often rapid rotators. These types of stars can show strong magnetic activity and large starspots. In the case of large starspots which cause observable changes in the brightness of the star, and even in the shapes of the spectral line profiles, one can get...... information on the rotation of the star. At times even information on the spot rotation at different stellar latitudes can be obtained, similarly to the solar surface differential rotation measurements using magnetic features as tracers. Here, I will review investigations of stellar rotation based...

  16. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population, the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 μm is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds. However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. The Taurus molecular clouds were selected for observations, in the form of a preliminary survey in the 2-4 μm window. It is concluded that the carrier of the 3μm absorption feature appears to reside in the general cloud medium and is probably amorphous water ice. (author)

  17. Snow Grain Size Retrieval over the Polar Ice Sheets with the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Han, Mei; Palm, Stephen P.; Harding, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Snow grain size is an important parameter for cryosphere studies. As a proof of concept, this paper presents an approach to retrieve this parameter over Greenland, East and West Antarctica ice sheets from surface reflectances observed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) at 1064 nanometers. Spaceborne lidar observations overcome many of the disadvantages in passive remote sensing, including difficulties in cloud screening and low sun angle limitations; hence tend to provide more accurate and stable retrievals. Results from the GLAS L2A campaign, which began on 25 September and lasted until 19 November, 2003, show that the mode of the grain size distribution over Greenland is the largest (approximately 300 microns) among the three, West Antarctica is the second (220 microns) and East Antarctica is the smallest (190 microns). Snow grain sizes are larger over the coastal regions compared to inland the ice sheets. These results are consistent with previous studies. Applying the broadband snow surface albedo parameterization scheme developed by Garder and Sharp (2010) to the retrieved snow grain size, ice sheet surface albedo is also derived. In the future, more accurate retrievals can be achieved with multiple wavelengths lidar observations.

  18. Mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars observed by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Sato, Y.; Giuranna, M.; Wolkenberg, P.; Sato, T. M.; Nakagawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars through analysis of near-infrared spectra acquired by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard the Mars Express (MEx) from MY 27 to MY 32. With the highest spectral resolution achieved thus far in the relevant spectral range among remote-sensing experiments orbiting Mars, PFS enables precise identification of the scattering peak of CO2 ice at the bottom of the 4.3 μm CO2 band. A total of 111 occurrences of CO2 ice cloud features have been detected over the period investigated. Data from the OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard MEx confirm all of PFS detections from times when OMEGA operated simultaneously with PFS. The spatial and seasonal distributions of the CO2 ice clouds detected by PFS are consistent with previous observations by other instruments. We find CO2 ice clouds between Ls = 0° and 140° in distinct longitudinal corridors around the equatorial region (± 20°N). Moreover, CO2 ice clouds were preferentially detected at the observational LT range between 15-16 h in MY 29. However, observational biases prevent from distinguishing local time dependency from inter-annual variation. PFS also enables us to investigate the shape of mesospheric CO2 ice cloud spectral features in detail. In all cases, peaks were found between 4.240 and 4.265 μm. Relatively small secondary peaks were occasionally observed around 4.28 μm (8 occurrences). These spectral features cannot be reproduced using our radiative transfer model, which may be because the available CO2 ice refractive indices are inappropriate for the mesospheric temperatures of Mars, or because of the assumption in our model that the CO2 ice crystals are spherical and composed by pure CO2 ice.

  19. Effective Detection of Sub-Surface Archeological Features from Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wierzbicki, D.; Delis, P.; Lada, A.

    2017-08-01

    The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  20. EFFECTIVE DETECTION OF SUB-SURFACE ARCHEOLOGICAL FEATURES FROM LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGERY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological heritage is non-renewable, and any invasive research or other actions leading to the intervention of mechanical or chemical into the ground lead to the destruction of the archaeological site in whole or in part. For this reason, modern archeology is looking for alternative methods of non-destructive and non-invasive methods of new objects identification. The concept of aerial archeology is relation between the presence of the archaeological site in the particular localization, and the phenomena that in the same place can be observed on the terrain surface form airborne platform. One of the most appreciated, moreover, extremely precise, methods of such measurements is airborne laser scanning. In research airborne laser scanning point cloud with a density of 5 points/sq. m was used. Additionally unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data was acquired. Test area is located in central Europe. The preliminary verification of potentially microstructures localization was the creation of digital terrain and surface models. These models gave an information about the differences in elevation, as well as regular shapes and sizes that can be related to the former settlement/sub-surface feature. The paper presents the results of the detection of potentially sub-surface microstructure fields in the forestry area.

  1. Atmospheric Polarization Imaging with Variable Aerosols, Clouds, and Surface Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    values found in this region only during episodes of intense wildfire smoke. Detailed analysis of the aerosols in this smoke plume and their effect...Continuous outdoor operation of an all-sky polarization imager,” Proc. SPIE 7672 (Polarization: Measurement, Analysis , and Remote Sensing IX), 76720A-1-7, 7...Pust, “ Lunar corona in ice wave cloud,” 10th International Meeting on Light and Color in Nature, St. Mary’s College of Maryland, 16-20 June 2010. 2

  2. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J Christine [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Yann [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Hill, Peter [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, Laurie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West African monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of Leeds

  3. DSCOVR/EPIC observations of SO2 reveal dynamics of young volcanic eruption clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Taylor, S.; Fisher, B. L.; Li, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Prata, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash have been measured by ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) sensors on US and European polar-orbiting satellites since the late 1970s. Although successful, the main limitation of these observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) is poor temporal resolution (once per day at low latitudes). Furthermore, most currently operational geostationary satellites cannot detect SO2, a key tracer of volcanic plumes, limiting our ability to elucidate processes in fresh, rapidly evolving volcanic eruption clouds. In 2015, the launch of the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provided the first opportunity to observe volcanic clouds from the L1 Lagrange point. EPIC is a 10-band spectroradiometer spanning UV to near-IR wavelengths with two UV channels sensitive to SO2, and a ground resolution of 25 km. The unique L1 vantage point provides continuous observations of the sunlit Earth disk, from sunrise to sunset, offering multiple daily observations of volcanic SO2 and ash clouds in the EPIC field of view. When coupled with complementary retrievals from polar-orbiting UV and IR sensors such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), we demonstrate how the increased observation frequency afforded by DSCOVR/EPIC permits more timely volcanic eruption detection and novel analyses of the temporal evolution of volcanic clouds. Although EPIC has detected several mid- to high-latitude volcanic eruptions since launch, we focus on recent eruptions of Bogoslof volcano (Aleutian Islands, AK, USA). A series of EPIC exposures from May 28-29, 2017, uniquely captures the evolution of SO2 mass in a young Bogoslof eruption cloud, showing separation of SO2- and ice-rich regions of the cloud. We show how analyses of these sequences of EPIC SO2 data can elucidate poorly understood processes in transient eruption

  4. Low cloud investigations for project FIRE: Island studies of cloud properties, surface radiation, and boundary layer dynamics. A simulation of the reflectivity over a stratocumulus cloud deck by the Monte Carlo method. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    1993-01-01

    The radiation field over a broken stratocumulus cloud deck is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. We conducted four experiments to investigate the main factor for the observed shortwave reflectively over the FIRE flight 2 leg 5, in which reflectivity decreases almost linearly from the cloud center to cloud edge while the cloud top height and the brightness temperature remain almost constant through out the clouds. From our results, the geometry effect, however, did not contribute significantly to what has been observed. We found that the variation of the volume extinction coefficient as a function of its relative position in the cloud affects the reflectivity efficiently. Additional check of the brightness temperature of each experiment also confirms this conclusion. The cloud microphysical data showed some interesting features. We found that the cloud droplet spectrum is nearly log-normal distributed when the clouds were solid. However, whether the shift of cloud droplet spectrum toward the larger end is not certain. The decrease of number density from cloud center to cloud edges seems to have more significant effects on the optical properties.

  5. Impact of entrainment on cloud droplet spectra: theory, observations, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, W.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of entrainment and mixing on microphysical properties of warm boundary layer clouds is an important aspect of the representation of such clouds in large-scale models of weather and climate. Entrainment leads to a reduction of the liquid water content in agreement with the fundamental thermodynamics, but its impact on the droplet spectrum is difficult to quantify in observations and modeling. For in-situ (e.g., aircraft) observations, it is impossible to follow air parcels and observe processes that lead to changes of the droplet spectrum in different regions of a cloud. For similar reasons traditional modeling methodologies (e.g., the Eulerian large eddy simulation) are not useful either. Moreover, both observations and modeling can resolve only relatively narrow range of spatial scales. Theory, typically focusing on differences between idealized concepts of homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixing, is also of a limited use for the multiscale turbulent mixing between a cloud and its environment. This presentation will illustrate the above points and argue that the Lagrangian large-eddy simulation with appropriate subgrid-scale scheme may provide key insights and eventually lead to novel parameterizations for large-scale models.

  6. Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds: CO observations of NGC 7822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Dickinson, D.F.; Lada, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of the 2.6 mm carbon monoxide line in the bright rim NGC 7822 reveal that the peak excitation and column density of the molecule lie in a ridge ahead of the ionization front. Several possibilities for the excitation of this ridge are discussed. Cosmic rays are shown to provide an excellent heat source for Bok globules, but they can account for only approx.20% of the required heating in NGC 7822. Direct shock or compressional heating of the gas could be adequate only if the pressure inside the cloud is much larger than the thermal pressure. If, in fact, this internal pressure is determined by the source of line broadening (e.g., magnetic fields or turbulence), then shock or compressional heating could be important, and pressure equilibrium may exist between the neutral cloud and the bright rim. Heating by warm grains or by the photoelectric effect is also considered, but such mechanisms are probably not important if the only source of radiation is external to the cloud. This is primarily a result of the low cloud density (approx.10 3 cm -3 ) inferred from our observations. The extent to which unknown embedded stars may provide the required gaseous heating cannot be estimated from our observations of NGC 7822.An interesting and new heat source is suggested which may have important applications to bright-rimmed clouds or to any other predominantly neutral clouds that may have undergone some recent compression. We suggest that the heat input to neutral gas due to the relaxation of internal magnetic fields will be greatly enhanced during cloud compression (with or without a shock). We show that the power input to the gas will increase more with increasing density than will the cooling rate. As a result, cloud compression can lead to an increase in the gas temperature for a period lasting several million years, which is the decay time of the compressed field. The observed ridge in NGC 7822 may be due to stimulated release of internal magnetic energy

  7. The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, Dustin J.; Pincus, Robert; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package (COSP) gathers together a collection of observation proxies or satellite simulators that translate model-simulated cloud properties to synthetic observations as would be obtained by a range of satellite observing systems. This paper introduces COSP2, an evolution focusing on more explicit and consistent separation between host model, coupling infrastructure, and individual observing proxies. Revisions also enhance flexibility by allowing for model-specific representation of sub-grid-scale cloudiness, provide greater clarity by clearly separating tasks, support greater use of shared code and data including shared inputs across simulators, and follow more uniform software standards to simplify implementation across a wide range of platforms. The complete package including a testing suite is freely available.

  8. The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package: Version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Swales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observational Simulator Package (COSP gathers together a collection of observation proxies or satellite simulators that translate model-simulated cloud properties to synthetic observations as would be obtained by a range of satellite observing systems. This paper introduces COSP2, an evolution focusing on more explicit and consistent separation between host model, coupling infrastructure, and individual observing proxies. Revisions also enhance flexibility by allowing for model-specific representation of sub-grid-scale cloudiness, provide greater clarity by clearly separating tasks, support greater use of shared code and data including shared inputs across simulators, and follow more uniform software standards to simplify implementation across a wide range of platforms. The complete package including a testing suite is freely available.

  9. ALMA observation of Ceres' Surface Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, T. N.; Li, J. Y.; Sykes, M. V.; Ip, W. H.; Lai, I.; Moullet, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ceres, the largest object in the main asteroid belt, has been mapped by the Dawn spacecraft. The mapping includes measuring surface temperatures using the Visible and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer at high spatial resolution. However, the VIR instrument has a long wavelength cutoff at 5 μm, which prevents the accurate measurement of surface temperatures below 180 K. This restricts temperature determinations to low and mid-latitudes at mid-day. Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [1], while having lower spatial resolution, are sensitive to the full range of surface temperatures that are expected at Ceres. Forty reconstructed images at 75 km/beam resolution were acquired of Ceres that were consistent with a low thermal inertia surface. The diurnal temperature profiles were compared to the KRC thermal model [2, 3], which has been extensively used for Mars [e.g. 4, 5]. Variations in temperature as a function of local time are observed and are compared to predictions from the KRC model. The model temperatures are converted to radiance (Jy/Steradian) and are corrected for near-surface thermal gradients and limb effects for comparison to observations. Initial analysis is consistent with the presence of near-surface water ice in the north polar region. The edge of the ice table is between 50° and 70° North Latitude, consistent with the enhanced detection of hydrogen by the Dawn GRaND instrument [6]. Further analysis will be presented. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program. References: [1] Wootten A. et al. (2015) IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2237199 [2] Kieffer, H. H., et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4249-4291. [3] Kieffer, Hugh H., (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118(3), 451-470. [4] Titus, T. N., H. H. Kieffer, and P. N. Christensen (2003) Science, 299, 1048-1051. [5] Fergason, R. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev, 170, 739-773[6] Prettyman, T. et al. (2016) LPSC 47, #2228.

  10. Inferring spatial clouds statistics from limited field-of-view, zenith observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Many of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) measurements produce a time series of zenith observations, but spatial averages are often the desired data product. One possible approach to deriving spatial averages from temporal averages is to invoke Taylor`s hypothesis where and when it is valid. Taylor`s hypothesis states that when the turbulence is small compared with the mean flow, the covariance in time is related to the covariance in space by the speed of the mean flow. For clouds fields, Taylor`s hypothesis would apply when the {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} turbulence is small compared with advective flow (mean wind). The objective of this study is to determine under what conditions Taylor`s hypothesis holds or does not hold true for broken cloud fields.

  11. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kalesse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  12. Satellite Observations of Volcanic Clouds from the Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K. G.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano began erupting on 23 March 2009 (UTC) and consisted of 19 events over a 14 day period. The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula, 175 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The previous eruption was in 1989/1990 and seriously disrupted air traffic in the region, including the near catastrophic engine failure of a passenger airliner. Plumes and ash clouds from the recent eruption were observed on a variety of satellite data (AVHRR, MODIS and GOES). The eruption produced volcanic clouds up to 19 km which are some of the highest detected in recent times in the North Pacific region. The ash clouds primarily drifted north and east of the volcano, had a weak ash signal in the split window data and resulted in light ash falls in the Cook Inlet basin and northward into Alaska’s Interior. Volcanic cloud heights were measured using ground-based radar, and plume temperature and wind shear methods but each of the techniques resulted in significant variations in the estimates. Even though radar showed the greatest heights, satellite data and wind shears suggest that the largest concentrations of ash may be at lower altitudes in some cases. Sulfur dioxide clouds were also observed on satellite data (OMI, AIRS and Calipso) and they primarily drifted to the east and were detected at several locations across North America, thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Here, we show time series data collected by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, illustrating the different eruptive events and ash clouds that developed over the subsequent days.

  13. A Lagrangian Analysis of Cold Cloud Clusters and Their Life Cycles With Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Rebekah Bradley; Tian, Yudong; Vila, Daniel Alejandro; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2016-01-01

    Cloud movement and evolution signify the complex water and energy transport in the atmosphere-ocean-land system. Detecting, clustering, and tracking clouds as semi coherent cluster objects enables study of their evolution which can complement climate model simulations and enhance satellite retrieval algorithms, where there are large gaps between overpasses. Using an area-overlap cluster tracking algorithm, in this study we examine the trajectories, horizontal extent, and brightness temperature variations of millions of individual cloud clusters over their lifespan, from infrared satellite observations at 30-minute, 4-km resolution, for a period of 11 years. We found that the majority of cold clouds were both small and short-lived and that their frequency and location are influenced by El Nino. More importantly, this large sample of individually tracked clouds shows their horizontal size and temperature evolution. Longer lived clusters tended to achieve their temperature and size maturity milestones at different times, while these stages often occurred simultaneously in shorter lived clusters. On average, clusters with this lag also exhibited a greater rainfall contribution than those where minimum temperature and maximum size stages occurred simultaneously. Furthermore, by examining the diurnal cycle of cluster development over Africa and the Indian subcontinent, we observed differences in the local timing of the maximum occurrence at different life cycle stages. Over land there was a strong diurnal peak in the afternoon while over the ocean there was a semi-diurnal peak composed of longer-lived clusters in the early morning hours and shorter-lived clusters in the afternoon. Building on regional specific work, this study provides a long-term, high-resolution, and global survey of object-based cloud characteristics.

  14. Effects of Surface BRDF on the OMI Cloud and NO2 Retrievals: A New Approach Based on Geometry-Dependent Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (GLER) Derived from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Qin, Wenhan; Krotkov, Nickolay; Lamsal, Lok; Spurr, Robert; Haffner, David; Joiner, Joanna; Yang, Eun-Su; Marchenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) cloud and NO2 algorithms use a monthly gridded surface reflectivity climatology that does not depend upon the observation geometry. In reality, reflection of incoming direct and diffuse solar light from land or ocean surfaces is sensitive to the sun sensor geometry. This dependence is described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). To account for the BRDF, we propose to use a new concept of geometry-dependent Lambertian equivalent reflectivity (GLER). Implementation within the existing OMI cloud and NO2 retrieval infrastructure requires changes only to the input surface reflectivity database. GLER is calculated using a vector radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution BRDF information from MODIS over land and the Cox Munk slope distribution over ocean with a contribution from water-leaving radiance. We compare GLER and climatological LER at 466 nm, which is used in the OMI O2-O2cloud algorithm to derive effective cloud fractions. A detailed comparison of the cloud fractions and pressures derived with climatological and GLERs is carried out. GLER and corresponding retrieved cloud products are then used as input to the OMI NO2 algorithm. We find that replacing the climatological OMI-based LERs with GLERs can increase NO2 vertical columns by up to 50 % in highly polluted areas; the differences include both BRDF effects and biases between the MODIS and OMI-based surface reflectance data sets. Only minor changes to NO2 columns (within 5 %) are found over unpolluted and overcast areas.

  15. First Observation of the Submillimeter Polarization Spectrum in a Translucent Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Peter C.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2018-04-01

    Polarized emission from aligned dust is a crucial tool for studies of magnetism in the ISM, but a troublesome contaminant for studies of cosmic microwave background polarization. In each case, an understanding of the significance of the polarization signal requires well-calibrated physical models of dust grains. Despite decades of progress in theory and observation, polarized dust models remain largely underconstrained. During its 2012 flight, the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol obtained simultaneous broadband polarimetric maps of a translucent molecular cloud at 250, 350, and 500 μm. Combining these data with polarimetry from the Planck 850 μm band, we have produced a submillimeter polarization spectrum, the first for a cloud of this type. We find the polarization degree to be largely constant across the four bands. This result introduces a new observable with the potential to place strong empirical constraints on ISM dust polarization models in a previously inaccessible density regime. Compared to models by Draine & Fraisse, our result disfavors two of their models for which all polarization arises due only to aligned silicate grains. By creating simple models for polarized emission in a translucent cloud, we verify that extinction within the cloud should have only a small effect on the polarization spectrum shape, compared to the diffuse ISM. Thus, we expect the measured polarization spectrum to be a valid check on diffuse ISM dust models. The general flatness of the observed polarization spectrum suggests a challenge to models where temperature and alignment degree are strongly correlated across major dust components.

  16. Classification of Clouds and Deep Convection from GEOS-5 Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max

    2010-01-01

    With the increased resolution of global atmospheric models and the push toward global cloud resolving models, the resemblance of model output to satellite observations has become strikingly similar. As we progress with our adaptation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) as a high resolution cloud system resolving model, evaluation of cloud properties and deep convection require in-depth analysis beyond a visual comparison. Outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) provides a sufficient comparison with infrared (IR) satellite imagery to isolate areas of deep convection. We have adopted a binning technique to generate a series of histograms for OLR which classify the presence and fraction of clear sky versus deep convection in the tropics that can be compared with a similar analyses of IR imagery from composite Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We will present initial results that have been used to evaluate the amount of deep convective parameterization required within the model as we move toward cloud system resolving resolutions of 10- to 1-km globally.

  17. The contribution of the strength and structure of extratropical cyclones to observed cloud-aerosol relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Grandey, B. S.; Stier, P.; Grainger, R. G.; Wagner, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Meteorological conditions may drive relationships between aerosol and cloud-related properties. It is important to account for the meteorological contribution to observed cloud–aerosol relationships in order to improve understanding of aerosol–cloud–climate interactions. A new method of investigating the contribution of meteorological covariation to observed cloud–aerosol relationships is introduced. Other studies have investigated the contribution of local meteorology to cl...

  18. Retrieval of ice cloud properties using an optimal estimation algorithm and MODIS infrared observations. Part I: Forward model, error analysis, and information content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An optimal estimation (OE) retrieval method is developed to infer three ice cloud properties simultaneously: optical thickness (τ), effective radius (reff), and cloud-top height (h). This method is based on a fast radiative transfer (RT) model and infrared (IR) observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study conducts thorough error and information content analyses to understand the error propagation and performance of retrievals from various MODIS band combinations under different cloud/atmosphere states. Specifically, the algorithm takes into account four error sources: measurement uncertainty, fast RT model uncertainty, uncertainties in ancillary datasets (e.g., atmospheric state), and assumed ice crystal habit uncertainties. It is found that the ancillary and ice crystal habit error sources dominate the MODIS IR retrieval uncertainty and cannot be ignored. The information content analysis shows that, for a given ice cloud, the use of four MODIS IR observations is sufficient to retrieve the three cloud properties. However, the selection of MODIS IR bands that provide the most information and their order of importance varies with both the ice cloud properties and the ambient atmospheric and the surface states. As a result, this study suggests the inclusion of all MODIS IR bands in practice since little a priori information is available. PMID:29707470

  19. Retrieval of Ice Cloud Properties Using an Optimal Estimation Algorithm and MODIS Infrared Observations. Part I: Forward Model, Error Analysis, and Information Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Platnick, Steven; Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    An optimal estimation (OE) retrieval method is developed to infer three ice cloud properties simultaneously: optical thickness (tau), effective radius (r(sub eff)), and cloud top height (h). This method is based on a fast radiative transfer (RT) model and infrared (IR) observations from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study conducts thorough error and information content analyses to understand the error propagation and performance of retrievals from various MODIS band combinations under different cloud/atmosphere states. Specifically, the algorithm takes into account four error sources: measurement uncertainty, fast RT model uncertainty, uncertainties in ancillary data sets (e.g., atmospheric state), and assumed ice crystal habit uncertainties. It is found that the ancillary and ice crystal habit error sources dominate the MODIS IR retrieval uncertainty and cannot be ignored. The information content analysis shows that for a given ice cloud, the use of four MODIS IR observations is sufficient to retrieve the three cloud properties. However, the selection of MODIS IR bands that provide the most information and their order of importance varies with both the ice cloud properties and the ambient atmospheric and the surface states. As a result, this study suggests the inclusion of all MODIS IR bands in practice since little a priori information is available.

  20. Progress in Near Real-Time Volcanic Cloud Observations Using Satellite UV Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Vicente, G.; Hughes, E. J.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic clouds from explosive eruptions can wreak havoc in many parts of the world, as exemplified by the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland, which caused widespread disruption to air traffic and resulted in economic impacts across the globe. A suite of satellite-based systems offer the most effective means to monitor active volcanoes and to track the movement of volcanic clouds globally, providing critical information for aviation hazard mitigation. Satellite UV sensors, as part of this suite, have a long history of making unique near-real time (NRT) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash (aerosol Index) in volcanic clouds to supplement operational volcanic ash monitoring. Recently a NASA application project has shown that the use of near real-time (NRT,i.e., not older than 3 h) Aura/OMI satellite data produces a marked improvement in volcanic cloud detection using SO2 combined with Aerosol Index (AI) as a marker for ash. An operational online NRT OMI AI and SO2 image and data product distribution system was developed in collaboration with the NOAA Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution. Automated volcanic eruption alarms, and the production of volcanic cloud subsets for multiple regions are provided through the NOAA website. The data provide valuable information in support of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration goal of a safe and efficient National Air Space. In this presentation, we will highlight the advantages of UV techniques and describe the advances in volcanic SO2 plume height estimation and enhanced volcanic ash detection using hyper-spectral UV measurements, illustrated with Aura/OMI observations of recent eruptions. We will share our plan to provide near-real-time volcanic cloud monitoring service using the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS).

  1. Tropical cloud and precipitation regimes as seen from near-simultaneous TRMM, CloudSat, and CALIPSO observations and comparison with ISCCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny; Anderson, Ricardo C.; Rossow, William B.; Takahashi, Hanii

    2017-06-01

    Although Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and CloudSat/CALIPSO fly in different orbits, they frequently cross each other so that for the period between 2006 and 2010, a total of 15,986 intersect lines occurred within 20 min of each other from 30°S to 30°N, providing a rare opportunity to study tropical cloud and precipitation regimes and their internal vertical structure from near-simultaneous measurements by these active sensors. A k-means cluster analysis of TRMM and CloudSat matchups identifies three tropical cloud and precipitation regimes: the first two regimes correspond to, respectively, organized deep convection with heavy rain and cirrus anvils with moderate rain; the third regime is a convectively suppressed regime that can be further divided into three subregimes, which correspond to, respectively, stratocumulus clouds with drizzle, cirrus overlying low clouds, and nonprecipitating cumulus. Inclusion of CALIPSO data adds to the dynamic range of cloud properties and identifies one more cluster; subcluster analysis further identifies a thin, midlevel cloud regime associated with tropical mountain ranges. The radar-lidar cloud regimes are compared with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states (WSs) for the extended tropics. Focus is placed on the four convectively active WSs, namely, WS1-WS4. ISCCP WS1 and WS2 are found to be counterparts of Regime 1 and Regime 2 in radar-lidar observations, respectively. ISCCP WS3 and WS4, which are mainly isolated convection and broken, detached cirrus, do not have a strong association with any individual radar and lidar regimes, a likely effect of the different sampling strategies between ISCCP and active sensors and patchy cloudiness of these WSs.

  2. C3H2 observations as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the three-membered ring molecule, cyclopropenylidene, C3H2, has been identified in the laboratory and detected in molecular clouds by Thaddeus, Vrtilek and Gottlieb (1985). This molecule is wide-spread throughout the Galaxy and has been detected in 25 separate sources including cold dust clouds, circumstellar envelopes, HII regions, and the spiral arms observed against the Cas supernova remnant. In order to evaluate the potential of C3H2 as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds, and to attempt to identify the most useful transitions, statistical equilibrium calculations were carried out for the lowest 24 levels of the ortho species and the lowest 10 levels of the para species. Many of the sources observed by Matthews and Irvine (1985) show evidence of being optically thick in the 1(10)-1(01) line. Consequently, the effects of radiative trapping should be incorporated into the equilibrium calculations. This was done using the Large Velocity Gradient approximation for a spherical cloud of uniform density. Some results of the calculations for T(K)=10K are given. Figures are presented which show contours of the logarithm of the ratio of peak line brightness temperatures for ortho-para pairs of lines at similar frequencies. It appears that the widespread nature of C3H2, the relatively large strength of its spectral lines, and their sensitivity to density and molecular abundance combine to make this a useful molecule for probing physical conditions in molecular clouds. The 1(10)-1(01) and 2(20)-2(11) K-band lines may be especially useful in this regard because of the ease with which they are observed and their unusual density-dependent emission/absorption properties.

  3. A review of observations of organic matter in fogs and clouds: Origin, processing and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2013-10-01

    While fog and cloud composition has been studied for decades, most of the research was limited to inorganic species and fog acidity. Recently the focus has shifted towards organic matter in the atmospheric aqueous phase of fogs and clouds: its origin, reactivity and fate. An impressive number of fog and cloud chemistry observational studies have been performed over the last decade throughout the world. In the present work we will review the state of knowledge of atmospheric organic matter processing by fogs, with a focus on field observations. We start by reviewing observational studies in general and then discuss our knowledge on the occurrence of organic matter in fogs, its solubility, characterization and molecular speciation. Organic carbon concentrations can vary widely from approximately 1 mg C/L in remote marine environments to more than 100 mg C/L in polluted radiation fogs, accounting for a substantial part of fogwater solutes. The carbonaceous material can enter the droplets from the gas and particle phase and the scavenging behavior of fogs will be detailed. Observational studies showed evidence of aqueous phase transformation of organic material, in particular secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generation, in fog. Recent observations of biological material in fog suggest also an impact of biological processing within the droplets on fog organic matter. The review will end with a discussion of the impact of fog on the deposition fluxes of organic material and hence its atmospheric lifetime.

  4. MAGNETIZATION OF CLOUD CORES AND ENVELOPES AND OTHER OBSERVATIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF RECONNECTION DIFFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.; Esquivel, A.; Crutcher, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent observational results for magnetic fields in molecular clouds reviewed by Crutcher seem to be inconsistent with the predictions of the ambipolar diffusion theory of star formation. These include the measured decrease in mass to flux ratio between envelopes and cores, the failure to detect any self-gravitating magnetically subcritical clouds, the determination of the flat probability distribution function (PDF) of the total magnetic field strengths implying that there are many clouds with very weak magnetic fields, and the observed scaling B∝ρ 2/3 that implies gravitational contraction with weak magnetic fields. We consider the problem of magnetic field evolution in turbulent molecular clouds and discuss the process of magnetic field diffusion mediated by magnetic reconnection. For this process that we termed 'reconnection diffusion', we provide a simple physical model and explain that this process is inevitable in view of the present-day understanding of MHD turbulence. We address the issue of the expected magnetization of cores and envelopes in the process of star formation and show that reconnection diffusion provides an efficient removal of magnetic flux that depends only on the properties of MHD turbulence in the core and the envelope. We show that as the amplitude of turbulence as well as the scale of turbulent motions decrease from the envelope to the core of the cloud, the diffusion of the magnetic field is faster in the envelope. As a result, the magnetic flux trapped during the collapse in the envelope is being released faster than the flux trapped in the core, resulting in much weaker fields in envelopes than in cores, as observed. We provide simple semi-analytical model calculations which support this conclusion and qualitatively agree with the observational results. Magnetic reconnection is also consistent with the lack of subcritical self-gravitating clouds, with the observed flat PDF of field strengths, and with the scaling of field strength

  5. MAGNETIZATION OF CLOUD CORES AND ENVELOPES AND OTHER OBSERVATIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF RECONNECTION DIFFUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Esquivel, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Crutcher, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Recent observational results for magnetic fields in molecular clouds reviewed by Crutcher seem to be inconsistent with the predictions of the ambipolar diffusion theory of star formation. These include the measured decrease in mass to flux ratio between envelopes and cores, the failure to detect any self-gravitating magnetically subcritical clouds, the determination of the flat probability distribution function (PDF) of the total magnetic field strengths implying that there are many clouds with very weak magnetic fields, and the observed scaling B{proportional_to}{rho}{sup 2/3} that implies gravitational contraction with weak magnetic fields. We consider the problem of magnetic field evolution in turbulent molecular clouds and discuss the process of magnetic field diffusion mediated by magnetic reconnection. For this process that we termed 'reconnection diffusion', we provide a simple physical model and explain that this process is inevitable in view of the present-day understanding of MHD turbulence. We address the issue of the expected magnetization of cores and envelopes in the process of star formation and show that reconnection diffusion provides an efficient removal of magnetic flux that depends only on the properties of MHD turbulence in the core and the envelope. We show that as the amplitude of turbulence as well as the scale of turbulent motions decrease from the envelope to the core of the cloud, the diffusion of the magnetic field is faster in the envelope. As a result, the magnetic flux trapped during the collapse in the envelope is being released faster than the flux trapped in the core, resulting in much weaker fields in envelopes than in cores, as observed. We provide simple semi-analytical model calculations which support this conclusion and qualitatively agree with the observational results. Magnetic reconnection is also consistent with the lack of subcritical self-gravitating clouds, with the observed flat PDF of field strengths, and

  6. Daily cycle of the surface energy balance in Antarctica and the influence of clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; van As, D.; Boot, W.

    2006-01-01

    We present the summertime daily cycle of the Antarctic surface energy balance (SEB) and its sensitivity to cloud cover. We use data of automatic weather stations (AWS) located in four major Antarctic climate zones: the coastal ice shelf, the coastal and interior katabatic wind zone and the interior

  7. Isopleths of surface air concentration and surface air kerma rate due to a radioactive cloud released from a stack (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Haruo; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Sekita, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2004-06-01

    This report is a revised edition of 'Isopleths of Surface Air Concentration and Surface Air Absorbed Dose Rate due to a Radioactive Cloud Released from a Stack(II) '(JAERI-M 90-206) and based on the revised Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 Recommendation. Characteristics of this report are the use of Air Karma Rate (Gy/h) instead of Air Absorbed Dose Rate (Gy/h), and the record of isopleths of surface air concentration and surface air karma rate on CD-ROM. These recorded data on CD-ROM can be printed out on paper and/or pasted on digital map by personal computer. (author)

  8. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg 2 with IRAC and 10.47 deg 2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  9. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tothill, Nicholas F. H. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DiFrancesco, James [National Research Council Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Merín, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  10. Observations of Local Positive Low Cloud Feedback Patterns and Their Role in Internal Variability and Climate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven E.; Meyer, Kerry

    2018-05-01

    Modeling studies have shown that cloud feedbacks are sensitive to the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, while cloud feedbacks themselves strongly influence the magnitude of SST anomalies. Observational counterparts to such patterned interactions are still needed. Here we show that distinct large-scale patterns of SST and low-cloud cover (LCC) emerge naturally from objective analyses of observations and demonstrate their close coupling in a positive local SST-LCC feedback loop that may be important for both internal variability and climate change. The two patterns that explain the maximum amount of covariance between SST and LCC correspond to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, leading modes of multidecadal internal variability. Spatial patterns and time series of SST and LCC anomalies associated with both modes point to a strong positive local SST-LCC feedback. In many current climate models, our analyses suggest that SST-LCC feedback strength is too weak compared to observations. Modeled local SST-LCC feedback strength affects simulated internal variability so that stronger feedback produces more intense and more realistic patterns of internal variability. To the extent that the physics of the local positive SST-LCC feedback inferred from observed climate variability applies to future greenhouse warming, we anticipate significant amount of delayed warming because of SST-LCC feedback when anthropogenic SST warming eventually overwhelm the effects of internal variability that may mute anthropogenic warming over parts of the ocean. We postulate that many climate models may be underestimating both future warming and the magnitude of modeled internal variability because of their weak SST-LCC feedback.

  11. Evaluating Microphysics in Cloud-Resolving Models using TRMM and Ground-based Precipitation Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, S. K.; Zulauf, M. A.; Li, Y.; Zipser, E. J.

    2005-05-01

    Global satellite datasets such as those produced by ISCCP, ERBE, and CERES provide strong observational constraints on cloud radiative properties. Such observations have been widely used for model evaluation, tuning, and improvement. Cloud radiative properties depend primarily on small, non-precipitating cloud droplets and ice crystals, yet the dynamical, microphysical and radiative processes which produce these small particles often involve large, precipitating hydrometeors. There now exists a global dataset of tropical cloud system precipitation feature (PF) properties, collected by TRMM and produced by Steve Nesbitt, that provides additional observational constraints on cloud system properties. We are using the TRMM PF dataset to evaluate the precipitation microphysics of two simulations of deep, precipitating, convective cloud systems: one is a 29-day summertime, continental case (ARM Summer 1997 SCM IOP, at the Southern Great Plains site); the second is a tropical maritime case: the Kwajalein MCS of 11-12 August 1999 (part of a 52-day simulation). Both simulations employed the same bulk, three-ice category microphysical parameterization (Krueger et al. 1995). The ARM simulation was executed using the UCLA/Utah 2D CRM, while the KWAJEX simulation was produced using the 3D CSU CRM (SAM). The KWAJEX simulation described above is compared with both the actual radar data and the TRMM statistics. For the Kwajalein MCS of 11 to 12 August 1999, there are research radar data available for the lifetime of the system. This particular MCS was large in size and rained heavily, but it was weak to average in measures of convective intensity, against the 5-year TRMM sample of 108. For the Kwajalein MCS simulation, the 20 dBZ contour is at 15.7 km and the 40 dBZ contour at 14.5 km! Of all 108 MCSs observed by TRMM, the highest value for the 40 dBZ contour is 8 km. Clearly, the high reflectivity cores are off scale compared with observed cloud systems in this area. A similar

  12. ATLID: atmospheric lidar for clouds and aerosol observation combined with radar sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Th.; Martimort, Ph.; Tanguy, Ph.; Leibrandt, W.; Heliere, A.

    2017-11-01

    The atmospheric lidar ATLID is part of the payload of the joint collaborative satellite mission Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer (EarthCARE) conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA). In December 2002, ESA granted Alcatel Space with a phase A study of the EarthCARE mission in which Alcatel Space is also in charge to define ATLID. The primary objective of ATLID at the horizon 2011 is to provide global observation of clouds in synergy with a cloud profiling radar (CPR) mounted on the same platform. The planned spaceborne mission also embarks an imager and a radiometer and shall fly for 3 years. The lidar design is based on a novel concept that maximises the scientific return and fosters a cost-effective approach. This improved capability results from a better understanding of the way optical characteristics of aerosol and clouds affect the performance budget. For that purpose, an end to end performance model has been developed utilising a versatile data retrieval method suitable for new and more conventional approaches. A synthesis of the achievable performance will be presented to illustrate the potential of the system together with a description of the design.

  13. Turbulent Cloud Structure and Power Spectrum from 23 years of HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Richard; Simon, Amy; Morales-Juberias, Raul

    2018-01-01

    Images of Jupiter’s clouds show that turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon over many orders of scale size. According to Kolmogorov’s theory for turbulence, the frequency/distribution of clouds at various scales can be used to produce an energy power spectrum of a passive tracer. Kolmogorov theory predicts the spectral slopes for “shallow” and “deep” fluids in motion by following how energy is injected and dissipated in the fluid. We are quantifying the turbulent nature of Jupiter’s clouds over 23 years of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations using an algorithm first presented in Choi and Showman (2011, Icarus 216). We applied the power spectrum fitting algorithm to a variety of filters from available HST data and tested its sensitivity to free parameters and compare our results to Choi and Showman (2011). We will comment on the evidence for a 2D turbulent regime In Jupiter’s clouds and will report on empirical values found in the spectra and their physical interpretations, such as the Rhines scale. We also will report on the behavior of the passive tracer power spectrum and trends that exist over time for different latitudinal regions, primarily the belts and zones and the north and south equatorial belts.

  14. Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.; LEcuyer, Tristan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli J.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Ice clouds influence the climate system by changing the radiation budget and large-scale circulation. Therefore, climate models need to have an accurate representation of ice clouds and their radiative effects. In this paper, new broadband parameterizations for ice cloud bulk scattering properties are developed for severely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture that includes nine habits (droxtals, hollow/solid columns, plates, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, aggregate of solid columns, and small/large aggregates of plates). The scattering properties for these individual habits incorporate recent advances in light-scattering computations. The influence of ice particle surface roughness on the ice cloud radiative effect is determined through simulations with the Fu-Liou and the GCM version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) codes and the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). The differences in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative effect at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface are determined for smooth and severely roughened ice particles. While the influence of particle roughening on the single-scattering properties is negligible in the LW, the results indicate that ice crystal roughness can change the SW forcing locally by more than 10 W m(exp -2) over a range of effective diameters. The global-averaged SW cloud radiative effect due to ice particle surface roughness is estimated to be roughly 1-2 W m(exp -2). The CAM results indicate that ice particle roughening can result in a large regional SW radiative effect and a small but nonnegligible increase in the global LW cloud radiative effect.

  15. Observations of the J = 2 → 1 CO line in molecular clouds near compact H+ regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.W.; Little, L.T.; Brown, A.T.; Hills, R.E.; Padman, R.; Vizard, D.; Lesurf, J.C.G.; Cronin, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2 → 1 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO at 230 and 220 GHz in 13 molecular clouds near compact H + regions have been made at UKIRT using an uncooled Schottky diode mixer and a digital auto-correlation spectrometer. The sources were chosen on the basis of their ammonia emission. A comparison between 12 CO and 13 CO spectra reveals a variety of self-absorption effects, ranging from slight asymmetries in the 12 CO profiles relative to their 13 CO counterparts (W43S, S88), to a deep narrow self-absorption dip (S68). The asymmetry observed in six sources out of ten is most easily explained if the clouds are collapsing; there is no clear evidence for expansion. The 13 CO linewidths are systematically wider than those from the NH 3 cores, suggesting that the velocity dispersion in the sources increases with distance from the centre. (author)

  16. CARIBIC DOAS observations of nitrous acid and formaldehyde in a large convective cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heue, K.-P.; Riede, H.; Walter, D.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Wagner, T.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.; Zahn, A.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.

    2014-07-01

    The chemistry in large thunderstorm clouds is influenced by local lightning-NOx production and uplift of boundary layer air. Under these circumstances trace gases like nitrous acid (HONO) or formaldehyde (HCHO) are expected to be formed or to reach the tropopause region. However, up to now only few observations of HONO at this altitude have been reported. Here we report on a case study where enhancements in HONO, HCHO and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were observed by the CARIBIC flying laboratory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The event took place in a convective system over the Caribbean Sea in August 2011. Inside the cloud the light path reaches up to 100 km. Therefore the DOAS instrument on CARIBIC was very sensitive to the tracers inside the cloud. Based on the enhanced slant column densities of HONO, HCHO and NO2, average mixing ratios of 37, 468 and 210 ppt, respectively, were calculated. These data represent averages for constant mixing ratios inside the cloud. However, a large dependency on the assumed profile is found; for HONO a mixing ratio of 160 ppt is retrieved if the total amount is assumed to be situated in the uppermost 2 km of the cloud. The NO in situ instrument measured peaks up to 5 ppb NO inside the cloud; the background in the cloud was about 1.3 ppb, and hence clearly above the average outside the cloud (≈ 150 ppt). The high variability and the fact that the enhancements were observed over a pristine marine area led to the conclusion that, in all likelihood, the high NO concentrations were caused by lighting. This assumption is supported by the number of flashes that the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) counted in this area before and during the overpass. The chemical box model CAABA is used to estimate the NO and HCHO source strengths which are necessary to explain our measurements. For NO a source strength of 10 × 109 molec cm-2 s-1 km-1 is found, which

  17. The role of clouds in the surface energy balance over the Amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, E.A.B.; Humphries, E.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon region will initially impact the energy balance at the land surface through changes in land cover and surface hydrology. However, continuation of this human activity will eventually lead to atmospheric feedbacks, including changes in cloudiness which may play an important role in the final equilibrium of solar and terrestrial radiation at the surface. In this study, the different components of surface radiation over an undisturbed forest in the Amazon region are computed using data from the Amazon region micrometerological experiment (ARME). Several measures of cloudiness are defined: two estimated from the terrestrial radiation measurements, and one from the solar radiation measurements. The sensitivity of the surface fluxes of solar and terrestrial radiation to natural variability in cloudiness is investigated to infer the potential role of the cloudiness feedback in the surface energy balance. The results of this analysis indicate that a 1% decrease in cloudiness would increase net solar radiation by ca. 1.6 W/m 2 . However, the overall magnitude of this feedback, due to total deforestation of the Amazon forest, is likely to be of the same order as the magnitude of the decrease in net solar radiation due to the observed increase in surface albedo following deforestation. Hence, the total change in net solar radiation is likely to have a negligible magnitude. In contrast to this conclusion, we find that terrestrial radiation is likely to be more strongly affected; reduced cloudiness will decrease net terrestrial radiation; a 1% decrease in cloudiness induces a reduction in net terrestrial radiation of ca. 0.7 W/m 2 ; this process augments the similar effects of the predicted warming and drying in the boundary layer. Due to the cloudiness feedback, the most significant effect of large-scale deforestation on the surface energy balance is likely to be in the modification of the terrestrial radiation field rather than the classical albedo

  18. Global analysis of cloud field coverage and radiative properties, using morphological methods and MODIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Bar-Or

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently recognized continuous transition zone between detectable clouds and cloud-free atmosphere ("the twilight zone" is affected by undetectable clouds and humidified aerosol. In this study, we suggest to distinguish cloud fields (including the detectable clouds and the surrounding twilight zone from cloud-free areas, which are not affected by clouds. For this classification, a robust and simple-to-implement cloud field masking algorithm which uses only the spatial distribution of clouds, is presented in detail. A global analysis, estimating Earth's cloud field coverage (50° S–50° N for 28 July 2008, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, finds that while the declared cloud fraction is 51%, the global cloud field coverage reaches 88%. The results reveal the low likelihood for finding a cloud-free pixel and suggest that this likelihood may decrease as the pixel size becomes larger. A global latitudinal analysis of cloud fields finds that unlike oceans, which are more uniformly covered by cloud fields, land areas located under the subsidence zones of the Hadley cell (the desert belts, contain proper areas for investigating cloud-free atmosphere as there is 40–80% probability to detect clear sky over them. Usually these golden-pixels, with higher likelihood to be free of clouds, are over deserts. Independent global statistical analysis, using MODIS aerosol and cloud products, reveals a sharp exponential decay of the global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD as a function of the distance from the nearest detectable cloud, both above ocean and land. Similar statistical analysis finds an exponential growth of mean aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF over oceans when the distance from the nearest cloud increases. A 30 km scale break clearly appears in several analyses here, suggesting this is a typical natural scale of cloud fields. This work shows different microphysical and optical properties of cloud fields

  19. Open Surface Solar Irradiance Observations - A Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lionel; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Maso, Joan; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien

    2015-04-01

    The newly started project ConnectinGEO funded by the European Commission aims at improving the understanding on which environmental observations are currently available in Europe and subsequently providing an informational basis to close gaps in diverse observation networks. The project complements supporting actions and networking activities with practical challenges to test and improve the procedures and methods for identifying observation data gaps, and to ensure viability in real world scenarios. We present a challenge on future concepts for building a data sharing portal for the solar energy industry as well as the state of the art in the domain. Decision makers and project developers of solar power plants have identified the Surface Solar Irradiance (SSI) and its components as an important factor for their business development. SSI observations are crucial in the process of selecting suitable locations for building new plants. Since in-situ pyranometric stations form a sparse network, the search for locations starts with global satellite data and is followed by the deployment of in-situ sensors in selected areas for at least one year. To form a convincing picture, answers must be sought in the conjunction of these EO systems, and although companies collecting SSI observations are willing to share this information, the means to exchange in-situ measurements across companies and between stakeholders in the market are still missing. We present a solution for interoperable exchange of SSI data comprising in-situ time-series observations as well as sensor descriptions based on practical experiences from other domains. More concretely, we will apply concepts and implementations of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The work is based on an existing spatial data infrastructure (SDI), which currently comprises metadata, maps and coverage data, but no in-situ observations yet. This catalogue is already registered in the

  20. Effects of sea surface temperature, cloud radiative and microphysical processes, and diurnal variations on rainfall in equilibrium cloud-resolving model simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhe; Li Xiao-Fan; Zhou Yu-Shu; Gao Shou-Ting

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sea surface temperature (SST), cloud radiative and microphysical processes, and diurnal variations on rainfall statistics are documented with grid data from the two-dimensional equilibrium cloud-resolving model simulations. For a rain rate of higher than 3 mm·h −1 , water vapor convergence prevails. The rainfall amount decreases with the decrease of SST from 29 °C to 27 °C, the inclusion of diurnal variation of SST, or the exclusion of microphysical effects of ice clouds and radiative effects of water clouds, which are primarily associated with the decreases in water vapor convergence. However, the amount of rainfall increases with the increase of SST from 29 °C to 31 °C, the exclusion of diurnal variation of solar zenith angle, and the exclusion of the radiative effects of ice clouds, which are primarily related to increases in water vapor convergence. For a rain rate of less than 3 mm·h −1 , water vapor divergence prevails. Unlike rainfall statistics for rain rates of higher than 3 mm·h −1 , the decrease of SST from 29 °C to 27 °C and the exclusion of radiative effects of water clouds in the presence of radiative effects of ice clouds increase the rainfall amount, which corresponds to the suppression in water vapor divergence. The exclusion of microphysical effects of ice clouds decreases the amount of rainfall, which corresponds to the enhancement in water vapor divergence. The amount of rainfall is less sensitive to the increase of SST from 29 °C to 31 °C and to the radiative effects of water clouds in the absence of the radiative effects of ice clouds. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Plasma Clouds and Snowplows: Bulk Plasma Escape from Mars Observed by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Ruhunusiri, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Harada, Y.; Hara, T.; Espley, J. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present initial Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) observations and preliminary interpretation of bulk plasma loss from Mars. MAVEN particle and field measurements show that planetary heavy ions derived from the Martian atmosphere can escape in the form of discrete coherent structures or "clouds." The ions in these clouds are unmagnetized or weakly magnetized, have velocities well above the escape speed, and lie directly downstream from magnetic field amplifications, suggesting a "snowplow" effect. This postulated escape process, similar to that successfully used to explain the dynamics of active gas releases in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosheath, relies on momentum transfer from the shocked solar wind protons to the planetary heavy ions, with the electrons and magnetic field acting as intermediaries. Fluxes of planetary ions on the order of 10(exp 7)/sq cm/s can escape by this process, and if it operates regularly, it could contribute 10-20% of the current ion escape from Mars.

  2. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  3. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, H.F.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population (e.g. Oort and van de Hulst, 1946), the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 μm is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds (Merrill et al., 1976; Willner et al., 1982). However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. It is also uncertain whether it is restricted to circumstellar shells, rather than the general cloud medium. Detailed discussion of the 3 μm band properties is given elsewhere in this volume. 15 references, 4 figures

  4. Aerosol properties and their impacts on surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean. Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration ( N CCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways. ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site. Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean, continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient ( σ sp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and N CCN values less than 100 cm-3. However, southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation ( R) among aerosol loading ( σ sp moisture via the Gulf of Mexico, indicating a strong dependence on air mass type. NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data, suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP, especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico. Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol, CCN, and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  5. 3D MODELING OF GJ1214b's ATMOSPHERE: FORMATION OF INHOMOGENEOUS HIGH CLOUDS AND OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnay, B.; Meadows, V.; Misra, A.; Arney, G. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98125 (United States); Leconte, J., E-mail: bcharnay@uw.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum that may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4–0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 μm, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths >3 μm. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit the observed spectra we generate transit, emission, and reflection spectra and phase curves for GJ1214b. We show that a stratospheric thermal inversion would be readily accessible in near- and mid-infrared atmospheric spectral windows. We find that the amplitude of the thermal phase curves is strongly dependent on metallicity, but only slightly impacted by clouds. Our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by the James Webb Space Telescope in the near- to mid-infrared should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  6. RACORO Extended-Term Aircraft Observations of Boundary-Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ogren, John A.; Turner, David D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feingold, Graham; Long, Charles N.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Collins, Don R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Small boundary-layer clouds are ubiquitous over many parts of the globe and strongly influence the Earths radiative energy balance. However, our understanding of these clouds is insufficient to solve pressing scientific problems. For example, cloud feedback represents the largest uncertainty amongst all climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCM). Several issues complicate understanding boundary-layer clouds and simulating them in GCMs. The high spatial variability of boundary-layer clouds poses an enormous computational challenge, since their horizontal dimensions and internal variability occur at spatial scales much finer than the computational grids used in GCMs. Aerosol-cloud interactions further complicate boundary-layer cloud measurement and simulation. Additionally, aerosols influence processes such as precipitation and cloud lifetime. An added complication is that at small scales (order meters to 10s of meters) distinguishing cloud from aerosol is increasingly difficult, due to the effects of aerosol humidification, cloud fragments and photon scattering between clouds.

  7. Interaction of clouds, radiation, and the tropical warm pool sea surface temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; Zhang, G.J.; Barnett, T.P.; Ramanathan, V. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The primary focus of this study is the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). In this study, we combine in-situ observations Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere [TOGA]-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment [COARE] and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment [CEPEX] with satellite cloud data.

  8. Large scale IRAM 30 m CO-observations in the giant molecular cloud complex W43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-12-01

    We aim to fully describe the distribution and location of dense molecular clouds in the giant molecular cloud complex W43. It was previously identified as one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. To trace the moderately dense molecular clouds in the W43 region, we initiated W43-HERO, a large program using the IRAM 30 m telescope, which covers a wide dynamic range of scales from 0.3 to 140 pc. We obtained on-the-fly-maps in 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1) with a high spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 12''. These maps cover an area of ~1.5 square degrees and include the two main clouds of W43 and the lower density gas surrounding them. A comparison to Galactic models and previous distance calculations confirms the location of W43 near the tangential point of the Scutum arm at approximately 6 kpc from the Sun. The resulting intensity cubes of the observed region are separated into subcubes, which are centered on single clouds and then analyzed in detail. The optical depth, excitation temperature, and H2 column density maps are derived out of the 13CO and C18O data. These results are then compared to those derived from Herschel dust maps. The mass of a typical cloud is several 104 M⊙ while the total mass in the dense molecular gas (>102 cm-3) in W43 is found to be ~1.9 × 106 M⊙. Probability distribution functions obtained from column density maps derived from molecular line data and Herschel imaging show a log-normal distribution for low column densities and a power-law tail for high densities. A flatter slope for the molecular line data probability distribution function may imply that those selectively show the gravitationally collapsing gas. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe final datacubes (13CO and C18O) for the entire survey are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A24

  9. Dense cores in dark clouds. I. CO observations and column densities of high-extinction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.C.; Linke, R.A.; Benson, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety small (approx.5') visually opaque regions have been selected from Palomar Sky Atlas prints and surveyed in the 2.7 mm J = 1→0 lines of C 18 O and 13 CO. The regions are primarily in complexes of obscuration, including those in Taurus and Ophiuchus. The typical C 18 O emission region has C 18 O line width 0.6 km s - 1 , optical depth 0.4, excitation temperature 10 K, and column density 2 x 10 15 cm - 2 . It has size 0.3 pc, visual extinction approx.11 mag, and mass approx.30 M/sub sun/. Comparison with equilibrium and collapse models indicates that purely thermal supporting motions are consistent with the present data, but unlikely. If the full C 18 O line width reflects turbulent supporting motions, nearly all of the observed clouds are consistent with stable equilibrium. If only part of the C 18 O line width reflects supporting motions, many clouds are also consistent with turbulent contraction. More than half of the clouds have significant departures from Gaussian line shape. The most common asymmetry is a blueshifted peak in the 13 CO line, which is consistent with contracting motion

  10. A YOUNG GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMED AT THE INTERFACE OF TWO COLLIDING SUPERSHELLS: OBSERVATIONS MEET SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ntormousi, E. [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA/DSM/IRFU Orme des Merisiers, Bat 709 Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Fierlinger, K., E-mail: joanne.dawson@mq.edu.au [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany)

    2015-01-20

    Dense, star-forming gas is believed to form at the stagnation points of large-scale interstellar medium flows, but observational examples of this process in action are rare. We here present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) sandwiched between two colliding Milky Way supershells, which we argue shows strong evidence of having formed from material accumulated at the collision zone. Combining {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) data with new high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of colliding supershells, we discuss the origin and nature of the GMC (G288.5+1.5), favoring a scenario in which the cloud was partially seeded by pre-existing denser material, but assembled into its current form by the action of the shells. This assembly includes the production of some new molecular gas. The GMC is well interpreted as non-self-gravitating, despite its high mass (M{sub H{sub 2}}∼1.7×10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}), and is likely pressure confined by the colliding flows, implying that self-gravity was not a necessary ingredient for its formation. Much of the molecular gas is relatively diffuse, and the cloud as a whole shows little evidence of star formation activity, supporting a scenario in which it is young and recently formed. Drip-like formations along its lower edge may be explained by fluid dynamical instabilities in the cooled gas.

  11. An Observational Diagnostic for Distinguishing Between Clouds and Haze in Hot Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Eliza; Bean, Jacob; Parmentier, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The nature of aerosols in hot exoplanet atmospheres is one of the primary vexing questions facing the exoplanet field. The complex chemistry, multiple formation pathways, and lack of easily identifiable spectral features associated with aerosols make it especially challenging to constrain their key properties. We present a transmission spectroscopy technique to identify the primary aerosol formation mechanism for the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters (HIHJs). The technique is based on the idea that the two key types of aerosols -- photochemically generated hazes and equilibrium condensate clouds -- are expected to form and persist in different regions of a highly irradiated planet's atmosphere. Haze can only be produced on the permanent daysides of tidally-locked hot Jupiters, and will be carried downwind by atmospheric dynamics to the evening terminator (seen as the trailing limb during transit). Clouds can only form in cooler regions on the night side and morning terminator of HIHJs (seen as the leading limb during transit). Because opposite limbs are expected to be impacted by different types of aerosols, ingress and egress spectra, which primarily probe opposing sides of the planet, will reveal the dominant aerosol formation mechanism. We show that the benchmark HIHJ, WASP-121b, has a transmission spectrum consistent with partial aerosol coverage and that ingress-egress spectroscopy would constrain the location and formation mechanism of those aerosols. In general, we find that observations with JWST and potentially with HST should be able to distinguish between clouds and haze for currently known HIHJs.

  12. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  13. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  14. Gamma-ray observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makishima, K.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-08-08

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between ~100 MeV and ~100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to ~10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1° × 1° pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ~10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ~2.3 × 1020 cm-2(K km s–1)–1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212°), ~1.7 times higher than ~1.3 × 1020 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO.

  15. Observation of modified radiative properties of cold atoms in vacuum near a dielectric surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V V; Cornelussen, R A; Heuvell, H B van Linden van den; Spreeuw, R J C

    2004-01-01

    We have observed a distance-dependent absorption linewidth of cold 87 Rb atoms close to a dielectric-vacuum interface. This is the first observation of modified radiative properties in vacuum near a dielectric surface. A cloud of cold atoms was created using a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and optical molasses cooling. Evanescent waves (EW) were used to observe the behaviour of the atoms near the surface. We observed an increase of the absorption linewidth by up to 25% with respect to the free-space value. Approximately half the broadening can be explained by cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) as an increase of the natural linewidth and inhomogeneous broadening. The remainder we attribute to local Stark shifts near the surface. By varying the characteristic EW length we have observed a distance dependence characteristic for CQED

  16. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  17. Radial and azimuthal distribution of Io's oxygen neutral cloud observed by Hisaki/EXCEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, R.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Yoneda, M.; Yoshikawa, I.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kimura, T.; Smith, H. T.

    2017-12-01

    We report the spatial distributions of oxygen neural cloud surrounding Jupiter's moon Io and along Io's orbit observed by the HISAKI satellite. Atomic oxygen and sulfur in Io's atmosphere escape from the exobase and move to corona ( 5.8 Io radii) mainly due to atmospheric sputtering. Io plasma torus is formed by ionization of these atoms by electron impact and charge exchange processes. It is essential to examine the dominant source of Io plasma torus, particularly in the vicinity of Io (5.8 Io radii; extended neutral clouds). The spatial distribution of oxygen and sulfur neutral clouds is important to understand the source. The extreme ultraviolet spectrometer called EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) installed on the Hisaki satellite observed Io plasma torus continuously in 2014-2015, and we carried out the monitoring of the distribution of atomic oxygen emission at 130.4 nm. The emission averaged over the distance range of 4.5-6.5 Jovian radii on the dawn and dusk sides strongly depends on the Io phase angle (IPA), and has a emission peak between IPA of 60-90 degrees on the dawn side, and between 240-270 degrees on the dusk side, respectively. It also shows the asymmetry with respect to Io's position: the intensity averaged for IPA 60-90 degrees (13.3 Rayleighs (R)) is 1.2 times greater than that for IPA 90-120 degrees (11.1 R) on the dawn side. The similar tendency is found on the dusk side. Weak atomic oxygen emission (4 R) uniformly distributes in every IPA. We also examined the radial distribution of the oxygen neutral cloud during the same period and found the emission peak near Io's orbit with decreasing the intensity toward 8.0 Jupiter radii. The results show the high density component of the oxygen neutral cloud is concentrated around Io and extends mainly toward leading side of Io. In addition, the low density neutrals uniformly exist along Io's orbit. Both components extend radially outward up to 8 Jovian radii with

  18. ModelLab: A Cloud-Based Platform to Support Advanced Geospatial Modeling of Earth Observation Data, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to promote and facilitate broader use of NASA and other Earth observation data sources, the Phase I research focused on development of a cloud-based...

  19. Cloud effects on the SW radiation at the surface at a mid-latitude site in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Vanda; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria; Lanconelli, Christian; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a study of cloud radiative effects on shortwave (CRESW) radiation at the surface in Évora region (southwestern Europe) during 2015 and a case study is analyzed. CRESW (in Wm-2) is defined as the difference between the net shortwave irradiance (downward minus upward shortwave irradiance) in cloudy and clear sky conditions. This measure is usually used to translate changes in the SW radiation that reaches the surface due to changes in clouds (type and/or cover). The CRESW is obtained using measured SW irradiance recorded with a Kipp&Zonen CM 6B pyranometer (broadband 305 - 2800 nm) during the period from January to December 2015, and is related with the cloud liquid water path (LWP) and with cloud ice water path (IWP) showing the importance of the different type of clouds in attenuating the SW radiation at the surface. The cloud modification factor, also a measure of the cloud radiative effects (CMF; ratio between the measured SW irradiance under cloudy conditions and the estimated SW irradiance in clear-sky conditions) is related with the cloud optical thickness (COT; obtained from satellite data). This relation between CMF and COT is shown for different cloud fractions revealing an exponential decreasing of CMF as COT increases. Reductions in the SW radiation of the order of 80% (CMF = 0.2) as well enhancements in the SW radiation larger than 30% (CMF = 1.3) were found for small COT values and for different cloud fractions. A case study to analyse the enhancement events in a cloudy day was considered and the cloud properties, COT and LWP (from satellite and surface measurements), were related with the CRESW.

  20. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rosolowsky, E. [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kwon, W. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747-AD Groningen (Netherlands); Ostriker, E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tassis, K. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Shirley, Y. L., E-mail: manferna@gmail.com [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  1. Models of gas-grain chemistry in interstellar cloud cores with a stochastic approach to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantcheva, T.; Herbst, E.

    2004-08-01

    We present a gas-grain model of homogeneous cold cloud cores with time-independent physical conditions. In the model, the gas-phase chemistry is treated via rate equations while the diffusive granular chemistry is treated stochastically. The two phases are coupled through accretion and evaporation. A small network of surface reactions accounts for the surface production of the stable molecules water, formaldehyde, methanol, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane. The calculations are run for a time of 107 years at three different temperatures: 10 K, 15 K, and 20 K. The results are compared with those produced in a totally deterministic gas-grain model that utilizes the rate equation method for both the gas-phase and surface chemistry. The results of the different models are in agreement for the abundances of the gaseous species except for later times when the surface chemistry begins to affect the gas. The agreement for the surface species, however, is somewhat mixed. The average abundances of highly reactive surface species can be orders of magnitude larger in the stochastic-deterministic model than in the purely deterministic one. For non-reactive species, the results of the models can disagree strongly at early times, but agree to well within an order of magnitude at later times for most molecules. Strong exceptions occur for CO and H2CO at 10 K, and for CO2 at 20 K. The agreement seems to be best at a temperature of 15 K. As opposed to the use of the normal rate equation method of surface chemistry, the modified rate method is in significantly better agreement with the stochastic-deterministic approach. Comparison with observations of molecular ices in dense clouds shows mixed agreement.

  2. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Proton beams, from the 1GeV Cosmotron accelerator at Brookhaven, were used in the 1950s to produce strange particles. One big leap forward technologically was the development of the diffusion cloud chamber which made detecting particle tracks more accurate and sensitive. A large co-operative team worked on its development. By the mid 1950s enough tracks had been observed to show the associated production of strange particles. It was the same Brookhaven workers who developed the eighty-inch hydrogen bubble chamber which took the first photograph of the long predicted omega minus particle at the end of the decade. (UK)

  3. Aerosol and cloud observations from the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a backscatter lidar built by NASA Langley Research Center to fly on the Space Shuttle. The purpose of the program was to develop the engineering processes required for space lidar and to demonstrate applications of space lidar to remote sensing of the atmosphere. The instrument was flown on Discovery in September 1994. Global observations of clouds and aerosols were made between the latitudes of 57 deg N and 57 deg S during 10 days of the mission.

  4. Evaluation of the shortwave cloud radiative effect over the ocean by use of ship and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE over ocean calculated by the ECHAM 5 climate model is evaluated for the cloud property input derived from ship based measurements and satellite based estimates and compared to ship based radiation measurements. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM~SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  5. Impact of Surface Active Ionic Liquids on the Cloud Points of Nonionic Surfactants and the Formation of Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Filipa A; Cardoso, Inês S; Sintra, Tânia E; Lemus, Jesus; Marques, Eduardo F; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-09-21

    Aqueous micellar two-phase systems (AMTPS) hold a large potential for cloud point extraction of biomolecules but are yet poorly studied and characterized, with few phase diagrams reported for these systems, hence limiting their use in extraction processes. This work reports a systematic investigation of the effect of different surface-active ionic liquids (SAILs)-covering a wide range of molecular properties-upon the clouding behavior of three nonionic Tergitol surfactants. Two different effects of the SAILs on the cloud points and mixed micelle size have been observed: ILs with a more hydrophilic character and lower critical packing parameter (CPP formation of smaller micelles and concomitantly increase the cloud points; in contrast, ILs with a more hydrophobic character and higher CPP (CPP ≥ 1) induce significant micellar growth and a decrease in the cloud points. The latter effect is particularly interesting and unusual for it was accepted that cloud point reduction is only induced by inorganic salts. The effects of nonionic surfactant concentration, SAIL concentration, pH, and micelle ζ potential are also studied and rationalized.

  6. Satellite-Surface Perspectives of Air Quality and Aerosol-Cloud Effects on the Environment: An Overview of 7-SEAS BASELInE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Buntoung, Sumaman; Chantara, Somporn; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Gabriel, Philip M.; Goodloe, Colby S.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; hide

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of 7-SEASBASELInE (Seven SouthEast Asian Studies Biomass-burning Aerosols and Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) campaigns in spring 2013-2015 were to synergize measurements from uniquely distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)), MPLNET ( NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network)) and sophisticated platforms (e.g.,SMARTLabs (Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research and Testbed Laboratories), regional contributing instruments), along with satellite observations retrievals and regional atmospheric transport chemical models to establish a critically needed database, and to advance our understanding of biomass-burning aerosols and trace gases in Southeast Asia (SEA). We present a satellite-surface perspective of 7-SEASBASELInE and highlight scientific findings concerning: (1) regional meteorology of moisture fields conducive to the production and maintenance of low-level stratiform clouds over land; (2) atmospheric composition in a biomass-burning environment, particularly tracers-markers to serve as important indicators for assessing the state and evolution of atmospheric constituents; (3) applications of remote sensing to air quality and impact on radiative energetics, examining the effect of diurnal variability of boundary-layer height on aerosol loading; (4) aerosol hygroscopicity and ground-based cloud radar measurements in aerosol-cloud processes by advanced cloud ensemble models; and (5) implications of air quality, in terms of toxicity of nanoparticles and trace gases, to human health. This volume is the third 7-SEAS special issue (after Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, 2013; and Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, 2013) and includes 27 papers published, with emphasis on air quality and aerosol-cloud effects on the environment. BASELInE observations of stratiform clouds over SEA are unique, such clouds are embedded in a heavy aerosol-laden environment and feature characteristically greater

  7. Observations and Model Simulations of Orographic Mixed-Phase Clouds at Mountain Range Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Henneberg, O. C.; Henneberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute the highest uncertainties in forcing estimation. Especially uncertainties due to mixed clouds (MPCs) have a large impact on the radiative balance and precipitation prediction. Due to Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen-process (WBF) which describes glaciation of MPCs due to the lower saturation over ice than over water, MPCs are mostly expected as short lived clouds. In contrast to the theory of the WBF, in-situ measurements have shown that MPCs can persist over longer time. But only a small number of measurements of MPCs is available. In addition modeling studies about MPCs are difficult as their processes of the three-phase-system are on the micro scale and therefore not resolved in models. We present measurements obtained at the high-altitude research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3580 m asl) in the Swiss Alps partly taken during the CLoud-Aerosol Interaction Experiments (CLACE). During the winter season, the JFJ has a high frequency of super-cooled clouds and is considered representative for being in the free troposphere. In-situ measurements of the microstructure of MPCs have been obtained with the digital imager HOLIMO, that delivers phase-resolved size distributions, concentrations, and water contents. The data set of MPCs at JFJ shows that for northerly wind cases partially-glaciated MPCs are more frequently observed than for southerly wind cases. The higher frequency of these intermediate states of MPCs suggests either higher updraft velocities, and therefore higher water-vapor supersaturations, or the absence of sufficiently high IN concentrations to quickly glaciate the MPC. Because of the limitation of in-situ information, i.e. point measurements and missing measurements of vertical velocities at JFJ, the mechanism of the long persistence of MPCs cannot be fully understood. Therefore, in addition to measurements we will investigate the JFJ region with a model study with the non-hydrostatic model COSMO-ART-M7. Combination of km

  8. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, D. P.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Palikonda, R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Su, W.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2016-12-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  9. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  10. Constraining storm-scale forecasts of deep convective initiation with surface weather observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaus, Luke

    Successfully forecasting when and where individual convective storms will form remains an elusive goal for short-term numerical weather prediction. In this dissertation, the convective initiation (CI) challenge is considered as a problem of insufficiently resolved initial conditions and dense surface weather observations are explored as a possible solution. To better quantify convective-scale surface variability in numerical simulations of discrete convective initiation, idealized ensemble simulations of a variety of environments where CI occurs in response to boundary-layer processes are examined. Coherent features 1-2 hours prior to CI are found in all surface fields examined. While some features were broadly expected, such as positive temperature anomalies and convergent winds, negative temperature anomalies due to cloud shadowing are the largest surface anomaly seen prior to CI. Based on these simulations, several hypotheses about the required characteristics of a surface observing network to constrain CI forecasts are developed. Principally, these suggest that observation spacings of less than 4---5 km would be required, based on correlation length scales. Furthermore, it is anticipated that 2-m temperature and 10-m wind observations would likely be more relevant for effectively constraining variability than surface pressure or 2-m moisture observations based on the magnitudes of observed anomalies relative to observation error. These hypotheses are tested with a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using a single CI-capable environment. The OSSE results largely confirm the hypotheses, and with 4-km and particularly 1-km surface observation spacing, skillful forecasts of CI are possible, but only within two hours of CI time. Several facets of convective-scale assimilation, including the need for properly-calibrated localization and problems from non-Gaussian ensemble estimates of the cloud field are discussed. Finally, the characteristics

  11. AMI OBSERVATIONS OF THE ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibbs, C. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Watson, R. A.; Paladini, R.; Grainge, K. J. B.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the known anomalous microwave emission region, G159.6–18.5, in the Perseus molecular cloud at 16 GHz performed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array. These are the highest angular resolution observations of G159.6–18.5 at microwave wavelengths. By combining these microwave data with infrared observations between 5.8 and 160 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we investigate the existence of a microwave-infrared correlation on angular scales of ∼2'. We find that the overall correlation appears to increase toward shorter infrared wavelengths, which is consistent with the microwave emission being produced by electric dipole radiation from small, spinning dust grains. We also find that the microwave-infrared correlation peaks at 24 μm (6.7σ), suggesting that the microwave emission is originating from a population of stochastically heated small interstellar dust grains rather than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  13. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  14. Early Evaluation of the VIIRS Calibration, Cloud Mask and Surface Reflectance Earth Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Eric; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Surface reflectance is one of the key products fromVIIRS and as withMODIS, is used in developing several higherorder land products. The VIIRS Surface Reflectance (SR) Intermediate Product (IP) is based on the heritageMODIS Collection 5 product (Vermote, El Saleous, & Justice, 2002). The quality and character of surface reflectance depend on the accuracy of the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM), the aerosol algorithms and the adequate calibration of the sensor. The focus of this paper is the early evaluation of the VIIRS SR product in the context of the maturity of the operational processing system, the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS). After a brief introduction, the paper presents the calibration performance and the role of the surface reflectance in calibration monitoring. The analysis of the performance of the cloud mask with a focus on vegetation monitoring (no snow conditions) shows typical problems over bright surfaces and high elevation sites. Also discussed is the performance of the aerosol input used in the atmospheric correction and in particular the artifacts generated by the use of the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System. Early quantitative results of the performance of the SR product over the AERONET sites showthatwith the fewadjustments recommended, the accuracy iswithin the threshold specifications. The analysis of the adequacy of the SR product (Land PEATE adjusted version) in applications of societal benefits is then presented. We conclude with a set of recommendations to ensure consistency and continuity of the JPSS mission with the MODIS Land Climate Data Record.

  15. EVALUATION MODEL FOR PAVEMENT SURFACE DISTRESS ON 3D POINT CLOUDS FROM MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS. The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments’ specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  16. Automatic extraction of discontinuity orientation from rock mass surface 3D point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua; Li, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for extracting discontinuity orientation automatically from rock mass surface 3D point cloud. The proposed method consists of four steps: (1) automatic grouping of discontinuity sets using an improved K-means clustering method, (2) discontinuity segmentation and optimization, (3) discontinuity plane fitting using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) method, and (4) coordinate transformation of discontinuity plane. The method is first validated by the point cloud of a small piece of a rock slope acquired by photogrammetry. The extracted discontinuity orientations are compared with measured ones in the field. Then it is applied to a publicly available LiDAR data of a road cut rock slope at Rockbench repository. The extracted discontinuity orientations are compared with the method proposed by Riquelme et al. (2014). The results show that the presented method is reliable and of high accuracy, and can meet the engineering needs.

  17. Data Descriptor : Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Kristensson, Adam; Iwamoto, Yoko; Pringle, Kirsty; Reddington, Carly; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Baltensperger, Urs; Bialek, Jakub; Birmili, Wolfram; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Fiebig, Markus; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Furuya, Masaki; Hammer, Emanuel; Heikkinen, Liine; Herrmann, Erik; Holzinger, Rupert; Hyono, Hiroyuki; Kanakidou, Maria; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kinouchi, Kento; Kos, Gerard P A; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Motos, Ghislain; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Paramonov, Mikhail; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Slowik, Jay; Sonntag, Andre; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wittbom, Cerina; Ogren, John A.; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Carslaw, Ken; Stratmann, Frank; Gysel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other

  18. Development of methods for inferring cloud thickness and cloud-base height from satellite radiance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Clothiaux, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Cloud-top height is a major factor determining the outgoing longwave flux at the top of the atmosphere. The downwelling radiation from the cloud strongly affects the cooling rate within the atmosphere and the longwave radiation incident at the surface. Thus, determination of cloud-base temperature is important for proper calculation of fluxes below the cloud. Cloud-base altitude is also an important factor in aircraft operations. Cloud-top height or temperature can be derived in a straightforward manner using satellite-based infrared data. Cloud-base temperature, however, is not observable from the satellite, but is related to the height, phase, and optical depth of the cloud in addition to other variables. This study uses surface and satellite data taken during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Phase-2 Intensive Field Observation (IFO) period (13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991, to improve techniques for deriving cloud-base height from conventional satellite data.

  19. Global Observations of Aerosols and Clouds from Combined Lidar and Passive Instruments to Improve Radiation Budget and Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.

  20. Observed and simulated temperature dependence of the liquid water path of low clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, A.D.; Wolf, A.B. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Data being acquired at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site can be used to examine the factors determining the temperature dependence of cloud optical thickness. We focus on cloud liquid water and physical thickness variations which can be derived from existing ARM measurements.

  1. Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms (Keyed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to fill in the observation gap prior to the time when commercial aviation began in the U.S., The NCDC Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP) retrieved...

  2. Interactions of Mineral Dust with Clouds, Sea Surface Temperature, and Climate Modes of Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlorio, Michael J.

    Global climate models (GCMs) are a vital tool for ensuring the prosperity and security of modern society. They allow scientists to understand complex interactions between the air, ocean, and land, and are used by policymakers to project future changes in climate on regional and global scales. The previous generation of GCMs, represented by CMIP3 models, are shown to be deficient in their representation of precipitation over the western United States, a region that depends critically on wintertime orographically enhanced precipitation for drinking water. In addition, aerosol-cloud interactions were prescribed in CMIP3 models, which decreased the value of their representation of global aerosol, cloud, and precipitation features. This has potentially large impacts on global radiation budgets, since aerosol-cloud interactions affect the spatial extent and magnitude of clouds and precipitation. The newest suite of GCMs, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models, includes state-of-the-art parameterizations of small-scale features such as aerosols, clouds, and precipitation, and is widely used by the scientific community to learn more about the climate system. The Community Earth System Model (CESM), in conjunction with observations, provides several simulations to investigate the role of aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the climate system and how they interact with larger modes of climate variability. We show that CESM produces a realistic spatial distribution of precipitation extremes over the western U.S., and that teleconnected signals of ENSO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to large-scale circulation patterns and precipitation over the western U.S. are improved when compared to CCSM3. We also discover a new semi-direct effect between dust and stratocumulus clouds over the subtropical North Atlantic, whereby boundary layer inversion strength increases during the most dusty summers due to shortwave absorption of dust above the planetary

  3. Evaluating Surface Radiation Fluxes Observed From Satellites in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Weller, R. A.; Chen, W.

    2018-03-01

    This study is focused on evaluation of current satellite and reanalysis estimates of surface radiative fluxes in a climatically important region. It uses unique observations from the STRATUS Ocean Reference Station buoy in a region of persistent marine stratus clouds 1,500 km off northern Chile during 2000-2012. The study shows that current satellite estimates are in better agreement with buoy observations than model outputs at a daily time scale and that satellite data depict well the observed annual cycle in both shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes. Also, buoy and satellite estimates do not show any significant trend over the period of overlap or any interannual variability. This verifies the stability and reliability of the satellite data and should make them useful to examine El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability influences on surface radiative fluxes at the STRATUS site for longer periods for which satellite record is available.

  4. WATER SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION IN AIRBORNE LASER BATHYMETRY FROM REDUNDANT BED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mandlburger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In airborne laser bathymetry knowledge of exact water level heights is a precondition for applying run-time and refraction correction of the raw laser beam travel path in the medium water. However, due to specular reflection especially at very smooth water surfaces often no echoes from the water surface itself are recorded (drop outs. In this paper, we first discuss the feasibility of reconstructing the water surface from redundant observations of the water bottom in theory. Furthermore, we provide a first practical approach for solving this problem, suitable for static and locally planar water surfaces. It minimizes the bottom surface deviations of point clouds from individual flight strips after refraction correction. Both theoretical estimations and practical results confirm the potential of the presented method to reconstruct water level heights in dm precision. Achieving good results requires enough morphological details in the scene and that the water bottom topography is captured from different directions.

  5. Observation of Electron Cloud Instabilities and Emittance Dilution at the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzapple, R.L.; Campbell, R.C.; McArdle, K.E.; Miller, M.I.; Totten, M.M.; Tucker, S.L.; Billing, M.G.; Dugan, G.F.; Ramirez, G.A.; Sonnad, K.G.; Williams, H.A.; Flanagan, J.; Palmer, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnotics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud with stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains; 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this paper we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions

  6. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  7. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H.; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-05-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL on days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) varied between 15 g m-2 and 160 g m-2. From 29 October to 4 November, when a synoptic system affected conditions at Point Alpha, the cloud LWP was higher than on the other days by around 40 g m-2. On 1 and 2 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha. The total-water specific humidity above the inversion was larger than that within the BL during these days. Entrainment rates (average of 1.5 ± 0.6 mm s-1) calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence (vertical velocity variance) in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm-3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm-3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm-3, which was consistent with the satellite-derived values. The relationship of cloud droplet number concentration and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation from 18 flights is Nd =4.6 × CCN0.71. While the mean LWP

  8. Observations of the J = 2 → 1 transition of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, P.F.

    1975-01-01

    A spectral line radiometer system for operation at a wavelength of 1.3 mm (ν = 230 GHz) was constructed and used for astronomical observations. Observations were made of the 12 CO J = 2 → 1 line in nine astronomical sources. The 13 CO J = 2 → 1 line was measured in three molecular clouds--Orion A, NGC 2024, and OMC 2. The 12 C 18 O J = 2 → 1 line has been searched for, but not detected in Orion A. It was found that the temperatures of the 12 CO J = 1 → 0 lines are equal to or slightly lower than those of the corresponding J = 1 → 0 lines. The significance of the differences observed is reduced by the uncertainties in the calibrations at the two frequencies. These measurements are consistent with the 12 CO transitions being optically thick and thermalized. The 13 CO J = 2 → 1 lines are also approximately equal in intensity to the J = 1 → 0 lines. This is not consistent with both transitions being optically thin. The implications of these measurements in terms of clumped and low density models are discussed. In the proposed low density model which fits the CO data but encounters difficulties explaining the emission from other molecules, the molecular hydrogen density in the CO-emitting region is about 2 x 10 3 cm -3 . The nondetection of the J = 2 → 1 line of the 12 C 18 O species in Orion A places an upper limit on the hydrogen density of between 2 x 10 3 cm -3 and 4 x 10 +3 cm -3 , depending on the kinetic temperature in the cloud, for that component which is optically thin. A model for the central region of the Orion A molecular cloud is proposed in which high density (n/sub H/ greater than or equal to 10 6 cm -3 ) clumps occupying a few percent of the volume are embedded in a low density (n/sub H 2 / approximately 2 x 10 3 cm -3 ) interclump medium

  9. Simultaneous and synergistic profiling of cloud and drizzle properties using ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Stephanie P.; Donovan, David P.; Russchenberg, Herman W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the importance of radar reflectivity (Z) measurements in the retrieval of liquid water cloud properties, it remains nontrivial to interpret Z due to the possible presence of drizzle droplets within the clouds. So far, there has been no published work that utilizes Z to identify the presence of drizzle above the cloud base in an optimized and a physically consistent manner. In this work, we develop a retrieval technique that exploits the synergy of different remote sensing systems to carry out this task and to subsequently profile the microphysical properties of the cloud and drizzle in a unified framework. This is accomplished by using ground-based measurements of Z, lidar attenuated backscatter below as well as above the cloud base, and microwave brightness temperatures. Fast physical forward models coupled to cloud and drizzle structure parameterization are used in an optimal-estimation-type framework in order to retrieve the best estimate for the cloud and drizzle property profiles. The cloud retrieval is first evaluated using synthetic signals generated from large-eddy simulation (LES) output to verify the forward models used in the retrieval procedure and the vertical parameterization of the liquid water content (LWC). From this exercise it is found that, on average, the cloud properties can be retrieved within 5 % of the mean truth. The full cloud-drizzle retrieval method is then applied to a selected ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) campaign dataset collected in Cabauw, the Netherlands. An assessment of the retrieval products is performed using three independent methods from the literature; each was specifically developed to retrieve only the cloud properties, the drizzle properties below the cloud base, or the drizzle fraction within the cloud. One-to-one comparisons, taking into account the uncertainties or limitations of each retrieval, show that our results are consistent with what is derived

  10. Gas-grain chemistry in cold interstellar cloud cores with a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Cuppen, H. M.; Herbst, E.

    2007-07-01

    Aims:We have recently developed a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to study surface chemistry on interstellar grains and the morphology of ice mantles. The method is designed to eliminate the problems inherent in the rate-equation formalism to surface chemistry. Here we report the first use of this method in a chemical model of cold interstellar cloud cores that includes both gas-phase and surface chemistry. The surface chemical network consists of a small number of diffusive reactions that can produce molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, methanol and assorted radicals. Methods: The simulation is started by running a gas-phase model including accretion onto grains but no surface chemistry or evaporation. The starting surface consists of either flat or rough olivine. We introduce the surface chemistry of the three species H, O and CO in an iterative manner using our stochastic technique. Under the conditions of the simulation, only atomic hydrogen can evaporate to a significant extent. Although it has little effect on other gas-phase species, the evaporation of atomic hydrogen changes its gas-phase abundance, which in turn changes the flux of atomic hydrogen onto grains. The effect on the surface chemistry is treated until convergence occurs. We neglect all non-thermal desorptive processes. Results: We determine the mantle abundances of assorted molecules as a function of time through 2 × 105 yr. Our method also allows determination of the abundance of each molecule in specific monolayers. The mantle results can be compared with observations of water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methanol ices in the sources W33A and Elias 16. Other than a slight underproduction of mantle CO, our results are in very good agreement with observations.

  11. Reduction of secondary electron yield for E-cloud mitigation by laser ablation surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valizadeh, R., E-mail: reza.valizadeh@stfc.ac.uk [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Malyshev, O.B. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Sian, T. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cropper, M.D. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Sykes, N. [Micronanics Ltd., Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • SEY below 1 can be achieved with Laser ablation surface engineering. • SEY <1 surface can be produced with different types of nanosecond lasers. • Both microstructure (groves) and nano-structures are playing a role in reducing SEY. - Abstract: Developing a surface with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) is one of the main ways of mitigating electron cloud and beam-induced electron multipacting in high-energy charged particle accelerators. In our previous publications, a low SEY < 0.9 for as-received metal surfaces modified by a nanosecond pulsed laser was reported. In this paper, the SEY of laser-treated blackened copper has been investigated as a function of different laser irradiation parameters. We explore and study the influence of micro- and nano-structures induced by laser surface treatment in air of copper samples as a function of various laser irradiation parameters such as peak power, laser wavelength (λ = 355 nm and 1064 nm), number of pulses per point (scan speed and repetition rate) and fluence, on the SEY. The surface chemical composition was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which revealed that heating resulted in diffusion of oxygen into the bulk and induced the transformation of CuO to sub-stoichiometric oxide. The surface topography was examined with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) which showed that the laser-treated surfaces are dominated by microstructure grooves and nanostructure features.

  12. Ocean Heat Uptake Slows 21st Century Surface Warming Driven by Extratropical Cloud Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W.; Maroon, E.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Kay, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the warming in response to instantaneously doubled CO2, has long been used to compare climate models. In many models, ECS is well correlated with warming produced by transient forcing experiments. Modifications to cloud phase at high latitudes in a state-of-the-art climate model, the Community Earth System Model (CESM), produce a large increase in ECS (1.5 K) via extratropical cloud feedbacks. However, only a small surface warming increase occurs in a realistic 21st century simulation including a full-depth dynamic ocean and the "business as usual" RCP8.5 emissions scenario. In fact, the increase in surface warming is only barely above the internal variability-generated range in the CESM Large Ensemble. The small change in 21st century warming is attributed to subpolar ocean heat uptake in both hemispheres. In the Southern Ocean, the mean-state circulation takes up heat while in the North Atlantic a slowdown in circulation acts as a feedback to slow surface warming. These results show the importance of subpolar ocean heat uptake in controlling the pace of warming and demonstrate that ECS cannot be used to reliably infer transient warming when it is driven by extratropical feedbacks.

  13. Observation of a 27-day solar signature in noctilucent cloud altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhnke, Merlin C.; von Savigny, Christian; Robert, Charles E.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have identified solar 27-day signatures in several parameters in the Mesosphere/Lower thermosphere region, including temperature and Noctilucent cloud (NLC) occurrence frequency. In this study we report on a solar 27-day signature in NLC altitude with peak-to-peak variations of about 400 m. We use SCIAMACHY limb-scatter observations from 2002 to 2012 to detect NLCs. The superposed epoch analysis method is applied to extract solar 27-day signatures. A 27-day signature in NLC altitude can be identified in both hemispheres in the SCIAMACHY dataset, but the signature is more pronounced in the northern hemisphere. The solar signature in NLC altitude is found to be in phase with solar activity and temperature for latitudes ≳ 70 ° N. We provide a qualitative explanation for the positive correlation between solar activity and NLC altitude based on published model simulations.

  14. 1300 micron continuum observations of the Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Snell, R.L.; Lis, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Observations with 23-arcsec angular resolution are obtained of the continuum emission at 1300 microns wavelength from the central region of the Sgr B2 molecular cloud, which contains the north and middle high-mass star-forming regions and associated radio continuum and maser sources. The spatial resolution of the present data shows that the 1300-micron continuum emission peak is located at Sgr B2(N), in contrast to the midinfrared emission, which is centered on Sgr B2(M). Comparison with 53 micron data having comparable angular resolution suggests that there is optically thick foreground dust which prevents detection of Sgr B2(N) at wavelengths not greater than 100 microns. Within the about 1.5 x 3.5 pc region mapped, the total mass is 500,000 solar masses and the mean H2 density is 300,000/cu cm, somewhat larger than found in previous investigations. 27 references

  15. Broadband VHF Interferometer Observations of an Energetic In-cloud Pulse (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Lyu, F.; Cummer, S.; Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Brown, R. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Energetic in-cloud pulses (EIPs) are a little-known in-cloud subprocess of lightning. While they may be best identified by their large peak current (>200 kA) [Lyu et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2015], they differ from narrow bipolar events (NBEs) - another type of in-cloud, high peak-current process - in that the sferic of an EIP lasts an order of magnitude longer ( ˜100 us) than that of a typical NBE ( ˜10 us). To further differentiate them from NBEs, EIPs are generally embedded within other electrical activity, whereas NBEs are known to primarily occur in isolation or as a lightning-initiating event [Smith et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, D4, 4189-4212, 1999; Rison et al., Nat. Commun., 7, 10721, 2016]. Moreover, EIPs may have an intrinsic connection with the production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) [Cummer et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8586-8593, 2014].Here we present coincident broadband VHF interferometer (INTF) observations and electric and magnetic field waveforms of an EIP with an associated NLDN peak current of 247 kA. The EIP occurs nearly 4 ms into a normal-polarity intracloud flash as part of the upward extension of the negative-polarity lightning leader. For this reason, we suspect that EIPs are a more energetic version of initial breakdown pulses (IBPs), which accompany the development of negative stepped leaders [e.g. Marshall et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 445-460, 2014]. In addition, we show similarities with NBE-producing fast breakdown [Rison et al., 2016; Tilles et al., AE12A-03, AGU Fall Meeting, 2016], in that the breakdown accompanying the EIP propagates over a similar vertical extent ( ˜0.5-1 km) and with similar propagation speed ( ˜3×107 m/s). The INTF was developed by New Mexico Tech and has been deployed at Kennedy Space Center since July 2016. It employed three 100-m baselines in 2016, has a bandwidth of 14-88 MHz and samples at 180 MS/s with 16-bit resolution. A synchronously digitized fast antenna (FA), with

  16. An Evaluation of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Simulations in the Community Atmosphere Model Using Satellite Observations: Conventional Subgrid Parameterization versus CLUBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hua [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Zhang, Zhibo [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, and Physics Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Ma, Po-Lun [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Wang, Minghuai [Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a two-step evaluation of the marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties from two Community Atmospheric Model (version 5.3, CAM5) simulations, one based on the CAM5 standard parameterization schemes (CAM5-Base), and the other on the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) scheme (CAM5-CLUBB). In the first step, we compare the cloud properties directly from model outputs between the two simulations. We find that the CAM5-CLUBB run produces more MBL clouds in the tropical and subtropical large-scale descending regions. Moreover, the stratocumulus (Sc) to cumulus (Cu) cloud regime transition is much smoother in CAM5-CLUBB than in CAM5-Base. In addition, in CAM5-Base we find some grid cells with very small low cloud fraction (<20%) to have very high in-cloud water content (mixing ratio up to 400mg/kg). We find no such grid cells in the CAM5-CLUBB run. However, we also note that both simulations, especially CAM5-CLUBB, produce a significant amount of “empty” low cloud cells with significant cloud fraction (up to 70%) and near-zero in-cloud water content. In the second step, we use satellite observations from CERES, MODIS and CloudSat to evaluate the simulated MBL cloud properties by employing the COSP satellite simulators. We note that a feature of the COSP-MODIS simulator to mimic the minimum detection threshold of MODIS cloud masking removes much more low clouds from CAM5-CLUBB than it does from CAM5-Base. This leads to a surprising result — in the large-scale descending regions CAM5-CLUBB has a smaller COSP-MODIS cloud fraction and weaker shortwave cloud radiative forcing than CAM5-Base. A sensitivity study suggests that this is because CAM5-CLUBB suffers more from the above-mentioned “empty” clouds issue than CAM5-Base. The COSP-MODIS cloud droplet effective radius in CAM5-CLUBB shows a spatial increase from coastal St toward Cu, which is in qualitative agreement with MODIS observations. In contrast, COSP-MODIS cloud droplet

  17. Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Gerding, Michael; Stevens, Michael H.; Stockwell, Robert; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.; Stober, Gunter

    2016-11-01

    Observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to examine noctilucent clouds (NLC) and their environment at middle latitudes ( 56°N and 52°S). Because SOFIE is uniquely capable of measuring NLC, water vapor, and temperature simultaneously, the local cloud environment can be specified to examine what controls their formation at mid-latitudes. Compared to higher latitudes, mid-latitude NLCs are less frequent and have lower ice mass density, by roughly a factor of five. Compared to higher latitudes at NLC heights, mid-latitude water vapor is only 12% lower while temperatures are more than 10 K higher. As a result the reduced NLC mass and frequency at mid-latitudes can be attributed primarily to temperature. Middle and high latitude NLCs contain a similar amount of meteoric smoke, which was not anticipated because smoke abundance increases towards the equator in summer. SOFIE indicates that mid-latitude NLCs may or may not be associated with supersaturation with respect to ice. It is speculated that this situation is due in part to SOFIE uncertainties related to the limb measurement geometry combined with the non-uniform nature of NLCs. SOFIE is compared with concurrent NLC, temperature, and wind observations from Kühlungsborn, Germany (54°N) during the 2015 summer. The results indicate good agreement in temperature and NLC occurrence frequency, backscatter, and height. SOFIE indicates that NLCs were less frequent over Europe during 2015 compared to other longitudes, in contrast to previous years at higher latitudes that showed no clear longitude dependence. Comparisons of SOFIE and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) indicate good agreement in average ice water column (IWC), although differences in occurrence frequency were often large.

  18. Observations of far-infrared molecular emission lines from the Orion molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscuso, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Orion Nebula has been the subject of intensive study for over one hundred years. Far-infrared (FIR) molecular line observations of CO in the shock region surrounding the infrared source IRc2 have suggested that the molecular hydrogen density in the shocked and post-shock gas is roughly 3 x 10 6 cm -3 . The temperature of this gas is on the order of 750-2000K. IRc2, like other nearby infrared sources within the Nebula, is thought to be a site of recent star formation. This object is apparently at the center of a massive bipolar molecular outflow of gas, which is producing a shock front where it meets the ambient molecular cloud surrounding IRc2. Study of such regions is important for the understanding of the chemical and physical processes that are involved in the formation of stars from molecular clouds. Recently, several far-infrared transitions among the low-lying levels of OH have been observed toward IRc2. OH is thought to be abundant, and it plays an important role in the chemical evolution of the shock and post-shock regions. The OH emission serves as a sensitive probe of the temperature and density for the shock-processed gas. A rigorous treatment of the radiative transfer of these measured transitions is performed using the escape probability formalism. From this analysis, the author determines the temperature of the OH-emitting region to be on the order of 40K. This suggests that the gas is part of the post-shock gas that has cooled sufficiently, most likely by way of radiative cooling by CO

  19. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  20. Near-Surface Meteorology During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS): Evaluation of Reanalyses and Global Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, G.; Shupe, M.D.; Caldwell, P.M.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Persson, O.; Boyle, J.S.; Kelley, M.; Klein, S.A.; Tjernstrom, M.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric measurements from the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) are used to evaluate the performance of three atmospheric reanalyses (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF)- Interim reanalysis, National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, and NCEP-DOE (Department of Energy) reanalysis) and two global climate models (CAM5 (Community Atmosphere Model 5) and NASA GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) ModelE2) in simulation of the high Arctic environment. Quantities analyzed include near surface meteorological variables such as temperature, pressure, humidity and winds, surface-based estimates of cloud and precipitation properties, the surface energy budget, and lower atmospheric temperature structure. In general, the models perform well in simulating large-scale dynamical quantities such as pressure and winds. Near-surface temperature and lower atmospheric stability, along with surface energy budget terms, are not as well represented due largely to errors in simulation of cloud occurrence, phase and altitude. Additionally, a development version of CAM5, which features improved handling of cloud macro physics, has demonstrated to improve simulation of cloud properties and liquid water amount. The ASCOS period additionally provides an excellent example of the benefits gained by evaluating individual budget terms, rather than simply evaluating the net end product, with large compensating errors between individual surface energy budget terms that result in the best net energy budget.

  1. The SunCloud project: An initiative for a development of a worldwide sunshine duration and cloudiness observations dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2010-09-01

    One problem encountered when establishing the causes of global dimming and brightening is the limited number of long-term solar radiation series with accurate and calibrated measurements. For this reason, the analysis is often supported and extended with the use of other climatic variables such as sunshine duration and cloud cover. Specifically, sunshine duration is defined as the amount of time usually expressed in hours that direct solar radiation exceeds a certain threshold (usually taken at 120 W m-2). Consequently, this variable can be considered as an excellent proxy measure of solar radiation at interannual and decadal time scales, with the advantage that measurements of this variable were initiated in the late 19th century in different, worldwide, main meteorological stations. Nevertheless, detailed and up-to-date analysis of sunshine duration behavior on global or hemispheric scales are still missing. Thus, starting on September 2010 in the framework of different research projects, we will engage a worldwide compilation of the longest daily or monthly sunshine duration series from the late 19th century until present. Several quality control checks and homogenization methods will be applied to the generated sunshine dataset. The relationship between the more precise downward solar radiation series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this presentation we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. The SunCloud Team: M. Wild, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  2. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Chepfer , H.; Minnis , P.; Dubuisson , P.; Chiriaco , Marjolaine; Sun-Mack , S.; Rivière , E.D.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx...

  3. Simultaneous observations of noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Hosokawa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports simultaneous observations of visible noctilucent clouds (NLC and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE at Syowa Station (69°01′S, 38°61′E in Antarctica. During a 1.5 h interval from 2000 to 2130 UT (2300 to 0030 LT on Feb. 11, 2009, visible NLC were observed south of Syowa Station. The oblique sounding HF radar of SuperDARN at Syowa Station simultaneously observed peculiar echoes in the closest two range gates. The echoes had a small Doppler velocity and a narrow spectral width, which are consistent with the characteristics of PMSE in the SuperDARN data. The simultaneous appearance of the visible NLC and peculiar near-range echoes observed by the HF radar suggests that the echoes were actually a signature of PMSE in the HF band. In addition, the data from the simultaneous measurements show that the spatial distributions of NLC and PMSE in the HF band were collocated with each other, which implies that oblique sounding HF radar is a useful tool for estimating the two-dimensional horizontal distribution of PMSE.

  4. Ammonia observations of the molecular clouds near S68, S140, OMC2 and S106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, L.T.; Brown, A.T.; Macdonald, G.H.; Riley, P.W.; Matheson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    The J=1, K=1 and J=2, K=2 transitions of interstellar ammonia have been observed in the molecular clouds near S68, S140, OMC2 and S106. Maps of the ammonia emission obtained with a 2.2-arcmin beam are presented and compared with observations of other interstellar molecules, in particular carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The distribution of the ammonia emission in OMC2 and S140 resembles more closely that of 2-mm formaldehyde than 13 CO, which is generally more extended. On the other hand, the densities of hydrogen molecules derived from the ammonia observations on the basis of a simple uniform-density model for the source are much lower than those obtained from 2-mm formaldehyde observations. This discrepancy may be resolved either by assuming a 'core-halo' or a 'clumped' structure for the source. The limits to 'halo' emission are used to suggest that the latter possibility is more probable, in which case the medium is well modelled as many clumps of density approximately 10 6 cm -3 and size -2 pc, immersed in a more tenuous medium of density approximately 10sup(3 to 4)cm -3 . (author)

  5. GEWEX cloud assessment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Rossow, William B.; Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Steve; Cesana, Gregory; Chepfer, Hélène; Di Girolamo, Larry; Getzewich, Brian; Guignard, Anthony; Heidinger, Andy; Maddux, Brent; Menzel, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Pearl, Cindy; Platnick, Steven; Poulsen, Caroline; Riedi, Jérôme; Sayer, Andrew; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Walther, Andi; Winker, Dave; Zeng, Shen; Zhao, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the entire globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years; however, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provides the first coordinated intercomparison of publicly available, global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multi-angle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. The monthly, gridded database presented here facilitates further assessments, climate studies, and the evaluation of climate models.

  6. A SAR Observation and Numerical Study on Ocean Surface Imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Pichel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface imprints of Atmospheric Vortex Street (AVS off Aleutian Volcanic Islands, Alaska were observed in two RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images separated by about 11 hours. In both images, three pairs of distinctive vortices shedding in the lee side of two volcanic mountains can be clearly seen. The length and width of the vortex street are about 60-70 km and 20 km, respectively. Although the AVS’s in the two SAR images have similar shapes, the structure of vortices within the AVS is highly asymmetrical. The sea surface wind speed is estimated from the SAR images with wind direction input from Navy NOGAPS model. In this paper we present a complete MM5 model simulation of the observed AVS. The surface wind simulated from the MM5 model is in good agreement with SAR-derived wind. The vortex shedding rate calculated from the model run is about 1 hour and 50 minutes. Other basic characteristics of the AVS including propagation speed of the vortex, Strouhal and Reynolds numbers favorable for AVS generation are also derived. The wind associated with AVS modifies the cloud structure in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. The AVS cloud pattern is also observed on a MODIS visible band image taken between the two RADARSAT SAR images. An ENVISAT advance SAR image taken 4 hours after the second RADARSAT SAR image shows that the AVS has almost vanished.

  7. Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Retrievals from High-Resolution ASTER Observations: Case Studies and Comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTERspecific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in Zhao and Di Girolamo (2006). To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud effective radius (r(sub eff)) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, tau(sub aA) and r(sub eff, aA) retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R greater than 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between r(sub eff, aA) and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 micrometers. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  8. Surface plasmon observed for carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Stadelmann, P A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Peng, J L; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents parallel electron energy loss spectra (PEELS) results, obtained for individual carbon nanotubes, using nanoprobe techniques (1-2 nm diameter electron beam), energy resolution 0.5 eV and collection times of 4-25 sec. The aim was to use a nanoprobe to compare PEELS spectra from different parts of a tube, in order to search for variations in sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonding ratios as well as to look for orientation dependent plasmon and core-loss phenomena. It also seemed interesting to compare results for nanotubes with those for other varieties of graphitized carbons. The most interesting result so far was the appearance of a 15 eV plasmon peak, which appeared only for tubes containing {<=} about 12 graphite-like layers. This peak did not shift significantly with tube size. A low-loss peaks at 6 eV of variable relative intensity was also observed this peak was relatively very weak for amorphous tubes; it appears to be characteristic of graphite-like layers, as found for nanotubes and, of course, graphite itself. This paper is restricted to discussion of the low-loss results. The experimental techniques are first described, including some details of the methods which may be used to disperse and support sooty carbons for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are then presented, followed by an interpretation of all the low-loss PEELS results, including those of the other authors. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educaci

  10. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Nguyen, L.; Palikonda, R.; Hong, G.; Trepte, Q.; Chee, T.; Scarino, B. R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fleeger, C.; Ayers, J. K.; Chang, F. L.; Heck, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  11. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  12. Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy LOGAN; Xiquan DONG; Baike XI

    2018-01-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean.Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways.ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds,Aerosol,and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site.Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean,continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and NCCN values less than 100 cm-3.However,southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation (R)among aerosol loading (σsp > 60 Mm-1) and NCCN,carbonaceous chemical species (biomass burning smoke),and precipitable water vapor.This suggests a common transport mechanism for smoke aerosols and moisture via the Gulf of Mexico,indicating a strong dependence on air mass type.NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data,suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP,especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico.Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol,CCN,and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  13. Hierarchical Threshold Adaptive for Point Cloud Filter Algorithm of Moving Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xiaoxiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy,efficiency and adaptability of point cloud filtering algorithm,a hierarchical threshold adaptive for point cloud filter algorithm of moving surface fitting was proposed.Firstly,the noisy points are removed by using a statistic histogram method.Secondly,the grid index is established by grid segmentation,and the surface equation is set up through the lowest point among the neighborhood grids.The real height and fit are calculated.The difference between the elevation and the threshold can be determined.Finally,in order to improve the filtering accuracy,hierarchical filtering is used to change the grid size and automatically set the neighborhood size and threshold until the filtering result reaches the accuracy requirement.The test data provided by the International Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Society (ISPRS is used to verify the algorithm.The first and second error and the total error are 7.33%,10.64% and 6.34% respectively.The algorithm is compared with the eight classical filtering algorithms published by ISPRS.The experiment results show that the method has well-adapted and it has high accurate filtering result.

  14. Single particle analysis of ice crystal residuals observed in orographic wave clouds over Scandinavia during INTACC experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Targino

    2006-01-01

    low-Z particles represent significant part of the analyzed cloud residual particles. This indicates that organic material may be poor ice nuclei, in contrast to polluted cases when ice crystal formation was observed at the same environmental conditions and when the cloud residual composition was dominated by mineral dust. The presented results suggest that the chemical composition of cloud nuclei and airmass origin have a strong impact on the ice formation through heterogeneous nucleation in supercooled clouds.

  15. An Observational Diagnostic for Distinguishing between Clouds and Haze in Hot Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, 1116 8th Avenue, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Parmentier, Vivien, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    The nature of aerosols in hot exoplanet atmospheres is one of the primary vexing questions facing the exoplanet field. The complex chemistry, multiple formation pathways, and lack of easily identifiable spectral features associated with aerosols make it especially challenging to constrain their key properties. We propose a transmission spectroscopy technique to identify the primary aerosol formation mechanism for the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters (HIHJs). The technique is based on the expectation that the two key types of aerosols—photochemically generated hazes and equilibrium condensate clouds—are expected to form and persist in different regions of a highly irradiated planet’s atmosphere. Haze can only be produced on the permanent daysides of tidally locked hot Jupiters, and will be carried downwind by atmospheric dynamics to the evening terminator (seen as the trailing limb during transit). Clouds can only form in cooler regions on the nightside and morning terminator of HIHJs (seen as the leading limb during transit). Because opposite limbs are expected to be impacted by different types of aerosols, ingress and egress spectra, which primarily probe opposing sides of the planet, will reveal the dominant aerosol formation mechanism. We show that the benchmark HIHJ, WASP-121b, has a transmission spectrum consistent with partial aerosol coverage and that ingress–egress spectroscopy would constrain the location and formation mechanism of those aerosols. In general, using this diagnostic we find that observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and potentially with the Hubble Space Telescope should be able to distinguish between clouds and haze for currently known HIHJs.

  16. An Observational Diagnostic for Distinguishing between Clouds and Haze in Hot Exoplanet Atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Parmentier, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    The nature of aerosols in hot exoplanet atmospheres is one of the primary vexing questions facing the exoplanet field. The complex chemistry, multiple formation pathways, and lack of easily identifiable spectral features associated with aerosols make it especially challenging to constrain their key properties. We propose a transmission spectroscopy technique to identify the primary aerosol formation mechanism for the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters (HIHJs). The technique is based on the expectation that the two key types of aerosols—photochemically generated hazes and equilibrium condensate clouds—are expected to form and persist in different regions of a highly irradiated planet’s atmosphere. Haze can only be produced on the permanent daysides of tidally locked hot Jupiters, and will be carried downwind by atmospheric dynamics to the evening terminator (seen as the trailing limb during transit). Clouds can only form in cooler regions on the nightside and morning terminator of HIHJs (seen as the leading limb during transit). Because opposite limbs are expected to be impacted by different types of aerosols, ingress and egress spectra, which primarily probe opposing sides of the planet, will reveal the dominant aerosol formation mechanism. We show that the benchmark HIHJ, WASP-121b, has a transmission spectrum consistent with partial aerosol coverage and that ingress–egress spectroscopy would constrain the location and formation mechanism of those aerosols. In general, using this diagnostic we find that observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and potentially with the Hubble Space Telescope should be able to distinguish between clouds and haze for currently known HIHJs.

  17. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  18. Quantification of waves in lidar observations of noctilucent clouds at scales from seconds to minutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifler, N.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2013-12-01

    We present small-scale structures and waves observed in noctilucent clouds (NLC) by lidar at an unprecedented temporal resolution of 30 s or less. The measurements were taken with the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway (69° N) in the years 2008-2011. We find multiple layer NLC in 7.9% of the time for a brightness threshold of δ β = 12 × 10-10 m-1 sr-1. In comparison to 10 min averaged data, the 30 s dataset shows considerably more structure. For limited periods, quasi-monochromatic waves in NLC altitude variations are common, in accord with ground-based NLC imagery. For the combined dataset, on the other hand, we do not find preferred periods but rather significant periods at all timescales observed (1 min to 1 h). Typical wave amplitudes in the layer vertical displacements are 0.2 km with maximum amplitudes up to 2.3 km. Average spectral slopes of temporal altitude and brightness variations are -2.01 ± 0.25 for centroid altitude, -1.41 ± 0.24 for peak brightness and -1.73 ± 0.25 for integrated brightness. Evaluating a new single-pulse detection system, we observe altitude variations of 70 s period and spectral slopes down to a scale of 10 s. We evaluate the suitability of NLC parameters as tracers for gravity waves.

  19. Quantification of waves in lidar observations of noctilucent clouds at scales from seconds to minutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaifler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present small-scale structures and waves observed in noctilucent clouds (NLC by lidar at an unprecedented temporal resolution of 30 s or less. The measurements were taken with the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway (69° N in the years 2008–2011. We find multiple layer NLC in 7.9% of the time for a brightness threshold of δ β = 12 × 10−10 m−1 sr−1. In comparison to 10 min averaged data, the 30 s dataset shows considerably more structure. For limited periods, quasi-monochromatic waves in NLC altitude variations are common, in accord with ground-based NLC imagery. For the combined dataset, on the other hand, we do not find preferred periods but rather significant periods at all timescales observed (1 min to 1 h. Typical wave amplitudes in the layer vertical displacements are 0.2 km with maximum amplitudes up to 2.3 km. Average spectral slopes of temporal altitude and brightness variations are −2.01 ± 0.25 for centroid altitude, −1.41 ± 0.24 for peak brightness and −1.73 ± 0.25 for integrated brightness. Evaluating a new single-pulse detection system, we observe altitude variations of 70 s period and spectral slopes down to a scale of 10 s. We evaluate the suitability of NLC parameters as tracers for gravity waves.

  20. Noctilucent clouds observed from the UK and Denmark – trends and variations over 43 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kirkwood

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The combined UK/Denmark record of noctilucent cloud (NLC observations over the period 1964–2006 is analysed. This data set is based on visual observations by professional and voluntary observers, with around 40 observers each year contributing reports. Evidence is found for a significantly longer NLC season, a greater frequency of bright NLC, and a decreased sensitivity to 5-day planetary waves, from 1973–1982, compared to the rest of the time interval. This coincides with a period when the length of the summer season in the stratosphere was also longer (defined by zonal winds at 60° N, 30 hPa. At NLC heights, lower mean temperatures, and/or higher water vapour and/or smaller planetary wave amplitudes could explain these results. The time series of number of NLC nights each year shows a quasi-decadal variation with good anti-correlation with the 10.7 cm solar flux, with a lag of 13–17 months. Using multi-parameter linear fitting, it is found that the solar-cycle and the length of summer in the stratosphere together can explain ~40% of the year-to-year variation in NLC numbers. However, no statistically confidant long-term trend in moderate or bright NLC is found. For NLC displays of moderate or greater intensity, the multi-parameter fit gives a trend of ~0.08 nights (0.35% per year with a statistical probability of 28% that it is zero, or as high as 0.16 nights (0.7% per year. There is a significant increasing trend in the number of reports of faint or very faint NLC which is inconsistent with other observations and may be due changes in observing practices.

  1. Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol-cloud interaction in different parts of the globe is examined here using multi-year statistics of remotely sensed data from two MODIS sensors aboard NASA's Terra (morning and Aqua (afternoon satellites. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol loadings and cloud properties by the MODIS sensor allowed us to explore morning-to-afternoon variation of liquid cloud fraction (CF and optical thickness (COT for clean, moderately polluted and heavily polluted clouds in different seasons. Data analysis for seven-years of MODIS retrievals revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud fraction and optical thickness over different parts of the global oceans and the land. For the vast areas of stratocumulus cloud regions, the data shows that the days with elevated aerosol abundance were also associated with enhanced afternoon reduction of CF and COT pointing to the possible reduction of the indirect climate forcing. A positive correlation between aerosol optical depth and morning-to-afternoon variation of trade wind cumulus cloud cover was also found over the northern Indian Ocean, though no clear relationship between the concentration of Indo-Asian haze and morning-to-afternoon variation of COT was established. Over the Amazon region during wet conditions, aerosols are associated with an enhanced convective process in which morning shallow warm clouds are organized into afternoon deep convection with greater ice cloud coverage. Analysis presented here demonstrates that the new technique for exploring morning-to-afternoon variability in cloud properties by using the differences in data products from the two daily MODIS overpasses is capable of capturing some of the major features of diurnal variations in cloud properties and can be used for better understanding of aerosol radiative effects.

  2. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Prediction System (NOGAPS) model, C-band geophysical model functions (GMFs) which describe the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) dependence on the wind speed and the geometry of radar observations (i.e., incidence angle and azimuth angle with respect to wind direction) such as CMOD5 and newly developed......The hurricanes can be detected by many remote sensors, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can yield high-resolution (sub-kilometer) and low-level wind information that cannot be seen below the cloud by other sensors. In this paper, an assessment of SAR capability of monitoring high...

  3. Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zinner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud effective particle size with passive sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave and midwave infrared channels. In practice, retrieved effective radii from these combinations can be quite different. This difference is perhaps indicative of different penetration depths and path lengths for the spectral reflectances used. In addition, operational liquid water cloud retrievals are based on the assumption of a relatively narrow distribution of droplet sizes; the role of larger precipitation particles in these distributions is neglected. Therefore, possible explanations for the discrepancy in some MODIS spectral size retrievals could include 3-D radiative transport effects, including sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity, and/or the impact of drizzle formation.

    For three cloud cases the possible factors of influence are isolated and investigated in detail by the use of simulated cloud scenes and synthetic satellite data: marine boundary layer cloud scenes from large eddy simulations (LES with detailed microphysics are combined with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that explicitly account for the detailed droplet size distributions as well as 3-D radiative transfer to simulate MODIS observations. The operational MODIS optical thickness and effective radius retrieval algorithm is applied to these and the results are compared to the given LES microphysics.

    We investigate two types of marine cloud situations each with and without drizzle from LES simulations: (1 a typical daytime stratocumulus deck at two times in the diurnal cycle and (2 one scene with scattered cumulus. Only small impact of drizzle formation on the retrieved domain average and on the differences between the three

  4. Chemical and physical influences on aerosol activation in liquid clouds: a study based on observations from the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple statistical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in warm clouds has been established, based on regression analysis of data from four summertime Cloud and Aerosol Characterisation Experiments (CLACE at the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (JFJ. It is shown that 79 % of the observed variance in droplet numbers can be represented by a model accounting only for the number of potential cloud condensation nuclei (defined as number of particles larger than 80 nm in diameter, while the mean errors in the model representation may be reduced by the addition of further explanatory variables, such as the mixing ratios of O3, CO, and the height of the measurements above cloud base. The statistical model has a similar ability to represent the observed droplet numbers in each of the individual years, as well as for the two predominant local wind directions at the JFJ (northwest and southeast. Given the central European location of the JFJ, with air masses in summer being representative of the free troposphere with regular boundary layer in-mixing via convection, we expect that this statistical model is generally applicable to warm clouds under conditions where droplet formation is aerosol limited (i.e. at relatively high updraught velocities and/or relatively low aerosol number concentrations. A comparison between the statistical model and an established microphysical parametrization shows good agreement between the two and supports the conclusion that cloud droplet formation at the JFJ is predominantly controlled by the number concentration of aerosol particles.

  5. Influence of the liquid layer within mixed-phase clouds on radar observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfitzenmaier, L.; Dufournet, Y.; Unal, C.M.H.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-phase clouds play an important role in the earth system. They affect earth radiative balance and the climate (Comstock et al., 2007; Solomon et al., 2007) as well as the formation of precipitation (de Boer et al., 2009; Fan et al., 2011; Lamb and Verlinde, 2011). Within such mixed-phase clouds

  6. Herschel Observations of Protostellar and Young Stellar Objects in Nearby Molecular Clouds: The DIGIT Open Time Key Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT OTKP Team

    2010-01-01

    The DIGIT (Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time) Open Time Key Project utilizes the PACS spectrometer (57-210 um) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory to study the colder regions of young stellar objects and protostellar cores, complementary to recent observations from Spitzer and ground-based observatories. DIGIT focuses on 30 embedded sources and 64 disk sources, and includes supporting photometry from PACS and SPIRE, as well as spectroscopy from HIFI, selected from nearby molecular clouds. For the embedded sources, PACS spectroscopy will allow us to address the origin of [CI] and high-J CO lines observed with ISO-LWS. Our observations are sensitive to the presence of cold crystalline water ice, diopside, and carbonates. Additionally, PACS scans are 5x5 maps of the embedded sources and their outflows. Observations of more evolved disk sources will sample low and intermediate mass objects as well as a variety of spectral types from A to M. Many of these sources are extremely rich in mid-IR crystalline dust features, enabling us to test whether similar features can be detected at larger radii, via colder dust emission at longer wavelengths. If processed grains are present only in the inner disk (in the case of full disks) or from the emitting wall surface which marks the outer edge of the gap (in the case of transitional disks), there must be short timescales for dust processing; if processed grains are detected in the outer disk, radial transport must be rapid and efficient. Weak bands of forsterite and clino- and ortho-enstatite in the 60-75 um range provide information about the conditions under which these materials were formed. For the Science Demonstration Phase we are observing an embedded protostar (DK Cha) and a Herbig Ae/Be star (HD 100546), exemplars of the kind of science that DIGIT will achieve over the full program.

  7. High cloud variations with surface temperature from 2002 to 2015: Contributions to atmospheric radiative cooling rate and precipitation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Gu, Yu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Liu, Shaw Chen

    2017-05-01

    The global mean precipitation is largely constrained by atmospheric radiative cooling rates (Qr), which are sensitive to changes in high cloud fraction. We investigate variations of high cloud fraction with surface temperature (Ts) from July 2002 to June 2015 and compute their radiative effects on Qr using the Fu-Liou-Gu plane-parallel radiation model. We find that the tropical mean (30°S-30°N) high cloud fraction decreases with increasing Ts at a rate of about -1.0 ± 0.34% K-1 from 2002 to 2015, which leads to an enhanced atmospheric cooling around 0.86 W m-2 K-1. On the other hand, the northern midlatitudes (30°N-60°N) high cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 1.85 ± 0.65% K-1 and the near-global mean (60°S-60°N) high cloud fraction shows a statistically insignificant decreasing trend with increasing Ts over the analysis period. Dividing high clouds into cirrus, cirrostratus, and deep convective clouds, we find that cirrus cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.11% K-1 (0.01 ± 0.17% K-1) for the near-global mean (tropical mean), while cirrostratus and deep convective clouds decrease with surface warming at a rate of -0.02 ± 0.18% K-1 and -0.33 ± 0.18% K-1 for the near-global mean and -0.64 ± 0.23% K-1 and -0.37 ± 0.13% K-1 for the tropical mean, respectively. High cloud fraction response to feedback to Ts accounts for approximately 1.9 ± 0.7% and 16.0 ± 6.1% of the increase in precipitation per unit surface warming over the period of 2002-2015 for the near-global mean and the tropical mean, respectively.

  8. Development of a Graphical User Interface to Visualize Surface Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.L.

    1998-07-13

    Thousands of worldwide observing stations provide meteorological information near the earth's surface as often as once each hour. This surface data may be plotted on geographical maps to provide the meteorologist useful information regarding weather patterns for a region of interest. This report describes the components and applications of a graphical user interface which have been developed to visualize surface observations at any global location and time of interest.

  9. Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangrande, Scott E.; Feng, Zhe; Jensen, Michael P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Routine cloud, precipitation and thermodynamic observations collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Aerial Facility (AAF) during the 2-year US Department of Energy (DOE) ARM Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign are summarized. These observations quantify the diurnal to large-scale thermodynamic regime controls on the clouds and precipitation over the undersampled, climatically important Amazon basin region. The extended ground deployment of cloud-profiling instrumentation enabled a unique look at multiple cloud regimes at high temporal and vertical resolution. This longer-term ground deployment, coupled with two short-term aircraft intensive observing periods, allowed new opportunities to better characterize cloud and thermodynamic observational constraints as well as cloud radiative impacts for modeling efforts within typical Amazon wet and dry seasons.

  10. Ionization impact on molecular clouds and star formation: Numerical simulations and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    At all the scales of Astrophysics, the impact of the ionization from massive stars is a crucial issue. At the galactic scale, the ionization can regulate star formation by supporting molecular clouds against gravitational collapse and at the stellar scale, indications point toward a possible birth place of the Solar System close to massive stars. At the molecular cloud scale, it is clear that the hot ionized gas compresses the surrounding cold gas, leading to the formation of pillars, globules, and shells of dense gas in which some young stellar objects are observed. What are the formation mechanisms of these structures? Are the formation of these young stellar objects triggered or would have they formed anyway? Do massive stars have an impact on the distribution of the surrounding gas? Do they have an impact on the mass distribution of stars (the initial mass function, IMF)? This thesis aims at shedding some light on these questions, by focusing especially on the formation of the structures between the cold and the ionized gas. We present the state of the art of the theoretical and observational works on ionized regions (H II regions) and we introduce the numerical tools that have been developed to model the ionization in the hydrodynamic simulations with turbulence performed with the HERACLES code. Thanks to the simulations, we present a new model for the formation of pillars based on the curvature and collapse of the dense shell on itself and a new model for the formations of cometary globules based on the turbulence of the cold gas. Several diagnostics have been developed to test these new models in the observations. If pillars are formed by the collapse of the dense shell on itself, the velocity spectrum of a nascent pillar presents a large spectra with a red-shifted and a blue-shifted components that are caused by the foreground and background parts of the shell that collapse along the line of sight. If cometary globules emerge because of the turbulence of

  11. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of the Supernova Remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, W P; Shelton, R; Sembach, K R; Moos, H W; Raymond, J C; York, D G; Feldman, P D; Chayer, P; Murphy, E M; Sahnow, D J; Wilkinson, E; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Shelton, Robin; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Raymond, John C.; York, Donald G.; Feldman, Paul D.; Chayer, Pierre; Murphy, Edward M.; Sahnow, David J.; Wilkinson, Erik

    2001-01-01

    We report a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite observation of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, covering the 905 -- 1187 A spectral region. A 30'' square aperture was used, resulting in a velocity resolution of ~100 km/s. The purpose of the observation was to examine several bright emission lines expected from earlier work and to demonstrate diffuse source sensitivity by searching for faint lines never seen previously in extragalactic supernova remnant UV spectra. Both goals were accomplished. Strong emission lines of O VI 1031.9 A, 1037.6 A and C III 977.0 A were seen, Doppler broadened to +/- 225 km/s and with centroids red-shifted to 350 km/s, consistent with the LMC. Superimposed on the emission lines are absorptions by C III and O VI 1031.9 at +260 km/s, which are attributed to warm and hot gas (respectively) in the LMC. The O VI 1037.6 A line is more severely affected by overlying interstellar and H2 absorption from both the LMC and our galaxy. N III 989.8 A is not s...

  12. Winter QPF Sensitivities to Snow Parameterizations and Comparisons to NASA CloudSat Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Haynes, John M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Steady increases in computing power have allowed for numerical weather prediction models to be initialized and run at high spatial resolution, permitting a transition from larger scale parameterizations of the effects of clouds and precipitation to the simulation of specific microphysical processes and hydrometeor size distributions. Although still relatively coarse in comparison to true cloud resolving models, these high resolution forecasts (on the order of 4 km or less) have demonstrated value in the prediction of severe storm mode and evolution and are being explored for use in winter weather events . Several single-moment bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the latest release of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model suite, including the NASA Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, which incorporate some assumptions in the size distribution of a small number of hydrometeor classes in order to predict their evolution, advection and precipitation within the forecast domain. Although many of these schemes produce similar forecasts of events on the synoptic scale, there are often significant details regarding precipitation and cloud cover, as well as the distribution of water mass among the constituent hydrometeor classes. Unfortunately, validating data for cloud resolving model simulations are sparse. Field campaigns require in-cloud measurements of hydrometeors from aircraft in coordination with extensive and coincident ground based measurements. Radar remote sensing is utilized to detect the spatial coverage and structure of precipitation. Here, two radar systems characterize the structure of winter precipitation for comparison to equivalent features within a forecast model: a 3 GHz, Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) based in Omaha, Nebraska, and the 94 GHz NASA CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar, a spaceborne instrument and member of the afternoon or "A-Train" of polar orbiting satellites tasked with cataloguing global cloud

  13. A radiation closure study of Arctic stratus cloud microphysical properties using the collocated satellite-surface data and Fu-Liou radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Qiu, Shaoyue; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Rose, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Retrievals of cloud microphysical properties based on passive satellite imagery are especially difficult over snow-covered surfaces because of the bright and cold surface. To help quantify their uncertainties, single-layered overcast liquid-phase Arctic stratus cloud microphysical properties retrieved by using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Edition 2 and Edition 4 (CERES Ed2 and Ed4) algorithms are compared with ground-based retrievals at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope of Alaska (ARM NSA) site at Barrow, AK, during the period from March 2000 to December 2006. A total of 206 and 140 snow-free cases (Rsfc ≤ 0.3), and 108 and 106 snow cases (Rsfc > 0.3), respectively, were selected from Terra and Aqua satellite passes over the ARM NSA site. The CERES Ed4 and Ed2 optical depth (τ) and liquid water path (LWP) retrievals from both Terra and Aqua are almost identical and have excellent agreement with ARM retrievals under snow-free and snow conditions. In order to reach a radiation closure study for both the surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budgets, the ARM precision spectral pyranometer-measured surface albedos were adjusted (63.6% and 80% of the ARM surface albedos for snow-free and snow cases, respectively) to account for the water and land components of the domain of 30 km × 30 km. Most of the radiative transfer model calculated SW↓sfc and SW↑TOA fluxes by using ARM and CERES cloud retrievals and the domain mean albedos as input agree with the ARM and CERES flux observations within 10 W m-2 for both snow-free and snow conditions. Sensitivity studies show that the ARM LWP and re retrievals are less dependent on solar zenith angle (SZA), but all retrieved optical depths increase with SZA.

  14. Satellite retrieved cloud optical thickness sensitive to surface wind speed in the subarctic marine boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The optical and microphysical properties of low level marine clouds, presented over the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea, have been investigated for the period 2000-2006. The air masses were transported for more or less seven days over the warmer North Atlantic before they arrived at the area investigated. The main focus in this study is on investigating the relationship between cloud optical thickness (COT) and surface wind speed (U 10m ) using satellite retrievals in combination with operational meteorological data. A relatively strong correlation (R 2 = 0.97) is obtained for wind speeds up to 12 m s -1 , in air masses that were probably to a major degree influenced by wind shears and to a minor degree by buoyancy. The relationship (U 2.5 ) is also in between those most commonly found in the literature for water vapor (∼U 1 ) and sea salt (∼U 3.4 ). The present results highlight the magnitude of marine sea-spray influence on COT and their global climatic importance.

  15. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  16. Exploring the relationship between a ground-based network and airborne CCN spectra observed at the cloud level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, C.; Roberts, G. C.; Ritchie, J.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are aerosol particles that participate in the formation of clouds, and consequently, play a significant role in the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on atmospheric processes and climate change. Ultimately, the CCN of the most interest occupy the part of the atmosphere where cloud processes are occurring. A question arises as to whether in-cloud CCN are properly represented by the measurements of CCN at the ground level. While different locations may result in different answers depending upon local meteorology, the data set collected during CalWater 2011 may allow us to answer to what degree the ground-based observations of CCN are sufficient for evaluating cloud micro-physics over California's Central Valley and the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. During CalWater 2011, ground observations were performed at three different altitudes to assess the evolution of cloud-active aerosols as they were transported from sources in California's Central Valley to the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. CCN spectra were collected over a supersaturation range of 0.08 to 0.80%. Results from these data sets show a diurnal cycle with aerosol concentrations increasing during the afternoon and retreating during the night. In addition, a CCN instrument was placed aboard aircraft for several flights and was able to collect vertical profiles that encompassed the altitudes of the ground sites. The flight data shows a large drop in CCN concentration above the boundary layer and suggests the highest altitude ground site at China Wall ( 1540 masl)was sometimes above the Central Valley boundary layer. By using estimates of boundary layer heights over the mid-altitude site at Sugar Pine Dam (1060 masl), the events when the China Wall site is near or above the boundary layer are identified. During these events, the CCN measurements at China Wall best represent in-cloud CCN behavior. The results of this analysis may be applied towards a

  17. The role of ensemble-based statistics in variational assimilation of cloud-affected observations from infrared imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Joshua; Vandenberghe, Francois; Jung, Byoung-Jo; Snyder, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Effective assimilation of cloud-affected radiance observations from space-borne imagers, with the aim of improving cloud analysis and forecasting, has proven to be difficult. Large observation biases, nonlinear observation operators, and non-Gaussian innovation statistics present many challenges. Ensemble-variational data assimilation (EnVar) systems offer the benefits of flow-dependent background error statistics from an ensemble, and the ability of variational minimization to handle nonlinearity. The specific benefits of ensemble statistics, relative to static background errors more commonly used in variational systems, have not been quantified for the problem of assimilating cloudy radiances. A simple experiment framework is constructed with a regional NWP model and operational variational data assimilation system, to provide the basis understanding the importance of ensemble statistics in cloudy radiance assimilation. Restricting the observations to those corresponding to clouds in the background forecast leads to innovations that are more Gaussian. The number of large innovations is reduced compared to the more general case of all observations, but not eliminated. The Huber norm is investigated to handle the fat tails of the distributions, and allow more observations to be assimilated without the need for strict background checks that eliminate them. Comparing assimilation using only ensemble background error statistics with assimilation using only static background error statistics elucidates the importance of the ensemble statistics. Although the cost functions in both experiments converge to similar values after sufficient outer-loop iterations, the resulting cloud water, ice, and snow content are greater in the ensemble-based analysis. The subsequent forecasts from the ensemble-based analysis also retain more condensed water species, indicating that the local environment is more supportive of clouds. In this presentation we provide details that explain the

  18. TH-AB-202-08: A Robust Real-Time Surface Reconstruction Method On Point Clouds Captured From a 3D Surface Photogrammetry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W; Sawant, A; Ruan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Surface photogrammetry (e.g. VisionRT, C-Rad) provides a noninvasive way to obtain high-frequency measurement for patient motion monitoring in radiotherapy. This work aims to develop a real-time surface reconstruction method on the acquired point clouds, whose acquisitions are subject to noise and missing measurements. In contrast to existing surface reconstruction methods that are usually computationally expensive, the proposed method reconstructs continuous surfaces with comparable accuracy in real-time. Methods: The key idea in our method is to solve and propagate a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud (measurement) manifold to the surface (reconstruction) manifold, taking advantage of the similarity in local geometric topology in both manifolds. With consistent point cloud acquisition, we propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, building the point correspondences by the iterative closest point (ICP) method. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions, we further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to account for the large and sparse error built by ICP, with a Laplacian prior. We evaluated our method on both clinical acquired point clouds under consistent conditions and simulated point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The reconstruction accuracy was evaluated w.r.t. root-mean-squared-error, by comparing the reconstructed surfaces against those from the variational reconstruction method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models achieved sub-millimeter accuracy, with mean reconstruction time reduced from 82.23 seconds to 0.52 seconds and 0.94 seconds, respectively. On simulated point cloud with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent performance despite the introduced occlusions. Conclusion: We have developed a real

  19. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    OpenAIRE

    X. Zheng; B. Albrecht; H. H. Jonsson; D. Khelif; G. Feingold; P. Minnis; K. Ayers; P. Chuang; S. Donaher; D. Rossiter; V. Ghate; J. Ruiz-Plancarte; S. Sun-Mack

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-t...

  20. Coupling between marine boundary layer clouds and summer-to-summer sea surface temperature variability over the North Atlantic and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Timothy A.; Mechoso, Carlos R.; DeFlorio, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Climate modes of variability over the Atlantic and Pacific may be amplified by a positive feedback between sea-surface temperature (SST) and marine boundary layer clouds. However, it is well known that climate models poorly simulate this feedback. Does this deficiency contribute to model-to-model differences in the representation of climate modes of variability? Over both the North Atlantic and Pacific, typical summertime interannual to interdecadal SST variability exhibits horseshoe-like patterns of co-located anomalies of shortwave cloud radiative effect (CRE), low-level cloud fraction, SST, and estimated inversion strength over the subtropics and midlatitudes that are consistent with a positive cloud feedback. During winter over the midlatitudes, this feedback appears to be diminished. Models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 that simulate a weak feedback between subtropical SST and shortwave CRE produce smaller and less realistic amplitudes of summertime SST and CRE variability over the northern oceans compared to models with a stronger feedback. The change in SST amplitude per unit change in CRE amplitude among the models and observations may be understood as the temperature response of the ocean mixed layer to a unit change in radiative flux over the course of a season. These results highlight the importance of boundary layer clouds in interannual to interdecadal atmosphere-ocean variability over the northern oceans during summer. The results also suggest that deficiencies in the simulation of these clouds in coupled climate models contribute to underestimation in their simulation of summer-to-summer SST variability.

  1. Cloud structure evolution of heavy rain events from the East-West Pacific Ocean: a combined global observation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaranom, A. B.; Nurjani, E.; Pujiastuti, I.

    2018-04-01

    Heavy rain events are often associated with flood hazards as one of the most devastating events across the globe. It is therefore essential to identify the evolution of heavy rainfall cloud structures, primarily from global satellite observation, as a tool to provide better disaster early warning systems. To identify the mechanism of heavy rainfall systems and its relationship with cloud development, especially over The Pacific Ocean, we aim to study the westward evolution of the convective systems over this area. Several datasets from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), CloudSat GEOPROF product, and ECMWF-reanalysis (ERA) interim were utilized to characterize the evolution. Geolocation and orbital time-lag analysis of the three different datasets for more than 8 years (2006-2014) could provide information related to the evolution of cloud structures associated with heavy rain events. In the first step, a heavy rainfall database was generated from TRMM. The CloudSat coordinate and time position were then matched with TRMM coordinate and time position. All of the processes were programatically conducted in fortran programming language. The result shows a transition between East and West Pacific ocean for TMI data.

  2. Lidar observation and model simulation of a volcanic-ash-induced cirrus cloud during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice formation induced by volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in April 2010 is investigated based on the combination of a cirrus cloud observed with a backscatter lidar over Jülich (western Germany and model simulations along backward trajectories. The microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud could only be represented by the microphysical model under the assumption of an enhanced number of efficient ice nuclei originating from the volcanic eruption. The ice nuclei (IN concentration determined by lidar measurements directly before and after cirrus cloud occurrence implies a value of around 0.1 cm−3 (in comparison normal IN conditions: 0.01 cm−3. This leads to a cirrus cloud with rather small ice crystals having a mean radius of 12 μm and a modification of the ice particle number (0.08 cm−3 instead of 3 × 10−4 cm−3 under normal IN conditions. The effectiveness of ice nuclei was estimated by the use of the microphysical model and the backward trajectories based on ECMWF data, establishing a freezing threshold of around 105% relative humidity with respect to ice in a temperature range from −45 to −55 °C . Only with these highly efficient ice nuclei was it possible for the cirrus cloud to be formed in a slightly supersaturated environment.

  3. High-accuracy diagnostic tool for electron cloud observation in the LHC based on synchronous phase measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban Müller, J F; Shaposhnikova, E; Valuch, D; Mastoridis, T

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud effects such as heat load in the cryogenic system, pressure rise and beam instabilities are among the main limitations for the LHC operation with 25 ns spaced bunches. A new observation tool was developed to monitor the e-cloud activity and has been successfully used in the LHC during Run 1 (2010-2012). The power loss of each bunch due to the e-cloud can be estimated using very precise bunch-by-bunch measurement of the synchronous phase shift. In order to achieve the required accuracy, corrections for reflection in the cables and some systematic errors need to be applied followed by a post-processing of the measurements. Results clearly show the e-cloud build-up along the bunch trains and its evolution during each LHC fill as well as from fill to fill. Measurements during the 2012 LHC scrubbing run reveal a progressive reduction in the e-cloud activity and therefore a decrease in the secondary electron yield (SEY). The total beam power loss can be computed as a sum of the contributions from all...

  4. Submillimeter and far-infrared line observations of M17 SW - A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Stacey, G. J.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far-IR spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are reported. Strong forbidden C II 158 micron and CO J = 7 - 6 line emission arises in an H II region/molecular cloud interface of several pc thickness. Weaker forbidden C II emission appears to be extended over 15 pc throughout the molecular cloud. CO J = 14 - 13 and forbidden O I 145 micron spectra indicate high temperatures and densities for both molecular and atomic gas in the interface. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. The extended forbidden C II emission throughout the molecular cloud has a level around 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. The high gas temperature of molecular material in the UV-illuminated interface region suggests that CO self-shielding and heating of CO by photoelectrons are important.

  5. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  6. Improved SAGE II cloud/aerosol categorization and observations of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer: 1989–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the challenges associated with the interpretation of extinction coefficient measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II in the presence of clouds. In particular, we have found that tropospheric aerosol analyses are highly dependent on a robust method for identifying when clouds affect the measured extinction coefficient. Herein, we describe an improved cloud identification method that appears to capture cloud/aerosol events more effectively than early methods. In addition, we summarize additional challenges to observing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL using SAGE II observations. Using this new approach, we perform analyses of the upper troposphere, focusing on periods in which the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere is relatively free of volcanic material (1989–1990 and after 1996. Of particular interest is the Asian monsoon anticyclone where CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Pathfinder Satellite Observations has observed an aerosol enhancement. This enhancement, called the ATAL, has a similar morphology to observed enhancements in long-lived trace gas species like CO. Since the CALIPSO record begins in 2006, the question of how long this aerosol feature has been present requires a new look at the long-lived SAGE II data sets despite significant hurdles to its use in the subtropical upper troposphere. We find that there is no evidence of ATAL in the SAGE II data prior to 1998. After 1998, it is clear that aerosol in the upper troposphere in the ATAL region is substantially enhanced relative to the period before that time. In addition, the data generally supports the presence of the ATAL beginning in 1999 and continuing through the end of the mission, though some years (e.g., 2003 are complicated by the presence of episodic enhancements most likely of volcanic origin.

  7. Aircraft observations and model simulations of concentration and particle size distribution in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Dacre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland emitted a cloud of ash into the atmosphere during April and May 2010. Over the UK the ash cloud was observed by the FAAM BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft which was equipped with in-situ probes measuring the concentration of volcanic ash carried by particles of varying sizes. The UK Met Office Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME has been used to simulate the evolution of the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano during the period 4–18 May 2010. In the NAME simulations the processes controlling the evolution of the concentration and particle size distribution include sedimentation and deposition of particles, horizontal dispersion and vertical wind shear. For travel times between 24 and 72 h, a 1/t relationship describes the evolution of the concentration at the centre of the ash cloud and the particle size distribution remains fairly constant. Although NAME does not represent the effects of microphysical processes, it can capture the observed decrease in concentration with travel time in this period. This suggests that, for this eruption, microphysical processes play a small role in determining the evolution of the distal ash cloud. Quantitative comparison with observations shows that NAME can simulate the observed column-integrated mass if around 4% of the total emitted mass is assumed to be transported as far as the UK by small particles (< 30 μm diameter. NAME can also simulate the observed particle size distribution if a distal particle size distribution that contains a large fraction of < 10 μm diameter particles is used, consistent with the idea that phraetomagmatic volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, emit very fine particles.

  8. Double-layer structure in polar mesospheric clouds observed from SOFIE/AIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-layer structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs are observed by using Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE data between 2007 and 2014. We find 816 and 301 events of double-layer structure with percentages of 10.32 and 7.25 % compared to total PMC events, and the mean distances between two peaks are 3.06 and 2.73 km for the Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH respectively. Double-layer PMCs almost always have less mean ice water content (IWC than daily IWC during the core of the season, but they are close to each other at the beginning and the end. The result by averaging over all events shows that the particle concentration has obvious double peaks, while the particle radius exhibits an unexpected monotonic increase with decreasing altitude. By further analysis of the background temperature and water vapour residual profiles, we conclude that the lower layer is a reproduced one formed at the bottom of the upper layer. 56.00 and 47.51 % of all double-layer events for the NH and SH respectively have temperature enhancements larger than 2 K locating between their double peaks. The longitudinal anti-correlation between the gravity waves' (GWs' potential energies and occurrence frequencies of double-layer PMCs suggests that the double-layer PMCs tend to form in an environment where the GWs have weaker intensities.

  9. Detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds using limb scattering observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Savigny

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based measurements of Visible/NIR limb-scattered solar radiation are well suited for the detection and mapping of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs. This publication describes a method to detect PCSs from limb scattering observations with the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY on the European Space Agency's Envisat spacecraft. The method is based on a color-index approach and requires a priori knowledge of the stratospheric background aerosol loading in order to avoid false PSC identifications by stratospheric background aerosol. The method is applied to a sample data set including the 2003 PSC season in the Southern Hemisphere. The PSCs are correlated with coincident UKMO model temperature data, and with very few exceptions, the detected PSCs occur at temperatures below 195–198 K. Monthly averaged PSC descent rates are about 1.5 km/month for the −50° S to −75° S latitude range and assume a maximum between August and September with a value of about 2.5 km/month. The main cause of the PSC descent is the slow descent of the lower stratospheric temperature minimum.

  10. Long-term Satellite Observations of Cloud and Aerosol Radiative Effects Using the (A)ATSR Satellite Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; McGarragh, G.; Thomas, G.; Povey, A.; Proud, S.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Radiative forcing by clouds, aerosols, and their interactions constitute some of the largest sources of uncertainties in the climate system (Chapter 7 IPCC, 2013). It is essential to understand the past through examination of long-term satellite observation records to provide insight into the uncertainty characteristics of these radiative forcers. As part of the ESA CCI (Climate Change Initiative) we have recently implemented a broadband radiative flux algorithm (known as BUGSrad) into the Optimal Retrieval for Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) scheme. ORAC achieves radiative consistency of its aerosol and cloud products through an optimal estimation scheme and is highly versatile, enabling retrievals for numerous satellite sensors: ATSR, MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, SLSTR, SEVIRI, and AHI. An analysis of the 17-year well-calibrated Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) data is used to quantify trends in cloud and aerosol radiative effects over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. The El Niño Southern Oscillation stands out as the largest contributing mode of variability to the radiative energy balance (long wave and shortwave fluxes) at the top of the atmosphere. Furthermore, trends in planetary albedo show substantial decreases across the Arctic Ocean (likely due to the melting of sea ice and snow) and modest increases in regions dominated by stratocumulus (e.g., off the coast of California) through notable increases in cloud fraction and liquid water path. Finally, changes in volcanic activity and biomass burning aerosol over this period show sizeable radiative forcing impacts at local-scales. We will demonstrate that radiative forcing from aerosols and clouds have played a significant role in the identified key climate processes using 17 years of satellite observational data.

  11. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G19.30+0.07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K. E.; Churchwell, E.; Chandler, C. J.; Borg, K. J.; Brogan, C.; Indebetouw, R.; Shirley, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present Very Large Array observations of ammonia (NH 3 ) (1,1), (2,2), and dicarbon sulfide (CCS) (2 1 -1 0 ) emission toward the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G19.30+0.07 at ∼22 GHz. The NH 3 emission closely follows the 8 μm extinction. The NH 3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines provide diagnostics of the temperature and density structure within the IRDC, with typical rotation temperatures of ∼10-20 K and NH 3 column densities of ∼10 15 cm -2 . The estimated total mass of G19.30+0.07 is ∼1130 M sun . The cloud comprises four compact NH 3 clumps of mass ∼30-160 M sun . Two coincide with 24 μm emission, indicating heating by protostars, and show evidence of outflow in the NH 3 emission. We report a water maser associated with a third clump; the fourth clump is apparently starless. A non-detection of 8.4 GHz emission suggests that the IRDC contains no bright H II regions and places a limit on the spectral type of an embedded zero-age main-sequence star to early-B or later. From the NH 3 emission, we find that G19.30+0.07 is composed of three distinct velocity components or 'subclouds'. One velocity component contains the two 24 μm sources and the starless clump, another contains the clump with the water maser, while the third velocity component is diffuse, with no significant high-density peaks. The spatial distribution of NH 3 and CCS emission from G19.30+0.07 is highly anti-correlated, with the NH 3 predominantly in the high-density clumps and the CCS tracing lower-density envelopes around those clumps. This spatial distribution is consistent with theories of evolution for chemically young low-mass cores, in which CCS has not yet been processed to other species and/or depleted in high-density regions.

  12. Observation of optimal gecko's adhesion on nanorough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola M; Lepore, Emiliano

    2008-12-01

    In this letter we report experimental observations on the times of adhesion of living Tokay geckos (Gekko geckos) on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) inverted surfaces. Two different geckos (male and female) and three surfaces with different root mean square (RMS) roughness (RMS=42, 618 and 931 nm) have been considered, for a total of 72 observations. The measured data are proved to be statistically significant, following the Weibull Statistics with coefficients of correlation between 0.781 and 0.955. The unexpected result is the observation of a maximal gecko adhesion on the surface with intermediate roughness of RMS=618 nm, that we note has waviness comparable to the seta size.

  13. A Lightweight Surface Reconstruction Method for Online 3D Scanning Point Cloud Data Oriented toward 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyun Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing surface reconstruction algorithms currently reconstruct large amounts of mesh data. Consequently, many of these algorithms cannot meet the efficiency requirements of real-time data transmission in a web environment. This paper proposes a lightweight surface reconstruction method for online 3D scanned point cloud data oriented toward 3D printing. The proposed online lightweight surface reconstruction algorithm is composed of a point cloud update algorithm (PCU, a rapid iterative closest point algorithm (RICP, and an improved Poisson surface reconstruction algorithm (IPSR. The generated lightweight point cloud data are pretreated using an updating and rapid registration method. The Poisson surface reconstruction is also accomplished by a pretreatment to recompute the point cloud normal vectors; this approach is based on a least squares method, and the postprocessing of the PDE patch generation was based on biharmonic-like fourth-order PDEs, which effectively reduces the amount of reconstructed mesh data and improves the efficiency of the algorithm. This method was verified using an online personalized customization system that was developed with WebGL and oriented toward 3D printing. The experimental results indicate that this method can generate a lightweight 3D scanning mesh rapidly and efficiently in a web environment.

  14. Evaluation of the Reanalysis Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Products from NCEP, ECMWF, GSFC, and JMA Using Satellite and Surface Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation incident at the Earth’s surface (Rs is an essential component of the total energy exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Reanalysis data have been widely used, but a comprehensive validation using surface measurements is still highly needed. In this study, we evaluated the Rs estimates from six current representative global reanalyses (NCEP–NCAR, NCEP-DOE; CFSR; ERA-Interim; MERRA; and JRA-55 using surface measurements from different observation networks [GEBA; BSRN; GC-NET; Buoy; and CMA] (674 sites in total and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES EBAF product from 2001 to 2009. The global mean biases between the reanalysis Rs and surface measurements at all sites ranged from 11.25 W/m2 to 49.80 W/m2. Comparing with the CERES-EBAF Rs product, all the reanalyses overestimate Rs, except for ERA-Interim, with the biases ranging from −2.98 W/m2 to 21.97 W/m2 over the globe. It was also found that the biases of cloud fraction (CF in the reanalyses caused the overestimation of Rs. After removing the averaged bias of CERES-EBAF, weighted by the area of the latitudinal band, a global annual mean Rs values of 184.6 W/m2, 180.0 W/m2, and 182.9 W/m2 were obtained over land, ocean, and the globe, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, R. P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the upper troposphere and still constitute one of the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. This paper evaluates cloud-resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration A-train satellites. The CRM simulations are driven with periodic boundary conditions and ARM forcing data, whereas the CSRM simulations are driven by the ERA-Interim product. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM, but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds, and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500 m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in general circulation models and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1 km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward the cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain, but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating

  16. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  17. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  18. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  19. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  20. Land surface skin temperature climatology: benefitting from the strengths of satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Menglin; Dickinson, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Surface skin temperature observations (T skin ), as obtained by satellite remote sensing, provide useful climatological information of high spatial resolution and global coverage that enhances the traditional ground observations of surface air temperature (T air ) and so, reveal new information about land surface characteristics. This letter analyzes nine years of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) skin temperature observations to present monthly skin temperature diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations at a 0.05 deg. latitude/longitude grid over the global land surface and combines these measurements with other MODIS-based variables in an effort to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for T skin variations. In particular, skin temperature variations are found to be closely related to vegetation cover, clouds, and water vapor, but to differ from 2 m surface T air in terms of both physical meaning and magnitude. Therefore, the two temperatures (T skin and T air ) are complementary in their contribution of valuable information to the study of climate change.

  1. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data (1965-1981) (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists primarily of U.S. surface airways observations (SAO) data beginning in 1965 and extending through 1981. Note that a few stations have already...

  2. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT polluted marine atmosphere (AOT > 0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 < AOT < 0.4. The corresponding AIE active regions manifested themselves as the decline of the precipitation efficiency are mainly limited to the oceanic areas downwind of continental aerosols. The sensitive regime of the conventional AIE identified in this observational study is likely associated with the transitional regime from the aerosol-limited regime to the updraft-limited regime identified for aerosol-cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  3. Synergy of Satellite-Surface Observations for Studying the Properties of Absorbing Aerosols in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    Through interaction with clouds and alteration of the Earth's radiation budget, atmospheric aerosols significantly influence our weather and climate. Monsoon rainfalls, for example, sustain the livelihood of more than half of the world's population. Thus, understanding the mechanism that drives the water cycle and freshwater distribution is high-lighted as one of the major near-term goals in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy. Every cloud droplet/ice-crystal that serves as an essential element in portraying water cycle and distributing freshwater contains atmospheric aerosols at its core. In addition, the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol properties is complex due to their dynamic nature. In fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities and regional/long-range transport of dust aerosols. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of absorbing aerosols on regional-to-global climate requires not only modeling efforts but also continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites the Earth Observing System - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, we have gradually developed and refined the SMART (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) and COMMIT (Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile observatories, a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement the satellite observations. In this talk, we will present SMART-COMMIT which has played key roles, serving as network or supersite

  4. Observing the Agulhas Current with sea surface temperature and altimetry data: challenges and perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krug, Marjolaine, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Agulhas Current is a challenging region for satellite remote sensing observations. Strong evaporation rates above the current core and the Retroflection reduce the number of cloud-free observations from Infra-Red sensors, while microwave...

  5. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  6. In-situ observations of interstitial aerosol particles and cloud residues found in contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    In spring 1994 a series of flights were conducted in cirrus clouds and contrails over southern Germany. One of the aims of this campaign was to study the phase partitioning of aerosols and water in these clouds. To achieve this separation of particles two complementary sampling probes were mounted on the research aircraft Falcon. These are the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) or super-micrometer inlet, and the interstitial inlet or submicrometer inlet. The CVI is a device that inertially separates cloud elements larger than a certain aerodynamic size from the surrounding atmosphere into a warm, dry and particle free air. Assuming that each cloud element leaves behind only one residue particle, these measurements yield an equivalent number concentration for cloud particles having an aerodynamic diameter larger than the lower cut size of the CVI. The size distribution of the sampled aerosol and residual particles between 0.1 to 3.5 {mu}m diameter was measured by a PMS PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer) working alternatively on both inlets. The gas-phase water vapor content was measured by a cryogenic frost point mirror. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  7. In-situ observations of interstitial aerosol particles and cloud residues found in contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1998-12-31

    In spring 1994 a series of flights were conducted in cirrus clouds and contrails over southern Germany. One of the aims of this campaign was to study the phase partitioning of aerosols and water in these clouds. To achieve this separation of particles two complementary sampling probes were mounted on the research aircraft Falcon. These are the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) or super-micrometer inlet, and the interstitial inlet or submicrometer inlet. The CVI is a device that inertially separates cloud elements larger than a certain aerodynamic size from the surrounding atmosphere into a warm, dry and particle free air. Assuming that each cloud element leaves behind only one residue particle, these measurements yield an equivalent number concentration for cloud particles having an aerodynamic diameter larger than the lower cut size of the CVI. The size distribution of the sampled aerosol and residual particles between 0.1 to 3.5 {mu}m diameter was measured by a PMS PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer) working alternatively on both inlets. The gas-phase water vapor content was measured by a cryogenic frost point mirror. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  8. Some observations on boiling heat transfer with surface oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of surface oscillation on pool boiling heat transfer are experimentally studied. Experiments were performed in saturated ethanol and distilled water, covering the range from nucleate to film boiling except in the transition region. Two different geometries were employed as the heating surface with the same wetting area, stainless steel pipe and molybdenum ribbon. The results confirm earlier work on the effect of surface oscillation especially in lower heat flux region of nucleate boiling. Interesting boiling behavior during surface oscillation is observed, which was not referred to in previous work. (2 figures) (Author)

  9. Depolarization Ratio Profiles Calibration and Observations of Aerosol and Cloud in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Polarization Raman Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyao Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the Water vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WACAL system is provided. To calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio, the concept of “ Δ 90 ° -calibration” is applied in this study. This effective and accurate calibration method is adjusted according to the design of WACAL. Error calculations and analysis of the gain ratio, calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio and particle linear depolarization ratio are provided as well. In this method, the influences of the gain ratio, the rotation angle of the plane of polarization and the polarizing beam splitter are discussed in depth. Two groups of measurements with half wave plate (HWP at angles of (0 ° , 45 ° and (22.5 ° , −22.5 ° are operated to calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio. Then, the particle linear depolarization ratios measured by WACAL and CALIOP (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization during the simultaneous observations were compared. Good agreements are found. The calibration method was applied in the third Tibetan Plateau Experiment of Atmospheric Sciences (TIPEX III in 2013 and 2014 in China. Vertical profiles of the particle depolarization ratio of clouds and aerosol in the Tibetan Plateau were measured with WACAL in Litang (30.03° N, 100.28° E, 3949 m above sea level (a.s.l. in 2013 and Naqu (31.48° N, 92.06° E, 4508 m a.s.l. in 2014. Then an analysis on the polarizing properties of the aerosol, clouds and cirrus over the Tibetan Plateau is provided. The particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds varies from 0.36 to 0.52, with a mean value of 0.44 ± 0.04. Cirrus clouds occurred between 5.2 and 12 km above ground level (a.g.l.. The cloud thickness ranges from 0.12 to 2.55 km with a mean thickness of 1.22 ± 0.70 km. It is found that the particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds become larger as the height increases. However, the increase rate of the particle depolarization ratio becomes smaller as

  10. AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION OF TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUDS USING NATURAL PLANAR SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Theiler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanners have become a standard piece of surveying equipment, used in diverse fields like geomatics, manufacturing and medicine. However, the processing of today's large point clouds is time-consuming, cumbersome and not automated enough. A basic step of post-processing is the registration of scans from different viewpoints. At present this is still done using artificial targets or tie points, mostly by manual clicking. The aim of this registration step is a coarse alignment, which can then be improved with the existing algorithm for fine registration. The focus of this paper is to provide such a coarse registration in a fully automatic fashion, and without placing any target objects in the scene. The basic idea is to use virtual tie points generated by intersecting planar surfaces in the scene. Such planes are detected in the data with RANSAC and optimally fitted using least squares estimation. Due to the huge amount of recorded points, planes can be determined very accurately, resulting in well-defined tie points. Given two sets of potential tie points recovered in two different scans, registration is performed by searching for the assignment which preserves the geometric configuration of the largest possible subset of all tie points. Since exhaustive search over all possible assignments is intractable even for moderate numbers of points, the search is guided by matching individual pairs of tie points with the help of a novel descriptor based on the properties of a point's parent planes. Experiments show that the proposed method is able to successfully coarse register TLS point clouds without the need for artificial targets.

  11. Automatic Registration of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds Using Natural Planar Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, P. W.; Schindler, K.

    2012-07-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners have become a standard piece of surveying equipment, used in diverse fields like geomatics, manufacturing and medicine. However, the processing of today's large point clouds is time-consuming, cumbersome and not automated enough. A basic step of post-processing is the registration of scans from different viewpoints. At present this is still done using artificial targets or tie points, mostly by manual clicking. The aim of this registration step is a coarse alignment, which can then be improved with the existing algorithm for fine registration. The focus of this paper is to provide such a coarse registration in a fully automatic fashion, and without placing any target objects in the scene. The basic idea is to use virtual tie points generated by intersecting planar surfaces in the scene. Such planes are detected in the data with RANSAC and optimally fitted using least squares estimation. Due to the huge amount of recorded points, planes can be determined very accurately, resulting in well-defined tie points. Given two sets of potential tie points recovered in two different scans, registration is performed by searching for the assignment which preserves the geometric configuration of the largest possible subset of all tie points. Since exhaustive search over all possible assignments is intractable even for moderate numbers of points, the search is guided by matching individual pairs of tie points with the help of a novel descriptor based on the properties of a point's parent planes. Experiments show that the proposed method is able to successfully coarse register TLS point clouds without the need for artificial targets.

  12. Uncertainty in stratiform cloud optical thickness inferred from pyranometer measurements at the sea surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rozwadowska

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The relative "plane-parallel" error in a mean cloud optical thickness retrieved from ground-based pyranometer measurements is estimated. The plane-parallel error is defined as the bias introduced by the assumption in the radiative transfer model used in cloud optical thickness retrievals that the atmosphere, including clouds, is horizontally homogeneous on the scale of an individual retrieval. The error is estimated for the optical thickness averaged over the whole domain, which simulates the mean cloud optical thickness obtained from a time series of irradiance measurements. The study is based on 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations for non-absorbing, all-liquid, layer clouds. Liquid water path distributions in the clouds are simulated by a bounded cascade fractal model. The sensitivity of the error is studied with respect to the following factors: averaging time of irradiance used in an individual retrieval, mean cloud optical thickness, cloud variability, cloud base height and solar zenith angle. In the simulations presented in this paper, the relative bias in the domain averaged cloud optical thickness retrieved from pyranometer measurements varies from +1% for optically thin clouds to nearly -20%. The highest absolute value of the relative bias is expected for thick and variable clouds with high bases (e.g. 1 km and retrievals based on long-term mean irradiances (averaging time of the order of several tens of minutes or hours. The bias can be diminished by using short-term irradiance averages, e.g. of one minute, and by limiting retrievals to low-level clouds.

  13. Magnetic clouds' structure in the magnetosheath as observed by Cluster and Geotail: four case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Turc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic clouds (MCs are large-scale magnetic flux ropes ejected from the Sun into the interplanetary space. They play a central role in solar–terrestrial relations as they can efficiently drive magnetic activity in the near-Earth environment. Their impact on the Earth's magnetosphere is often attributed to the presence of southward magnetic fields inside the MC, as observed in the upstream solar wind. However, when they arrive in the vicinity of the Earth, MCs first encounter the bow shock, which is expected to modify their properties, including their magnetic field strength and direction. If these changes are significant, they can in turn affect the interaction of the MC with the magnetosphere. In this paper, we use data from the Cluster and Geotail spacecraft inside the magnetosheath and from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE upstream of the Earth's environment to investigate the impact of the bow shock's crossing on the magnetic structure of MCs. Through four example MCs, we show that the evolution of the MC's structure from the solar wind to the magnetosheath differs largely from one event to another. The smooth rotation of the MC can either be preserved inside the magnetosheath, be modified, i.e. the magnetic field still rotates slowly but at different angles, or even disappear. The alteration of the magnetic field orientation across the bow shock can vary with time during the MC's passage and with the location inside the magnetosheath. We examine the conditions encountered at the bow shock from direct observations, when Cluster or Geotail cross it, or indirectly by applying a magnetosheath model. We obtain a good agreement between the observed and modelled magnetic field direction and shock configuration, which varies from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel in our study. We find that the variations in the angle between the magnetic fields in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath are anti-correlated with the variations in the

  14. Volcanic Ash Cloud Observations with the DLR-Falcon over Europe during Airspace Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Reitebuch, Oliver; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Rahm, Stephan; Scheibe, Monika; Lichtenstern, Michael; Forster, Caroline

    2010-05-01

    At the time of the EGU conference, the volcano ash plume originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in Iceland was probed during 9 flights with the DLR Falcon research aircraft in the region between Germany and Iceland at 1-11 km altitudes between April 19 and May 3, 2010. The Falcon was instrumented with a downward looking, scanning 2-µm-Wind-Lidar (aerosol backscattering and horizontal wind, 100 m vertical resolution), and several in-situ instruments. The particle instrumentation, including wing station probes (PCASP, FSSP-300) cover particle number and size from 5 nm to some tens of µm. Further in-situ instruments measured O3, CO, SO2, H2O, and standard meteorological parameters. Flight planning was based on numerical weather forecasts, trajectory-based particle-dispersion models, satellite observations and ground based Lidar observations, from many sources. During the flight on April 19, 2010, layers of volcanic ash were detected first by Lidar and then probed in-situ. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the volcanic ash layers over Eastern Germany was highly variable at that time. Calculations with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART indicate that the volcanic ash plumes measured by the Falcon had an age of 4-5 days. The concentrations of large particles measured in the volcanic aerosol layers are comparable to concentrations measured typically in fresh (age 3000 kg/s, strong chemistry - Lidar signal and FSSP-300 signal strongly dependent on refractive index, ash density, particle size spectrum 1- 50 µm - Mid-European airspace closure was justified until Sat. April 17; thereafter ageing ash clouds dominated. - Keflavik/Iceland was found to be free of ash as predicted on April 29 - May 2 - The Quality of forecasts was found to be quite reliable for aviation planning - For the future we recommend combinations of models + lidar + satellite + in-situ - We suggest an improved linking between operations and academia - The DLR Falcon will

  15. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    of intermediate species, sequential processes, and surface layers; and full compatibility with traditional resistor model formulations. The outlined double-layer surface concept and formalisms represent a minimum of model complexity required for a consistent description of the non-linear concentration and time dependences observed in experimental studies of atmospheric multiphase processes (competitive co-adsorption and surface saturation effects, etc.). Exemplary practical applications and model calculations illustrating the relevance of the above aspects are presented in a companion paper (Ammann and Pöschl, 2007). We expect that the presented model framework will serve as a useful tool and basis for experimental and theoretical studies investigating and describing atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions. It shall help to end the "Babylonian confusion" that seems to inhibit scientific progress in the understanding of heterogeneous chemical reactions and other multiphase processes in aerosols and clouds. In particular, it shall support the planning and design of laboratory experiments for the elucidation and determination of fundamental kinetic parameters; the establishment, evaluation, and quality assurance of comprehensive and self-consistent collections of rate parameters; and the development of detailed master mechanisms for process models and derivation of simplified but yet realistic parameterizations for atmospheric and climate models.

  16. Generation and Evaluation of a Global Land Surface Phenology Product from Suomi-NPP VIIRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, L.; Yan, D.; Moon, M.; Liu, Y.; Henebry, G. M.; Friedl, M. A.; Schaaf, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) datasets have been produced from a variety of coarse spatial resolution satellite observations at both regional and global scales and spanning different time periods since 1982. However, the LSP product generated from NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at a spatial resolution of 500m, which is termed Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2), is the only global product operationally produced and freely accessible at annual time steps from 2001. Because MODIS instrument is aging and will be replaced by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), this research focuses on the generation and evaluation of a global LSP product from Suomi-NPP VIIRS time series observations that provide continuity with the MCD12Q2 product. Specifically, we generate 500m VIIRS global LSP data using daily VIIRS Nadir BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function)-Adjusted reflectances (NBAR) in combination with land surface temperature, snow cover, and land cover type as inputs. The product provides twelve phenological metrics (seven phenological dates and five phenological greenness magnitudes), along with six quality metrics characterizing the confidence and quality associated with phenology retrievals at each pixel. In this paper, we describe the input data and algorithms used to produce this new product, and investigate the impact of VIIRS data time series quality on phenology detections across various climate regimes and ecosystems. As part of our analysis, the VIIRS LSP is evaluated using PhenoCam imagery in North America and Asia, and using higher spatial resolution satellite observations from Landsat 8 over an agricultural area in the central USA. We also explore the impact of high frequency cloud cover on the VIIRS LSP product by comparing with phenology detected from the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8. AHI is a new geostationary sensor that observes land surface every 10 minutes, which increases

  17. Water Ice Clouds and Dust in the Martian Atmosphere Observed by Mars Climate Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jennifer L.; Kass, David; Heavens, Nicholas; Kleinbohl, Armin

    2011-01-01

    The water ice clouds are primarily controlled by the temperature structure and form at the water condensation level. Clouds in all regions presented show day/night differences. Cloud altitude varies between night and day in the SPH and tropics: (1) NPH water ice opacity is greater at night than day at some seasons (2) The diurnal thermal tide controls the daily variability. (3) Strong day/night changes indicate that the amount of gas in the atmosphere varies significantly. See significant mixtures of dust and ice at the same altitude planet-wide (1) Points to a complex radiative and thermal balance between dust heating (in the visible) and ice heating or cooling in the infrared. Aerosol layering: (1) Early seasons reveal a zonally banded spatial distribution (2) Some localized longitudinal structure of aerosol layers (3) Later seasons show no consistent large scale organization

  18. Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada

    2016-09-06

    This the final report for the DE-SC0007096 - Advancing Clouds Lifecycle Representation in Numerical Models Using Innovative Analysis Methods that Bridge ARM Observations and Models Over a Breadth of Scales - PI: Pavlos Kollias. The final report outline the main findings of the research conducted using the aforementioned award in the area of cloud research from the cloud scale (10-100 m) to the mesoscale (20-50 km).

  19. Daytime Land Surface Temperature Extraction from MODIS Thermal Infrared Data under Cirrus Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulated data showed that cirrus clouds could lead to a maximum land surface temperature (LST retrieval error of 11.0 K when using the generalized split-window (GSW algorithm with a cirrus optical depth (COD at 0.55 μm of 0.4 and in nadir view. A correction term in the COD linear function was added to the GSW algorithm to extend the GSW algorithm to cirrus cloudy conditions. The COD was acquired by a look up table of the isolated cirrus bidirectional reflectance at 0.55 μm. Additionally, the slope k of the linear function was expressed as a multiple linear model of the top of the atmospheric brightness temperatures of MODIS channels 31–34 and as the difference between split-window channel emissivities. The simulated data showed that the LST error could be reduced from 11.0 to 2.2 K. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the total errors from all the uncertainties of input parameters, extension algorithm accuracy, and GSW algorithm accuracy were less than 2.5 K in nadir view. Finally, the Great Lakes surface water temperatures measured by buoys showed that the retrieval accuracy of the GSW algorithm was improved by at least 1.5 K using the proposed extension algorithm for cirrus skies.

  20. Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements - Comparisons with tower observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  1. COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: Cyg OB2 8A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Theodore P.; Destree, Joshua D.; Burgh, Eric B.; Ferguson, Ryan M.; Danforth, Charles W.; Cordiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) are presented for the first highly reddened target (Cyg OB2 8A) under the COS Science Team's guaranteed time allocation. Column densities of ionic, atomic, and molecular species are reported and implications are discussed. Data from Cyg OB2 8A demonstrate the ability to analyze highly reddened interstellar sight lines with the COS that were unavailable to previous UV instruments. Measured column densities indicate that the Cyg OB2 8A line of sight contains multiple diffuse clouds rather than a dominant translucent cloud.

  2. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NH3 (3, 3) AND (6, 6) TRANSITIONS TOWARD SAGITTARIUS A MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Young Chol; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Su, Yu-Nung; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Wright, Melvyn

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia (3, 3) and (6, 6) transitions have been observed using the Green Bank Telescope toward the Sgr A region. The gas is mainly concentrated in 50 km s –1 and 20 km s –1 clouds located in a plane inclined to the galactic plane. These 'main' clouds appear to be virialized and influenced by the expansion of the supernova remnant Sgr A East. The observed emission shows very complicated features in the morphology and velocity structure. Gaussian multi-component fittings of the observed spectra revealed that various 'streaming' gas components exist all over the observed region. These components include those previously known as 'streamers' and 'ridges', but most of these components appear not to be directly connected to the major gas condensations (the 50 km s –1 and 20 km s –1 clouds). They are apparently located out of the galactic plane, and they may have a different origin than the major gas condensations. Some of the streaming components are expected to be sources that feed the circumnuclear disk of our Galactic center directly and episodically. They may also evolve differently than major gas condensations under the influence of the activities of the Galactic center

  3. Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

  4. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The regional cloud properties are column averaged and are included on the SFC. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=100] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 hour; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Hourly - < Daily].

  5. CERES Monthly Gridded Single Satellite TOA and Surfaces/Clouds (SFC) data in HDF (CER_SFC_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly Gridded TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SFC) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SFC is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave, longwave, and window fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) and surface from the CERES SSF product for a month are sorted by 1-degree spatial regions and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-hour bin is determined and recorded on the SFC along with other flux statistics and scene information. The