WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface cavity dynamics

  1. Ultimate Cavity Dynamics of Hydrophobic Spheres Impacting on Free Water Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2012-12-01

    Cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research owing to its practical relevance in naval, military, industrial, sports and biological applications. The cavity formed by an impacting hydrophobic sphere normally seals at two places, one below (deep seal) and the other above the water surface (surface seal). For Froude numbers , the air flow into the resulting cavity is strong enough to suck the splash crown above the surface and disrupt the cavity dynamics before it deep seals. In this research work we eliminate surface seals by means of a novel practice of using cone splash-guards and examine the undisturbed transient cavity dynamics by impact of hydrophobic spheres for Froude numbers ranging . This enabled the measurement of extremely accurate pinch-off heights, pinch-off times, radial cavity collapse rates, and jet speeds in an extended range of Froude numbers compared to the previous work of Duclaux et al. (2007). Results in the extended regime were in remarkable agreement with the theoretical prediction of scaled pinch-off depth, and experimentally derived pinch-off time for . Furthermore, we investigated the influence of confinement on cavity formation by varying the cross-sectional area of the tank of liquid. In conjunction with surface seal elimination we observed the formation of multiple pinch-off points where a maximum of four deep seals were obtained in a sequential order for the Froude number range investigated. The presence of an elongated cavity beneath the first pinch-off point 5 resulted in evident "kinks" primarily related to the greatly diminished air pressure at the necking region caused by supersonic air flows (Gekle et al. 2010). Such flows passing through second pinch-offs were also found to choke the cavities beneath the first pinch- off depths causing radial expansion and hence disappearance of downward jets.

  2. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of an optically injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofeng; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Ma Dong; Wang Yong; Li Nuohan

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with external optical injection are studied numerically. We consider a master-slave configuration where the dynamic characteristics of the slave are affected by the optical injection from the master, and we also establish the corresponding Simulink model. The period-doubling route as well as the period-halving route is observed, where the regular, double-periodic, and chaotic pulsings are found. By adjusting the injection strength properly, the laser can be controlled to work at a given state. The effects of frequency detuning on the nonlinear behaviors are also investigated in terms of the bifurcation diagrams of photon density with the frequency detuning. For weak injection case, the nonlinear dynamics shown by the laser are quite different when the value of frequency detuning varies contrarily (positive and negative direction). If the optical injection is strong enough, the slave can be locked by the master even though the frequency detuning is relatively large

  3. Dependence of the residual surface resistance of superconducting radio frequency cavities on the cooling dynamics around T{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A., E-mail: aroman@fnal.gov; Grassellino, A., E-mail: annag@fnal.gov; Melnychuk, O.; Sergatskov, D. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We report a strong effect of the cooling dynamics through T{sub c} on the amount of trapped external magnetic flux in superconducting niobium cavities. The effect is similar for fine grain and single crystal niobium and all surface treatments including electropolishing with and without 120 °C baking and nitrogen doping. Direct magnetic field measurements on the cavity walls show that the effect stems from changes in the flux trapping efficiency: slow cooling leads to almost complete flux trapping and higher residual resistance, while fast cooling leads to the much more efficient flux expulsion and lower residual resistance.

  4. Dependence of the residual surface resistance of superconducting radio frequency cavities on the cooling dynamics around Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Melnychuk, O.; Sergatskov, D. A.

    2014-05-01

    We report a strong effect of the cooling dynamics through Tc on the amount of trapped external magnetic flux in superconducting niobium cavities. The effect is similar for fine grain and single crystal niobium and all surface treatments including electropolishing with and without 120 °C baking and nitrogen doping. Direct magnetic field measurements on the cavity walls show that the effect stems from changes in the flux trapping efficiency: slow cooling leads to almost complete flux trapping and higher residual resistance, while fast cooling leads to the much more efficient flux expulsion and lower residual resistance.

  5. Ultimate Cavity Dynamics of Hydrophobic Spheres Impacting on Free Water Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2012-01-01

    Cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research owing to its practical relevance in naval, military, industrial, sports and biological applications. The cavity formed by an impacting

  6. Fast pulsing dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciamanna, M.; Rogister, F.; Megret, P.; Blondel, M.; Masoller, C.; Abraham, N. B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. By focusing on the fast pulsing dynamics, we show that the two linearly polarized modes of the laser exhibit two qualitatively different behaviors: they emit pulses in phase just after a power dropout and they emit pulses out of phase after the recovery process of the output power. As a consequence, two distinct statistical distributions of the fast pulsating total intensity are observed, either monotonically decaying from the noise level or peaked around the mean intensity value. We further show that gain self-saturation of the lasing transition strongly modifies the shape of the intensity distribution

  7. Attractor hopping between polarization dynamical states in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to parallel optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-le Coarer, Florian; Quirce, Ana; Valle, Angel; Pesquera, Luis; Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Sciamanna, Marc

    2018-03-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results of noise-induced attractor hopping between dynamical states found in a single transverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to parallel optical injection. These transitions involve dynamical states with different polarizations of the light emitted by the VCSEL. We report an experimental map identifying, in the injected power-frequency detuning plane, regions where attractor hopping between two, or even three, different states occur. The transition between these behaviors is characterized by using residence time distributions. We find multistability regions that are characterized by heavy-tailed residence time distributions. These distributions are characterized by a -1.83 ±0.17 power law. Between these regions we find coherence enhancement of noise-induced attractor hopping in which transitions between states occur regularly. Simulation results show that frequency detuning variations and spontaneous emission noise play a role in causing switching between attractors. We also find attractor hopping between chaotic states with different polarization properties. In this case, simulation results show that spontaneous emission noise inherent to the VCSEL is enough to induce this hopping.

  8. Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.

  9. Shear Layer Dynamics in Resonating Cavity Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    .... The PIV data was also combined with the surface pressure measurements through the application of the Quadratic Stochastic Estimation procedure to provide time resolved snapshots of the flow field. Examination of these results indicate the strong pumping action of the cavity regardless of whether resonance existed and was used to visualize the large scale structures interacting with the aft wall.

  10. Structure an dynamics in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimble, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Much of the theoretical background related to the radiative processes for atoms in the presence of boundaries comes from two often disjoint areas, namely cavity quantum electrodynamics and optical bistability with two-state atoms. While the former of these areas has been associated to a large degree with studies in a perturbative domain of altered associated to a large degree with studies in a perturbative domain of altered emission processes in the presence of boundaries other than those of free space, the latter is often viewed from the perspective of hysteresis cycles and device applications. With the exception of the laser, however, perhaps the most extensive investigations of quantum statistical processes in quantum optics are to be found in the literature on bistability with two-state atoms and on cavity QED. Unfortunately, the degree of overlap of these two areas has not always been fully appreciated. This circumstance is perhaps due in part to the fact that the investigation of dynamical processes in cavity QED has had as its cornerstone the Jaynes-Cummings problem, with extensions to include, for example, small amounts of dissipation. On the other hand, a principle aspect of the bistability literature has been the study of quantum fluctuations in open systems for which dissipation plays a central role, but for which the coherent quantum dynamics of the Haynes-Cummings model are to a large measure lost due to the usual assumption of large system size and weak coupling (as in the standard theory of the laser). 132 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  11. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, P. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Intravia, F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  12. SRF Cavity Surface Topography Characterization Using Replica Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Xu, M.J. Kelley, C.E. Reece

    2012-07-01

    To better understand the roll of topography on SRF cavity performance, we seek to obtain detailed topographic information from the curved practical cavity surfaces. Replicas taken from a cavity interior surface provide internal surface molds for fine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry. In this study, we confirm the replica resolution both on surface local defects such as grain boundary and etching pits and compare the surface uniform roughness with the aid of Power Spectral Density (PSD) where we can statistically obtain roughness parameters at different scales. A series of sampling locations are at the same magnetic field chosen at the same latitude on a single cell cavity to confirm the uniformity. Another series of sampling locations at different magnetic field amplitudes are chosen for this replica on the same cavity for later power loss calculation. We also show that application of the replica followed by rinsing does not adversely affect the cavity performance.

  13. Ring cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujagic, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are electrically driven semiconductor lasers, which have undergone a steady improvement since the first demonstration in 1994. These are now well established as reliable sources of coherent light in the mid-infrared (MIR) and terahertz (THz)range of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-300 μm). The rapid progress of this type of lasers is based on a high degree of freedom in tailoring the emission wavelength within a large variety of semiconductor heterostructure designs and materials. These properties have attracted the attention of various applications such as gas analysis, chemical sensing, spectral imaging and free-space telecommunication. In order to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and efficiency of today's sensor systems, high optical power, continuous wave and room temperature performance, single-mode operation and low divergence optical beams, are highly desirable qualities of a compact laser source in this field of research. Since all of these features cannot be provided by a conventional edge-emitting device at the same time, research has put focus on the development of surface emitting devices. Nowadays, the vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the most prominent representative for this type of light emitters. With its capability of producing narrow circular beams, the feasibility of two-dimensional arrays and on-wafer testing, such a coherent light source results in a reduction of the fabrication effort and production costs. Since the radiation in QCLs is strictly polarized normal to the epitaxial layer plane, fabrication of VCSELs based on QC structures is not viable. The subject of this work is the design and realization of 'ring cavity surface emitting lasers' (ring-CSELs). This type of lasers employs a circular ring cavity and a resonant distributed feedback (DFB) surface grating. Ring-CSELs were fabricated on the basis of MIR and THz QC structures, which cover a wavelength range from 4 μm to 93

  14. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  15. Control of cavity acoustics by surface waviness in landing configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dala, L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ): 2321-3051 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN AERONAUTICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Control of Cavity Acoustics by Surface Waviness In Landing Configurations Laurent Dala CSIR, DPSS/Aeronautics Systems, Pretoria 0001, South Africa...

  16. Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.

    2006-01-01

    We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....

  17. Aging of residual surface resistance of superconducting lead cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, M.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of the residual surface resistance of superconducting lead cavities as a function of time during a period of a month showed an oscillating variation. An explanation of the ageing curves is proposed. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics......Measurements of the residual surface resistance of superconducting lead cavities as a function of time during a period of a month showed an oscillating variation. An explanation of the ageing curves is proposed. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics...

  18. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and cavity cooling of levitated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate a dynamic nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. An optical cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, whilst simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. Through the rich sideband structure displayed by the cavity output we can observe cooling of the linear and non-linear particle's motion. Here we present an experimental setup which allows full control over the cavity resonant frequencies, and shows cooling of the particle's motion as a function of the detuning. This work paves the way to strong-coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a mesoscopic object largely decoupled from its environment.

  20. Quench dynamics of a disordered array of dissipative coupled cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatore, C; Fazio, R; Keeling, J; Türeci, H E

    2014-09-08

    We investigate the mean-field dynamics of a system of interacting photons in an array of coupled cavities in the presence of dissipation and disorder. We follow the evolution of an initially prepared Fock state, and show how the interplay between dissipation and disorder affects the coherence properties of the cavity emission, and show that these properties can be used as signatures of the many-body phase of the whole array.

  1. Field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Junginger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface resistance R_{S} of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied rf field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film induces heating of the inner cavity wall, resulting in a higher R_{S}. Introducing helium gas in the cavity, and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by less than 120 mK when R_{S} increases with E_{acc} by 100  nΩ. This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally, the effects of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for the current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered R_{S}.

  2. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  3. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for medical diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor

    This thesis deals with the design and fabrication of tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). The focus has been the application of tunable VCSELs in medical diagnostics, specifically OCT. VCSELs are candidates as light sources for swept-source OCT where their high sweep rate, wide...

  4. Preparation and handling of surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloess, D.

    1988-01-01

    Fortunately, surface treatment for s.c. cavities knows only one simple rule. If one observes this rule strictly one will be successful, if not, one will fail! The rule is CLEANLINESS. This means: clean material (high purity niobium without inclusions), clean (analytical grade) polishing chemicals and solvents, ultraclean (semiconductor grade) rinsing water, ultraclean (class 100) assembly environment. In general, if one applies the same working practice as the semiconductor industry, one will produce surfaces that are less clean than silicon wafers, due to the shape of the cavity (an inner surface is much more difficult to clean than a flat wafer); due to its size and due to the material (niobium is hydrophilic which makes the water with all the dirt in it stick to the surface). 9 references

  5. Simulation of the substrate cavity dynamics of quercetinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, M; Swart, M; van Gunsteren, WF; Canters, GW

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on quercetin 2,3 dioxygenase (2,3QD) to study the mobility and flexibility of the substrate cavity. 2,3QD is the only firmly established Cu-containing dioxygenase known so far. It catalyses the breakage of the O-heterocycle of flavonols. The

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P Z G; Aranas, E B; Millen, J; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2016-10-21

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  8. Water entry without surface seal: Extended cavity formation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2014-03-01

    We report results from an experimental study of cavity formation during the impact of superhydrophobic spheres onto water. Using a simple splash-guard mechanism, we block the spray emerging during initial contact from closing thus eliminating the phenomenon known as \\'surface seal\\', which typically occurs at Froude numbers Fr= V0 2/(gR0) = O(100). As such, we are able to observe the evolution of a smooth cavity in a more extended parameter space than has been achieved in previous studies. Furthermore, by systematically varying the tank size and sphere diameter, we examine the influence of increasing wall effects on these guarded impact cavities and note the formation of surface undulations with wavelength λ =O(10)cm and acoustic waves λa=O(D0) along the cavity interface, which produce multiple pinch-off points. Acoustic waves are initiated by pressure perturbations, which themselves are generated by the primary cavity pinch-off. Using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques we study the bulk fluid flow for the most constrained geometry and show the larger undulations ( λ =O (10cm)) have a fixed nature with respect to the lab frame. We show that previously deduced scalings for the normalized (primary) pinch-off location (ratio of pinch-off depth to sphere depth at pinch-off time), Hp/H = 1/2, and pinch-off time, τ α (R0/g) 1/2, do not hold for these extended cavities in the presence of strong wall effects (sphere-to-tank diameter ratio), ε = D 0/Dtank 1/16. Instead, we find multiple distinct regimes for values of Hp/H as the observed undulations are induced above the first pinch-off point as the impact speed increases. We also report observations of \\'kinked\\' pinch-off points and the suppression of downward facing jets in the presence of wall effects. Surprisingly, upward facing jets emanating from first cavity pinch-off points evolve into a \\'flat\\' structure at high impact speeds, both in the presence and absence of wall effects.

  9. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illias, Hazlee A; Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  10. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illias, Hazlee A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L, E-mail: h.illias@um.edu.my [Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-22

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  11. Exciton-polariton dynamics in quantum dot-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Antonio F.; Lima, William J.; Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: One of the basic requirement for quantum information processing systems is the ability to completely control the state of a single qubit. This imply in know all sources of decoherence and elaborate ways to avoid them. In recent work, A. Laucht et al. [1] presented detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of electrically tunable single quantum dot (QD) - photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity systems operating in the strong coupling regime of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the exciton-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, they employ the quantum confined Stark-effect to electro-optically control the exciton-cavity detuning. The new built device enabled them to systematically probe the emission spectrum of the strongly coupled system as a function of external control parameters, as for example the incoherent excitation power density or the lattice temperature. Those studies reveal for the first time insights in dephasing mechanisms of 0D exciton polaritons [1]. In another study [2], using a similar device, they investigate the coupling between two different QDs with a single cavity mode. In both works, incoherent pumping was used, but for quantum information, coherent and controlled excitations are necessary. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamics a single quantum dot inside a cavity under coherent pulse excitation and explore a wide range of parameters, as for example, the exciton-cavity detunings, the excitation power, the spontaneous decay, and pure dephasing. We use density matrix formalism in the Lindblad form, and we solve it numerically. Our results show that coherent excitation can be used to probe strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode by monitoring the exciton Rabi oscillation as function of the cavity detuning. This can give new insights for future experimental measurement focusing on quantum

  12. Emerging applications for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J S; O'sullivan, T; Sarmiento, T; Lee, M M; Vo, S

    2011-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 850 nm have experienced explosive growth in the past decade because of their many attractive optical features and incredibly low-cost manufacturability. This review reviews the foundations for GaAs-based VCSEL technology as well as the materials and device challenges to extend the operating wavelength to both shorter and longer wavelengths. We discuss some of the applications that are enabled by the integration of VCSELs with both active and passive semiconductor elements for telecommunications, both in vivo and in vitro biosensing, high-density optical storage and imaging at wavelengths much less than the diffraction limit of light

  13. Dynamical Casimir effect on a cavity with mixed boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Danilo T.; Farina, Carlos; Maia Neto, Paulo Americo

    2002-01-01

    The most well-known mechanical effect related to the quantum vacuum is the Casimir force between two mirrors at rest. A new effect appears when the mirrors are set to move. In this case, the vacuum field may exert a dissipative force, damping the motion. As a consequence of energy conservation, there will be creation of real particles. If the motion is non-relativistic and has a small amplitude, the dynamical Casimir force can be found via a perturbative method proposed by Ford and Vilenkin. Using their technique, the electromagnetic dynamical Casimir problem, considered when the oscillating cavity is formed by two parallel plates of the same nature (perfectly conducting or perfectly permeable), can be divided into two separated boundary condition problems, namely: one involving Dirichlet BC, related to the transverse electric polarization and the other involving a Neumann BC, related to the transverse magnetic mode. The case of conducting plates can be found in the literature. However, another interesting case, the mixed oscillating cavity where the plates are of different nature, namely, a perfectly conducting plate and a perfectly permeable one (Boyer plates), has not been studied yet. We show that,for this case, the transverse electric models will be related to mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet-like BC at the conducting plate and Neumann-like BC at the permeable plate. Analogously, the magnetic modes are related to a Neumann BC at the conducting plate and to a Dirichlet BC at the permeable one. As a first step before attacking the three-dimensional electromagnetic problem with mixed BC, we present here a simpler model: a one-dimensional cavity, where a massless scalar field is submitted to mixed (Dirichlet-Neumann) BC. For simplicity, we consider a non-relativistic motion for the conducting wall (Dirichlet BC) and suppose that the perfectly permeable wall (Neumann BC) is at rest. From this model we can extract insights about the dynamical Casimir

  14. Surface temperature measurements on superconducting cavities in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, T.; Junquera, T.; Caruette, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two thermometry systems have been developed: a scanning thermometer system routinely used for the 1.5 GHz monocell cavity studies and a fixed thermometer array used to investigate spatial surface resistance distribution on various SC removable endplates of a cylindrical TE011mode cavity. Thermometers used in these systems are thermally insulated from the surrounding HeII bath by an epoxy housing ('epoxy'thermometers). Accurate calibration of the fixed thermometers was conducted by using different test cells and the experimental results were compared to model calculations performed with a finite element computational code. Measured thermometer efficiency and linearity are in good agreement with numerical results. Some typical temperature maps of different Nb samples obtained with the TE011 array (40 epoxy thermometers) are discussed. On the basis of numerical modelling results, a new type of thermometer with an improved efficiency has been designed. The thermal insulation against Helium II has been drastically improved by placing the sensitive part of the thermometer in a small vacuum jacket ('vacuum' thermometers). Two main goals have been reached with the first prototypes: improved efficiency by a factor of 2.5 - 3, and a bath temperature dependence of the thermal response in good agreement with the expected Kapitza conductance behaviour. Fitting experimental results with numerical modelling data, allow us to estimate the Kapitza conductance. The obtained values are in good agreement with the previous results reported by several authors using a different measurement method. The 'vacuum' thermometers are currently used on the TE011 mode cavity with Nb and NbTiN plates and the first results are presented

  15. Dislocation-cavity interaction in Fe: a comparison between molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez Haghighat, S.M.; Schaeublin, R.; Fivel, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: multi-scale modeling, including molecular dynamics (MD) and discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) methods, appears as a significant tool for the description of plasticity and mechanical properties of materials. This research is on the investigation of the subsequence effects of irradiation on the plasticity of pure Fe and focuses on the interaction of a single dislocation and a spherical cavity, as void or He bubble. Extensive MD simulations of the interaction under imposed strain rate [1, 2] have shown that various temperatures and cavity sizes result in different release stresses depending on dislocation bow out. It appears that a temperature increase and cavity size decrease reduce the cavity strength. MD simulation shows that the elastic field around the cavity is largely anisotropic. This anisotropy may influence the way the dislocation unpins from the cavity. Following the MD simulations, the interaction of a single dislocation and a spherical cavity is now simulated using a DDD discrete dislocation dynamics model. The simulation accounts for the non-Schmidt effect induced by the bcc structure of Fe through local rules derived from MD simulations [3]. The cavity is introduced in the simulation by computing the image forces using a finite element technique. The effective stress applied on the dislocation is then obtained as the superimposition of the applied stress field, the image stress field and the internal stresses. Note that such a model only uses elasticity theory and no core effect of dislocations is taken into account. One of the objectives of this work is to check whether elasticity is responsible of the behaviour observed by MD. Several cases are tested. First an edge dislocation in a (110) plane is pushed against the cavity under a pure shear loading. The local reaction of the dislocations and the cavity are compared to the MD simulations. Then, the case of a screw dislocation is studied. Finally, other loading

  16. Research and development of an ultra clean surface for RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Hajime; Ikeda, Tokumi; Suzuki, Takafusa; Kurosawa, Kiyosi; Kako, Eiji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Saito, Kenji; Kneisel, P.

    1993-01-01

    Suppression of field emission is essentially important in order to attain higher accelerating gradients. Therefore, elimination of residual dust particles on the inner surface of RF cavities is necessary. Surface of a niobium cavity was simulated in silicon wafers, and analysis of dust particles was performed by a particle counter used for semiconductor industries. Experimental results in various surface treatments and applications to niobium cavities are described in this paper. (author)

  17. Numerical research of dynamic characteristics in tower solar cavity receiver based on step-change radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Yueshe; Hao, Yun; Wang, Qizhi

    2013-07-01

    The solar cavity receiver is an important light-energy to thermal-energy convector in the tower solar thermal power plant system. The heat flux in the inner surface of the cavity will show the characteristics of non-continuous step change especially in non-normal and transient weather conditions, which may result in a continuous dynamic variation of the characteristic parameters. Therefore, the research of dynamic characteristics of the receiver plays a very important role in the operation and the control safely in solar cavity receiver system. In this paper, based on the non-continuous step change of radiation flux, a non-linear dynamic model is put forward to obtain the effects of the non-continuous step change radiation flux and step change feed water flow on the receiver performance by sequential modular approach. The subject investigated in our study is a 1MW solar power station constructed in Yanqing County, Beijing. This study has obtained the dynamic responses of the characteristic parameters in the cavity receiver, such as drum pressure, drum water level, main steam flow and main steam enthalpy under step change radiation flux. And the influence law of step-change feed water flow to the dynamic characteristics in the receiver also has been analyzed. The results have a reference value for the safe operation and the control in solar cavity receiver system.

  18. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  19. Quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in single-mode cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Qing-Hu

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum discord for two identical qubits in two independent single-mode cavities and a common single-mode cavity are discussed. For the initial Bell state with correlated spins, while the entanglement sudden death can occur, the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete moments in the independent cavities and never vanishes in the common cavity. Interestingly, quantum discord and entanglement show opposite behavior in the common cavity, unlike in the independent cavities. For the initial Bell state with anti-correlated spins, quantum discord and entanglement behave in the same way for both independent cavities and a common cavity. It is found that the detunings always stabilize the quantum discord. (general)

  20. Acoustic investigation of the aperture dynamics of an elastic membrane closing an overpressurized cylindrical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Claudia; Vidal, Valérie; Melo, Francisco

    2015-08-01

    We report an experimental study of the acoustic signal produced by the rupture of an elastic membrane that initially closes a cylindrical overpressurized cavity. This configuration has been recently used as an experimental model system for the investigation of the acoustic emission from the bursting of elongated gas bubbles rising in a conduit. Here, we investigate the effect of the membrane rupture dynamics on the acoustic signal produced by the pressure release by changing the initial tension of the membrane. The initial overpressure in the cavity is fixed at a value such that the system remains in the linear acoustic regime. For large initial membrane deformation, the rupture time τ rup is small compared to the wave propagation time in the cavity and the pressure wave inside the conduit can be fully captured by the linear theory. For low membrane tension, a hole is pierced in the membrane but its rupture does not occur. For intermediate deformation, finally, the rupture progresses in two steps: first the membrane opens slowly; then, after reaching a critical size, the rupture accelerates. A transversal wave is excited along the membrane surface. The characteristic signature of each opening dynamics on the acoustic emission is described.

  1. Spin-controlled ultrafast vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpfner, Henning; Lindemann, Markus; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2014-05-01

    Spin-controlled semiconductor lasers are highly attractive spintronic devices providing characteristics superior to their conventional purely charge-based counterparts. In particular, spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) promise to offer lower thresholds, enhanced emission intensity, spin amplification, full polarization control, chirp control and ultrafast dynamics. Most important, the ability to control and modulate the polarization state of the laser emission with extraordinarily high frequencies is very attractive for many applications like broadband optical communication and ultrafast optical switches. We present a novel concept for ultrafast spin-VCSELs which has the potential to overcome the conventional speed limitation for directly modulated lasers by the relaxation oscillation frequency and to reach modulation frequencies significantly above 100 GHz. The concept is based on the coupled spin-photon dynamics in birefringent micro-cavity lasers. By injecting spin-polarized carriers in the VCSEL, oscillations of the coupled spin-photon system can by induced which lead to oscillations of the polarization state of the laser emission. These oscillations are decoupled from conventional relaxation oscillations of the carrier-photon system and can be much faster than these. Utilizing these polarization oscillations is thus a very promising approach to develop ultrafast spin-VCSELs for high speed optical data communication in the near future. Different aspects of the spin and polarization dynamics, its connection to birefringence and bistability in the cavity, controlled switching of the oscillations, and the limitations of this novel approach will be analysed theoretically and experimentally for spin-polarized VCSELs at room temperature.

  2. Temporal dynamics of all-optical switching in Photonic Crystal Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colman, Pierre; Heuck, Mikkel; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of all-optical switching has been investigated in a Photonic Crystal Cavity with a 150fs-40aJ/pulse resolution. This allowed observing for the first time effects like pulse reshaping, pulse delay and intra-cavity Four-Wave-Mixing.......The temporal dynamics of all-optical switching has been investigated in a Photonic Crystal Cavity with a 150fs-40aJ/pulse resolution. This allowed observing for the first time effects like pulse reshaping, pulse delay and intra-cavity Four-Wave-Mixing....

  3. Dynamics of bad-cavity-enhanced interaction with cold Sr atoms for laser stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, S. A.; Christensen, B. T.R.; Henriksen, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid systems of cold atoms and optical cavities are promising systems for increasing the stability of laser oscillators used in quantum metrology and atomic clocks. In this paper we map out the atom-cavity dynamics in such a system and demonstrate limitations as well as robustness of the approach....... We investigate the phase response of an ensemble of cold Sr88 atoms inside an optical cavity for use as an error signal in laser frequency stabilization. With this system we realize a regime where the high atomic phase shift limits the dynamical locking range. The limitation is caused by the cavity...

  4. Comparison of 3 methods on fabricating micro- /nano- structured surface on 3D mold cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    The methods to manufacture micro- or nano- structures on surfaces have been an area of intense investigation. Demands are shown for technologies for surface structuring on real 3D parts in many fields. However, most technologies for the fabrication of micro-structured functional surfaces are still...... limited to flat or simple shaped geometries. In this paper, 3 approaches for fabricating micro and nano- structured surfaces on a mold cavity for injection moulding are investigated and compared. The first approach is to use pre-fabricated plate with micro-structured surface as an insert for the mold......, in this way micro holes (Ø4 μm) was obtained. The second approach is to produce the cavity part using anodizing process chain, and in this way sub-micro structures can be obtained all over the cavity surface. The third approach is to machine the surface inside the cavity directly by femtosecond laser combined...

  5. Automated Surface Classification of SRF Cavities for the Investigation of the Influence of Surface Properties onto the Operational Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenskat, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting niobium radio-frequency cavities are fundamental for the European XFEL and the International Linear Collider. To use the operational advantages of superconducting cavities, the inner surface has to fulfill quite demanding requirements. The surface roughness and cleanliness improved over the last decades and with them, the achieved maximal accelerating field. Still, limitations of the maximal achieved accelerating field are observed, which are not explained by localized geometrical defects or impurities. The scope of this thesis is a better understanding of these limitations in defect free cavities based on global, rather than local, surface properties. For this goal, more than 30 cavities underwent subsequent surface treatments, cold RF tests and optical inspections within the ILC-HiGrade research program and the XFEL cavity production. An algorithm was developed which allows an automated surface characterization based on an optical inspection robot. This algorithm delivers a set of optical surface properties, which describes the inner cavity surface. These optical surface properties deliver a framework for a quality assurance of the fabrication procedures. Furthermore, they shows promising results for a better understanding of the observed limitations in defect free cavities.

  6. Automated Surface Classification of SRF Cavities for the Investigation of the Influence of Surface Properties onto the Operational Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc

    2015-07-15

    Superconducting niobium radio-frequency cavities are fundamental for the European XFEL and the International Linear Collider. To use the operational advantages of superconducting cavities, the inner surface has to fulfill quite demanding requirements. The surface roughness and cleanliness improved over the last decades and with them, the achieved maximal accelerating field. Still, limitations of the maximal achieved accelerating field are observed, which are not explained by localized geometrical defects or impurities. The scope of this thesis is a better understanding of these limitations in defect free cavities based on global, rather than local, surface properties. For this goal, more than 30 cavities underwent subsequent surface treatments, cold RF tests and optical inspections within the ILC-HiGrade research program and the XFEL cavity production. An algorithm was developed which allows an automated surface characterization based on an optical inspection robot. This algorithm delivers a set of optical surface properties, which describes the inner cavity surface. These optical surface properties deliver a framework for a quality assurance of the fabrication procedures. Furthermore, they shows promising results for a better understanding of the observed limitations in defect free cavities.

  7. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  8. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-04-01

    An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5-1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  9. Modelling of the nonlinear soliton dynamics in the ring fibre cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razukov, Vadim A.; Melnikov, Leonid A.

    2018-04-01

    Using the cabaret method numerical realization, long-time spatio-temporal dynamics of the electromagnetic field in a nonlinear ring fibre cavity with dispersion is investigated during the hundreds of round trips. Formation of both the temporal cavity solitons and irregular pulse trains is demonstrated and discussed.

  10. Dynamical speckles in watery surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovera-Gonzalez, J.J.; Moreno-Yeras, A.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Alvarez-Salgado, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of watery surfaces with monolayer of surfactant substances is of interest in diverse technological applications. The format ion and study of molecular monolayer deposited in these surfaces require the application of measurements techniques that allow evaluating the recovery grade locally without modifying practically the studied surface. In this paper the preliminary results obtained by the authors it plows exposed applying the technique of dynamic speckle interferometry in watery surfaces and their consideration like to possible resource to measure the grade of local recovery of these surfaces on the it bases that the speckles pattern dog reveal the dynamics of evaporation that takes place in the same ones. (Author)

  11. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  12. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S. [GUAS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); KAKEN Inc., Hokota, Ibaraki 311-1416 (Japan); GUAS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan) and KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  13. Investigation of Plasma Etching for Superconducting RF Cavities Surface Preparation. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2009-01-01

    Our results show that plasma-treated samples are comparable or superior to a BCP sample, both in the size of features and sharpness of the boundaries between individual features at the surface. Plasma treatment of bulk Nb cavities is a promising technique for microwave cavities preparation used in particle acceleration application. Etching rates are sufficiently high to enable efficient removal of mechanically damaged surface layer with high reproducibility. No impurities are deposited on the bulk Nb surface during plasma treatment. Surface topology characteristic are promising for complex cavity geometry, since discharge conforms the profile of the reaction chamber. In view of these experimental results, we propose plasma treatment for producing microwave cavities with high Q factor instead of using bulk Nb treated with wet etching process.

  14. VCSELs Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The huge progress which has been achieved in the field is covered here, in the first comprehensive monograph on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) since eight years. Apart from chapters reviewing the research field and the laser fundamentals, there are comprehensive updates on red and blue emitting VCSELs, telecommunication VCSELs, optical transceivers, and parallel-optical links for computer interconnects. Entirely new contributions are made to the fields of vectorial three-dimensional optical modeling, single-mode VCSELs, polarization control, polarization dynamics, very-high-speed design, high-power emission, use of high-contrast gratings, GaInNAsSb long-wavelength VCSELs, optical video links, VCSELs for optical mice and sensing, as well as VCSEL-based laser printing. The book appeals to researchers, optical engineers and graduate students.

  15. Oscillations of the fluid flow and the free surface in a cavity with a submerged bifurcated nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kenjereš, S.; Righolt, B.W.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-sustained oscillations in a thin cavity with submerged nozzle were observed. • Three flow regimes are detected depending on nozzle depth and inlet velocity. • The three flow regimes have been summarized in a flow regime map. • PIV measurements are performed to link free surface behavior to the bulk-flow. • We report a close correlation between jet-behavior and free surface dynamics. -- Abstract: The free surface dynamics and sub-surface flow behavior in a thin (height and width much larger than thickness), liquid filled, rectangular cavity with a submerged bifurcated nozzle were investigated using free surface visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Three regimes in the free surface behavior were identified, depending on nozzle depth and inlet velocity. For small nozzle depths, an irregular free surface is observed without clear periodicities. For intermediate nozzle depths and sufficiently high inlet velocities, natural mode oscillations consistent with gravity waves are present, while at large nozzle depths long term self-sustained asymmetric oscillations occur. For the latter case, time-resolved PIV measurements of the flow below the free surface indicated a strong oscillation of the direction with which each of the two jets issue from the nozzle. The frequency of the jet oscillation is identical to the free surface oscillation frequency. The two jets oscillate in anti-phase, causing the asymmetric free surface oscillation. The jets interact through a cross-flow in the gaps between the inlet channel and the front and back walls of the cavity

  16. Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian...... manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory...

  17. Quantum and classical nonlinear dynamics in a microwave cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meaney, Charles H.; Milburn, Gerard J. [The University of Queensland, Department of Physics, St Lucia, QLD (Australia); Nha, Hyunchul [Texas A and M University at Qatar, Department of Physics, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Duty, Timothy [The University of New South Wales, Department of Physics, Kensington, NSW (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    We consider a quarter wave coplanar microwave cavity terminated to ground via a superconducting quantum interference device. By modulating the flux through the loop, the cavity frequency is modulated. The flux is varied at twice the cavity frequency implementing a parametric driving of the cavity field. The cavity field also exhibits a large effective nonlinear susceptibility modelled as an effective Kerr nonlinearity, and is also driven by a detuned linear drive. We show that the semi-classical model corresponding to this system exhibits a fixed point bifurcation at a particular threshold of parametric pumping power. We show the quantum signature of this bifurcation in the dissipative quantum system. We further linearise about the below threshold classical steady state and consider it to act as a bifurcation amplifier, calculating gain and noise spectra for the corresponding small signal regime. Furthermore, we use a phase space technique to analytically solve for the exact quantum steady state. We use this solution to calculate the exact small signal gain of the amplifier. (orig.)

  18. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, P.V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An in situ plasma processing for SNS SRF cavities has been developed to remove hydrocarbons from cavity surface. • Reactive oxygen plasma is very effective to remove hydrocarbons from niobium top surface. • Reactive oxygen plasma processing increases the work function of niobium surface in the range of 0.5–1.0 eV. • It was observed that hydrocarbons can migrate at plasma cleaned top surface from near surface regions when waiting in vacuum at room temperature. • Multiple cycles of plasma processing with waiting periods in between was found beneficial to mitigate such hydrocarbons migration at plasma cleaned surface. - Abstract: An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5–1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  19. Analytical and semi-analytical formalism for the voltage and the current sources of a superconducting cavity under dynamic detuning

    CERN Document Server

    Doleans, M

    2003-01-01

    Elliptical superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are sensitive to frequency detuning because they have a high Q value in comparison with normal conducting cavities and weak mechanical properties. Radiation pressure on the cavity walls, microphonics, and tuning system are possible sources of dynamic detuning during SRF cavity-pulsed operation. A general analytic relation between the cavity voltage, the dynamic detuning function, and the RF control function is developed. This expression for the voltage envelope in a cavity under dynamic detuning and dynamic RF controls is analytically expressed through an integral formulation. A semi-analytical scheme is derived to calculate the voltage behavior in any practical case. Examples of voltage envelope behavior for different cases of dynamic detuning and RF control functions are shown. The RF control function for a cavity under dynamic detuning is also investigated and as an application various filling schemes are presented.

  20. Dynamical Properties of Two Coupled Dissipative QED Cavities Driven by Coherent Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Bangpin; Sun Weili; Wang Shunjin; Wang Gang

    2007-01-01

    When two identical QED cavities driven by the coherent fields are located in a uniform environment, in addition to dissipation, there appears an indirect coupling between the two cavities induced by the background fields. We investigate the effects of the coherent fields, the dissipation as well as the incoherent coupling on the following dynamical properties of the system: photon transfer, reversible decoherence, and quantum state transfer, etc. We find that the photons in the cavities do not leak completely into the environment due to the collective coupling between the cavities and the environment, and the photons are transferred irreversibly from the cavity with more photons to the cavity with less ones due to the incoherent coupling so that they are equally distributed among the two cavities. The coherent field pumping on the two cavities increases the mean photons, complements the revived magnitude of the reversible decoherence, but hinders the quantum state transfer between the two cavities. The above phenomena may find applications in quantum communication and other basic fields.

  1. Observation of Stable Low Surface Resistance in Large-Grain Niobium SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Huang, Shichun [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP)/Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou (China)

    2016-05-01

    Low surface resistance, or high unloaded quality factor (Q0), superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are being pursued actively nowadays as their application in large-scale CW SRF accelerators can save capital and operational cost in cryogenics. There are different options in realization of such cavities. One of them is the large-grain (LG) niobium cavity. In this contribution, we present new experimental results in evaluation of LG niobium cavities cooled down in the presence of an external magnetic field. High Q0 values are achieved even with an ambient magnetic field of up to 100 mG. More over, it is observed that these high Q0 values are super-robust against repeated quench, literally not affected at all after the cavity being deliberately quenched for hundreds of times in the presence of an ambient magnetic field of up to 200 mG.

  2. Dynamical triangulated fermionic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Varsted, S.

    1990-12-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of randomly triangulated random surfaces which have fermionic world-sheet scalars θ i associated with each vertex i in addition to the usual bosonic world-sheet scalar χ i μ . The fermionic degrees of freedom force the internal metrics of the string to be less singular than the internal metric of the pure bosonic string. (orig.)

  3. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...

  4. Optical surface properties and their RF limitations of European XFEL cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc

    2017-04-15

    The inner surface of superconducting cavities plays a crucial role to achieve highest accelerating fields and low losses. The industrial fabrication of cavities for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) HiGrade Research Project allowed for an investigation of this interplay. For the serial inspection of the inner surface, the optical inspection robot OBACHT was constructed and to analyze the large amount of data, represented in the images of the inner surface, an image processing and analysis code was developed and new variables to describe the cavity surface were obtained. This quantitative analysis identified vendor specific surface properties which allow to perform a quality control and assurance during the production. In addition, a strong negative correlation of ρ=-0.93 with a significance of 6σ of the integrated grain boundary area ΣA versus the maximal achievable accelerating field E{sub acc,max} has been found.

  5. Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajčičák Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

  6. Optical surface properties and their RF limitations of European XFEL cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenskat, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The inner surface of superconducting cavities plays a crucial role to achieve highest accelerating fields and low losses. The industrial fabrication of cavities for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) HiGrade Research Project allowed for an investigation of this interplay. For the serial inspection of the inner surface, the optical inspection robot OBACHT was constructed and to analyze the large amount of data, represented in the images of the inner surface, an image processing and analysis code was developed and new variables to describe the cavity surface were obtained. This quantitative analysis identified vendor specific surface properties which allow to perform a quality control and assurance during the production. In addition, a strong negative correlation of ρ=-0.93 with a significance of 6σ of the integrated grain boundary area ΣA versus the maximal achievable accelerating field E acc,max has been found.

  7. Dependence of the surface resistance of niobium coated copper cavities on the coating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.; Durand, C.; Janot, P.; Rensing, N.; Weingarten, W.; Bosland, P.; Gobin, J.; Martignac, J.

    1996-01-01

    Six hydro-formed copper 1.5 GHz cavities have been baked and coated with niobium at different temperatures between 100 deg C and 200 deg C, while keeping the other discharge parameters unchanged. Their surface resistance has been measured as a function RF field and trapped magnetic field. Its dependence on deposition temperature confirms earlier indications obtained using 350 MHz LEP cavities that 150 deg C leads to optimal performances. The critical temperatures of Nb/Cu and bulk niobium cavities have also been measured. (author)

  8. Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia

    2016-08-01

    The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.

  9. Development of an optical inspection bench for the inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz SCRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokil, S.V.; Kane, G.V.; Raghavendra, S.; Chauhan, S.K.; Rajpoot, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Om Prakash; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    An optical inspection system has been developed for inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz superconducting RF cavities. The cavity parts are welded either using Electron Beam or Laser Beam Welding for making a good quality of weld joints. Surface defects like pits, scratches, welding spatters etc. on the internal surface of the cavity deteriorates cavity performance. Surface quality of the cavity equator joint plays an important role in the cavity performance. To study the quality of equator surface, the inspection bench offers high resolution images with a linear resolution of 45 m/pixel at a distance of ∼200 mm. The bench comprises of two major sub-systems, optical imaging system and cavity positioning system. A digital camera and multi coloured illumination system is used to obtain high resolution images. The camera is mounted inside a long cylindrical tube. The cylindrical tube can be inserted into a SCRF cavity. The length of the cylinder is long enough to inspect five-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavity. The cavity is placed on a set of PTFE rollers, which are mounted on a trolley. The cavity can be moved linearly with the help of ball screw-servomotor mechanism. The camera along with cylindrical tube can be rotated around its axis with a stepper motor to scan the cavity's internal surface. The paper presents the details about the optical inspection bench and optical inspection results. (author)

  10. Optimization of CW Fiber Lasers With Strong Nonlinear Cavity Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, O. V.; Efremov, S. A.; Yarutkina, I. A.; Skidin, A. S.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    In present work the equation for the saturated gain is derived from one-level gain equations describing the energy evolution inside the laser cavity. It is shown how to derive the parameters of the mathematical model from the experimental results. The numerically-estimated energy and spectrum of the signal are in good agreement with the experiment. Also, the optimization of the output energy is performed for a given set of model parameters.

  11. Dynamics of interacting Dicke model in a coupled-cavity array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Fazal; Qamar, Shahid; Paternostro, Mauro

    2014-09-01

    We consider the dynamics of an array of mutually interacting cavities, each containing an ensemble of N two-level atoms. By exploring the possibilities offered by ensembles of various dimensions and a range of atom-light and photon-hopping values, we investigate the generation of multisite entanglement, as well as the performance of excitation transfer across the array, resulting from the competition between on-site nonlinearities of the matter-light interaction and intersite photon hopping. In particular, for a three-cavity interacting system it is observed that the initial excitation in the first cavity completely transfers to the ensemble in the third cavity through the hopping of photons between the adjacent cavities. Probabilities of the transfer of excitation of the cavity modes and ensembles exhibit characteristics of fast and slow oscillations governed by coupling and hopping parameters, respectively. In the large-hopping case, by seeding an initial excitation in the cavity at the center of the array, a tripartite W state, as well as a bipartite maximally entangled state, is obtained, depending on the interaction time. Population of the ensemble in a cavity has a positive impact on the rate of excitation transfer between the ensembles and their local cavity modes. In particular, for ensembles of five to seven atoms, tripartite W states can be produced even when the hopping rate is comparable to the cavity-atom coupling rate. A similar behavior of the transfer of excitation is observed for a four-coupled-cavity system with two initial excitations.

  12. Investigation of niobium surface structure and composition for improvement of superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenikhina, Yulia

    Nano-scale investigation of intrinsic properties of niobium near-surface is a key to control performance of niobium superconducting radio-frequency cavities. Mechanisms responsible for the performance limitations and their empirical remedies needs to be justified in order to reproducibly control fabrication of SRF cavities with desired characteristics. The high field Q-slope and mechanism behind its cure (120°C mild bake) were investigated by comparison of the samples cut out of the cavities with high and low dissipation regions. Material evolution during mild field Q-slope nitrogen treatment was characterized using the coupon samples as well as samples cut out of nitrogen treated cavity. Evaluation of niobium near-surface state after some typical and novel cavity treatments was accomplished. Various TEM techniques, SEM, XPS, AES, XRD were used for the structural and chemical characterization of niobium near-surface. Combination of thermometry and structural temperature-dependent comparison of the cavity cutouts with different dissipation characteristics revealed precipitation of niobium hydrides to be the reason for medium and high field Q-slopes. Step-by-step effect of the nitrogen treatment processing on niobium surface was studied by analytical and structural characterization of the cavity cutout and niobium samples, which were subject to the treatment. Low concentration nitrogen doping is proposed to explain the benefit of nitrogen treatment. Chemical characterization of niobium samples before and after various surface processing (Electropolishing (EP), 800°C bake, hydrofluoric acid (HF) rinsing) showed the differences that can help to reveal the microscopic effects behind these treatments as well as possible sources of surface contamination.

  13. Effects of Active and Passive Control Techniques on Mach 1.5 Cavity Flow Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Aradag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic flow over cavities has been of interest since 1960s because cavities represent the bomb bays of aircraft. The flow is transient, turbulent, and complicated. Pressure fluctuations inside the cavity can impede successful weapon release. The objective of this study is to use active and passive control methods on supersonic cavity flow numerically to decrease or eliminate pressure oscillations. Jet blowing at several locations on the front and aft walls of the cavity configuration is used as an active control method. Several techniques are used for passive control including using a cover plate to separate the flow dynamics inside and outside of the cavity, trailing edge wall modifications, such as inclination of the trailing edge, and providing curvature to the trailing edge wall. The results of active and passive control techniques are compared with the baseline case in terms of pressure fluctuations, sound pressure levels at the leading edge, trailing edge walls, and cavity floor and in terms of formation of the flow structures and the results are presented. It is observed from the results that modification of the trailing edge wall is the most effective of the control methods tested leading to up to 40 dB reductions in cavity tones.

  14. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl_{2}/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  15. Entanglement dynamics between an isolated atom and a moving atom in the cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Juan, Deng; Mao-Fa, Fang; Guo-Dong, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The entanglement dynamics between an isolated atom and a moving atom interacting with a cavity field is investigated. The results show that there appears sudden death of entanglement between the isolated atom and the moving atom and that the time of entanglement sudden death (ESD) is independent of the initial state of the system. It is interesting that the isolated atom can also entangle with a cavity field, though they do not interact with each other originally, which stems from the fact that the entanglement between the isolated atom and the moving atom may turn into the entanglement between the isolated atom and the cavity. (general)

  16. The effect of plasma etching on the surface topography of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, B.; Radmilović-Radjenović, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this letter the evolution of the surface topography of a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity caused by different plasma etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) is studied by the three-dimensional level set method. The initial rough surface is generated starting from an experimental power spectral density. The time dependence of the rms roughness is analyzed and the growth exponential factors β are determined for two etching modes (isotropic and anisotropic) assuming that isotropic etching is a much more effective mechanism of smoothing. The obtained simulation results could be useful for optimizing the parameters of the etching processes needed to obtain high quality niobium surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavities.

  17. Dynamical dispersion engineering in coupled vertical cavities employing a high-contrast grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    , including a case capable of dynamically controlling the photon’s effective mass to a large extent while keeping the resonance frequency same. We believe that full-control and dynamical-tuning of the photon’s effective mass may enable new possibilities for cavity quantum electrodynamics studies...

  18. Microscopic examination and elemental analysis of surface defects in LEP superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, C.; Cosso, R.; Hauer, M.; Hellgren, N.; Lacarrere, D.

    1996-01-01

    A diagnostic tool, based on a computer controlled surface analysis instrument, incorporating secondary electron imaging, static auger electron spectroscopy and scanning auger mapping has been designed and built at CERN to characterize the inner surface of LEP superconducting cavities with provide unsatisfactory radio-frequency performance. The experimental results obtained to date are reported and discussed. (author)

  19. The HIE-ISOLDE Superconducting Cavities: Surface Treatment and Niobium Thin Film Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, G; Ferreira, L M A; Gustafsson, A E; Pasini, M; Trilhe, P; Palmieri, V

    2010-01-01

    CERN has designed and prepared new facilities for the surface treatment and niobium sputter coating of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting cavities. We describe here the design choices, as well as the results of the first surface treatments and test coatings.

  20. A study of the cavity polariton under strong excitation:dynamics and nonlinearities in II-VI micro-cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Markus

    2000-01-01

    This work contains an experimental study of the photoluminescence dynamics of cavity polaritons in strong coupling micro-cavities based on II-VI semiconductor compounds. The small exciton size and the strong exciton binding energy in these materials allowed us to study the strong coupling regime between photon and exciton up to high excitation densities, exploring the linear and non-linear emission regimes. Our main experimental techniques are picosecond time-resolved and angular photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the linear regime and for a negative photon-exciton detuning, we observe a suppression of the polariton relaxation by the emission of acoustic phonons leading to a non-equilibrium polariton distribution on the lower branch. This 'bottleneck' effect, which has already been described for polaritons in bulk semiconductors, results from the pronounced photon like character of the polaritons near k(parallel) = 0 in this configuration. At high excitation densities, non-linear relaxation processes, namely final state stimulation of the relaxation and polariton-polariton scattering, bypass this bottleneck giving rise to a very rapid relaxation down to the bottom of the band. We show that this dramatic change in the relaxation dynamics is finally responsible of the super-linear increase of the polariton emission from these states. (author) [fr

  1. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  2. On the field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Junginger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The surface resistance Rs of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a thin niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied RF field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that due to the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film Rs is enhanced due to global heating of the inner cavity wall. Introducing helium gas in the cavity and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by only 60+/-60 mK when Rs increases with Eacc by 100 nOhm. This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally the effect of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered Rs.

  3. Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Hobrecker, F.; Zogg, H.

    2010-10-01

    A tunable PbTe based mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser is described. The active part is a ˜1 μm thick PbTe layer grown epitaxially on a Bragg mirror on the Si-substrate. The cavity is terminated with a curved Si/SiO Bragg top mirror and pumped optically with a 1.55 μm laser. Cavity length is <100 μm in order that only one longitudinal mode is supported. By changing the cavity length, up to 5% wavelength continuous and mode-hop free tuning is achieved at fixed temperature. The total tuning extends from 5.6 to 4.7 μm at 100-170 K operation temperature.

  4. Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

  5. Asymptotic entanglement dynamics phase diagrams for two electromagnetic field modes in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumond, R. C.; Souza, L. A. M.; Terra Cunha, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretically an open dynamics for two modes of electromagnetic field inside a microwave cavity. The dynamics is Markovian and determined by two types of reservoirs: the ''natural'' reservoirs due to dissipation and temperature of the cavity, and an engineered one, provided by a stream of atoms passing trough the cavity, as devised by Pielawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240401 (2007)]. We found that, depending on the reservoir parameters, the system can have distinct ''phases'' for the asymptotic entanglement dynamics: it can disentangle at finite time or it can have persistent entanglement for large times, with the transition between them characterized by the possibility of asymptotical disentanglement. Incidentally, we also discuss the effects of dissipation on the scheme proposed in the above reference for generation of entangled states.

  6. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, D. B.; Roach, W. M.; Clavero, C.; Reece, C. E.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ˜50MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006)APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2162264] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

  7. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001 surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Beringer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ∼50  MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2162264] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

  8. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, D. B. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Roach, W. M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Clavero, C. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Reece, C. E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lukaszew, R. A. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    2013-02-05

    This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ~500 MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [ Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 012511 (2006)] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

  9. Protection of enamel surfaces in the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo

    The two main diseases that can affect the tooth enamel are dental caries and dental erosion, which both are caused by exposure of the enamel surfaces to acids. In the case of dental caries, acids from bacterial metabolism cause chemical dissolution of the tooth surface, whereas acids from drinks...... and foodstuffs or gastric juice can cause dental erosion. During a lifetime the enamel surface is also exposed to fluids that can have protective effects against dental caries and erosion such as saliva, various foodstuffs, drinking water and many types of drinks. However, little is still known about simple...... inorganic interactions between different fluids and dental caries and little is also known about which saliva proteins are able to protect the enamel surface against dental erosion. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to examine simple inorganic and protein related protective effects with dental...

  10. Surface wave resonance and chirality in a tubular cavity with metasurface design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuzhou; Fang, Yangfu; Wang, Lu; Tang, Shiwei; Sun, Shulin; Liu, Zhaowei; Mei, Yongfeng

    2018-06-01

    Optical microcavities with whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) have been indispensable in both photonic researches and applications. Besides, metasurfaces, have attracted much attention recently due to their strong abilities to manipulate electromagnetic waves. Here, combining these two optical elements together, we show a tubular cavity can convert input propagating cylindrical waves into directed localized surface waves (SWs), enabling the circulating like WGMs along the wall surface of the designed tubular cavity. Finite element method (FEM) simulations demonstrate that such near-field WGM shows both large chirality and high local field. This work may stimulate interesting potential applications in e.g. directional emission, sensing, and lasing.

  11. Beam dynamics aspects of crab cavities in the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y P; Barranco, J; Tomás, R; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; Calaga, R; Morita, A

    2009-01-01

    Modern colliders bring into collision a large number of bunches to achieve a high luminosity. The long-range beam-beam effects arising from parasitic encounters at such colliders are mitigated by introducing a crossing angle. Under these conditions, crab cavities (CC) can be used to restore effective head-on collisions and thereby to increase the geometric luminosity. Such crab cavities have been proposed for both linear and circular colliders. The crab cavities are rf cavities operated in a transverse dipole mode, which imparts on the beam particles a transverse kick that varies with the longitudinal position along the bunch. The use of crab cavities in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may not only raise the luminosity, but it could also complicate the beam dynamics, e.g., crab cavities might not only cancel synchrobetatron resonances excited by the crossing angle but they could also excite new ones, they could reduce the dynamic aperture for off-momentum particles, they could influence the aperture and orbit...

  12. Surface plasmon resonance optical cavity enhanced refractive index sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; Malara, P.; Gagliardi, G.; Casalino, M.; Coppola, G.; Iodice, M.; Adam, Pavel; Chadt, Karel; Homola, Jiří; De Natale, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 11 (2013), s. 1951-1953 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Resonators * Surface plasmons * Optical sensing and sensors Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  13. Optical surface properties and their RF limitations of European XFEL cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenskat, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The inner surface of superconducting cavities plays a crucial role to achieve highest accelerating fields and low losses. The industrial fabrication of cavities for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser and the International Linear Collider HiGrade Research Project allowed for an investigation of this interplay. For the serial inspection of the inner surface, the optical inspection robot ’optical bench for automated cavity inspection with high resolution on short timescales’ OBACHT was constructed and to analyze the large amount of data, represented in the images of the inner surface, an image processing and analysis code was developed and new variables to describe the cavity surface were obtained. This quantitative analysis identified vendor-specific surface properties which allow the performance of quality control and assurance during production. In addition, a strong negative correlation of ρ =-0.93 with a significance of 6 σ of the integrated grain boundary area \\sum {A} versus the maximal achievable accelerating field {{E}}{acc,\\max } has been found.

  14. Mirror-smooth surfaces and repair of defects in superconducting RF cavities by mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C. A. [Fermilab; Cooley, L. D. [Fermilab

    2012-11-22

    Mechanical techniques for polishing the inside surface of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities have been systematically explored. By extending known techniques to fine polishing, mirror-like finishes were produced, with <15 nm RMS (root mean square) roughness over 1 mm2 scan area. This is an order of magnitude less than the typical roughness produced by the electropolishing of niobium cavities. The extended mechanical polishing (XMP) process was applied to several SRF cavities which exhibited equator defects that caused quench at <20 MV m-1 and were not improved by further electropolishing. Cavity optical inspection equipment verified the complete removal of these defects, and minor acid processing, which dulled the mirror finish, restored performance of the defective cells to the high gradients and quality factors measured for adjacent cells when tested with other harmonics. This innate repair feature of XMP could be used to increase manufacturing yield. Excellent superconducting properties resulted after initial process optimization, with quality factor Q of 3 × 1010 and accelerating gradient of 43 MV m-1 being attained for a single-cell TESLA cavity, which are both close to practical limits. Several repaired nine-cell cavities also attained Q > 8 × 109 at 35 MV m-1, which is the specification for the International Linear Collider. Future optimization of the process and pathways for eliminating requirements for acid processing are also discussed.

  15. Cavity-enhanced surface-plasmon resonance sensing: modeling and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgini, A; Avino, S; Malara, P; Zullo, R; Gagliardi, G; Homola, J; De Natale, P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the performance of a surface-plasmon-resonance refractive-index (RI) sensor based on an optical resonator. The resonator transforms RI changes of liquid samples, interacting with the surface plasmon excited by near-infrared light, into a variation of the intra-cavity optical loss. Cavity ring-down measurements are provided as a proof of concept of RI sensing on calibrated mixtures. A characterization of the overall sensor response and noise features as well as a discussion on possible improvements is carried out. A reproducibility analysis shows that a resolution of 10 −7 –10 −8  RIU is within reach over observation times of 1–30 s. The ultimate resolution is set only by intrinsic noise features of the cavity-based method, pointing to a potential limit below 10 −10  RIU/√Hz. (paper)

  16. A novel approach to characterizing the surface topography of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Ribeill, Guilhem; Xu, Chen; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro- and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents typically flow. Interior surface chemical treatments such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electropolishing (EP) used to remove mechanical damage leave surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is introduced to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of well-controlled EP is discussed. This study will greatly help to identify optimum EP parameter sets for controlled and reproducible surface levelling of Nb for cavity production.

  17. A novel approach to characterizing the surface topography of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hui; Ribeill, Guilhem; Xu Chen; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro- and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents typically flow. Interior surface chemical treatments such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electropolishing (EP) used to remove mechanical damage leave surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is introduced to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of well-controlled EP is discussed. This study will greatly help to identify optimum EP parameter sets for controlled and reproducible surface levelling of Nb for cavity production.

  18. Transient dynamics in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency with ion Coulomb crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Magnus; Dantan, Aurélien; Drewsen, Michael

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the transient dynamics of an optical cavity field interacting with large ion Coulomb crystals in a situation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT is achieved by injecting a probe field at the single photon level and a more intense control field with opposite circular polarization into the same mode of an optical cavity to couple Zeeman substates of a metastable level in ? ions. The EIT interaction dynamics are investigated both in the frequency-domain - by measuring the probe field steady state reflectivity spectrum - and in the time-domain - by measuring the progressive buildup of transparency. The experimental results are observed to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions taking into account the inhomogeneity of the control field in the interaction volume, and confirm the high degree of control on light-matter interaction that can be achieved with ion Coulomb crystals in optical cavities.

  19. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity

  20. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser vapor sensor using swelling polymer reflection modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgård; Dohn, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Vapor detection using a low-refractive index polymer for reflection modulation of the top mirror in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is demonstrated. The VCSEL sensor concept presents a simple method to detect the response of a sensor polymer in the presence of volatile organic...

  1. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form...

  2. A novel near real-time laser scanning device for geometrical determination of pleural cavity surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M; Zhu, Timothy C

    2013-02-02

    During HPPH-mediated pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is critical to determine the anatomic geometry of the pleural surface quickly as there may be movement during treatment resulting in changes with the cavity. We have developed a laser scanning device for this purpose, which has the potential to obtain the surface geometry in real-time. A red diode laser with a holographic template to create a pattern and a camera with auto-focusing abilities are used to scan the cavity. In conjunction with a calibration with a known surface, we can use methods of triangulation to reconstruct the surface. Using a chest phantom, we are able to obtain a 360 degree scan of the interior in under 1 minute. The chest phantom scan was compared to an existing CT scan to determine its accuracy. The laser-camera separation can be determined through the calibration with 2mm accuracy. The device is best suited for environments that are on the scale of a chest cavity (between 10cm and 40cm). This technique has the potential to produce cavity geometry in real-time during treatment. This would enable PDT treatment dosage to be determined with greater accuracy. Works are ongoing to build a miniaturized device that moves the light source and camera via a fiber-optics bundle commonly used for endoscopy with increased accuracy.

  3. Polymer-coated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode vapor sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We report a new method for monitoring vapor concentration of volatile organic compounds using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The VCSEL is coated with a polymer thin film on the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The analyte absorption is transduced to the electrical domain ...

  4. Transverse-mode-selectable microlens vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Lee, Yong Tak

    2010-01-01

    A new vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a thin microlens is suggested and numerically investigated. The laser can be made to emit in either a high-power Gaussian-shaped single-fundamental mode or a high-power doughnut-shaped higher-order mode. The physical origin...

  5. An acoustic radiator with integrated cavity and active control of surface vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur; Tajdari, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to realize an acoustic source for low frequencies with relatively small thickness. A honeycomb plate structure which is open on one side combines the radiating surface and the major part of the air cavity. The vibration of the plate is controlled with a decentralized

  6. Relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.

  7. Dynamic mode decomposition of turbulent cavity flows for self-sustained oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seena, Abu; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► DMD modes were extracted from two cavity flow data set at Re D = 12,000 and 3000. ► At Re D = 3000, frequencies of boundary layer and shear layer structures coincides. ► Boundary layer structures exceed in size with shear layer structures. ► At Re D = 12,000, structure showed coherence leading to self-sustained oscillations. ► Hydrodynamic resonance occurs if coherence exists in wavenumber and frequency. - Abstract: Self-sustained oscillations in a cavity arise due to the unsteady separation of boundary layers at the leading edge. The dynamic mode decomposition method was employed to analyze the self-sustained oscillations. Two cavity flow data sets, with or without self-sustained oscillations and possessing thin or thick incoming boundary layers (Re D = 12,000 and 3000), were analyzed. The ratios between the cavity depth and the momentum thickness (D/θ) were 40 and 4.5, respectively, and the cavity aspect ratio was L/D = 2. The dynamic modes extracted from the thick boundary layer indicated that the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures along the cavity lip line coexisted with coincident frequency space but with different wavenumber space, whereas structures with a thin boundary layer showed complete coherence among the modes to produce self-sustained oscillations. This result suggests that the hydrodynamic resonances that gave rise to the self-sustained oscillations occurred if the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures coincided, not only in frequencies, but also in wavenumbers. The influences of the cavity dimensions and incoming momentum thickness on the self-sustained oscillations were examined.

  8. Study on the structure of bridge surface of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qinghua; Luo Huan; Bao Shiwei; Zhou Yifan; Chen Sihai

    2011-01-01

    Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filters are widely applied in the area of Pushbroom Hyperspectral imaging, DWDM optical communication system and self-adaptive optics. With small volume, lower consumption and cost, the Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter can realize superior response speed, large spectral range, high definition and high reliability. By deposition metal membrane on silicon chip by MEMS technology, the micro Fabry-Perot cavity has been achieved, which is actuated by electrostatic force and can realize the function of an optical filter. In this paper, the micro-bridge structure of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter has been studied. Finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted to design the structure of the micro-bridge of the micro filter. In order to simulate the working mechanism of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity and study the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the micro tunable filter,the static and dynamic characteriastics are analyzed, such as stress, displacement, transient response, etc. The corresponding parameters of the structure are considered as well by optimizition the filter's sustain structure.

  9. Flow visualizations, velocity measurements, and surface convection measurements in simulated 20.8-cm Nova box amplifier cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, J.L.; Molishever, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reported are fluid mechanics experiments performed in models of the 20.8-cm Nova amplifier lamp and disk cavities. Lamp cavity nitrogen flows are shown, by both flow visualization and velocity measurements, to be acceptably uniform and parallel to the flashlamps. In contrast, the nitrogen flows in the disk cavity are shown to be disordered. Even though disk cavity flows are disordered, the simplest of three proposed nitrogen introduction systems for the disk cavity was found to be acceptable based on convection measurements made at the surfaces of simulated laser disks

  10. Study on Induction Heating Coil for Uniform Mold Cavity Surface Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Sung; Sheng-Jye Hwang; Huei-Huang Lee; Durn-Yuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Recently, energy saving is one of the important issues for polymer processing industry. Electromagnetic induction heating has many advantages such as fast heating and low energy consumption. Previous studies using electromagnetic induction heating for rapid tool heating have indicated that the temperature uniformity on a cavity surface is not easy to be achieved. In this paper, two different coils were used for heating uniform 7 mm thick hot work tool steel (JIS SKD61) surface. One is a four-...

  11. Effects of cavity-cavity interaction on the entanglement dynamics of a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahasweta; Das, Sreetama; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-02-01

    We consider a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model consisting of two isolated two-level atoms, each contained in a lossless cavity that interact with each other through a controlled photon-hopping mechanism. We analytically show that at low values of such a mediated cavity-cavity interaction, the temporal evolution of entanglement between the atoms, under the effects of cavity perturbation, exhibits the well-known phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD). Interestingly, for moderately large interaction values, a complete preclusion of ESD is achieved, irrespective of its value in the initial atomic state. Our results provide a model to sustain entanglement between two atomic qubits, under the adverse effect of cavity induced perturbation, by introducing a non-intrusive inter-cavity photon exchange that can be physically realized through cavity-QED setups in contemporary experiments.

  12. Surface Characterization of Impurities in Superconducting Niobium for Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities used in Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Prateek

    Niobium (Nb) is the material of choice for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities used in particle accelerators owing to its high critical temperature (Tc = 9.2 K) and critical magnetic field (≈ 200mT). However, niobium tends to harbor interstitial impurities such as H, C, O and N, which are detrimental to cavity performance. Since the magnetic field penetration depth (lambda) of niobium is 40nm, it is important to characterize these impurities using surface characterization techniques. Also, it is known that certain heat treatments improve cavity efficiency via interstitial impurity removal from the surface of niobium. Thus, a systematic study on the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurity levels is needed. In this work, surface analysis of both heat treated and non heat treated (120°C-1400°C) large grain (single crystal) bulk niobium samples was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impurity levels were compared on the surface using SIMS after various types of heat treatments expected to improve cavity performance, and the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurities were examined. SIMS characterization of ion implanted standards of C, N, O, D showed that quantification of C, N and O impurities in Nb is achievable and indicated that H is very mobile in Nb. It was hence determined that quantification of H in Nb is not possible using SIMS due to its high diffusivity in Nb. However, a comparative study of the high temperature heat treated (600°C-1400°C) and non heat treated (control) samples revealed that hydrogen levels decreased by upto a factor of 100. This is attributed to the dissociation of the niobium surface oxide layer, which acts as a passivating film on the surface, and subsequent desorption of hydrogen. Reformation of this oxide layer on cool down disallows any re-absorption of hydrogen, indicating that the oxide acts as a surface barrier for

  13. The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiong-gan; Wang, Zhi-guo; Tan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide is investigated theoretically using Green's function method. Our result suggests that the gain and loss parameters influence the amplitude and phase of the fields localized in the two cavities. For the case of balanced gain and loss, the fields of the two cavities are always of equi-amplitude but out of phase. A plasmon induced transparency (PIT)-like transmission peak can be achieved by the destructive interference of two fields with anti-phase. For the case of unbalanced gain and loss, some unexpected responses of structure are generated. When the gain is more than the loss, the system response is dissipative at around the resonant frequency of the two cavities, where the sum of reflectance and transmittance becomes less than one. This is because the lossy cavity, with a stronger localized field, makes the main contribution to the system response. When the gain is less than the loss, the reverse is true. It is found that the metal loss dissipates the system energy but facilitates the gain cavity to make a dominant effect on the system response. This mechanism may have a potential application for optical amplification and for a plasmonic waveguide switch. (paper)

  14. Dynamical modeling of surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.; Kothe, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent review it is said that free-surface flows ''represent some of the difficult remaining challenges in computational fluid dynamics''. There has been progress with the development of new approaches to treating interfaces, such as the level-set method and the improvement of older methods such as the VOF method. A common theme of many of the new developments has been the regularization of discontinuities at the interface. One example of this approach is the continuum surface force (CSF) formulation for surface tension, which replaces the surface stress given by Laplace's equation by an equivalent volume force. Here, we describe how CSF might be made more useful. Specifically, we consider a derivation of the CSF equations from a minimization of surface energy as outlined by Jacqmin. This reformulation suggests that if one eliminates the computation of curvature in terms of a unit normal vector, parasitic currents may be eliminated For this reformulation to work, it is necessary that transition region thickness be controlled. Various means for this, in addition to the one discussed by Jacqmin are discussed

  15. Dynamic unmagnetized plasma in the diamagnetic cavity around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Henri, Pierre; Vallières, Xavier; Moré, Jerome; Gilet, Nicolas; Wattieaux, Gaetan; Goetz, Charlotte; Richter, Ingo; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gunell, Herbert; Nilsson, Hans; Eriksson, Anders I.; Nemeth, Zoltan; Burch, James L.; Rubin, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The Rosetta orbiter witnessed several hundred diamagnetic cavity crossings (unmagnetized regions) around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its two year survey of the comet. The characteristics of the plasma environment inside these diamagnetic regions are studied using in situ measurements by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium instruments. Although the unmagnetized plasma density has been observed to exhibit little dynamics compared to the very dynamical magnetized cometary plasma, we detected several localized dynamic plasma structures inside those diamagnetic regions. These plasma structures are not related to the direct ionization of local cometary neutrals. The structures are found to be steepened, asymmetric plasma enhancements with typical rising-to-descending slope ratio of ˜2.8 (±1.9), skewness ˜0.43 (±0.36), mean duration of ˜2.7 (±0.9) min and relative density variation ΔN/N of ˜0.5 (±0.2), observed close to the electron exobase. Similar steepened plasma density enhancements were detected at the magnetized boundaries of the diamagnetic cavity as well as outside the diamagnetic region. The plausible scalelength and propagation direction of the structures are estimated from simple plasma dynamics considerations. It is suggested that they are large-scale unmagnetized plasma enhancements, transmitted from the very dynamical outer magnetized region to the inner magnetic field-free cavity region.

  16. Dust Dynamics Near Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Joshua; Hughes, Anna; Grund, Chris

    Observations of a lunar "horizon glow" by several Surveyor spacecraft in the 1960s opened the study of the dynamics of charged dust particles near planetary surfaces. The surfaces of the Moon and other airless planetary bodies in the solar system (asteroids, and other moons) are directly exposed to the solar wind and ionizing solar ultraviolet radiation, resulting in a time-dependent electric surface potential. Because these same objects are also exposed to bombardment by micrometeoroids, the surfaces are usually characterized by a power-law size distribution of dust that extends to sub-micron-sized particles. Individual particles can acquire a charge different from their surroundings leading to electrostatic levitation. Once levitated, particles may simply return to the surface on nearly ballistic trajectories, escape entirely from the moon or asteroid if the initial velocity is large, or in some cases be stably levitated for extended periods of time. All three outcomes have observable consequences. Furthermore, the behavior of charged dust near the surface has practical implications for planned future manned and unmanned activities on the lunar surface. Charged dust particles also act as sensitive probes of the near-surface plasma environment. Recent numerical modeling of dust levitation and transport show that charged micron-sized dust is likely to accumulate in topographic lows such as craters, providing a mechanism for the creation of dust "ponds" observed on the asteroid 433 Eros. Such deposition can occur when particles are supported by the photoelectron sheath above the dayside and drift over shadowed regions of craters where the surface potential is much smaller. Earlier studies of the lunar horizon glow are consistent with those particles being on simple ballistic trajectories following electrostatic launching from the surface. Smaller particles may be accelerated from the lunar surface to high altitudes consistent with observations of high altitude

  17. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  18. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  19. Analysis of Nb3Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Chaoyue; Posen, Sam; Groll, Nickolas; Cook, Russell; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Liepe, Matthias; Pellin, Michael; Zasadzinski, John; Proslier, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of Nb3Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb3Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (Tc) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ˜2 μm thick Nb3Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb3Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low Tc regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb3Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators.

  20. Analysis of Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Chaoyue [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Posen, Sam; Hall, Daniel Leslie [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Groll, Nickolas; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cook, Russell [Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Schlepütz, Christian M. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Liepe, Matthias [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Pellin, Michael [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinski, John [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    We present an analysis of Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb{sub 3}Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (T{sub c}) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ∼2 μm thick Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb{sub 3}Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low T{sub c} regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb{sub 3}Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators.

  1. Analysis of Nb3Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Chaoyue; Posen, Sam; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Groll, Nickolas; Proslier, Thomas; Cook, Russell; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Liepe, Matthias; Pellin, Michael; Zasadzinski, John

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of Nb 3 Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb 3 Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (T c ) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ∼2 μm thick Nb 3 Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low T c regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb 3 Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators

  2. Microleakage in conservative cavities varying the preparation method and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Abdallah Atoui

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess microleakage in conservative class V cavities prepared with aluminum-oxide air abrasion or turbine and restored with self-etching or etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Forty premolars were randomly assigned to 4 groups (I and II: air abrasion; III and IV: turbine and class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces. Conditioning approaches were: groups I/III - 37% phosphoric acid; groups II/IV - self-priming etchant (Tyrian-SPE. Cavities were restored with One Step Plus/Filtek Z250. After finishing, specimens were thermocycled, immersed in 50% silver nitrate, and serially sectioned. Microleakage at the occlusal and cervical interfaces was measured in mm and calculated by a software. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Marginal seal provided by air abrasion was similar to high-speed handpiece, except for group I. There was SIGNIFICANT difference between enamel and dentin/cementum margins for to group I and II: air abrasion. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system promoted a better marginal seal. At enamel and dentin/cementum margins, the highest microleakage values were found in cavities treated with the self-etching adhesive system. At dentin/cementum margins, high-speed handpiece preparations associated with etch-and-rinse system provided the least dye penetration. CONCLUSION: Marginal seal of cavities prepared with aluminum-oxide air abrasion was different from that of conventionally prepared cavities, and the etch-and-rinse system promoted higher marginal seal at both enamel and dentin margins.

  3. High-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted ring-cavity configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-05-15

    A surface-emitted ring-cavity terahertz (THz) wave parametric oscillator has been demonstrated for high-energy THz output and fast frequency tuning in a wide frequency range. Through the special optical design with a galvano-optical scanner and four-mirror ring-cavity structure, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.9 μJ/pulse is achieved at 1.359 THz under the pump energy of 172.8 mJ. The fast THz frequency tuning in the range of 0.7-2.8 THz can be accessed with the step response of 600 μs. Moreover, the maximum THz wave output energy from this configuration is 3.29 times as large as that obtained from the conventional surface-emitted THz wave parametric oscillator with the same experimental conditions.

  4. Surface characterization of Nb samples electropolished with real superconducting rf accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris, and the beam pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray for elemental analysis was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S were found covering the samples nonuniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  5. Ultrafast directional beam switching in coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, C. Z.; Goorjian, P.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a strategy to performing ultrafast directional beam switching using two coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The proposed strategy is demonstrated for two VCSELs of 5.6 μm in diameter placed about 1 μm apart from the edges, showing a switching speed of 42 GHz with a maximum far-field angle span of about 10 degree. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  6. Transverse and polarization effects in index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, M. S.; Masoller, C.; Mandel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We study numerically the polarization dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) operating in the fundamental transverse mode. We use an extension of the spin-flip model that not only accounts for the vector nature of the laser field, but also considers spatial transverse effects. The model assumes two orthogonal, linearly polarized fields, which are coupled to two carrier populations, associated with different spin sublevels of the conduction and valence bands in the quantum-well active region. Spatial effects are taken into account by considering transverse profiles for the two polarizations, for the two carrier populations, and for the carrier diffusion. The optical profile is the LP 01 mode, suitable for describing index-guided VCSEL's with cylindrical symmetry emitting on the fundamental transverse mode for both polarizations. We find that in small-active-region VCSEL's, fast carrier diffusion induces self-sustained oscillations of the total laser output, which are not present in larger-area devices or with slow carrier diffusion. These self-pulsations appear close to threshold, and, as the injection current increases, they grow in amplitude; however, there is saturation and the self-pulsations disappear at higher injection levels. The dependence of the oscillation amplitude on various laser parameters is investigated, and the results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with those reported by Van der Sande et al. [Opt. Lett. 29, 53 (2004)], based on a rate-equation model that takes into account transverse inhomogeneities through an intensity-dependent confinement factor

  7. Surface polishing of niobium for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Niobium cavities are important components in modern particle accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology. The interior of SRF cavities are cleaned and polished in order to produce high accelerating field and low power dissipation on the cavity wall. Current polishing methods, buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electro-polishing (EP), have their advantages and limitations. We seek to improve current methods and explore laser polishing (LP) as a greener alternative of chemical methods. The topography and removal rate of BCP at different conditions (duration, temperature, sample orientation, flow rate) was studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Differential etching on different crystal orientations is the main contributor to fine grain niobium BCP topography, with gas evolution playing a secondary role. The surface of single crystal and bi-crystal niobium is smooth even after heavy BCP. The topography of fine grain niobium depends on total removal. The removal rate increases with temperature and surface acid flow rate within the rage of 0~20 °C, with chemical reaction being the possible dominate rate control mechanism. Surface flow helps to regulate temperature and avoid gas accumulation on the surface. The effect of surface flow rate on niobium EP was studied with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Within the range of 0~3.7 cm/s, no significant difference was found on the removal rate and the macro roughness. Possible improvement on the micro roughness with increased surface flow rate was observed. The effect of fluence and pulse accumulation on niobium topography during LP was studied with optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, and PSD analysis. Polishing on micro scale was achieved within fluence range of 0.57~0.90 J/cm2, with pulse accumulation adjusted accordingly. Larger area treatment was proved possible by

  8. Automated 3D Damaged Cavity Model Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The 3D Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math Model builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately 3D thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The 3D model builder created both TRASYS geometric math models (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math models (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a 3D model of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The 3D model builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the model builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the model builder program can build an accurate model at the specified location. Once the models are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.

  9. The Role of Oral Cavity Biofilm on Metallic Biomaterial Surface Destruction–Corrosion and Friction Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirowicz-Laskowska, Katarzyna; Łysik, Dawid; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Jan R.; Bucki, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity are exposed to many factors such as saliva, bacterial microflora, food, temperature fluctuations, and mechanical forces. Extreme conditions present in the oral cavity affect biomaterial exploitation and significantly reduce its biofunctionality, limiting the time of exploitation stability. We mainly refer to friction, corrosion, and biocorrosion processes. Saliva plays an important role and is responsible for lubrication and biofilm formation as a transporter of nutrients for microorganisms. The presence of metallic elements in the oral cavity may lead to the formation of electro-galvanic cells and, as a result, may induce corrosion. Transitional microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria may also be present among the metabolic microflora in the oral cavity, which can induce biological corrosion. Microorganisms that form a biofilm locally change the conditions on the surface of biomaterials and contribute to the intensification of the biocorrosion processes. These processes may enhance allergy to metals, inflammation, or cancer development. On the other hand, the presence of saliva and biofilm may significantly reduce friction and wear on enamel as well as on biomaterials. This work summarizes data on the influence of saliva and oral biofilms on the destruction of metallic biomaterials. PMID:29509686

  10. The Role of Oral Cavity Biofilm on Metallic Biomaterial Surface Destruction-Corrosion and Friction Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystkowska, Joanna; Niemirowicz-Laskowska, Katarzyna; Łysik, Dawid; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Dąbrowski, Jan R; Bucki, Robert

    2018-03-06

    Metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity are exposed to many factors such as saliva, bacterial microflora, food, temperature fluctuations, and mechanical forces. Extreme conditions present in the oral cavity affect biomaterial exploitation and significantly reduce its biofunctionality, limiting the time of exploitation stability. We mainly refer to friction, corrosion, and biocorrosion processes. Saliva plays an important role and is responsible for lubrication and biofilm formation as a transporter of nutrients for microorganisms. The presence of metallic elements in the oral cavity may lead to the formation of electro-galvanic cells and, as a result, may induce corrosion. Transitional microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria may also be present among the metabolic microflora in the oral cavity, which can induce biological corrosion. Microorganisms that form a biofilm locally change the conditions on the surface of biomaterials and contribute to the intensification of the biocorrosion processes. These processes may enhance allergy to metals, inflammation, or cancer development. On the other hand, the presence of saliva and biofilm may significantly reduce friction and wear on enamel as well as on biomaterials. This work summarizes data on the influence of saliva and oral biofilms on the destruction of metallic biomaterials.

  11. The Role of Oral Cavity Biofilm on Metallic Biomaterial Surface Destruction–Corrosion and Friction Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mystkowska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials in the oral cavity are exposed to many factors such as saliva, bacterial microflora, food, temperature fluctuations, and mechanical forces. Extreme conditions present in the oral cavity affect biomaterial exploitation and significantly reduce its biofunctionality, limiting the time of exploitation stability. We mainly refer to friction, corrosion, and biocorrosion processes. Saliva plays an important role and is responsible for lubrication and biofilm formation as a transporter of nutrients for microorganisms. The presence of metallic elements in the oral cavity may lead to the formation of electro-galvanic cells and, as a result, may induce corrosion. Transitional microorganisms such as sulfate-reducing bacteria may also be present among the metabolic microflora in the oral cavity, which can induce biological corrosion. Microorganisms that form a biofilm locally change the conditions on the surface of biomaterials and contribute to the intensification of the biocorrosion processes. These processes may enhance allergy to metals, inflammation, or cancer development. On the other hand, the presence of saliva and biofilm may significantly reduce friction and wear on enamel as well as on biomaterials. This work summarizes data on the influence of saliva and oral biofilms on the destruction of metallic biomaterials.

  12. Field limit and nano-scale surface topography of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of extreme type II superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The field limit of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of type II superconductor with a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter is studied with taking effects of nano-scale surface topography into account. If the surface is ideally flat, the field limit is imposed by the superheating field. On the surface of cavity, however, nano-defects almost continuously distribute and suppress the superheating field everywhere. The field limit is imposed by an effective superheating field given by the pro...

  13. Coherent Rabi Dynamics of a Superradiant Spin Ensemble in a Microwave Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, B. C.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Becker, P.; Pohl, H.-J.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Itoh, K. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    We achieve the strong-coupling regime between an ensemble of phosphorus donor spins in a highly enriched 28Si crystal and a 3D dielectric resonator. Spins are polarized beyond Boltzmann equilibrium using spin-selective optical excitation of the no-phonon bound exciton transition resulting in N =3.6 ×1 013 unpaired spins in the ensemble. We observe a normal mode splitting of the spin-ensemble-cavity polariton resonances of 2 g √{N }=580 kHz (where each spin is coupled with strength g ) in a cavity with a quality factor of 75 000 (γ ≪κ ≈60 kHz , where γ and κ are the spin dephasing and cavity loss rates, respectively). The spin ensemble has a long dephasing time (T2*=9 μ s ) providing a wide window for viewing the dynamics of the coupled spin-ensemble-cavity system. The free-induction decay shows up to a dozen collapses and revivals revealing a coherent exchange of excitations between the superradiant state of the spin ensemble and the cavity at the rate g √{N }. The ensemble is found to evolve as a single large pseudospin according to the Tavis-Cummings model due to minimal inhomogeneous broadening and uniform spin-cavity coupling. We demonstrate independent control of the total spin and the initial Z projection of the psuedospin using optical excitation and microwave manipulation, respectively. We vary the microwave excitation power to rotate the pseudospin on the Bloch sphere and observe a long delay in the onset of the superradiant emission as the pseudospin approaches full inversion. This delay is accompanied by an abrupt π -phase shift in the peusdospin microwave emission. The scaling of this delay with the initial angle and the sudden phase shift are explained by the Tavis-Cummings model.

  14. Cavity contour segmentation in chest radiographs using supervised learning and dynamic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduskar, Pragnya, E-mail: pragnya.maduskar@radboudumc.nl; Hogeweg, Laurens; Sánchez, Clara I.; Ginneken, Bram van [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525 GA (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX (Netherlands); Peters-Bax, Liesbeth [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6525 GA (Netherlands); Dawson, Rodney [University of Cape Town Lung Institute, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Ayles, Helen [Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often monitored using chest radiography. Monitoring size of cavities in pulmonary tuberculosis is important as the size predicts severity of the disease and its persistence under therapy predicts relapse. The authors present a method for automatic cavity segmentation in chest radiographs. Methods: A two stage method is proposed to segment the cavity borders, given a user defined seed point close to the center of the cavity. First, a supervised learning approach is employed to train a pixel classifier using texture and radial features to identify the border pixels of the cavity. A likelihood value of belonging to the cavity border is assigned to each pixel by the classifier. The authors experimented with four different classifiers:k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), GentleBoost (GB), and random forest (RF). Next, the constructed likelihood map was used as an input cost image in the polar transformed image space for dynamic programming to trace the optimal maximum cost path. This constructed path corresponds to the segmented cavity contour in image space. Results: The method was evaluated on 100 chest radiographs (CXRs) containing 126 cavities. The reference segmentation was manually delineated by an experienced chest radiologist. An independent observer (a chest radiologist) also delineated all cavities to estimate interobserver variability. Jaccard overlap measure Ω was computed between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation; and between the reference segmentation and the independent observer's segmentation for all cavities. A median overlap Ω of 0.81 (0.76 ± 0.16), and 0.85 (0.82 ± 0.11) was achieved between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation, and between the segmentations by the two radiologists, respectively. The best reported mean contour distance and Hausdorff distance between the reference and the automatic segmentation were

  15. Cavity contour segmentation in chest radiographs using supervised learning and dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduskar, Pragnya; Hogeweg, Laurens; Sánchez, Clara I.; Ginneken, Bram van; Jong, Pim A. de; Peters-Bax, Liesbeth; Dawson, Rodney; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is often monitored using chest radiography. Monitoring size of cavities in pulmonary tuberculosis is important as the size predicts severity of the disease and its persistence under therapy predicts relapse. The authors present a method for automatic cavity segmentation in chest radiographs. Methods: A two stage method is proposed to segment the cavity borders, given a user defined seed point close to the center of the cavity. First, a supervised learning approach is employed to train a pixel classifier using texture and radial features to identify the border pixels of the cavity. A likelihood value of belonging to the cavity border is assigned to each pixel by the classifier. The authors experimented with four different classifiers:k-nearest neighbor (kNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), GentleBoost (GB), and random forest (RF). Next, the constructed likelihood map was used as an input cost image in the polar transformed image space for dynamic programming to trace the optimal maximum cost path. This constructed path corresponds to the segmented cavity contour in image space. Results: The method was evaluated on 100 chest radiographs (CXRs) containing 126 cavities. The reference segmentation was manually delineated by an experienced chest radiologist. An independent observer (a chest radiologist) also delineated all cavities to estimate interobserver variability. Jaccard overlap measure Ω was computed between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation; and between the reference segmentation and the independent observer's segmentation for all cavities. A median overlap Ω of 0.81 (0.76 ± 0.16), and 0.85 (0.82 ± 0.11) was achieved between the reference segmentation and the automatic segmentation, and between the segmentations by the two radiologists, respectively. The best reported mean contour distance and Hausdorff distance between the reference and the automatic segmentation were

  16. Evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy for enhanced detection of surface binding under flow injection analysis conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Sneppen, L.; Ariese, F.; Gooijer, C.; Ubachs, W.

    2008-01-01

    In evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy, one (or more) of the re°ections inside the cavity is a total internal re°ection (TIR) event. Only the evanescent wave associated with this TIR is being used for prob-ing the sample. This technique is therefore highly surface-speci-c and attractive

  17. Experimental investigation of the microscale rotor-stator cavity flow with rotating superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunze; Tang, Fei; Li, Qi; Wang, Xiaohao

    2018-03-01

    The flow characteristics of microscale rotor-stator cavity flow and the drag reduction mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface with high shearing stress were investigated. A microscale rotating flow testing system was established based on micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV), and the flow distribution under different Reynolds numbers (7.02 × 103 ≤ Re ≤ 3.51 × 104) and cavity aspect ratios (0.013 ≤ G ≤ 0.04) was measured. Experiments show that, for circumferential velocity, the flow field distributes linearly in rotating Couette flow in the case of low Reynolds number along the z-axis, while the boundary layer separates and forms Batchelor flow as the Reynolds number increases. The separation of the boundary layer is accelerated with the increase of cavity aspect ratio. The radial velocities distribute in an S-shape along the z-axis. As the Reynolds number and cavity aspect ratio increase, the maximum value of radial velocity increases, but the extremum position at rotating boundary remains at Z* = 0.85 with no obvious change, while the extremum position at the stationary boundary changes along the z-axis. The model for the generation of flow disturbance and the transmission process from the stationary to the rotating boundary was given by perturbation analysis. Under the action of superhydrophobic surface, velocity slip occurs near the rotating boundary and the shearing stress reduces, which leads to a maximum drag reduction over 51.4%. The contours of vortex swirling strength suggest that the superhydrophobic surface can suppress the vortex swirling strength and repel the vortex structures, resulting in the decrease of shearing Reynolds stress and then drag reduction.

  18. DYNAMICS INSIDE THE RADIO AND X-RAY CLUSTER CAVITIES OF CYGNUS A AND SIMILAR FRII SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, William G.; Guo Fulai

    2012-01-01

    We describe approximate axisymmetric computations of the dynamical evolution of material inside radio lobes and X-ray cluster gas cavities in Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII) sources such as Cygnus A. All energy is delivered by a jet to the lobe/cavity via a moving hotspot where jet energy dissipates in a reverse shock. Our calculations describe the evolution of hot plasma, cosmic rays (CRs), and toroidal magnetic fields flowing from the hotspot into the cavity. Many important observational features are explained. Gas, CRs, and field flow back along the cavity surface in a 'boundary backflow' consistent with detailed FRII observations. Computed ages of backflowing CRs are consistent with observed radio-synchrotron age variations only if shear instabilities in the boundary backflow are damped and we assume this is done with viscosity of unknown origin. We compute a faint thermal jet along the symmetry axis and suggest that it is responsible for redirecting the Cygnus A nonthermal jet. Magnetic fields estimated from synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) X-radiation observed near the hotspot evolve into radio lobe fields. Computed profiles of radio-synchrotron lobe emission perpendicular to the jet reveal dramatically limb-brightened emission in excellent agreement with FRII observation, although computed lobe fields exceed those observed. Strong winds flowing from hotspots naturally create kiloparsec-sized spatial offsets between hotspot nonthermal X-ray inverse Compton (IC-CMB) emission and radio-synchrotron emission that peaks 1-2 kpc ahead where the field increases due to wind compression. In our computed version of Cygnus A, nonthermal X-ray emission increases from the hotspot (some IC-CMB, mostly SSC) toward the offset radio-synchrotron peak (mostly SSC).

  19. Laser Processing on the Surface of Niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency Accelerator Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Senthilraja; Klopf, Michael; Krafft, Geoffrey; Kelley, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting Radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are at the heart of an increasing number of particle accelerators.~ Their performance is dominated by a several nm thick layer at the interior surface. ~Maximizing its smoothness is found to be critical and aggressive chemical treatments are employed to this end.~ We describe laser-induced surface melting as an alternative ``greener'' approach.~ Modeling guided selection of parameters for irradiation with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.~ The resulting topography was examined by SEM, AFM and Stylus Profilometry.

  20. The dynamics of a polariton dimer in a disordered coupled array of cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyejina, Abuenameh; Andrews, Roger

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of disorder in the laser intensity on the dynamics of dark-state polaritons in an array of 20 cavities, each containing an ensemble of four-level atoms that is described by a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. We examine the evolution of the polariton number in the cavities starting from a state with either one or two polaritons in one of the cavities. For the case of a single polariton without disorder in the laser intensity, we calculate the wavefunction of the polariton and find that it disperses away from the initial cavity with time. The addition of disorder results in minimal suppression of the dispersal of the wavefunction. In the case of two polaritons with an on-site repulsion to hopping strength ratio of 20, we find that the polaritons form a repulsively bound state or dimer. Without disorder the dimer wavefunction disperses similarly to the single polariton wavefunction but over a longer time period. The addition of sufficiently strong disorder results in localization of the polariton dimer. The localization length is found to be described by a power law with exponent - 1.31. We also find that we can localise the dimer at any given time by switching on the disorder.

  1. Continuous-wave optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-09-11

    We report an optically pumped green perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitter operating in continuous-wave (CW) with a power density threshold of ~89 kW/cm2. The device has an active region of CH3NH3PbBr3 embedded in a dielectric microcavity; this feat was achieved with a combination of optimal spectral alignment of the optical cavity modes with the perovskite optical gain, an adequate Q-factor of the microcavity, adequate thermal stability, and improved material quality with a smooth, passivated, and annealed thin active layer. Our results signify a way towards efficient CW perovskite emitter operation and electrical injection using low-cost fabrication methods for addressing monolithic optoelectronic integration and lasing in the green gap.

  2. An algorithm for analytical solution of basic problems featuring elastostatic bodies with cavities and surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Levina, L. V.; Novikova, O. S.; Shulmin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Herein we propose a methodology for structuring a full parametric analytical solution to problems featuring elastostatic media based on state-of-the-art computing facilities that support computerized algebra. The methodology includes: direct and reverse application of P-Theorem; methods of accounting for physical properties of media; accounting for variable geometrical parameters of bodies, parameters of boundary states, independent parameters of volume forces, and remote stress factors. An efficient tool to address the task is the sustainable method of boundary states originally designed for the purposes of computerized algebra and based on the isomorphism of Hilbertian spaces of internal states and boundary states of bodies. We performed full parametric solutions of basic problems featuring a ball with a nonconcentric spherical cavity, a ball with a near-surface flaw, and an unlimited medium with two spherical cavities.

  3. Thoracic cavity segmentation algorithm using multiorgan extraction and surface fitting in volumetric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, JangPyo [Interdisciplinary Program, Bioengineering Major, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, South Korea and Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Chan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a semiautomatic segmentation method for thoracic cavity volumetry and mediastinum fat quantification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The thoracic cavity region was separated by segmenting multiorgans, namely, the rib, lung, heart, and diaphragm. To encompass various lung disease-induced variations, the inner thoracic wall and diaphragm were modeled by using a three-dimensional surface-fitting method. To improve the accuracy of the diaphragm surface model, the heart and its surrounding tissue were segmented by a two-stage level set method using a shape prior. To assess the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the algorithm results of 50 patients were compared to the manual segmentation results of two experts with more than 5 years of experience (these manual results were confirmed by an expert thoracic radiologist). The proposed method was also compared to three state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The metrics used to evaluate segmentation accuracy were volumetric overlap ratio (VOR), false positive ratio on VOR (FPRV), false negative ratio on VOR (FNRV), average symmetric absolute surface distance (ASASD), average symmetric squared surface distance (ASSSD), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD). Results: In terms of thoracic cavity volumetry, the mean ± SD VOR, FPRV, and FNRV of the proposed method were (98.17 ± 0.84)%, (0.49 ± 0.23)%, and (1.34 ± 0.83)%, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the thoracic wall were 0.28 ± 0.12, 1.28 ± 0.53, and 23.91 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the diaphragm surface were 1.73 ± 0.91, 3.92 ± 1.68, and 27.80 ± 10.63 mm, respectively. The proposed method performed significantly better than the other three methods in terms of VOR, ASASD, and ASSSD. Conclusions: The proposed semiautomatic thoracic cavity segmentation method, which extracts multiple organs (namely, the rib, thoracic wall, diaphragm, and heart

  4. Dynamics of water molecules in the active-site cavity of human cytochromes P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Rod, Thomas Holm; Olsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of water molecules in six crystal structures of four human cytochromes P450, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4, with molecular dynamics simulations. In the crystal structures, only a few water molecules are seen and the reported sizes of the active-site cavity vary a lot....... In the simulations, the cavities are completely filled with water molecules, although with approximately 20% lower density than in bulk water. The 2A6 protein differs from the other three in that it has a very small cavity with only two water molecules and no exchange with the surroundings. The other three proteins...... channels, through which there is a quite frequent exchange of water molecules (one molecule is exchanged every 30-200 ps), except in 2A6. Most of the channels are observed also in the crystal structures, but two to three channels in each protein open only during the simulations. There are no water...

  5. Pool Boiling Characteristics on the Microstructure surfaces with Both Rectangular Cavities and Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Eok; Myung, Byung-Soo [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su Cheong; Yu, Dong In [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Based on a surface design with rectangular cavities and channels, we investigated the effects of gravity and capillary pressure on pool-boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF). The microcavity structures could prevent liquid flow by the capillary pressure effect. In addition, the microchannel structures contributed to induce one-dimensional liquid flow on the boiling surface. The relationship between the CHF and capillary flow was clearly established. The driving potentials for the liquid supply into a boiling surface can be generated by the gravitational head and capillary pressure. Through an analysis of pool boiling and visualization data, we reveal that the liquid supplement to maintain the nucleate boiling condition on a boiling surface is closely related to the gravitational pressure head and capillary pressure effect.

  6. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Domingues, Eddy

    2017-06-05

    Omniphobic surfaces, i.e. which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact, and preventing applications in harsh environments. There is, thus, a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nano-texturing rather than via chemical make-up, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars. However, we found a critical limitation of microtextures comprising of pillars that they undergo catastrophic wetting transitions (apparent contact angles, θr → 0° from θr > 90°) in the presence of localized physical damages/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. In response, a doubly reentrant cavity microtexture is introduced, which can prevent catastrophic wetting transitions in the presence of localized structural damage/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. Remarkably, our silica surfaces with doubly reentrant cavities could exhibited apparent contact angles, θr ≈ 135° for mineral oil, where the intrinsic contact angle, θo ≈ 20°. Further, when immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising of doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications of conventional materials without chemical modifications, especially in scenarios that are prone to localized damages or immersion in wetting liquids, e.g. hydrodynamic drag reduction and membrane distillation.

  7. A scanning Auger electron spectrometer for internal surface analysis of Large Electron Positron 2 superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, C.; Cosso, R.; Genest, J.; Hauer, M.; Lacarrère, D.; Rijllart, A.; Saban, R.

    1996-08-01

    A computer-controlled surface analysis instrument, incorporating static Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning Auger mapping, and secondary electron imaging, has been designed and built at CERN to study and characterize the inner surface of superconducting radio-frequency cavities to be installed in the Large Electron Positron collider. A detailed description of the instrument, including the analytical head, the control system, and the vacuum system is presented. Some recent results obtained from the cavities provide examples of the instrument's capabilities.

  8. Novel Cavities in Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers for Emission in Broad Spectral Region by Means of Nonlinear Frequency Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Michal L.

    Optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL) were first demonstrated in the mid 1990's. Due to the unique design properties of extended cavity lasers VECSELs have been able to provide tunable, high-output powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. These features offer a wide range of possible applications in areas such as medicine, spectroscopy, defense, imaging, communications and entertainment. Nowadays, newly developed VECSELs, cover the spectral regions from red (600 nm) to around 5 microm. By taking the advantage of the open cavity design, the emission can be further expanded to UV or THz regions by the means of intracavity nonlinear frequency generation. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate and extend the capabilities of high-power VECSELs by utilizing novel nonlinear conversion techniques. Optically pumped VECSELs based on GaAs semiconductor heterostructures have been demonstrated to provide exceptionally high output powers covering the 900 to 1200 nm spectral region with diffraction limited beam quality. The free space cavity design allows for access to the high intracavity circulating powers where high efficiency nonlinear frequency conversions and wavelength tuning can be obtained. As an introduction, this dissertation consists of a brief history of the development of VECSELs as well as wafer design, chip fabrication and resonator cavity design for optimal frequency conversion. Specifically, the different types of laser cavities such as: linear cavity, V-shaped cavity and patented T-shaped cavity are described, since their optimization is crucial for transverse mode quality, stability, tunability and efficient frequency conversion. All types of nonlinear conversions such as second harmonic, sum frequency and difference frequency generation are discussed in extensive detail. The theoretical simulation and the development of the high-power, tunable blue and green VECSEL by the means of type I

  9. Dynamics of atom-field probability amplitudes in a coupled cavity system with Kerr non-linearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyesh, K. V.; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India)

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated the dynamics of two cavities coupled together via photon hopping, filled with Kerr non-linear medium and each containing a two level atom in it. The evolution of various atom (field) state probabilities of the coupled cavity system in two excitation sub space are obtained numerically. Detailed analysis has been done by taking different initial conditions of the system, with various coupling strengths and by varying the susceptibility of the medium. The role of susceptibility factor, on the dynamics atom field probability has been examined. In a coupled cavity system with strong photon hopping it is found that the susceptibility factor modifies the behaviour of probability amplitudes.

  10. Single-mode temperature and polarisation-stable high-speed 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaruk, D E; Blokhin, S A; Maleev, N A; Bobrov, M A; Pavlov, M M; Kulagina, M M; Vashanova, K A; Zadiranov, Yu M; Ustinov, V M; Kuzmenkov, A G; Vasil'ev, A P; Gladyshev, A G; Blokhin, A A; Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (JSV Salut, 7 Larina Str, N Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation))" >Fefelov, A G

    2014-01-01

    A new intracavity-contacted design to realize temperature and polarization-stable high-speed single-mode 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy is proposed. Temperature dependences of static and dynamic characteristics of the 4.5 pm oxide aperture InGaAlAs VCSEL were investigated in detail. Due to optimal gain-cavity detuning and enhanced carrier localization in the active region the threshold current remains below 0.75 mA for the temperature range within 20-90°C, while the output power exceeds 1 mW up to 90°C. Single-mode operation with side-mode suppression ratio higher than 30 dB and orthogonal polarization suppression ratio more than 18 dB was obtained in the whole current and temperature operation range. Device demonstrates serial resistance less than 250 Ohm, which is rather low for any type of single-mode short- wavelength VCSELs. VCSEL demonstrates temperature robust high-speed operation with modulation bandwidth higher than 13 GHz in the entire temperature range of 20-90°C. Despite high resonance frequency the high-speed performance of developed VCSELs was limited by the cut-off frequency of the parasitic low pass filter created by device resistances and capacitances. The proposed design is promising for single-mode high-speed VCSEL applications in a wide spectral range

  11. CW substrate-free metal-cavity surface microemitters at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chien-Yao; Chang, Shu-Wei; Chuang, Shun Lien; Germann, Tim D; Pohl, Udo W; Bimberg, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper substrate-free metal-cavity surface microemitters are demonstrated. The optical cavity is formed by a metal reflector, metal-surrounded sidewall and n-doped distributed-Bragg reflector, which provides optical feedback and carrier injection. We describe a simple design principle with the modal properties modified by geometry and metal-insulator cladding. Both resonant cavity light-emitting diodes (1.85 µm diameter and 0.6 µm height) and lasers (2.0 µm diameter and 2.5 µm height) are successfully fabricated and characterized. These two types of devices operate at room temperature under continuous-wave (CW) operation. Since the devices are substrate-free, they can be bonded to any substrates. From the threshold currents of the lasers, we obtain a high characteristic temperature of 425 K in the range of 10–27 °C. We also discuss a general approach to improve the diffraction from small-aperture devices

  12. Dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected long-cavity feedback is studied experimentally. Different dynamics are observed when different lateral modes are selected. When the feedback mirror is aligned perfectly and high-order modes are selected, in most....... When the feedback mirror is aligned non-perfectly, pulse-package oscillation is observed, for the first time to our knowledge, in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback....... of the cases, the output of the laser shows a periodic oscillation corresponding to a single roundtrip external-cavity loop, but the dynamic behavior disappears in some case; when the zero-order lateral-mode is selected, periodic oscillation corresponding to a double roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed...

  13. Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, David; Greve, Anders; Hvam, Jørn M.; Boisen, Anja; Yvind, Kresten

    2009-03-01

    We have experimentally investigated self-mixing interference produced by the feedback of light from a polymer micrometer-sized cantilever into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for sensing applications. In particular we have investigated how the visibility of the optical output power and the junction voltage depends on the laser injection current and the distance to the cantilever. The highest power visibility obtained from cantilevers without reflective coatings was ˜60%, resulting in a very high sensitivity of 45 mV/nm with a noise floor below 1.2 mV. Different detection schemes are discussed.

  14. Self-mixing interferometry in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for nanomechanical cantilever sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Greve, Anders; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2009-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated self-mixing interference produced by the feedback of light from a polymer micrometer-sized cantilever into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for sensing applications. In particular we have investigated how the visibility of the optical output power...... and the junction voltage depends on the laser injection current and the distance to the cantilever. The highest power visibility obtained from cantilevers without reflective coatings was 60%, resulting in a very high sensitivity of 45 mV/nm with a noise floor below 1.2 mV. Different detection schemes are discussed....

  15. Spectral-Modulation Characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas'kovskaya, M. I.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Zibrov, S. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Velichanskii, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    The requirements imposed on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in a number of metrological problems in which optical pumping of alkali atoms is used are considered. For lasers produced by different manufacturers, these requirements are compared with the experimentally observed spectral characteristics at a constant pump current and in the microwave modulation mode. It is shown that a comparatively small number of lasers in the microwave modulation mode make it possible to obtain the spectrum required for atomic clocks based on the coherent population-trapping effect.

  16. Sub-monolayer dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, S.A.; Maleev, N.A.; Kuz'menkov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum-dot active region and doped with AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. 3 μm aperture single-mode VCSELs demonstrate lasing at 980 nm with threshold current of 0.6 mA, maximum output power of 4 mW and external differential efficiency as high as 68%. Ultimately low internal optical losses were measured for these multimode sub-monolayer quantum dot VCSELs [ru

  17. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Roach, D. B. Beringer, J. R. Skuza, W. A. Oliver, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

    2012-06-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  18. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, W.M.; Beringer, D.B.; Skuza, J.R.; Oliver, W.A.; Clavero, C.; Reece, C.E.; Lukaszew, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  19. The Path to High Q-Factors in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities: Flux Expulsion and Surface Resistance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  20. The path to high Q-factors in superconducting accelerating cavities: Flux expulsion and surface resistance optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Martina

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  1. Miniature scanning electron microscope for investigation of the interior surface of a superconducting Nb radiofrequency accelerating cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathewson, A.G.; Grillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    A miniature scanning electron microscope with an electron beam diameter approx.1 μm has been constructed for high resolution examination at room temperature of the interior surface of a superconducting Nb radiofrequency accelerating cavity. Various objects and surface structures were observed, some of which could be correlated with lossy regions or ''hot spots'' detected previously on the outside surface during cavity operation at < or =4.2 K by a chain of carbon resistors. No internal surface features were observed which could conclusively be correlated with field emitting electron sources

  2. Gas dynamics in the central cavity of HYLIFE-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.M.; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F.; Colella, P.

    1992-01-01

    In a HYLIFE-II ICF reactor, the microfusion of the D-T capsule in the center of the chamber produces X-rays that can ablate a thin layer off the liquid blanket which protects the first structural wall Thisablated material will implode toward the center line of the central cavity due to the initial vacuum and cylindrical geometry, and then rebound back to the liquid blanket vent through it and exert a pressure ''impulse'' onto the structural wall. The initial ablation occurs in a very short period with very small characteristic length and the implosion and rebounding processes feature very high pressures and temperatures. The proper design of the chamber relies on the reasonably accurate analysis of the gas dynamics in the central cavity and the gas-liquid interaction. In this paper, a second order Godunov numerical method is used to solve the compressible flow equations in the central cavity. The rarefaction and shock phenomena are very well captured by the numerical calculation. The equation of state for Flibe vapor is used in the calculation along with the parameters for the HYLIFE-II design. Since the radiation transport has not yet been included in the current calculations, the vapor possesses higher energy and therefore temperature. The total mass vaporized will also be underestimated in the later time of the calculation. The incorporation of a radiation calculation into this code is our next goal

  3. The cavity approach to parallel dynamics of Ising spins on a graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, I; Bollé, D

    2009-01-01

    We use the cavity method to study the parallel dynamics of disordered Ising models on a graph. In particular, we derive a set of recursive equations in single-site probabilities of paths propagating along the edges of the graph. These equations are analogous to the cavity equations for equilibrium models and are exact on a tree. On graphs with exclusively directed edges we find an exact expression for the stationary distribution. We present the phase diagrams for an Ising model on an asymmetric Bethe lattice and for a neural network with Hebbian interactions on an asymmetric scale-free graph. For graphs with a nonzero fraction of symmetric edges the equations can be solved for a finite number of time steps. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by simulations. Using a heuristic method the cavity equations are extended to a set of equations that determine the marginals of the stationary distribution of Ising models on graphs with a nonzero fraction of symmetric edges. The results from this method are discussed and compared with simulations

  4. Coherent wave packet dynamics in a double-well potential in cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Li, Gang; Ding, Ming-Song; Wang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Yun-Cui

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the coherent wave packet dynamics of a two-level atom trapped in a symmetric double-well potential in a near-resonance cavity. Prepared on one side of the double-well potential, the atom wave packet oscillates between the left and right wells, while recoil induced by the emitted photon from the atom entangles the atomic internal and external degrees of freedom. The collapse and revival of the tunneling occurs. Adjusting the width of the wave packets, one can modify the tunneling frequency and suppress the tunneling.

  5. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Wang, Shancai; Plucinski, Lukasz; Smith, Kevin E.; Nowell, Matthew M.

    2006-11-01

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is ±30% and that of the surface composition is ±5%.

  6. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States)]. E-mail: mkelley@jlab.org; Wang Shancai [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Plucinski, Lukasz [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Smith, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Nowell, Matthew M. [EDAX TSL (United States)

    2006-11-30

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is {+-}30% and that of the surface composition is {+-}5%.

  7. Surface Studies of Niobium Chemically Polished Under Conditions for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavity Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian,H.; Reece, C.; Kelley, M.; Wang, S.; Plucinski, L.; Smith, K.; Nowell, M.

    2006-01-01

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is {+-}30% and that of the surface composition is {+-}5%.

  8. Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons and acoustic waves inside an acoustic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Nikolai; Knyazev, Grigoriy; Glavin, Boris; Shtykov, Yakov; Romanov, Oleg; Belotelov, Vladimir

    2017-09-15

    In this Letter, we introduce an approach for manipulation of active plasmon polaritons via acoustic waves at sub-terahertz frequency range. The acoustic structures considered are designed as phononic Fabry-Perot microresonators where mirrors are presented with an acoustic superlattice and the structure's surface, and a plasmonic grating is placed on top of the acoustic cavity so formed. It provides phonon localization in the vicinity of the plasmonic grating at frequencies within the phononic stop band enhancing phonon-light interaction. We consider phonon excitation by shining a femtosecond laser pulse on the plasmonic grating. Appropriate theoretical model was used to describe the acoustic process caused by the pump laser pulse in the GaAs/AlAs-based acoustic cavity with a gold grating on top. Strongest modulation is achieved upon excitation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons and hybridization of propagating and localized plasmons. The relative changes in the optical reflectivity of the structure are more than an order of magnitude higher than for the structure without the plasmonic film.

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of the surface topography evolution of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović Branislav M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains results of the three-dimensional simulations of the surface topography evolution of the niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities during isotropic and anisotropic etching modes. The initial rough surface is determined from the experimental power spectral density. The simulation results based on the level set method reveal that the time dependence of the root mean square roughness obeys Family-Viscek scaling law. The growth exponential factors b are determined for both etching modes. Exponential factor for the isotropic etching is 100 times lower than that for the anisotropic etching mode reviling that the isotropic etching is very useful mechanism of the smoothing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. O171037 i br. III45006

  10. Study of the surface resistance of niobium sputter-coated copper cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Campisi, I E; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Russo, R; Valente, A M

    1999-01-01

    A systematic study of the superconducting properties of niobium films deposited on the inner wall of copper radiofrequency cavities is presented. Films are grown by sputtering with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar and Ar/Ne mixtures) on substrates prepared under different conditions. The measured quantities include the surface resistance at 1.5 GHz, the critical temperature and the penetration depth. The surface resistance is analyzed in terms of its dependence on temperature, RF field and the density of trapped fluxons. Once allowance for electron scattering is made by means of a single mean free path parameter, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially noncorrelated with the superconducting properties, although influenced by specific coating conditions. On occasions, very low residual resistances, in the nano-ohm range, have been maintained over a broad range of RF field, indicating the absence of fundamental limitations specific to the film techn...

  11. Interactions between nano-TiO2 and the oral cavity: impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubl, Birgit J; Schimpel, Christa; Leitinger, Gerd; Bauer, Bettina; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-04-09

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle-cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO2 particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photochemical dynamics of surface oriented molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, W.

    1992-01-01

    The period 8/01/91-7/31/92 is the first year of a new project titled ''Photochemical Dynamics of Surface Oriented Molecules'', initiated with DOE Support. The main objective of this project is to understand the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions by studying photochemical dynamics of surface-oriented molecules. In addition, the mechanisms of photon-surface interactions need to be elucidated. The strategy is to carry out experiments to measure the translational energy distribution, as a function of the angle from the surface normal, of the photoproducts by time-of-flight (TOF) technique by varying the photon wavelength, intensity, polarization, and pulse duration. By choosing adsorbates with different bonding configuration, the effects of adsorbate orientation on surface photochemical dynamics can be studied

  13. Linear beam dynamics and ampere class superconducting RF cavities at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaga, Rama R.

    -cell electron gun and a five-cell SRF linac cavity are presented. Several RF and beam dynamics issues ultimately resulting in an optimum cavity design are discussed in detail.

  14. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  15. [INVITED] Surface plasmon cavities on optical fiber end-facets for biomolecule and ultrasound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; He, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xin; Lei, Zeyu; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Jie; Cai, De; Chen, Sung-Liang; Wang, Xueding

    2018-05-01

    Integrating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices upon single-mode fiber (SMF) end facets renders label-free sensing systems that have a simple dip-and-read configuration, a small form factor, high compatibility with fiber-optic techniques, and invasive testing capability. Such devices are not only low cost replacement of current equipments in centralized laboratories, but also highly desirable for opening paths to new applications of label-free optical sensing technologies, such as point-of-care immunological tests and intravascular ultrasound imaging. In this paper, we explain the requirements and challenges for such devices from the perspectives of biomolecule and ultrasound detection applications. In such a context, we review our recent work on SMF end-facet SPR cavities. This include a glue-and-strip fabrication method to transfer a nano-patterned thin gold film to the SMF end-facet with high yield, high quality and high alignment precision, the designs of distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and distributed feedback (DFB) SPR cavities that couple efficiently with the SMF guided mode and reach quality factors of over 100, and the preliminary results for biomolecule interaction sensing and ultrasound detection. The particular advantages and potential values of these devices have been discussed, in terms of sensitivity, data reliability, reproducibility, bandwidth, etc.

  16. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  17. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  18. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2018-06-01

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  19. Analysis of the surface resistance of the superconducting accelerating cavities of the S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunken, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Gopych, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Graef, H.-D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Laier, U. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany)]. E-mail: U.Laier@gsi.de; Mueller, W. [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Platz, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Richter, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Watzlawik, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany); Weiland, T. [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, Darmstadt D-64289 (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The quality factors of the 20 cell, 3GHz niobium cavities of the S-DALINAC are smaller by almost a factor of three compared to their design value. Combined with the limited cryogenic power of the helium refrigerator in use, this restricts the maximum electron energy of the S-DALINAC in continuous wave operation. Extensive studies to elaborate the origin of this degradation are presented. A 120{sup -}bar C baking combined with appropriate diagnostic tools for an attempt to improve the Q values has been applied to nine of the 11 cavities. The impact of this treatment on the BCS and residual resistance was evaluated and both were improved. Additionally, quality factor measurements of all modes of the TM{sub 010} passband allowed to derive a spatial distribution of the mean surface resistance. The RF losses in the end cells are systematically higher compared to the inner cells. The studies presented in this article allowed to develop a model describing the Q degradation of the resonators and thereby identifying possible prospects to cure this limitation.

  20. Ultrafast pulse amplification in mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böttge, C. N., E-mail: boettge@optics.arizona.edu; Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2014-12-29

    A fully microscopic many-body Maxwell–semiconductor Bloch model is used to investigate the influence of the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics on the short-pulse amplification in mode-locked semiconductor microlaser systems. The numerical solution of the coupled equations allows for a self-consistent investigation of the light–matter coupling dynamics, the carrier kinetics in the saturable absorber and the multiple-quantum-well gain medium, as well as the modification of the light field through the pulse-induced optical polarization. The influence of the pulse-induced non-equilibrium modifications of the carrier distributions in the gain medium and the saturable absorber on the single-pulse amplification in the laser cavity is identified. It is shown that for the same structure, quantum wells, and gain bandwidth the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics lead to two preferred operation regimes: one with pulses in the (sub-)100 fs-regime and one with multi-picosecond pulses. The recovery time of the saturable absorber determines in which regime the device operates.

  1. Ab initio lattice dynamics of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical properties of atoms on surfaces depend sensitively on their bonding environment and thus provide valuable insight into the local geometry and chemical binding at the boundary of a solid. Density-functional theory provides a unified approach to the calculation of structural and dynamical properties from first principles. Its high accuracy and predictive power for lattice dynamical properties of semiconductor surfaces has been demonstrated in a previous article by Fritsch and Schroeder (Phys. Rep. 309 (1999) 209). In this report, we review the state-of-the-art of these ab initio approaches to surface dynamical properties of metal surfaces. We give a brief introduction to the conceptual framework with focus on recent advances in computational procedures for the ab initio linear-response approach, which have been a prerequisite for an efficient treatment of surface dynamics of noble and transition metals. The discussed applications to clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces demonstrate the high accuracy and reliability of this approach in predicting detailed microscopic properties of the phonon dynamics for a wide range of metallic surfaces

  2. Chaos synchronization in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser based on rotated polarization-preserved optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhan, Salam; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Busawon, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the rotating polarization-preserved optical feedback on the chaos synchronization of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is investigated experimentally. Two VCSELs' polarization modes (XP) and (YP) are gradually rotated and re-injected back into the VCSEL. The anti-phase dynamics synchronization of the two polarization modes is evaluated using the cross-correlation function. For a fixed optical feedback, a clear relationship is found between the cross-correlation coefficient and the polarization angle θp. It is shown that high-quality anti-phase polarization-resolved chaos synchronization is achieved at higher values of θp. The maximum value of the cross-correlation coefficient achieved is -0.99 with a zero time delay over a wide range of θp beyond 65° with a poor synchronization dynamic at θp less than 65°. Furthermore, it is observed that the antiphase irregular oscillation of the XP and YP modes changes with θp. VCSEL under the rotating polarization optical feedback can be a good candidate as a chaotic synchronization source for a secure communication system.

  3. Causal Dynamics of Discrete Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We formalize the intuitive idea of a labelled discrete surface which evolves in time, subject to two natural constraints: the evolution does not propagate information too fast; and it acts everywhere the same.

  4. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Adam P.; Limmer, David T.; Madden, Paul A.; Chandler, David

    2013-05-01

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  5. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Adam P; Limmer, David T; Madden, Paul A; Chandler, David

    2013-05-14

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  6. The simulation of thermal characteristics of 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tianxiao; Cui, Bifeng; Hao, Shuai; Wang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    In order to design a single mode 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a 2 μm output aperture is designed to guarantee the single mode output. The effects of different mesa sizes on the lattice temperature, the output power and the voltage are simulated under the condition of continuous working at room temperature, to obtain the optimum process parameters of mesa. It is obtained by results of the crosslight simulation software that the sizes of mesa radius are between 9.5 to 12.5 μm, which cannot only obtain the maximum output power, but also improve the heat dissipation of the device. Project supported by the Beijing Municipal Eduaction Commission (No. PXM2016_014204_500018) and the Construction of Scientific and Technological Innovation Service Ability in 2017 (No. PXM2017_014204_500034).

  7. Beam dynamics study and superconducting triple spoke cavity design for the EURISOL driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponton, A.

    2009-07-01

    EURISOL will be the next generation source of intense radioactive ion beams. Its accelerator complex consists of a driver linac, a set of targets and sources and a post-accelerator linac which aims at supplying different experimental areas with the exotic ions. The presented study deals with the driver accelerator: a superconducting RF linac capable of accelerating different ion kinds (D + , 3 He 2+ and H - ) up to a maximal power of 4 MW. First beam dynamics studies pointed out a very good acceleration efficiency when triple spoke cavities working at a frequency of 352 MHz are used in the medium energy part (0.2 < beta < 0.4). Thanks to a novel geometry, the electromagnetic design of the proposed cavity leads to 33 MV/m and 72 mT for the peak electric field and magnetic induction respectively at an ambitious accelerating field of 8 MV/m. The beam transport was then simulated and optimized in the original layout and calculations were also performed considering an alternative, periodic solution, for the low energy part. The 'all-periodic' linac keeps the beam qualities better by strongly reducing the emittance growth and the halo formation. (author)

  8. Dynamic compensation of an rf cavity failure in a superconducting linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Biarrotte

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An accelerator driven system (ADS for transmutation of nuclear waste typically requires a 600 MeV–1 GeV accelerator delivering a proton flux of a few mA for demonstrators, and of a few tens of mA for large industrial systems. Such a machine belongs to the category of the high-power proton accelerators, with an additional requirement for exceptional “reliability”: because of the induced thermal stress to the subcritical core, the number of unwanted “beam trips” should not exceed a few per year, a specification that is several orders of magnitude above usual performance. In order to meet this extremely high reliability, the accelerator needs to implement, to the maximum possible extent, a fault-tolerance strategy that would allow beam operation in the presence of most of the envisaged faults that could occur in its beam line components, and in particular rf systems’ failures. This document describes the results of the simulations performed for the analysis of the fault-tolerance capability of the XT-ADS superconducting linac in the case of an rf cavity failure. A new simulation tool, mixing transient rf behavior of the accelerating cavities with full 6D description of the beam dynamics, has been developed for this purpose. Fast fault-recovery scenarios are proposed, and required research and development is identified.

  9. Study into the mechanisms of hydrogen contamination of niobium as a material for superconducting radiofrequency cavities. Molecular dynamics studies for simulation of the hydrogen diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, B.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency cavities were chosen for most of the future particle accelerators. In the case of pure niobium cavities, several laboratories have observed degradation of superconducting properties related to the conditions of the cooling down process. This effect seems to stem from hydrogen contamination which occurs during surface treatments. With the aim to study the influence of different surface treatments on the hydrogen contamination depth concentration profiling of the near surface region (the first 200 nm) was first carried out by the classical ERDA technique with 30 nm depth resolution. In order to better localize hydrogen, the initial particle selecting device (Teflon foil) was replaced by an electromagnetic (ExB) filter improving then the depth resolution by a factor three. This study reveals an hydrogen segregation at the niobium surface. Such a result is in contradiction with the relative high experimental value of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient given by the literature. To understand the trapping mechanism of hydrogen, a simulation by molecular dynamics of this impurity diffusion process was performed. This approach requires the knowledge of the interatomic potential. The potential parameters were fitted with static and dynamic tests. Nb-Nb interaction is based on many body potential. Nb-H is represented by two body potential. The Arrhenius diagram of the diffusion coefficient achieved by dynamic for a single crystal provides too small activation energy in comparison with experimental results. However, in presence of defects, a simulation proves a large increase of these values. It is only around 1000 K that the diffusion of hydrogen is not altered by defects. This conclusion confirms the experimental results concerning a good characteristic of superconducting cavities after thermal treatments. (orig.)

  10. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Roach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  11. Operation of a novel hot-electron vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Naci; O'Brien-Davies, Angela; Thoms, A. B.; Potter, Richard J.; Poolton, Nigel; Adams, Michael J.; Masum, J.; Bek, Alpan; Serpenguzel, Ali; Aydinli, Atilla; Roberts, John S.

    1998-07-01

    The hot Electron Light Emission and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures devices (HELLISH-1) is novel surface emitter consisting of a GaAs quantum well, within the depletion region, on the n side of Ga1-xAlxAs p- n junction. It utilizes hot electron transport parallel to the layers and injection of hot electron hole pairs into the quantum well through a combination of mechanisms including tunnelling, thermionic emission and diffusion of `lucky' carriers. Super Radiant HELLISH-1 is an advanced structure incorporating a lower distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Combined with the finite reflectivity of the upper semiconductor-air interface reflectivity it defines a quasi- resonant cavity enabling emission output from the top surface with a higher spectral purity. The output power has increased by two orders of magnitude and reduced the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 20 nm. An upper DBR added to the structure defines HELLISH-VCSEL which is currently the first operational hot electron surface emitting laser and lases at room temperature with a 1.5 nm FWHM. In this work we demonstrate and compare the operation of UB-HELLISH-1 and HELLISH-VCSEL using experimental and theoretical reflectivity spectra over an extensive temperature range.

  12. Dynamic Factor Models for the Volatility Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Michel; Ozturk, Sait R.; Dijk, Dick van

    The implied volatility surface is the collection of volatilities implied by option contracts for different strike prices and time-to-maturity. We study factor models to capture the dynamics of this three-dimensional implied volatility surface. Three model types are considered to examine desirable...

  13. Many-body dynamics of driven-dissipative Rydberg cavity polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, Tim; Fan, Jingtao; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    The usage of photons as long-range information carriers has greatly increased the interest in systems with nonlinear optical properties in recent years. The nonlinearity is easily achievable in Rydberg mediums through the strong van der Waals interaction which makes them one of the best candidates for such a system. Here, we propose a way to analyze the steady state solutions of a Rydberg medium in a cavity through the combination of the variational principle for open quantum systems and the P-distribution of the density matrix. To get a better understanding of the many-body-dynamics a transformation into the polariton picture is performed and investigated. Volkswagen Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  14. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Phillips, Larry; Valente, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  15. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardan Upadhyay, Larry Phillips, Anne-Marie Valente

    2011-09-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  16. Impact of nitrogen doping of niobium superconducting cavities on the sensitivity of surface resistance to trapped magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnella, Dan; Kaufman, John; Liepe, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Future particle accelerators such as the SLAC "Linac Coherent Light Source-II" (LCLS-II) and the proposed Cornell Energy Recovery Linac require hundreds of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) niobium cavities operating in continuous wave mode. In order to achieve economic feasibility of projects such as these, the cavities must achieve a very high intrinsic quality factor (Q0) to keep cryogenic losses within feasible limits. To reach these high Q0's in the case of LCLS-II, nitrogen-doping of niobium cavities has been selected as the cavity preparation technique. When dealing with Q0's greater than 1 × 1010, the effects of ambient magnetic field on Q0 become significant. Here, we show that the sensitivity to RF losses from trapped magnetic field in a cavity's walls is strongly dependent on the cavity preparation. Specifically, standard electropolished and 120 °C baked cavities show a sensitivity of residual resistance from trapped magnetic flux of ˜0.6 and ˜0.8 nΩ/mG trapped, respectively, while nitrogen-doped cavities show a higher sensitivity of residual resistance from trapped magnetic flux of ˜1 to 5 nΩ/mG trapped. We show that this difference in sensitivities is directly related to the mean free path of the RF surface layer of the niobium: shorter mean free paths lead to less sensitivity of residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux in the dirty limit (ℓ ≪ ξ0), while longer mean free paths lead to lower sensitivity of residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux in the clean limit (ℓ ≫ ξ0). These experimental results are also shown to have good agreement with recent theoretical predictions for pinned vortex lines oscillating in RF fields.

  17. 5-μm vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) for spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2010-08-01

    Mid-IR tunable VECSELs (Vertical External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers) emitting at 4-7 μm wavelengths and suitable for spectroscopic sensing applications are described. They are realized with lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) narrow band gap materials. The active part, a single 0.6-2-μm thick PbTe or PbSe gain layer, is grown onto an epitaxial Bragg mirror consisting of two or three Pb1- y Eu y Te/BaF2 quarter-wavelength layer pairs. All layers are deposited by MBE in a single run employing a BaF2 or Si substrate, no further processing is needed. The cavity is completed with an external curved top mirror, which is again realized with an epitaxial Bragg structure. Pumping is performed optically with a 1.5-μm laser. Maximum output power for pulsed operation is currently up to >1 Wp at -173°C and >10 mW at 10°C. In continuous wave (CW) operation, 18 mW at 100 K are reached. Still higher operating temperatures and/or powers are expected with better heat-removal structures and better designs employing QW (Quantum-Wells). Advantages of mid-IR VECSELs compared to edge-emitting lasers are their very good beam quality (circular beam with 15 μm are accessible with Pb1- y X y Z (X=Sr, Eu, Sn, Z=Se, Te) and/or including QW.

  18. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  19. Side-coupled cavity model for surface plasmon-polariton transmission across a groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.S.Q.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the transmission properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) across a rectangular groove in a metallic film can be described by an analytical model that treats the groove as a side-coupled cavity to propagating SPPs on the metal surface. The coupling efficiency to the groove is quantified by treating it as a truncated metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulations and mode orthogonality relations are employed to derive the basic scattering coefficients that describe the interaction between the relevant modes in the system. The modeled SPP transmission and reflection intensities show excellent agreement with full-field simulations over a wide range of groove dimensions, validating this intuitive model. The model predicts the sharp transmission minima that occur whenever an incident SPP resonantly couples to the groove. We also for the first time show the importance of evanescent, reactive MDM SPP modes to the transmission behavior. SPPs that couple to this mode are resonantly enhanced upon reflection from the bottom of the groove, leading to high field intensities and sharp transmission minima across the groove. The resonant behavior exhibited by the grooves has a number of important device applications, including SPP mirrors, filters, and modulators.

  20. Interactions between nano-TiO{sub 2} and the oral cavity: Impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teubl, Birgit J.; Schimpel, Christa [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); Leitinger, Gerd [Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Research Unit Electron Microscopic Techniques, Medical University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria); Bauer, Bettina [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); Fröhlich, Eleonore [Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria); Zimmer, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria); Roblegg, Eva, E-mail: eva.roblegg@uni-graz.at [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Graz, 8010 (Austria); BioTechMed, Graz 8010 (Austria)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} NPs agglomerated under oral physiological conditions. • Particles penetrated the upper and lower buccal epithelium, independent on the degree of hydrophilicity. • Most of the hydrophobic particles were found in vesicular structures, while hydrophilic particles were freely distributed in the cytoplasm. • Hydrophilic particles had a higher potential to trigger toxic effects (e.g., ROS) than hydrophobic particles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle–cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO{sub 2} particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species.

  1. Interactions between nano-TiO2 and the oral cavity: Impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubl, Birgit J.; Schimpel, Christa; Leitinger, Gerd; Bauer, Bettina; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic TiO 2 NPs agglomerated under oral physiological conditions. • Particles penetrated the upper and lower buccal epithelium, independent on the degree of hydrophilicity. • Most of the hydrophobic particles were found in vesicular structures, while hydrophilic particles were freely distributed in the cytoplasm. • Hydrophilic particles had a higher potential to trigger toxic effects (e.g., ROS) than hydrophobic particles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle–cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO 2 particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species

  2. Field limit and nano-scale surface topography of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of extreme type II superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    The field limit of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of a type II superconductor with a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter is studied, taking the effects of nano-scale surface topography into account. If the surface is ideally flat, the field limit is imposed by the superheating field. On the surface of cavity, however, nano-defects almost continuously distribute and suppress the superheating field everywhere. The field limit is imposed by an effective superheating field given by the product of the superheating field for an ideal flat surface and a suppression factor that contains the effects of nano-defects. A nano-defect is modeled by a triangular groove with a depth smaller than the penetration depth. An analytical formula for the suppression factor of bulk and multilayer superconductors is derived in the framework of the London theory. As an immediate application, the suppression factor of the dirty Nb processed by electropolishing is evaluated by using results of surface topographic study. The estimated field limit is consistent with the present record field of nitrogen-doped Nb cavities. Suppression factors of surfaces of other bulk and multilayer superconductors, and those after various surface processing technologies, can also be evaluated by using the formula.

  3. Plasma treatment of bulk niobium surface for superconducting rf cavities: Optimization of the experimental conditions on flat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rašković

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator performance, in particular the average accelerating field and the cavity quality factor, depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity surface. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate nonsuperconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region and to remove the mechanically damaged surface layer, which improves the surface roughness. Here we show that the plasma treatment of bulk niobium (Nb presents an alternative surface preparation method to the commonly used buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing methods. We have optimized the experimental conditions in the microwave glow discharge system and their influence on the Nb removal rate on flat samples. We have achieved an etching rate of 1.7  μm/min⁡ using only 3% chlorine in the reactive mixture. Combining a fast etching step with a moderate one, we have improved the surface roughness without exposing the sample surface to the environment. We intend to apply the optimized experimental conditions to the preparation of single cell cavities, pursuing the improvement of their rf performance.

  4. Resonator modes and mode dynamics for an external cavity-coupled laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Niketh; Bochove, Erik J.; Aceves, Alejandro B.; Zunoubi, Mohammad R.; Braiman, Yehuda

    2015-03-01

    Employing a Fox-Li approach, we derived the cold-cavity mode structure and a coupled mode theory for a phased array of N single-transverse-mode active waveguides with feedback from an external cavity. We applied the analysis to a system with arbitrary laser lengths, external cavity design and coupling strengths to the external cavity. The entire system was treated as a single resonator. The effect of the external cavity was modeled by a set of boundary conditions expressed by an N-by-N frequency-dependent matrix relation between incident and reflected fields at the interface with the external cavity. The coupled mode theory can be adapted to various types of gain media and internal and external cavity designs.

  5. Atomic probes of surface structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.; Jonsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    Progress for the period Sept. 15, 1992 to Sept. 14, 1993 is discussed. Semiclassical methods that will allow much faster and more accurate three-dimensional atom--surface scattering calculations, both elastic and inelastic, are being developed. The scattering of He atoms from buckyballs is being investigated as a test problem. Somewhat more detail is given on studies of He atom scattering from defective Pt surfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations of He + and Ar + ion sputtering of Pt surfaces are also being done. He atom scattering from Xe overlayers on metal surfaces and the thermalized dissociation of H 2 on Cu(110) are being studied. (R.W.R.) 64 refs

  6. Natural convection with evaporation in a vertical cylindrical cavity under the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Danil A.; Sheremet, Mikhail A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on laminar natural convection in a vertical cylindrical cavity filled with a weak evaporating liquid has been analyzed numerically. The cylindrical enclosure is insulated at the bottom, heated by a constant heat flux from the side, and cooled by a non-uniform evaporative heat flux from the top free surface having temperature-dependent surface tension. Governing equations with corresponding boundary conditions formulated in dimensionless stream function, vorticity, and temperature have been solved by finite difference method of the second-order accuracy. The influence of Rayleigh number, Marangoni number, and aspect ratio on the liquid flow and heat transfer has been studied. Obtained results have revealed that the heat transfer rate at free surface decreases with Marangoni number and increases with Rayleigh number, while the average temperature inside the cavity has an opposite behavior; namely, it growths with Marangoni number and reduces with Rayleigh number.

  7. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface-Assisted Dynamic Search Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeoh; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2018-03-01

    Many chemical and biological systems exhibit intermittent search phenomena when participating particles alternate between dynamic regimes with different dimensionalities. Here we investigate theoretically a dynamic search process of finding a small target on a two-dimensional surface starting from a bulk solution, which is an example of such an intermittent search process. Both continuum and discrete-state stochastic descriptions are developed. It is found that depending on the scanning length λ, which describes the area visited by the reacting molecule during one search cycle, the system can exhibit three different search regimes: (i) For small λ values, the reactant finds the target mostly via three-dimensional bulk diffusion; (ii) for large λ values, the reactant molecule associates to the target mostly via surface diffusion; and (iii) for intermediate λ values, the reactant reaches the target via a combination of three-dimensional and two-dimensional search cycles. Our analysis also shows that the mean search times have different scalings as a function of the size of the surface segment depending on the nature of the dynamic search regime. Search dynamics are also sensitive to the position of the target for large scanning lengths. In addition, it is argued that the continuum description underestimates mean search times and does not always correctly describe the most optimal conditions for the surface-assisted dynamic processes. The importance of our findings for real natural systems is discussed.

  9. Surface dynamics of micellar diblock copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghoon; Cha, Wonsuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Jiang, Zhang; Narayanan, Suresh

    2011-03-01

    We studied the structure and surface dynamics of poly(styrene)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer films with micellar PDMS surrounded by PS shells. By `in-situ' high resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering, we obtained exact thickness, electron density and surface tension. A segregation layer near the top surface was appeared with increasing temperature Surface dynamics were measured as a function of film thickness and temperature by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The best fit to relaxation time constants as a function of in-plane wavevectors were analyzed with a theory based on capillary waves with hydrodynamics with bilayer model Finally the viscosities for the top segregated layer as well as for the bottom layer are obtained at given temperatures This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (R15-2008-006-01001-0), Seoul Research and Business Development Program (10816), and Sogang University Research Grant (2010).

  10. Surface tension effects on the behavior of a cavity growing, collapsing, and rebounding near a rigid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Zhang, Hui-sheng

    2004-11-01

    Surface tension effects on the behavior of a pure vapor cavity or a cavity containing some noncondensible contents, which is growing, collapsing, and rebounding axisymmetrically near a rigid wall, are investigated numerically by the boundary integral method for different values of dimensionless stand-off parameter gamma, buoyancy parameter delta, and surface tension parameter beta. It is found that at the late stage of the collapse, if the resultant action of the Bjerknes force and the buoyancy force is not small, surface tension will not have significant effects on bubble behavior except that the bubble collapse time is shortened and the liquid jet becomes wider. If the resultant action of the two force is small enough, surface tension will have significant and in some cases substantial effects on bubble behavior, such as changing the direction of the liquid jet, making a new liquid jet appear, in some cases preventing the bubble from rebound before jet impact, and in other cases causing the bubble to rebound or even recollapse before jet impact. The mechanism of surface tension effects on the collapsing behavior of a cavity has been analyzed. The mechanisms of some complicated phenomena induced by surface tension effects are illustrated by analysis of the computed velocity fields and pressure contours of the liquid flow outside the bubble at different stages of the bubble evolution.

  11. Very high repetition-rate electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser with optics and dynamics stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Zhaohui; Huang, Yutao; Fan, Zhongwei; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a very high repetition-rate, short-pulse, electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The laser performance is optimized from two aspects. Firstly, the laser resonator is designed for a good thermal stability under large pump power fluctuation through optics methods. Secondly, dynamics simulation as well as experiments verifies that cavity dumping at very high repetition rate has better stability than medium/high repetition rate. At 30 W, 880 nm pump power, up to 500 kHz, constant 5 ns, stable 1064 nm fundamental-mode laser pulses can be obtained with 10 W average output power.

  12. Materials and surface aspects in the development of SRF Niobium cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, C

    2012-01-01

    Foreword from author; When I joined the CEA Saclay SRF group in 1989, my initial background was physical chemistry and surface science, which I completed later on with solid state physics and metallurgy. Most accelerator physicists at that time had training in RF, plasma physics, nuclear or particle physics. We were very few with a background in material science. Working with people with a different background than yours reveals to be both challenging and funny: you can impress them with things you consider basic while they simply do not believe you for other things you consider so well admitted that you do not even remember where it comes from. At the end it obliges you to reconsider your basics and re-question many results, which opens many new and sometimes unexpected paths. Like usual in science, answering one question rises many new ones, and trying to improve cavities performance led to fascinating physics problems. Exploring some of these problems often requires techniques and expertise that are far be...

  13. Proton irradiation effects in oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Swift, G.M.; Guertin, S.; Schwank, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.; Hash, G.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes are employed as the emitter portion of opto-couplers that are used in space applications. Proton irradiation studies on VCSELs were performed at the Indiana University cyclotron facility. The beam energy was set at 192 MeV, the beam current was 200 nA that is equivalent to a flux of approximately 1*10 11 protons/cm 2 .s. We conclude that the oxide confined VCSELs examined in this study show more than sufficient radiation hardness for nearly all space applications. The observed proton-induced decreases in light output and the corresponding increases in laser threshold current can be explained in terms of proton-induced displacement damage which introduces non-radiative recombination centers in the active region of the lasers and causes a decrease in laser efficiency. These radiation effects accentuate the detrimental thermal effects observed at high currents. We also note that forward bias annealing is effective in these devices in producing at least partial recovery of the light output, and that this may be a viable hardness assurance technique during a flight mission. (A.C.)

  14. Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S D; Fyodorov, V B; Tsvetkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed. (review)

  15. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers from all-inorganic perovskite quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Handong; Wang, Yue; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Haibo

    We report the breakthrough in realizing the challenging while practically desirable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on the CsPbX3 inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (IPNCs). These laser devices feature record low threshold (9 µJ/cm2), unidirectional output (beam divergence of 3.6º) and superb stability. We show that both single-mode and multimode lasing operation are achievable in the device. In contrast to traditional metal chacogenide colloidal quantum dots based lasers where the pump thresholds for the green and blue wavelengths are typically much higher than that of the red, these CsPbX3 IPNC-VCSEL devices are able to lase with comparable thresholds across the whole visible spectral range, which is appealing for achieving single source-pumped full-color lasers. We further reveal that these lasers can operate in quasi-steady state regime, which is very practical and cost-effective. Given the facile solution processibility, our CsPbX3 IPNC-VCSEL devices may hold great potential in developing low-cost yet high-performance lasers, promising in revolutionizing the vacuum-based epitaxial semiconductor lasers.

  16. Quantum dynamics of a Josephson junction driven cavity mode system in the presence of voltage bias noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor F ) for a Josephson junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e., noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Through the ac Josephson effect, the dc voltage bias drives the effectively nonlinear microwave cavity mode into an amplitude squeezed state (F Armour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 247001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247001], but bias noise acts to degrade this squeezing. We find that the sensitivity of the Fano factor to bias voltage noise depends qualitatively on which stable fixed point regime the system is in for the corresponding classical nonlinear steady-state dynamics. Furthermore, we show that the impact of voltage bias noise is most significant when the cavity is excited to states with large average photon number.

  17. Dynamic Defrosting on Scalable Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Kevin R.; McClintic, William T.; Lester, Kevin C.; Collier, C. Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that frost can grow in a suspended Cassie state on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. During defrosting, the melting sheet of Cassie frost spontaneously dewets into quasi-spherical slush droplets that are highly mobile. Promoting Cassie frost would therefore seem advantageous from a defrosting standpoint; however, nobody has systematically compared the efficiency of defrosting Cassie ice versus defrosting conventional surfaces. Here, we characterize the defrosting of an aluminum plate, one-half of which exhibits a superhydrophobic nanostructure while the other half is smooth and hydrophobic. For thick frost sheets (>1 mm), the superhydrophobic surface was able to dynamically shed the meltwater, even at very low tilt angles. In contrast, the hydrophobic surface was unable to shed any appreciable meltwater even at a 90° tilt angle. For thin frost layers (≲1 mm), not even the superhydrophobic surface could mobilize the meltwater. We attribute this to the large apparent contact angle of the meltwater, which for small amounts of frost serves to minimize coalescence events and prevent droplets from approaching the capillary length. Finally, we demonstrate a new mode of dynamic defrosting using an upside-down surface orientation, where the melting frost was able to uniformly detach from the superhydrophobic side and subsequently pull the frost from the hydrophobic side in a chain reaction. Treating surfaces to enable Cassie frost is therefore very desirable for enabling rapid and low-energy thermal defrosting, but only for frost sheets that are sufficiently thick.

  18. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Identification and characterization of near surface cavities in Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone, Riyadh, KSA, “detection and treatment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd El Aal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of surface electrical resistivity technique for identifying the weak zones or subsurface cavities in karst area with limestone rocks. Weak zones or cavities near surface can be potentially dangerous and several problems are associated with collapse of roads or buildings accompanied by subsidence phenomena. Karst environments are characterized by distinctive landforms, which are related to dissolution and dominant subsurface drainage. The interaction of limestone with water is able to create karst features such as cavity, pinnacle, boulder and sinkhole through the dissolution process. The existence of subsurface karst features are always a matter of concern to engineers before any development starts because these features could cause disaster in the future. The study was conducted at Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone, Riyadh region, KSA with the objective to detect and treat karst features at limestone rocks. The karst features such as fill cavity, boulder, pinnacle, discontinuity and overhang were detected in the survey lines. The 2-D ER results showed a good correlation with all the borehole records in determining the subsurface of limestone formation. The 2-D ER method is capable in mapping karst features and bedrock depth. The ability of the electrical technique to produce high resolution images of the subsurface, which are useful for subsidence assessment is illustrated.

  20. High-Q operation of superconducting rf cavities: Potential impact of thermocurrents on the rf surface resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For many new accelerator applications, superconducting radio frequency systems are the enabling technology. In particular for CW applications, much effort is being expended to minimize the power dissipation (surface resistance of niobium cavities. Starting in 2009, we suggested a means of reducing the residual resistance by performing a thermal cycle [O. Kugeler et al., in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity (2009, p. 352], a procedure of warming up a cavity after initial cooldown to about 20 K and cooling it down again. In subsequent studies [J. M. Vogt, O. Kugeler, and J. Knobloch, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 16, 102002 (2013], this technique was used to manipulate the residual resistance by more than a factor of 2. It was postulated that thermocurrents during cooldown generate additional trapped magnetic flux that impacts the cavity quality factor. Here, we present a more extensive study that includes measurements of two additional passband modes and that confirms the effect. In this paper, we also discuss simulations that support the claim. While the layout of the cavity LHe tank system is cylindrically symmetric, we show that the temperature dependence of the material parameters results in a nonsymmetric current distribution. Hence a significant amount of magnetic flux can be generated at the rf surface.

  1. Cavity-enhanced surface-plasmon resonance sensing: Modeling and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giorgini, A.; Avino, S.; Malara, P.; Zullo, R.; Gaglio, G.; Homola, Jiří; De Natale, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2014), 015205 ISSN 0957-0233 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : optical resonators * optical sensors * cavity ring-down spectroscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2014

  2. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Domingues, Eddy; Arunachalam, Sankara; Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising of doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications

  3. Interaction of surface radiation and free convection in open and closed cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateshan, S.P.; Balaji, C.

    1996-01-01

    Research focussing on the interaction of all the modes of heat transfer in closed cavities, open cavities and L corners are scarce. Hence an earnest attempt to explore the interaction between the various modes of heat transfer in the above mentioned geometries to gain insight into the nature of interaction, and, develop useful correlations for computing the overall heat transfer are the main thrusts of the present study. 21 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral measurements and that the quantum dot is rather weakly coupled to the cavity. We suggest that the observed Rabi splitting is due to cavity feeding by other quantum dots and/or multi...

  5. Replication of micro and nano-features on iPP by injection molding with fast cavity surface temperature evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speranzaa, Vito; Liparotia, Sara; Calaon, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The production of polymeric components with functional structures in the micrometer and sub-micrometer range is a complex challenge for the injection molding process, since it suffers the use of low cavity surface temperatures that induce the fast formation of a frozen layer, thus preventing...... was sufficient to obtain accurate replication, with adequate surface temperatures. In the case of nano-features, the replication accuracy was affected by the morphology developed on the molding surface, that is aligned along the flow direction with dimensions comparable with the dimension of the nano...

  6. High-power, format-flexible, 885-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chad; Talantov, Fedor; Garrett, Henry; Berdin, Glen; Cardellino, Terri; Millenheft, David; Geske, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    High-power, format flexible, 885 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays have been developed for solid-state pumping and illumination applications. In this approach, a common VCSEL size format was designed to enable tiling into flexible formats and operating configurations. The fabrication of a common chip size on ceramic submount enables low-cost volume manufacturing of high-power VCSEL arrays. This base VCSEL chip was designed to be 5x3.33 mm2, and produced up to 50 Watts of peak continuous wave (CW) power. To scale to higher powers, multiple chips can be tiled into a combination of series or parallel configurations tailored to the application driver conditions. In actively cooled CW operation, the VCSEL array chips were packaged onto a single water channel cooler, and we have demonstrated 0.5x1, 1x1, and 1x3 cm2 formats, producing 150, 250, and 500 Watts of peak power, respectively, in under 130 A operating current. In QCW operation, the 1x3 cm2 VCSEL module, which contains 18 VCSEL array chips packaged on a single water cooler, produced over 1.3 kW of peak power. In passively cooled packages, multiple chip configurations have been developed for illumination applications, producing over 300 Watts of peak power in QCW operating conditions. These VCSEL chips use a substrate-removed structure to allow for efficient thermal heatsinking to enable high-power operation. This scalable, format flexible VCSEL architecture can be applied to wavelengths ranging from 800 to 1100 nm, and can be used to tailor emission spectral widths and build high-power hyperspectral sources.

  7. Surface Characterization of Nb Samples Electro-polished Together With Real Superconducting Radio-frequency Accelerator Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Geng, Rong-Li; Tyagi, P.V.; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kato, Shigeki; Nishiwaki, Michiru; Saeki, Takayuki; Sawabe, Motoaki

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb) samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris and the beam-pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray for elemental analysis (SEM/EDX) was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S) were found covering the samples non-uniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  8. Near Infrared Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy for Isotopic Analyses of CH4 on Future Martian Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Mahaffy P.; Holmes, V.; Burris, J.; Morey, P.; Lehmann, K.K.; Lollar, B. Sherwood; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A compact Near Infrared Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (near-IR-cw-CRDS) was developed as a candidate for future planetary surface missions. The optical cavity was made of titanium with rugged quartz windows to protect the delicate super cavity from the harsh environmental changes that it would experience during space flight and a Martian surface mission. This design assured the long-term stability of the system. The system applied three distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LD), two of which were tuned to the absorption line peaks of (sup 12)CH4 and (sup 13)CH4 at 6046.954 inverse centimeters and 6049.121 inverse centimeters, respectively. The third laser was tuned to a spectral-lines-free region for measuring the baseline cavity loss. The multiple laser design compensated for typical baseline drift of a CRDS system and, thus, improved the overall precision. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was used instead of an Acousto-Optic Module (AOM) to initiate the cavity ring-down events. It maintained high acquisition rates such as AOM, but consumed less power. High data acquisition rates combined with improved long-term stability yielded precise isotopic measurements in this near-IR region even though the strongest CH4 absorption line in this region is 140 times weaker than that of the strongest mid-IR absorption band. The current system has a detection limit of 1.4 times 10( sup –12) inverse centimeters for (sup 13)CH4. This limit corresponds to approximately 7 parts per trillion volume of CH4 at 100 Torrs. With no further improvements the detection limit of our current near IR-cw-CRDS at an ambient Martian pressure of approximately 6 Torrs (8 millibars) would be 0.25 parts per billion volume for one 3.3 minute long analysis.

  9. Triangle islands and cavities on the surface of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjun; Zhang Yi; Liu Wei; Li Boyan; Sun Yun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 thin films. ► Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu atom diffusion from Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 grains brings the epitaxial triangle island. ► The triangle islands grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. ► The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. ► The performance of solar cell without triangle islands is improved. - Abstract: Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films are co-evaporated at a constant substrate temperature of 500 °C on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The structural properties and chemical composition of the CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and an X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology. Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on some planes of the CIGS thin films. We investigate the formation mechanism of these triangle islands. It is found that the planes with the triangle islands are (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms. Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu diffusion from CIGS grains brings the epitaxial triangle islands which grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. The film with Cu/(Ga + In) = 0.94–0.98 is one key of the formation of these islands. The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. The growth of triangle islands brings a compact surface with large layered grains and many jagged edges, but no triangle cavity. Finally, we compare the performance of solar cell with triangle islands and layered gains. It is found that the performance of solar cell with large layered gains is improved.

  10. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Beringer; W. M. Roach; C. Clavero; C. E. Reece; R. A. Lukaszew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ∼50  MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006)APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2162...

  11. Narrow linewidth short cavity Brillouin random laser based on Bragg grating array fiber and dynamical population inversion gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S. M.; Butov, O. V.; Chamorovski, Y. K.; Isaev, V. A.; Mégret, P.; Korobko, D. A.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Fotiadi, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    We report on random lasing observed with 100-m-long fiber comprising an array of weak FBGs inscribed in the fiber core and uniformly distributed over the fiber length. Extended fluctuation-free oscilloscope traces highlight power dynamics typical for lasing. An additional piece of Er-doped fiber included into the laser cavity enables a stable laser generation with a linewidth narrower than 10 kHz.

  12. Dynamically triangulated surfaces - some analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.

    1987-01-01

    We give a brief review of the analytical results concerning the model of dynamically triangulated surfaces. We will discuss the possible types of critical behaviour (depending on the dimension D of the embedding space) and the exact solutions obtained for D=0 and D=-2. The latter are important as a check of the Monte Carlo simulations applyed to study the model in more physical dimensions. They give also some general insight of its critical properties

  13. Computation of coupled surface radiation and natural convection in an inclined form cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraqui, Samir; Mezrhab, Ahmed; Abid, Cherifa

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with computation of the radiation-natural convection interactions in an inclined form cavity. The cavity contains two symmetrically identical isothermal blocks and is vented by two opening located in a vertical median axis at the top and the bottom parts of the cavity. Calculations are made by using a finite volume method and an efficient numerical procedure is introduced for calculating the view factors, with shadow effects included. Effects of Rayleigh number Ra and inclination angle φ are investigated for Pr = 0.71 in presence and in absence of the radiation exchange. Results are reported in terms of isotherms, streamlines, local and average Nusselt numbers and mass flow rate. In light of the obtained results, we can conclude that the heat transfer decreases with increasing φ. In addition, the increase of Ra and the taking into account of the radiation exchange produce a considerable increase in the heat transfer.

  14. Minor salivary gland tumors in the oral cavity: Diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Hara, Marina; Katase, Naoki; Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Hisatomi, Miki; Unetsubo, Teruhisa; Konouchi, Hironobu; Takenobu, Toshihiko; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for minor salivary gland tumors in the oral cavity. Materials and methods: Thirty-two patients with minor salivary gland tumors were examined preoperatively using DCE-MRI. Their maximum contrast index (CImax), time of CImax (Tmax), Tpeak; i.e., the time that corresponded to the CImax × 0.90, and washout ratios (WR300 and WR600) were determined from contrast index (CI) curves. We compared these parameters between benign and malignant tumors and among the different histopathological types of minor salivary gland tumors. Then, we categorized the patients’ CI curves into four patterns (gradual increase, rapid increase with high washout ratio, rapid increase with low washout, and flat). Results: Statistically significant differences in Tmax (P = 0.004) and Tpeak (P = 0.002) were observed between the benign and malignant tumors. Regarding each histopathological tumor type, significant differences in Tmax (P < 0.001), Tpeak (P < 0.001), and WR600 (P = 0.026) were observed between the pleomorphic adenomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas. It was difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors using our CI curve classification because that two-thirds of the cases were classified into the same type (gradual increase). Conclusion: The DCE-MRI parameters of minor salivary gland tumors contributed little to their differential diagnosis compared with those for major salivary gland tumors. During the diagnosis of minor salivary gland tumors, Tmax is useful for distinguishing between benign and malignant tumors

  15. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagliano, F.; Cho, Y.; Xia, T.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Johne, R.; Fiore, A.

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both singlephoton emission and the strong

  16. Dynamic bioactive stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Heather Marie

    This dissertation focuses on the design, synthesis, and development of antimicrobial and anticoagulant surfaces of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) polymers. Aliphatic polymeric surfaces of PE and PP polymers functionalized using click chemistry reactions by the attachment of --COOH groups via microwave plasma reactions followed by functionalization with alkyne moieties. Azide containing ampicillin (AMP) was synthesized and subsequently clicked into the alkyne prepared PE and PP surfaces. Compared to non-functionalized PP and PE surfaces, the AMP clicked surfaces exhibited substantially enhanced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To expand the biocompatibility of polymeric surface anticoagulant attributes, PE and PTFE surfaces were functionalized with pH-responsive poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polyelectrolyte tethers terminated with NH2 and COOH groups. The goal of these studies was to develop switchable stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces that interact with biological environments and display simultaneous antimicrobial and anticoagulant properties. Antimicrobial AMP was covalently attached to --COOH terminal ends of protected PAA, while anticoagulant heparin (HEP) was attached to terminal --NH2 groups of P2VP. When pH 5.5, they collapse while the PAA segments extend. Such surfaces, when exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, inhibit bacterial growth due to the presence of AMP, as well as are effective anticoagulants due to the presence of covalently attached HEP. Comparison of these "dynamic" pH responsive surfaces with "static" surfaces terminated with AMP entities show significant enhancement of longevity and surface activity against microbial film formation. The last portion of this dissertation focuses on the covalent attachment of living T1 and Φ11 bacteriophages (phages) on PE and PTFE surface. This was accomplished by carbodiimide coupling between --COOH

  17. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF THE TRANSVERSE BEAM DYNAMICS IN A TESLA-TYPE SUPERCONDUCTING CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Edstrom, D. [Fermilab; Lunin, A. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, J. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. [Fermilab

    2016-09-26

    Superconducting linacs are capable of producing intense, ultra-stable, high-quality electron beams that have widespread applications in Science and Industry. Many project are based on the 1.3-GHz TESLA-type superconducting cavity. In this paper we provide an update on a recent experiment aimed at measuring the transfer matrix of a TESLA cavity at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. The results are discussed and compared with analytical and numerical simulations.

  19. Optical Injection Locking of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Digital and Analog Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Devang

    With the rise of mobile (cellphones, tablets, notebooks, etc.) and broadband wireline communications (Fiber to the Home), there are increasing demands being placed on transmitters for moving data from device to device and around the world. Digital and analog fiber-optic communications have been the key technology to meet this challenge, ushering in ubiquitous Internet and cable TV over the past 20 years. At the physical layer, high-volume low-cost manufacturing of semiconductor optoelectronic devices has played an integral role in allowing for deployment of high-speed communication links. In particular, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) have revolutionized short reach communications and are poised to enter more markets due to their low cost, small size, and performance. However, VCSELs have disadvantages such as limited modulation performance and large frequency chirp which limits fiber transmission speed and distance, key parameters for many fiber-optic communication systems. Optical injection locking is one method to overcome these limitations without re-engineering the VCSEL at the device level. By locking the frequency and phase of the VCSEL by the direct injection of light from another laser oscillator, improved device performance is achieved in a post-fabrication method. In this dissertation, optical injection locking of VCSELs is investigated from an applications perspective. Optical injection locking of VCSELs can be used as a pathway to reduce complexity, cost, and size of both digital and analog fiber-optic communications. On the digital front, reduction of frequency chirp via bit pattern inversion for large-signal modulation is experimentally demonstrated showing up to 10 times reduction in frequency chirp and over 90 times increase in fiber transmission distance. Based on these results, a new reflection-based interferometric model for optical injection locking was established to explain this phenomenon. On the analog side, the resonance

  20. Impact of optical feedback on current-induced polarization behavior of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Gui; Tang, Xi; Fan, Li; Panajotov, Krassimir; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

  1. Steady-state characteristics of lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ikegami, T.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Taniyama, H.; Aida, T.

    2001-09-01

    We developed an analytical device model for lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LJVCSELs) with a quantum well active region. The model takes into account the features of the carrier injection, transport, and recombination in LJVCSELs as well as the features of the photon propagation in the cavity. This model is used for the calculation and analysis of the LJVCSEL steady-state characteristics. It is shown that the localization of the injected electrons primarily near the p-n junction and the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons significantly effects the LJVCSELs performance, in particular, the LJVCSEL threshold current and power-current characteristics. The reincarnation of electrons and holes due to the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons can substantially decrease the threshold current.

  2. Frobenius–Perron eigenstates in deformed microdisk cavities: non-Hermitian physics and asymmetric backscattering in ray dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In optical microdisk cavities with boundary deformations the backscattering between clockwise and counter-clockwise propagating waves is in general asymmetric. The striking consequence of this asymmetry is that these apparently weakly open systems show pronounced non-Hermitian phenomena. The optical modes appear in non-orthogonal pairs, where both modes copropagate in a preferred sense of rotation, i.e. the modes exhibit a finite chirality. Full asymmetry in the backscattering results in a non-Hermitian degeneracy (exceptional point) where the deviation from closed system evolution is strongest. We study the effects of asymmetric backscattering in ray dynamics. For this purpose, we construct a finite approximation of the Frobenius–Perron operator for deformed microdisk cavities, which describes the dynamics of intensities in phase space. Eigenstates of the Frobenius–Perron operator show nice analogies to optical modes: they come in non-orthogonal copropagating pairs and have a finite chirality. We introduce a new cavity system with a smooth asymmetric boundary deformation where we demonstrate our results and we illustrate the main aspects with the help of a simple analytically solvable 1D model. (paper)

  3. Beam dynamic simulations of the CLIC crab cavity and implications on the BDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinton, I.R.R., E-mail: ian.shinton@stfc.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Glasman, C.J.; Jones, R.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Wolski, A. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-21

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed electron positron linear collider design aiming to achieve a centre of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The main accelerating structures in CLIC operate at an X-band frequency of 11.994 GHz with an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The present design requires the beams to collide at a small crossing angle of 10 mrad per line giving a resultant overall crossing angle of 20 mrad. Transverse deflecting cavities, referred to as 'Crab cavities', are installed in the beam delivery system (BDS) of linear collider designs in order to ensure the final luminosity at the interaction point (IP) is comparable to that in a head on collision. We utilise the beam tracking code PLACET combined with the beam-beam code GUINEA-PIG to calculate the resulting luminosity at the IP. We follow a similar tuning procedure to that used for the design of the ILC crab cavities and anitcrab cavities. However an unexpected loss in luminosity of 10% was observed for the 20 mrad design was observed. It was discovered that the action of the crab cavities can affect the geometric aberrations resulting from the sextupoles used to correct chromatic effects in the beam delivery system. This has direct consequences regarding the design of the present CLIC BDS.

  4. Morphological evaluation of cavity preparation surface after duraphat and Er:YAG laser treatment by scanning electronic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Luciane Borelli

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of dental surface using different lasers to prevent dental caries has been studied for several on last years. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the morphological changes on dentin surface from pulpal wall of cavity preparations performed by high-speed drill, treated with 2,26% fluoride varnish (Duraphat) and Er:YAG laser, and then submitted after receiving or not to EDTA 15% treatment. Twenty Class V cavities were performed on ten humans molars. The specimens were randomly divided in to 4 groups: group 1- treatment with Duraphat followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation (120 mJ/ 4 Hz); group 2: Er:YAG laser irradiation, same parameters, followed by Duraphat treatment; group 3- same group 1 followed by immersion in EDTA (5 min); group 4 - same as group 2 followed by immersion in EDTA (5 min). The specimens were processed for SEM analysis. The micrographs showed that Duraphat treatment promoted morphological changes on dentin, closing dentinal tubules; the specimens treated by Duraphat and Er:YAG laser and immersed in EDTA (group 3) showed homogeneous surface, closed and protected dentinal tubules, maintenance of the fluoride varnish on the dentin surface and around the dentinal tubules, showing feasible and efficiency of these therapies the feasibility.(author)

  5. Pulsed laser stereophotography of plasmas and dynamically moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed laser is used as a light source for illuminating the surface of a dynamic event of 3 mm//μs. At a predetermined time during the dynamic action, a stereo camera is used to record a pair of images of the dynamically moving surface. The stereoimage pair can be quantified for surface contour

  6. Entanglement dynamics of high-dimensional bipartite field states inside the cavities in dissipative environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M Suhail [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-02-14

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden death of entanglement in a high-dimensional bipartite system subjected to dissipative environments with an arbitrary initial pure entangled state between two fields in the cavities. We find that in a vacuum reservoir, the presence of the state where one or more than one (two) photons in each cavity are present is a necessary condition for the sudden death of entanglement. Otherwise entanglement remains for infinite time and decays asymptotically with the decay of individual qubits. For pure two-qubit entangled states in a thermal environment, we observe that sudden death of entanglement always occurs. The sudden death time of the entangled states is related to the number of photons in the cavities, the temperature of the reservoir and the initial preparation of the entangled states.

  7. Entanglement dynamics of high-dimensional bipartite field states inside the cavities in dissipative environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M Suhail; Bougouffa, Smail

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden death of entanglement in a high-dimensional bipartite system subjected to dissipative environments with an arbitrary initial pure entangled state between two fields in the cavities. We find that in a vacuum reservoir, the presence of the state where one or more than one (two) photons in each cavity are present is a necessary condition for the sudden death of entanglement. Otherwise entanglement remains for infinite time and decays asymptotically with the decay of individual qubits. For pure two-qubit entangled states in a thermal environment, we observe that sudden death of entanglement always occurs. The sudden death time of the entangled states is related to the number of photons in the cavities, the temperature of the reservoir and the initial preparation of the entangled states.

  8. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    OpenAIRE

    W. M. Roach; D. B. Beringer; J. R. Skuza; W. A. Oliver; C. Clavero; C. E. Reece; R. A. Lukaszew

    2012-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic stu...

  9. A GaInAsP/InP Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for 1.5 m m operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sceats, R.; Balkan, N.; Adams, M. J.; Masum, J.; Dann, A. J.; Perrin, S. D.; Reid, I.; Reed, J.; Cannard, P.; Fisher, M. A.; Elton, D. J.; Harlow, M. J.

    1999-04-01

    We present the results of our studies concerning the pulsed operation of a bulk GaInAsP/InP vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The device is tailored to emit at around 1.5 m m at room temperature. The structure has a 45 period n-doped GaInAsP/InP bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), and a 4 period Si/Al2O3 dielectric top reflector defining a 3-l cavity. Electroluminescence from a 16 m m diameter top window was measured in the pulsed injection mode. Spectral measurements were recorded in the temperature range between 125K and 240K. Polarisation, lasing threshold current and linewidth measurements were also carried out at the same temperatures. The threshold current density has a broad minimum at temperatures between 170K and 190K, (Jth=13.2 kA/cm2), indicating a good match between the gain and the cavity resonance in this temperature range. Maximum emitted power from the VCSEL is 0.18 mW at 180K.

  10. Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser: Optional emission of transverse modes with different polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuyu; Zhang, Xing; Hofmann, Werner; Yu, Lijuan; Liu, Jianguo; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Few-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers that can be controlled to emit certain modes and polarization states simply by changing the biased contacts are proposed and fabricated. By directly etching trenches in the p-doped distributed Bragg reflector, the upper mesa is separated into several submesas above the oxide layer. Individual contacts are then deposited. Each contact is used to control certain transverse modes with different polarization directions emitted from the corresponding submesa. These new devices can be seen as a prototype of compact laser sources in mode division multiplexing communications systems.

  11. Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzson, Béla; Jágerská, Jana; Looser, Herbert; Graf, Manuel; Felder, Ferdinand; Fill, Matthias; Tappy, Luc; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-06-20

    A broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is employed in a direct absorption laser spectroscopic setup to measure breath acetone. The large wavelength coverage of more than 30 cm -1 at 3.38 μm allows, in addition to acetone, the simultaneous measurement of isoprene, ethanol, methanol, methane, and water. Despite the severe spectral interferences from water and alcohols, an unambiguous determination of acetone is demonstrated with a precision of 13 ppbv that is achieved after 5 min averaging at typical breath mean acetone levels in synthetic gas samples mimicking human breath.

  12. 4.5 μm wavelength vertical external cavity surface emitting laser operating above room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-05-01

    A midinfrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser with 4.5 μm emission wavelength and operating above room temperature has been realized. The active part consists of a single 850 nm thick epitaxial PbSe gain layer. It is followed by a 2 1/2 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 Bragg mirror. No microstructural processing is needed. Excitation is done optically with a 1.5 μm wavelength laser. The device operates up to 45 °C with 100 ns pulses and delivers 6 mW output power at 27 °C heat-sink temperature.

  13. Cavity-assisted mesoscopic transport of fermions: Coherent and dissipative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmüller, David; Schütz, Stefan; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido

    2018-05-01

    We study the interplay between charge transport and light-matter interactions in a confined geometry by considering an open, mesoscopic chain of two-orbital systems resonantly coupled to a single bosonic mode close to its vacuum state. We introduce and benchmark different methods based on self-consistent solutions of nonequilibrium Green's functions and numerical simulations of the quantum master equation, and derive both analytical and numerical results. It is shown that in the dissipative regime where the cavity photon decay rate is the largest parameter, the light-matter coupling is responsible for a steady-state current enhancement scaling with the cooperativity parameter. We further identify different regimes of interest depending on the ratio between the cavity decay rate and the electronic bandwidth. Considering the situation where the lower band has a vanishing bandwidth, we show that for a high-finesse cavity, the properties of the resonant Bloch state in the upper band are transferred to the lower one, giving rise to a delocalized state along the chain. Conversely, in the dissipative regime with low-cavity quality factors, we find that the current enhancement is due to a collective decay of populations from the upper to the lower band.

  14. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  15. Voltage-Controlled Quantum Dynamics and Generation Entanglement between Two Separated Quantum-Dot Molecules Embedded in Photonic Crystal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Mu-Tian; Song Yan-Yan; Ma Xiao-San; Wang Xia

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-controlled quantum dynamics of two quantum-dot molecules (QDMs) embedded in two separated photonic crystal cavities are theoretically investigated. We show numerically that generation of entangled states and population transfer between the two QDMs can be realized with the same coupling parameters. The effects of parameters deviation and dissipations on generation entangled states and populations transfer are also discussed. The results may be used for realization of new-type of solid state quantum devices and integrated electro-optical devices

  16. Estimation of Time Dependent Properties from Surface Pressure in Open Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    static pressure of the cavity. The stagnation and static pressures are measured separately with Druck Model DPI 145 pressure transducers (with a quoted...interacting with the ZNMF actuator jets, the 2D shape of the vortical structures transform to a 3D shape with spanwise vortical structures. These...Therefore, the pressure gradient in the d direction is dd ° 3d Substituting Equation (5.3) into Equation (5.5) results in ^l = PJk(e^-Re^)/c^ (5.6

  17. Discharge dynamics of self-oriented microplasma coupling between cross adjacent cavities in micro-structure device driven by a bipolar pulse waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaogong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Liu, Lingguang; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Chunliang; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-04-01

    The excitation dynamics and self-oriented plasma coupling of a micro-structure plasma device with a rectangular cross-section are investigated. The device consists of 7 × 7 microcavity arrays, which are blended into a unity by a 50 μm-thick bulk area above them. The device is operated in argon with a pressure of 200 Torr, driven by a bipolar pulse waveform of 20 kHz. The discharge evolution is characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission profiles. It has been found that different emission patterns are observed within microcavities. The formation of these patterns induced by the combined action between the applied electric field and surface deactivation is discussed. The microplasma distribution in some specific regions along the diagonal direction of cavities in the bulk area is observed, and self-oriented microplasma coupling is explored, while the plasma interaction occurred between cross adjacent cavities, contributed by the ionization wave propagation. The velocity of ionization wave propagation is measured to be 1.2 km/s to 3.5 km/s. The exploration of this plasma interaction in the bulk area is of value to applications in electromagnetics and signal processing.

  18. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  19. Evolution of the Novalux extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (NECSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Novalux Inc was an enterprise founded by Aram Mooradian in 1998 to commercialise a novel electrically pumped vertical extended cavity semiconductor laser platform, initially aiming to produce pump lasers for optical fiber telecommunication networks. Following successful major investment in 2000, the company developed a range of single- and multi-mode 980 nm pump lasers emitting from 100-500 mW with excellent beam quality and efficiency. This rapid development required solution of several significant problems in chip and external cavity design, substrate and DBR mirror optimization, thermal engineering and mode selection. Output coupling to single mode fiber was exceptional. Following the collapse of the long haul telecom market in late 2001, a major reorientation of effort was undertaken, initially to develop compact 60-100 mW hybrid monolithically integrated pumplets for metro/local amplified networks, then to frequency-doubled blue light emitters for biotech, reprographics and general scientific applications. During 2001-3 I worked at Novalux on a career break from University College Cork, first as R&D Director managing a small group tasked with producing new capabilities and product options based on the NECSEL platform, including high power, pulsed and frequency doubled versions, then in 2002 as Director of New Product Realization managing the full engineering team, leading the transition to frequency doubled products.

  20. High-Speed Semiconductor Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Data-Transmission Systems (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The main problems of providing a high-speed operation semiconductor lasers with a vertical microcavity (so-called "vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers") under amplitude modulation and ways to solve them have been considered. The influence of the internal properties of the radiating active region and the electrical parasitic elements of the equivalent circuit of lasers are discussed. An overview of approaches that lead to an increase of the cutoff parasitic frequency, an increase of the differential gain of the active region, the possibility of the management of mode emission composition and the lifetime of photons in the optical microcavities, and reduction of the influence of thermal effects have been presented. The achieved level of modulation bandwidth of ˜30 GHz is close to the maximum achievable for the classical scheme of the direct-current modulation, which makes it necessary to use a multilevel modulation format to further increase the information capacity of optical channels constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  1. Application of Nondimensional Dynamic Influence Function Method for Eigenmode Analysis of Two-Dimensional Acoustic Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Kang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes an improved NDIF method for the eigenvalue extraction of two-dimensional acoustic cavities with arbitrary shapes. The NDIF method, which was introduced by the authors in 1999, gives highly accurate eigenvalues despite employing a small number of nodes. However, it needs the inefficient procedure of calculating the singularity of a system matrix in the frequency range of interest for extracting eigenvalues and mode shapes. The paper proposes a practical approach for overcoming the inefficient procedure by making the final system matrix equation of the NDIF method into a form of algebraic eigenvalue problem. The solution quality of the proposed method is investigated by obtaining the eigenvalues and mode shapes of a circular, a rectangular, and an arbitrarily shaped cavity.

  2. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilong; Zhao, Guoqun; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, T cs , in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different T cs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of T cs on mechanical properties

  3. Acousto-optical interaction of surface acoustic and optical waves in a two-dimensional phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Xue; Zou, Kui; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Su, Xiao-Xing

    2014-11-17

    Phoxonic crystal is a promising material for manipulating sound and light simultaneously. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate the propagation of acoustic and optical waves along the truncated surface of a two-dimensional square-latticed phoxonic crystal. Further, a phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity is proposed, which can simultaneously confine surface acoustic and optical waves. The interface motion and photoelastic effects are taken into account in the acousto-optical coupling. The results show obvious shifts in eigenfrequencies of the photonic cavity modes induced by different phononic cavity modes. The symmetry of the phononic cavity modes plays a more important role in the single-phonon exchange process than in the case of the multi-phonon exchange. Under the same deformation, the frequency shift of the photonic transverse electric mode is larger than that of the transverse magnetic mode.

  4. Quench dynamics in SRF cavities: can we locate the quench origin with 2nd sound?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximenko, Yulia; Segatskov, Dmitri A.

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed method of locating quenches in SRF cavities by detecting second-sound waves has been gaining popularity in SRF laboratories. The technique is based on measurements of time delays between the quench as determined by the RF system and arrival of the second-sound wave to the multiple detectors placed around the cavity in superfluid helium. Unlike multi-channel temperature mapping, this approach requires only a few sensors and simple readout electronics; it can be used with SRF cavities of almost arbitrary shape. One of its drawbacks is that being an indirect method it requires one to solve an inverse problem to find the location of a quench. We tried to solve this inverse problem by using a parametric forward model. By analyzing the data we found that the approximation where the second-sound emitter is a near-singular source does not describe the physical system well enough. A time-dependent analysis of the quench process can help us to put forward a more adequate model. We present here our current algorithm to solve the inverse problem and discuss the experimental results.

  5. Dynamics of the cavity radiation of a correlated emission laser initially seeded with a thermal light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfa, Sintayehu, E-mail: sint_tesfa@yahoo.com [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Dilla University, PO Box 419, Dilla (Ethiopia)

    2011-10-15

    A detailed analysis of the time evolution of the two-mode squeezing, entanglement and intensity of the cavity radiation of a two-photon correlated emission laser initially seeded with a thermal light is presented. The dependences of the degree of two-mode squeezing and entanglement on the intensity of the thermal light and time are found to have a more or less similar nature, although the actual values differ, especially in the early stages of the process and when the atoms are initially prepared with nearly 50:50 probability to be in the upper and lower energy levels. Seeding the cavity degrades the nonclassical features significantly, particularly in the vicinity of t=0. It is also shown that the mean photon number in a wider time span has a dip when mode b is seeded but a peak when mode a is seeded. Moreover, it turns out that the effect of the seed light on the nonclassical features and intensity of the cavity radiation decreases significantly with time, an outcome essentially attributed to the pertinent emission-absorption mechanism. This can be taken as an encouraging aspect in the practical utilization of this model as a source of a bright entangled light.

  6. Integral analysis of cavity pressurization in a fuel rod during an ULOF driven TOP with inclusion of surface tension effects on froth gas bubbles and variable cavity conditions due to fuel melting and ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1984-02-01

    The transient cavity pressurization in an ULOF driven TOP excursion has been analyzed for the SPX-1 reactor with an equation of state that allows to simulate the contribution of small froth gas bubbles to the pressure build-up in a fuel pin with inclusion of restraints from surface tension. Calculations were performed for various bubble parameters. Estimates are made for effective gas availabilities at fuel melting which can be used in a cavity model with an ideal gas equation to arrive at similar pressure transients

  7. Effort towards symmetric removal and surface smoothening of 1.3-GHz niobium single-cell cavity in vertical electropolishing using a unique cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Vijay; Kato, Shigeki; Nii, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Sawabe, Motoaki; Hayano, Hitoshi; Ida, Yoshiaki

    2017-08-01

    A detailed study on vertical electropolishing (VEP) of a 1.3-GHz single-cell niobium coupon cavity, which contains six coupons and four viewports at different positions, is reported. The cavity was vertically electropolished using a conventional rod and three types of unique cathodes named as Ninja cathodes, which were designed to have four retractable blades made of either an insulator or a metal or a combination of both. This study reveals the effect of the cathodes and their rotation speed on uniformity in removal thickness and surface morphology at different positions inside the cavity. Removal thickness was measured at several positions of the cavity using an ultrasonic thickness gauge and the surface features of the coupons were examined by an optical microscope and a surface profiler. The Ninja cathode with partial metallic blades was found to be effective not only in reducing asymmetric removal, which is one of the major problems in VEP and might be caused by the accumulation of hydrogen (H2 ) gas bubbles on the top iris of the cavity, but also in yielding a smooth surface of the entire cavity. A higher rotation speed of the Ninja cathode prevents bubble accumulation on the upper iris, and might result in a viscous layer of similar thickness in the cavity cell. Moreover, a higher electric field at the equator owing to the proximity of partial metallic blades to the equator surface resulted in a smooth surface. The effects of H2 gas bubbles and stirring were also observed in lab EP experiments.

  8. Effort towards symmetric removal and surface smoothening of 1.3-GHz niobium single-cell cavity in vertical electropolishing using a unique cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Chouhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on vertical electropolishing (VEP of a 1.3-GHz single-cell niobium coupon cavity, which contains six coupons and four viewports at different positions, is reported. The cavity was vertically electropolished using a conventional rod and three types of unique cathodes named as Ninja cathodes, which were designed to have four retractable blades made of either an insulator or a metal or a combination of both. This study reveals the effect of the cathodes and their rotation speed on uniformity in removal thickness and surface morphology at different positions inside the cavity. Removal thickness was measured at several positions of the cavity using an ultrasonic thickness gauge and the surface features of the coupons were examined by an optical microscope and a surface profiler. The Ninja cathode with partial metallic blades was found to be effective not only in reducing asymmetric removal, which is one of the major problems in VEP and might be caused by the accumulation of hydrogen (H_{2} gas bubbles on the top iris of the cavity, but also in yielding a smooth surface of the entire cavity. A higher rotation speed of the Ninja cathode prevents bubble accumulation on the upper iris, and might result in a viscous layer of similar thickness in the cavity cell. Moreover, a higher electric field at the equator owing to the proximity of partial metallic blades to the equator surface resulted in a smooth surface. The effects of H_{2} gas bubbles and stirring were also observed in lab EP experiments.

  9. Entanglement dynamics of two electron-spin qubits in a strongly detuned and dissipative quantum-dot-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Shaohua; Deng Xiaopeng; Song Kehui; Wen Wei; Shi Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two electron-spin qubits in the quantum-dot (QD)-microcavity system in the large-detuning limit and subjected to two different noise sources: electron-spin dephasing and relaxation. We show that when one of the two dots is prepared initially in the excited state, the created entanglement exhibits oscillatory behavior at the beginning of evolution and then completely disappears over time. For two QDs that are initially in either the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell states or the Werner states, their entanglement evolution exhibits the same behavior in the presence of pure dephasing, but is completely different under the relaxation process. We also show that the interdot interaction induced by a single-mode cavity field does not contribute to the dynamics of entanglement for these Bell states and Werner states.

  10. A surface physicochemical rationale for calculus formation in the oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; White, DJ; Kamminga-Rasker, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    2004-01-01

    Surface free energies of dental hard tissues, including salivary conditioning films on enamel, play a crucial role in mineralization, dissolution and adhesion processes at the tooth surface. These mineralization reactions at oral surfaces control the development and progression of various diseases.

  11. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  12. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, Chao; Margalith, T.; Ng, Tien Khee; Denbaars, S. P.; Ooi, Boon S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  13. The influence of 150-cavity binders on the dynamics of influenza A neuraminidases as revealed by molecular dynamics simulations and combined clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle T Greenway

    Full Text Available Neuraminidase inhibitors are the main pharmaceutical agents employed for treatments of influenza infections. The neuraminidase structures typically exhibit a 150-cavity, an exposed pocket that is adjacent to the catalytic site. This site offers promising additional contact points for improving potency of existing pharmaceuticals, as well as generating entirely new candidate inhibitors. Several inhibitors based on known compounds and designed to interact with 150-cavity residues have been reported. However, the dynamics of any of these inhibitors remains unstudied and their viability remains unknown. This work reports the outcome of long-term, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of four such inhibitors, along with three standard inhibitors for comparison. Each is studied in complex with four representative neuraminidase structures, which are also simulated in the absence of ligands for comparison, resulting in a total simulation time of 9.6 µs. Our results demonstrate that standard inhibitors characteristically reduce the mobility of these dynamic proteins, while the 150-binders do not, instead giving rise to many unique conformations. We further describe an improved RMSD-based clustering technique that isolates these conformations--the structures of which are provided to facilitate future molecular docking studies--and reveals their interdependence. We find that this approach confers many advantages over previously described techniques, and the implications for rational drug design are discussed.

  14. Resolving the stratification discrepancy of turbulent natural convection in differentially heated air-filled cavities. Part III: A full convection–conduction–surface radiation coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Shihe; Salat, Jacques; Joubert, Patrice; Sergent, Anne; Penot, François; Quéré, Patrick Le

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turbulent natural convection is studied numerically and experimentally. ► DNS of full conduction–convection–radiation coupling is performed. ► Spectral methods are combined with domain decomposition. ► Considering surface radiation improves strongly numerical results. ► Surface radiation is responsible for the weak stratification. -- Abstract: The present study concerns an air-filled differentially heated cavity of 1 m × 0.32 m × 1 m (width × depth × height) subject to a temperature difference of 15 K and is motivated by the need to understand the persistent discrepancy observed between numerical and experimental results on thermal stratification in the cavity core. An improved experiment with enhanced metrology was set up and experimental data have been obtained along with the characteristics of the surfaces and materials used. Experimental temperature distributions on the passive walls have been introduced in numerical simulations in order to provide a faithful prediction of experimental data. By means of DNS using spectral methods, heat conduction in the insulating material is first coupled with natural convection in the cavity. As heat conduction influences only the temperature distribution on the top and bottom surfaces and in the near wall regions, surface radiation is added to the coupling of natural convection with heat conduction. The temperature distribution in the cavity is strongly affected by the polycarbonate front and rear walls of the cavity, which are almost black surfaces for low temperature radiation, and also other low emissivity walls. The thermal stratification is considerably weakened by surface radiation. Good agreement between numerical simulations and experiments is observed on both time-averaged fields and turbulent statistics. Treating the full conduction–convection–radiation coupling allowed to confirm that experimental wall temperatures resulted from the coupled phenomena and this is another way to

  15. A very fast program for visualizing protein surfaces, channels and cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorintholt, Richard; Kosters, M.T.; Vegter, G.; Vriend, Gerrit; Hol, W.G.J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for visualizing molecular surfaces is described that uses a grid to store the distance to the nearest atom. Using on-the-fly three-dimensional (3D) contouring of a molecular graphics program such as FRODO, one can obtain a good impression of van der Waals surfaces and solvent-accessible

  16. Eye rotation induced dynamics of a Newtonian fluid within the vitreous cavity: the effect of the chamber shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocchino, Alessandro; Repetto, Rodolfo; Cafferata, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of the vitreous body induced by eye rotations is studied experimentally. In particular, we consider the case in which the vitreous cavity is filled by a Newtonian fluid, either because the vitreous is liquefied or because it has been replaced, after vitrectomy, by a viscous fluid. We employ a rigid Perspex container which models, in a magnified scale, the vitreous cavity of the human eye. The shape of the cavity closely resembles that of the real vitreous chamber; in particular, the anterior part of the container is concave in order to model the presence of the eye lens. The container is filled with glycerol and is mounted on the shaft of a computer-controlled motor which rotates according to a periodic time law. PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation. The experimental measurements show that the velocity field is strongly influenced by the deformed geometry of the domain. In particular, the formation of a vortex in the vicinity of the lens, which migrates in time towards the core of the domain, is invariably observed. The vortex path is tracked in time by means of a vortex identification technique and it is found that it is significantly influenced by the Womersley number of the flow. Particle trajectories are computed from the PIV measurements. Particles initially located at different positions on the equatorial horizontal plane (perpendicular to the axis of rotation) tend to concentrate in narrow regions adjacent to the lens, thus suggesting the existence, in such regions, of a vertical fluid ejection. Such a strong flow three-dimensionality, which is essentially induced by the irregular shape of the domain, may play a significant role in the mixing processes taking place inside the eye globe. The tangential stresses acting on the rigid boundary of the domain are also computed from the experimental measurements showing that regions subject to particularly intense stresses

  17. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality.

  18. Topographic power spectral density study of the effect of surface treatment processes on niobium for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2012-04-01

    Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.

  19. Topographic power spectral density study of the effect of surface treatment processes on niobium for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, Charles; Tian, Hui; Kelley, Michael; Xu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.

  20. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Matthias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  1. Modular PbSrS/PbS mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.; Cao, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishida, A.

    2011-07-01

    A mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) based on undoped PbS is described herein. A 200 nm-thick PbS active layer embedded between PbSrS cladding layers forms a double heterostructure. The layers are grown on a lattice and thermal expansion mismatched Si-substrate. The substrate is placed onto a flat bottom Bragg mirror again grown on a Si substrate, and the VECSEL is completed with a curved top mirror. Pumping is done optically with a 1.55 μm laser diode. This leads to an extremely simple modular fabrication process. Lasing wavelengths range from 3-3.8 μm at 100-260 K heat sink temperature. The lowest threshold power is ˜210 mWp and highest output power is ˜250 mWp. The influence of the different recombination mechanism as well as free carrier absorption on the threshold power is modeled.

  2. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  3. PbSe quantum well mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-05-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed from 3.3 to 5.1 μm wavelength and up to 52 °C heat sink temperature with 1.55 μm optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment.

  4. Effects of wind on the dynamics of the central jet during drop impact onto a deep-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinan; Wang, An; Wang, Shuang; Dai, Dejun

    2018-05-01

    The cavity and central jet generated by the impact of a single water drop on a deep-water surface in a wind field are experimentally studied. Different experiments are performed by varying the impacting drop diameter and wind speed. The contour profile histories of the cavity (also called crater) and central jet (also called stalk) are measured in detail with a backlit cinematic shadowgraph technique. The results show that shortly after the drop hits the water surface an asymmetrical cavity appears along the wind direction, with a train of capillary waves on the cavity wall. This is followed by the formation of an inclined central jet at the location of the drop impact. It is found that the wind has little effect on the penetration depth of the cavity at the early stage of the cavity expansion, but markedly changes the capillary waves during the retraction of the cavity. The capillary waves in turn shift the position of the central jet formation leeward. The dynamics of the central jet are dominated by two mechanisms: (i) the oblique drop impact produced by the wind and (ii) the wind drag force directly acting on the jet. The maximum height of the central jet, called the stalk height, is drastically affected by the wind, and the nondimensional stalk height H /D decreases with increasing θ Re-1 , where D is the drop diameter, θ is the impingement angle of drop impact, and Re=ρaUwD /μa is the Reynolds number with air density ρa, wind speed Uw, and air viscosity μa.

  5. Modeling the protection afforded by burrows, cavities, and roosts during wildland surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Bova; Matthew Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    Wildland surface fires produce many toxic and irritating compounds, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, and harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. Several factors influence the degree of protection offered by animal shelters against combustion products and heat.

  6. Hydration dynamics near a model protein surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of water dynamics from dilute to very high concentration solutions of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with its polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation for both the completely deuterated and completely hydrogenated leucine monomer. We observe several unexpected features in the dynamics of these biological solutions under ambient conditions. The NALMA dynamics shows evidence of de Gennes narrowing, an indication of coherent long timescale structural relaxation dynamics. The translational water dynamics are analyzed in a first approximation with a jump diffusion model. At the highest solute concentrations, the hydration water dynamics is significantly suppressed and characterized by a long residential time and a slow diffusion coefficient. The analysis of the more dilute concentration solutions takes into account the results of the 2.0M solution as a model of the first hydration shell. Subtracting the first hydration layer based on the 2.0M spectra, the translational diffusion dynamics is still suppressed, although the rotational relaxation time and residential time are converged to bulk-water values. Molecular dynamics analysis shows spatially heterogeneous dynamics at high concentration that becomes homogeneous at more dilute concentrations. We discuss the hydration dynamics results of this model protein system in the context of glassy systems, protein function, and protein-protein interfaces

  7. Effect of electric field and temperature gradient on orientational dynamics of nematics encapsulated in a hallow cylindrical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. V.; Maslennikov, P. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have considered a homogeneously oriented liquid crystal (HOLC) microvolume, confined between two infinitely long horizontal coaxial cylinders subjected to both a temperature gradient ∇T and a radially applied electric field E . We have investigated dynamic field pumping, i.e. studied the interactions between director, velocity, electric fields, as well as a radially applied temperature gradient, where the inner cylinder is kept at a lower temperature than the outer one. In order to elucidate the role of ∇T and E in producing hydrodynamic flow, we have carried out a numerical study of a system of hydrodynamic equations including director reorientation, fluid flow, and temperature redistribution across the HOLC cavity. Calculations show that, under the effect of the named perturbations and at high curvature of the inner cylinder, the HOLC microvolume settles down to a nonstandard pumping regime with maximum flow in the vicinity of the cooler inner cylinder.

  8. Dynamic evolution of double Λ five-level atom interacting with one-mode electromagnetic cavity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, N. H.; Salah, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the model describing a double Λ five-level atom interacting with a single mode electromagnetic cavity field in the (off) non-resonate case is studied. We obtained the constants of motion for the considered model. Also, the state vector of the wave function is given by using the Schrödinger equation when the atom is initially prepared in its excited state. The dynamical evolutions for the collapse revivals, the antibunching of photons and the field squeezing phenomena are investigated when the field is considered in a coherent state. The influence of detuning parameters on these phenomena is investigated. We noticed that the atom-field properties are influenced by changing the detuning parameters. The investigation of these aspects by numerical simulations is carried out using the Quantum Toolbox in Python (QuTip).

  9. An Effective Approach for Clustering InhA Molecular Dynamics Trajectory Using Substrate-Binding Cavity Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata De Paris

    Full Text Available Protein receptor conformations, obtained from molecular dynamics (MD simulations, have become a promising treatment of its explicit flexibility in molecular docking experiments applied to drug discovery and development. However, incorporating the entire ensemble of MD conformations in docking experiments to screen large candidate compound libraries is currently an unfeasible task. Clustering algorithms have been widely used as a means to reduce such ensembles to a manageable size. Most studies investigate different algorithms using pairwise Root-Mean Square Deviation (RMSD values for all, or part of the MD conformations. Nevertheless, the RMSD only may not be the most appropriate gauge to cluster conformations when the target receptor has a plastic active site, since they are influenced by changes that occur on other parts of the structure. Hence, we have applied two partitioning methods (k-means and k-medoids and four agglomerative hierarchical methods (Complete linkage, Ward's, Unweighted Pair Group Method and Weighted Pair Group Method to analyze and compare the quality of partitions between a data set composed of properties from an enzyme receptor substrate-binding cavity and two data sets created using different RMSD approaches. Ensembles of representative MD conformations were generated by selecting a medoid of each group from all partitions analyzed. We investigated the performance of our new method for evaluating binding conformation of drug candidates to the InhA enzyme, which were performed by cross-docking experiments between a 20 ns MD trajectory and 20 different ligands. Statistical analyses showed that the novel ensemble, which is represented by only 0.48% of the MD conformations, was able to reproduce 75% of all dynamic behaviors within the binding cavity for the docking experiments performed. Moreover, this new approach not only outperforms the other two RMSD-clustering solutions, but it also shows to be a promising strategy to

  10. Dynamic Equilibrium Mechanism for Surface Nanobubble Stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments have convincingly demonstrated the existence of surface nanobubbles on submerged hydrophobic surfaces. However, classical theory dictates that small gaseous bubbles quickly dissolve because their large Laplace pressure causes a diffusive outflux of gas. Here we suggest that the

  11. Atomic probes of surface structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.; Jonsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    The following were studied: New semiclassical method for scattering calculations, He atom scattering from defective Pt surfaces, He atom scattering from Xe overlayers, thermal dissociation of H 2 on Cu(110), spin flip scattering of atoms from surfaces, and Car-Parrinello simulations of surface processes

  12. Dynamics of an atomic wave packet in a standing-wave cavity field: A cavity-assisted single-atom detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chough, Young-Tak; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, Sang Wook; An, Kyungwon; Youn, Sun-Hyun

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the single-atom detection system using an optical standing-wave cavity, from the viewpoint of the quantized center-of-mass motion of the atomic wave packet. We show that since the atom-field coupling strength depends upon the overlap integral of the atomic wave packet and the field mode function, the effect of the wave-packet spreading via the momentum exchange process brings about a significant effect in the detection efficiency. We find that, as a result, the detection efficiency is not sensitive to the individual atomic trajectory for reasonably slow atoms. We also address an interesting phenomenon of the atomic wave-packet splitting occurring when an atom passes through a node of the cavity field

  13. Dynamical formation of a hairy black hole in a cavity from the decay of unstable solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Font, José A; Carlos Degollado, Juan; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Recent numerical relativity simulations within the Einstein–Maxwell–(charged-)Klein–Gordon (EMcKG) system have shown that the non-linear evolution of a superradiantly unstable Reissner–Nordström black hole (BH) enclosed in a cavity, leads to the formation of a BH with scalar hair. Perturbative evidence for the stability of such hairy BHs has been independently established, confirming they are the true endpoints of superradiant instability. The same EMcKG system admits also charged scalar soliton-type solutions, which can be either stable or unstable. Using numerical relativity techniques, we provide evidence that the time evolution of some of these unstable solitons leads, again, to the formation of a hairy BH. In some other cases, unstable solitons evolve into a (bald) Reissner–Nordström BH. These results establish that the system admits two distinct channels to form hairy BHs at the threshold of superradiance: growing hair from an unstable (bald) BH, or growing a horizon from an unstable (horizonless) soliton. Some parallelism with the case of asymptotically flat boson stars and Kerr BHs with scalar hair is drawn. (paper)

  14. Dynamical formation of a hairy black hole in a cavity from the decay of unstable solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Font, José A.; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2017-08-01

    Recent numerical relativity simulations within the Einstein-Maxwell-(charged-)Klein-Gordon (EMcKG) system have shown that the non-linear evolution of a superradiantly unstable Reissner-Nordström black hole (BH) enclosed in a cavity, leads to the formation of a BH with scalar hair. Perturbative evidence for the stability of such hairy BHs has been independently established, confirming they are the true endpoints of superradiant instability. The same EMcKG system admits also charged scalar soliton-type solutions, which can be either stable or unstable. Using numerical relativity techniques, we provide evidence that the time evolution of some of these unstable solitons leads, again, to the formation of a hairy BH. In some other cases, unstable solitons evolve into a (bald) Reissner-Nordström BH. These results establish that the system admits two distinct channels to form hairy BHs at the threshold of superradiance: growing hair from an unstable (bald) BH, or growing a horizon from an unstable (horizonless) soliton. Some parallelism with the case of asymptotically flat boson stars and Kerr BHs with scalar hair is drawn.

  15. Heterodyne pump probe measurements of nonlinear dynamics in an indium phosphide photonic crystal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Combrié, S.; Lehoucq, G.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sensitive two-color heterodyne pump-probe technique, we investigate the carrier dynamics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. The heterodyne technique provides unambiguous results for all wavelength configurations, including the degenerate case, which cannot be investigated with the wid......Using a sensitive two-color heterodyne pump-probe technique, we investigate the carrier dynamics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. The heterodyne technique provides unambiguous results for all wavelength configurations, including the degenerate case, which cannot be investigated...... with the widely used homodyne technique. A model based on coupled mode theory including two carrier distributions is introduced to account for the relaxation dynamics, which is assumed to be governed by both diffusion and recombination....

  16. Analysis of the cool down related cavity performance of the European XFEL vertical acceptance tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc; Schaffran, J.

    2017-09-15

    For the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) cavity production, the cold radio-frequency (RF) test of the cavities at 2 K after delivery from the two vendors was the mandatory acceptance test. It has been previously reported, that the cool down dynamics of a cavity across T{sub c} has a significant influence on the observed intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}, which is a measure of the losses on the inner cavity surface. A total number of 367 cool downs is used to analyze this correlation and we show that such a correlation is not observed during the European XFEL cavity production.

  17. Enhancement of acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities by utilizing surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian-Xue [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2017-01-30

    A phoxonic crystal is a periodically patterned material that can simultaneously localize optical and acoustic modes. The acousto-optical coupling in two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities is investigated numerically. The photons can be well confined in the slot owing to the large electric field discontinuity at the air/dielectric interfaces. Besides, the surface acoustic modes lead to the localization of the phonons near the air-slot. The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes near the slot results in a significant enhancement of the moving interface effect, and thus strengthens the total acousto-optical interaction. The results of two cavities with different slot widths show that the coupling strength is dependent on the slot width. It is expected to achieve a strong acousto-optical/optomechanical coupling in air-slot phoxonic crystal structures by utilizing surface acoustic modes. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional air-slot phoxonic crystal cavities which can confine simultaneously optical and acoustic waves are proposed. • The acoustic and optical waves are highly confined near/in the air-slot. • The high overlap of the photonic and phononic cavity modes significantly enhances the moving interface effect. • Different factors which affect the acousto-optical coupling are discussed.

  18. Elastic scattering dynamics of cavity polaritons: Evidence for time-energy uncertainty and polariton localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    The directional dynamics of the resonant Rayleigh scattering from a semiconductor microcavity is investigated. When optically exciting the lower polariton branch, the strong dispersion results in a directional emission on a ring. The coherent emission ring shows a reduction of its angular width...... for increasing time after excitation, giving direct evidence for the time-energy uncertainty in the dynamics of the scattering by disorder. The ring width converges with time to a finite value, a direct measure of an intrinsic momentum broadening of the polariton states localized by multiple disorder scattering....

  19. Cavity formation by the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of cavity formation and subsequent collapse when a heated sphere impacts onto a liquid pool. When the sphere temperature is much greater than the boiling point of the liquid, we observe an inverted Leidenfrost effect where the sphere is encompassed by a vapour layer that prevents physical contact with the liquid. This creates the ultimate non-wetting scenario during sphere penetration through a free surface, producing very smooth cavity walls. In some cases during initial entry, however, the liquid contacts the sphere at the equator, leading to the formation of a dual cavity structure. For cold sphere impacts, where a contact line is observed, we reveal details of the contact line pinning, which initially forms a sawtooth pattern. We also observe surface waves on the cavity interface for cold spheres. We compare our experimental results to previous studies of cavity dynamics and, in particular, the influence of hydrophobicity on the entry of the sphere. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Non-exponential spontaneous emission dynamics for emitters in a time-dependent optical cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Hartsuiker, A.; Gerard, J.M.; Vos, Willem L.

    2013-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the effect of deterministic temporal control of spontaneous emission in a dynamic optical microcavity. We propose a new paradigm in light emission: we envision an ensemble of two-level emitters in an environment where the local density of optical states is modified on a

  1. Molecular dynamics study of prolyl oligopeptidase with inhibitor in binding cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaszuba, K.; Róg, T.; St-Pierre, J.-F.; Männistö, P.T.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Bunker, A.

    2009-01-01

    We used the crystal structure of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) with bound Z-pro-prolinal (ZPP) inhibitor (Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure 1QFS) to perform an intensive molecular dynamics study of the POP-ZPP complex. We performed 100 ns of simulation with the hemiacetal bond, through which the ZPP

  2. Microscopic theory of phonon-induced effects on semiconductor quantum dot decay dynamics in cavity QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, P.

    2012-01-01

    of the physics and emphasize the important role played by the effective phonon density, describing the availability of phonons for scattering, in quantum dot decay dynamics. Based on the analytical expressions, we present the parameter regimes where phonon effects are expected to be important. Also, we include...

  3. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y C; Marston, Jeremy; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    -sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux

  4. Efficient Characterization of Protein Cavities within Molecular Simulation Trajectories: trj_cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, Teresa; East, Alexandra; Garzón, Diana; Ulmschneider, Martin B; Bond, Peter J

    2014-05-13

    Protein cavities and tunnels are critical in determining phenomena such as ligand binding, molecular transport, and enzyme catalysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable the exploration of the flexibility and conformational plasticity of protein cavities, extending the information available from static experimental structures relevant to, for example, drug design. Here, we present a new tool (trj_cavity) implemented within the GROMACS ( www.gromacs.org ) framework for the rapid identification and characterization of cavities detected within MD trajectories. trj_cavity is optimized for usability and computational efficiency and is applicable to the time-dependent analysis of any cavity topology, and optional specialized descriptors can be used to characterize, for example, protein channels. Its novel grid-based algorithm performs an efficient neighbor search whose calculation time is linear with system size, and a comparison of performance with other widely used cavity analysis programs reveals an orders-of-magnitude improvement in the computational cost. To demonstrate its potential for revealing novel mechanistic insights, trj_cavity has been used to analyze long-time scale simulation trajectories for three diverse protein cavity systems. This has helped to reveal, respectively, the lipid binding mechanism in the deep hydrophobic cavity of a soluble mite-allergen protein, Der p 2; a means for shuttling carbohydrates between the surface-exposed substrate-binding and catalytic pockets of a multidomain, membrane-proximal pullulanase, PulA; and the structural basis for selectivity in the transmembrane pore of a voltage-gated sodium channel (NavMs), embedded within a lipid bilayer environment. trj_cavity is available for download under an open-source license ( http://sourceforge.net/projects/trjcavity ). A simplified, GROMACS-independent version may also be compiled.

  5. Study of thermally-induced optical bistability and the role of surface treatments in Si-based mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Raji; Bulu, Irfan; Leijssen, Rick; Lončar, Marko

    2011-11-21

    We report the observation of optical bistability in Si-based photonic crystal cavities operating around 4.5 µm. Time domain measurements indicate that the source of this optical bistability is thermal, with a time constant on the order of 5 µs. Quality (Q) factor improvement is shown by the use of surface treatments (wet processes and annealing), resulting in a significant increase in Q-factor, which in our best devices is on the order of ~45,000 at 4.48 µm. After annealing in a N(2) environment, optical bistability is no longer seen in our cavities. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Amplification of an Autodyne Signal in a Bistable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser with the Use of a Vibrational Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that a vibrational resonance in a polarization-bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can be used to increase the laser response in autodyne detection of microvibrations from reflecting surfaces. In this case, more than 25-fold signal amplification is achieved. The influence of the asymmetry of the bistable potential on the microvibration-detection efficiency is studied.

  7. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  8. Transition between bulk and surface refractive index sensitivity of micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer induced by thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Bock, Wojtek J

    2017-10-16

    In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics in the perceptual grouping of connected surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Evidence obtained using the dynamic grouping method has shown that the grouping of an object's connected surfaces has properties characteristic of a nonlinear dynamical system. When a surface's luminance changes, one of its boundaries is perceived moving across the surface. The direction of this dynamic grouping (DG) motion indicates which of two flanking surfaces has been grouped with the changing surface. A quantitative measure of overall grouping strength (affinity) for adjacent surfaces is provided by the frequency of DG motion perception in directions promoted by the grouping variables. It was found that: (1) variables affecting surface grouping for three-surface objects evolve over time, settling at stable levels within a single fixation, (2) how often DG motion is perceived when a surface's luminance is perturbed (changed) depends on the pre-perturbation affinity state of the surface grouping, (3) grouping variables promoting the same surface grouping combine cooperatively and nonlinearly (super-additively) in determining the surface grouping's affinity, (4) different DG motion directions during different trials indicate that surface grouping can be bistable, which implies that inhibitory interactions have stabilized one of two alternative surface groupings, and (5) when alternative surface groupings have identical affinity, stochastic fluctuations can break the symmetry and inhibitory interactions can then stabilize one of the surface groupings, providing affinity levels are not too high (which results in bidirectional DG motion). A surface-grouping network is proposed within which boundaries vary in salience. Low salience or suppressed boundaries instantiate surface grouping, and DG motion results from changes in boundary salience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  11. Natural convection of nanofluid in a wavy cavity in the presence of magnetic field on variable heat surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaherdeh, Korosh; Moslemi, Mehdi; Shahbazi, Mona [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A numerical analysis has been performed to investigate the laminar natural convection heat characteristics in a wavy cavity filled with CuO/water nanofluid. One of the sinusoidal walls (BC) is at the volatile high temperature and the opposite wavy surface is at a stable low temperature and the two other walls are considered flat and insulated while the uniform magnetic field is considered. Performing the analysis, the governing equations are given in terms of the stream function-vorticity formulation. In order to solve the nondimensionalized equations, discretizing with second-order accurate central difference method is performed then the successive under relaxation method with appropriate boundary conditions is considered. To validate the numerical model, various comparisons with previously published studies have been conducted and the results are in a good agreement. The main objective is to survey the effects of the Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, and nanoparticles volume fraction on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results are illustrated in contours of stream function, constant temperature, and Nusselt number. The results show that the presence of the magnetic field the local Nusselt number decreases at the hot wall. Moreover, the enhancement in the heat transfer performance increases with an increasing nanoparticle concentration. However, for all values of Rayleigh number, the presence of nanoparticles leads to significant enhancement in heat transfer and the increase of Rayleigh number causes the heat transfer mechanism to change from conduction to convection.

  12. Transverse mode selection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via deep impurity-induced disordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas R.; Kesler, Benjamin; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    Top emission 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) demonstrating transverse mode selection via impurity-induced disordering (IID) are presented. The IID apertures are fabricated via closed ampoule zinc diffusion. A simple 1-D plane wave model based on the intermixing of Group III atoms during IID is presented to optimize the mirror loss of higher-order modes as a function of IID strength and depth. In addition, the impact of impurity diffusion into the cap layer of the lasers is shown to improve contact resistance. Further investigation of the mode-dependent characteristics of the device imply an increase in the thermal impedance associated with the fraction of IID contained within the oxide aperture. The optimization of the ratio of the IID aperture to oxide aperture is experimentally determined. Single fundamental mode output of 1.6 mW with 30 dBm side mode suppression ratio is achieved by a 3.0 μm oxide-confined device with an IID aperture of 1.3 μm indicating an optimal IID aperture size of 43% of the oxide aperture.

  13. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser incorporating a high contrast grating mirror as a sensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Piskorski, Łukasz; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, M.; Panajotov, Krassimir; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel optical sensing system based on one device that both emits and detects light consisting of a verticalcavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) incorporating an high contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. Since HCGs can be very sensitive to the optical properties of surrounding media, they can be used to detect gases and liquid. The presence of a gas or a liquid around an HCG mirror causes changes of the power reflectance of the mirror, which corresponds to changes of the VCSEL's cavity quality factor and current-voltage characteristic. By observation of the current-voltage characteristic we can collect information about the medium around the HCG. In this paper we investigate how the properties of the HCG mirror depend on the refractive index of the HCG surroundings. We present results of a computer simulation performed with a three-dimensional fully vectorial model. We consider silicon HCGs on silica and designed for a 1300 nm VCSEL emission wavelength. We demonstrate that our approach can be applied to other wavelengths and material systems.

  14. Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine; Zhao, Xiaoxue; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2008-04-01

    As wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) are expected to be first deployed to transport high capacity services to business customers, real-time knowledge of fiber/device faults and the location of such faults will be a necessity to guarantee reliability. Nonetheless, the added benefit of implementing fault monitoring capability should only incur minimal cost associated with upgrades to the network. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a fault monitoring and localization scheme based on a highly-sensitive and potentially low-cost monitor in conjunction with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The VCSELs are used as upstream transmitters in the WDM-PON. The proposed scheme benefits from the high reflectivity of the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror of optical injection-locked (OIL) VCSELs to reflect monitoring channels back to the central office for monitoring. Characterization of the fault monitor demonstrates high sensitivity, low bandwidth requirements, and potentially low output power. The added advantage of the proposed fault monitoring scheme incurs only a 0.5 dB penalty on the upstream transmissions on the existing infrastructure.

  15. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoxy; Roystonea regia; glass; surface modification; hybridization; dynamic mechanical ... other advantages such as light weight, low cost, high specific ... ful technique to study the mechanical behaviour of mate- ... The test reveals response.

  16. The ising model on the dynamical triangulated random surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinov, I.D.; Migelal, A.A.; Zmushkow, U.V.

    1990-01-01

    The critical properties of Ising model on the dynamical triangulated random surface embedded in D-dimensional Euclidean space are investigated. The strong coupling expansion method is used. The transition to thermodynamical limit is performed by means of continuous fractions

  17. Possible influence of surface oxides on the optical response of high-purity niobium material used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nageshwar; Deo, M. N.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the possible influence of surface oxides on the optical properties of a high-purity niobium (Nb) material for fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities. Various peaks in the infrared region were identified using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Optical response functions such as complex refractive index, dielectric and conductivity of niobium were compared with the existing results on oxides free Nb and Cu. It was observed that the presence of a mixture of niobium-oxides, and probably near other surface impurities, appreciably influence the conducting properties of the material causing deviation from the typical metallic characteristics. In this way, the key result of this work is the observation, identification of vibrational modes of some of surface complexes and study of its influences on the optical responses of materials. This method of spectroscopic investigation will help in understanding the origin of degradation of performance of SCRF cavities.

  18. Possible influence of surface oxides on the optical response of high-purity niobium material used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nageshwar; Deo, M.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the possible influence of surface oxides on the optical properties of a high-purity niobium (Nb) material for fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities. Various peaks in the infrared region were identified using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Optical response functions such as complex refractive index, dielectric and conductivity of niobium were compared with the existing results on oxides free Nb and Cu. It was observed that the presence of a mixture of niobium-oxides, and probably near other surface impurities, appreciably influence the conducting properties of the material causing deviation from the typical metallic characteristics. In this way, the key result of this work is the observation, identification of vibrational modes of some of surface complexes and study of its influences on the optical responses of materials. This method of spectroscopic investigation will help in understanding the origin of degradation of performance of SCRF cavities.

  19. Possible influence of surface oxides on the optical response of high-purity niobium material used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nageshwar [Magnetic and Superconducting Materials Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India); Deo, M.N. [High Pressure & Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Roy, S.B. [Magnetic and Superconducting Materials Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)

    2016-09-11

    We have investigated the possible influence of surface oxides on the optical properties of a high-purity niobium (Nb) material for fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities. Various peaks in the infrared region were identified using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Optical response functions such as complex refractive index, dielectric and conductivity of niobium were compared with the existing results on oxides free Nb and Cu. It was observed that the presence of a mixture of niobium-oxides, and probably near other surface impurities, appreciably influence the conducting properties of the material causing deviation from the typical metallic characteristics. In this way, the key result of this work is the observation, identification of vibrational modes of some of surface complexes and study of its influences on the optical responses of materials. This method of spectroscopic investigation will help in understanding the origin of degradation of performance of SCRF cavities.

  20. Dynamics of electrons and holes at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulkov, E.V.; Leonardo, A.; Sklyadneva, I.Yu.; Silkin, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present ab initio calculation results for electron-phonon (e-ph) contribution to hole lifetime broadening of the X-bar surface state on Al(0 0 1). We show that e-ph coupling in this state is significantly stronger than in bulk Al at the Fermi level. It makes the e-ph decay channel very important in the formation of the hole decay in the surface state at X-bar. We also present the results for e-e lifetime broadening in a quantum-well state in 1 ML K/Cu(1 1 1). We show that this contribution is not negligible and is much larger than that in a surface state on Ag(1 1 1)

  1. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Kubo, Takayuki; Geng, R. L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80 K /m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5 to 20 μ T . We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results support and enforce the previous studies. We then analyze all rf measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. The sensitivity rfl of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of d T /d s dependence of Rfl/Ba are also discussed.

  2. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  3. Tripartite entanglement dynamics and entropic squeezing of a three-level atom interacting with a bimodal cavity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Bagheri Harouni, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a Λ-type three-level atom and two quantized electromagnetic fields which are simultaneously injected in a bichromatic cavity surrounded by a Kerr medium in the presence of field-field interaction (parametric down conversion) and detuning parameters. By applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of the state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of the atom is studied through the evolution of the atomic population inversion. In addition, two different measures of entanglement between the tripartite system (three entities make the system: two field modes and one atom), i.e., von Neumann and linear entropy are investigated. Also, two kinds of entropic uncertainty relations, from which entropy squeezing can be obtained, are discussed. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters and Kerr medium on the above nonclassicality features are analyzed in detail via numerical results. It is illustrated that the amount of the above-mentioned physical phenomena can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately.

  4. Tripartite entanglement dynamics and entropic squeezing of a three-level atom interacting with a bimodal cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M J; Tavassoly, M K; Bagheri Harouni, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a Λ-type three-level atom and two quantized electromagnetic fields which are simultaneously injected in a bichromatic cavity surrounded by a Kerr medium in the presence of field–field interaction (parametric down conversion) and detuning parameters. By applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes–Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of the state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of the atom is studied through the evolution of the atomic population inversion. In addition, two different measures of entanglement between the tripartite system (three entities make the system: two field modes and one atom), i.e., von Neumann and linear entropy are investigated. Also, two kinds of entropic uncertainty relations, from which entropy squeezing can be obtained, are discussed. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters and Kerr medium on the above nonclassicality features are analyzed in detail via numerical results. It is illustrated that the amount of the above-mentioned physical phenomena can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately. (paper)

  5. Dynamic surface properties of poly(methylalkyldiallylammonium chloride) solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novikova, A. A.; Vlasov, P. S.; Lin, S.-Y.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Noskov, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, November (2017), s. 122-127 ISSN 1876-1070 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solutions * dynamic surface tension * dilational surface rheology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  6. The Dynamics and Structures of Adsorbed Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Ellenson, W. D.; McTague, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    . Elastic neutron diffraction measurements, determining the two-dimensional structural ordering of the adsorbed films, have been performed on layers of N2, Ar, H2, D2, O2, Kr, and He. Measurements on layers of larger molecules such as CD4 and ND3 have also been reported. Inelastic neutron scattering...... measurements, studying the dynamics of the adsorbed films are only possible in a few especially favourable cases such as 36Ar and D2 films, where the coherent phonon scattering cross-sections are very large. In other cases incoherent scattering from hydrogen can give information about e.g. the mobility...

  7. INTRODUCTION: Surface Dynamics, Phonons, Adsorbate Vibrations and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, L. W.

    2004-07-01

    understanding of the underlying factors determining the optical quality of GaInNAs, such as composition, growth and annealing conditions. We are still far from establishing an understanding of the band structure and its dependence on composition. Fundamental electronic interactions such as electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering, dependence of effective mass on composition, strain and orientation, quantum confinement effects, effects of localized nitrogen states on high field transport and on galvanometric properties, and mechanisms for light emission in these materials, are yet to be fully understood. Nature and formation mechanisms of grown-in and processing-induced defects that are important for material quality and device performance are still unknown. Such knowledge is required in order to design strategies to efficiently control and eliminate harmful defects. For many potential applications (such as solar cells, HBTs) it is essential to get more information on the transport properties of dilute nitride materials. The mobility of minority carriers is known to be low in GaInNAs and related material. The experimental values are far from reaching the theoretical ones, due to defects and impurities introduced in the material during the growth. The role of the material inhomogeneities on the lateral carrier transport also needs further investigation. From the device's point of view most attention to date has been focused on the GaInNAs/GaAs system, mainly because of its potential for optoelectronic devices covering the 1.3-1.55 µm data and telecommunications wavelength bands. As is now widely appreciated, these GaAs-compatible structures allow monolithic integration of AlGaAs-based distributed Bragg reflector mirrors (DBRs) for vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers with low temperature sensitivity and compatibility with AlOx-based confinement techniques. In terms of conventional edge-emitting lasers (EELs), the next step is to extend the wavelength range for cw room

  8. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  9. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  10. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577-587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture-mark-recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture-mark-recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and less precise

  11. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lee, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of ∼22 kA/cm{sup 2} (25 mA), with a peak output power of ∼180 μW, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP{sub 12,1}), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  12. Dynamic stability of passive dynamic walking on an irregular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy Li-Shin; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2007-12-01

    Falls that occur during walking are a significant health problem. One of the greatest impediments to solve this problem is that there is no single obviously "correct" way to quantify walking stability. While many people use variability as a proxy for stability, measures of variability do not quantify how the locomotor system responds to perturbations. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in walking surface variability affect changes in both locomotor variability and stability. We modified an irreducibly simple model of walking to apply random perturbations that simulated walking over an irregular surface. Because the model's global basin of attraction remained fixed, increasing the amplitude of the applied perturbations directly increased the risk of falling in the model. We generated ten simulations of 300 consecutive strides of walking at each of six perturbation amplitudes ranging from zero (i.e., a smooth continuous surface) up to the maximum level the model could tolerate without falling over. Orbital stability defines how a system responds to small (i.e., "local") perturbations from one cycle to the next and was quantified by calculating the maximum Floquet multipliers for the model. Local stability defines how a system responds to similar perturbations in real time and was quantified by calculating short-term and long-term local exponential rates of divergence for the model. As perturbation amplitudes increased, no changes were seen in orbital stability (r(2)=2.43%; p=0.280) or long-term local instability (r(2)=1.0%; p=0.441). These measures essentially reflected the fact that the model never actually "fell" during any of our simulations. Conversely, the variability of the walker's kinematics increased exponentially (r(2)>or=99.6%; psimulated conditions, the walker remained orbitally stable, while exhibiting substantial local instability. This was because very small initial perturbations diverged away from the limit cycle, while larger

  13. Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for Operation at 1.5 µm with Integral AlGaInAs/InP Bragg mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Linnik, M.; Christou, A.

    2001-01-01

    The design and performance of a low threshold selectively oxidized Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) fabricated for operation at a wavelength of 1.55 µm is based on III-V quaternary semiconductor alloys and is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique. The theoretical investigation of the optical properties of the compound semiconductor alloys allows one to select the optimum materials for highly reflective Bragg mirrors. The simulation of the designed VCSEL performance has been ...

  14. Potential drops supported by ion density cavities in the dynamic response of a plasma diode to an applied field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, M.; Torven, S.

    1990-06-01

    Experiments have shown that an applied voltage drop may either be supported by a cathode sheath or by a quasi-linear variation over the plasma lasting for several electron transit times. In the latter case an ion density cavity existed initially. An analytical model and numerical simulations are used to show that a cavity gives rise to a quasi-linear potential variation for applied voltage drops below a certain critical value. For larger values the drop concentrates to a cathode sheath. The quasi-linear profile steepens to a double layer for large cavity depths. (authors)

  15. Growth of 1.5 micron gallium indium nitrogen arsenic antimonide vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistey, Mark Allan

    Fiber optics has revolutionized long distance communication and long haul networks, allowing unimaginable data speeds and noise-free telephone calls around the world for mere pennies per hour at the trunk level. But the high speeds of optical fiber generally do not extend to individual workstations or to the home, in large part because it has been difficult and expensive to produce lasers which emitted light at wavelengths which could take advantage of optical fiber. One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the development of a new class of semiconductors known as dilute nitrides. Dilute nitrides such as GaInNAs can be grown directly on gallium arsenide, which allows well-established processing techniques. More important, gallium arsenide allows the growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which can be grown in dense, 2D arrays on each wafer, providing tremendous economies of scale for manufacturing, testing, and packaging. Unfortunately, GaInNAs lasers have suffered from what has been dubbed the "nitrogen penalty," with high thresholds and low efficiency as the fraction of nitrogen in the semiconductor was increased. This thesis describes the steps taken to identify and essentially eliminate the nitrogen penalty. Protecting the wafer surface from plasma ignition, using an arsenic cap, greatly improved material quality. Using a Langmuir probe, we further found that the nitrogen plasma source produced a large number of ions which damaged the wafer during growth. The ions were dramatically reduced using deflection plates. Low voltage deflection plates were found to be preferable to high voltages, and simulations showed low voltages to be adequate for ion removal. The long wavelengths from dilute nitrides can be partly explained by wafer damage during growth. As a result of these studies, we demonstrated the first CW, room temperature lasers at wavelengths beyond 1.5mum on gallium arsenide, and the first GaInNAs(Sb) VCSELs beyond 1

  16. Magnetic field integral equation analysis of interaction between a surface plasmon polariton and a circular dielectric cavity embedded in the metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremmos, Ioannis

    2009-12-01

    A rigorous integral equation (IE) analysis of the interaction between a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and a circular dielectric cavity embedded in a metal half-space is presented. The device is addressed as the plasmonic counterpart of the established integrated optics filter comprising a whispering gallery (WG) resonator coupled to a waveguide. The mathematical formulation is that of a transverse magnetic scattering problem. Using a magnetic-type Green's function of the two-layer medium with boundary conditions that cancel the line integral contributions along the interface, an IE for the magnetic field inside the cavity is obtained. The IE is treated through an entire-domain method of moments (MoM) with cylindrical-harmonic basis functions. The entries of the MoM matrix are determined analytically by utilizing the inverse Fourier transform of Green's function and the Jacobi-Anger formula for interchanging between plane and cylindrical waves. Complex analysis techniques are applied to determine the transmitted, reflected, and radiated field quantities in series forms. The numerical results show that the scattered SPPs' spectra exhibit pronounced wavelength selectivity that is related to the excitation of WG-like cavity modes. It seems feasible to exploit the device as a bandstop or reflective filter or even as an efficient radiating element. In addition, the dependence of transmission on the cavity refractive index endows this structure with a sensing functionality.

  17. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of annealed ZnO surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The effect of thermally annealing a slab of wurtzite ZnO, terminated by two surfaces, (0001) (which is oxygen-terminated) and (0001{sup ¯}) (which is Zn-terminated), is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation by using reactive force field (ReaxFF). We found that upon heating beyond a threshold temperature of ∼700 K, surface oxygen atoms begin to sublimate from the (0001) surface. The ratio of oxygen leaving the surface at a given temperature increases as the heating temperature increases. A range of phenomena occurring at the atomic level on the (0001) surface has also been explored, such as formation of oxygen dimers on the surface and evolution of partial charge distribution in the slab during the annealing process. It was found that the partial charge distribution as a function of the depth from the surface undergoes a qualitative change when the annealing temperature is above the threshold temperature.

  19. Structure and dynamics at the liquid surface of benzyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietter, J.; Morgner, H.

    1999-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of a liquid layer of benzyl alcohol has been performed in order to compare the results with those obtained in experimental studies of our group. The main result of the experimental work was a strong orientational ordering of the benzyl alcohol molecules in the surface as well as an exceptionally large surface potential of ca. 0.6 V. According to the experiments the surface molecules orientate in such a way that the benzene ring points toward the vapor phase while the CH 2 group and the OH group are directed towards the bulk of the liquid. The simulation confirms this orientation of the surface molecules. The surface potential resulting from the simulation is 350 mV. The simulation reveals that the rather large surface potential can be understood as a consequence of the mean orientation of the molecular dipole moment in the surface region. The mean orientation of the molecules themselves in the surface is due to the tendency of the system to maintain the hydrogen bonding structure of the bulk in the surface region as well. The preferential orientation of the surface molecules causes a change of the dynamics of the individual components of the molecules when switching from bulk to surface which depends on the separation of these components from the polar group. This becomes most obvious in case of the reorientation dynamics of the molecular axes, e.g. the reorientation of the benzene ring is faster than the reorientation of the OH group. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Dynamics of a green high-power tunable external-cavity broad-area GaN diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2018-01-01

    system based on a GaN BAL and Littrow external-cavity is investigated experimentally. The regular pulse package oscillation (PPO) is observed just above the threshold. The oscillating period of the pulse package decreases with the increasing injected current. As the current increases further, the pulse...... package oscillates irregularly, and finally changes to a chaotic state. The PPO is observed, for the first time to our knowledge, in a BAL with an external-cavity grating feedback....

  1. Dynamics and performance of the free electron laser at Super-Aco with a harmonic RF cavity set on 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutarelli, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the development of the potentialities of the free electron laser that has been installed on the storage ring Super-Aco at Orsay university. We have studied the dynamics of the electron beam inside a harmonic RF cavity set on 500 MHz. The impact of the geometric characteristics of the optical cavity on the transverse overlapping between laser radiation and the electron beam has been studied in details. An important part of the work has been the assessment of the optical characterization of the dielectric multi-layer mirrors of the cavity. For that purpose a complete system has been designed to assess the changes in optical properties of mirrors during laser operation. Another important part of this work was the study of the interaction process between laser radiation and the electron bunch leading to saturation. This interaction process has been simulated through a new model and some predictions given by this model have been successfully confronted to experimental data. The installation of the harmonic RF cavity has led to a significant increase of the laser radiation gain and the value of the mean power of the laser radiation has reached 300 mW. An interesting application of this technique is the generation of high energy gamma photons through Compton backscattering. A collimated 35 MeV-energy photon beam has been produced at Super-Aco with a rate of 5.10 6 photons per second. (A.C.)

  2. Bayesian inversion analysis of nonlinear dynamics in surface heterogeneous reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshiaki; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-09-01

    It is essential to extract nonlinear dynamics from time-series data as an inverse problem in natural sciences. We propose a Bayesian statistical framework for extracting nonlinear dynamics of surface heterogeneous reactions from sparse and noisy observable data. Surface heterogeneous reactions are chemical reactions with conjugation of multiple phases, and they have the intrinsic nonlinearity of their dynamics caused by the effect of surface-area between different phases. We adapt a belief propagation method and an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to partial observation problem, in order to simultaneously estimate the time course of hidden variables and the kinetic parameters underlying dynamics. The proposed belief propagation method is performed by using sequential Monte Carlo algorithm in order to estimate nonlinear dynamical system. Using our proposed method, we show that the rate constants of dissolution and precipitation reactions, which are typical examples of surface heterogeneous reactions, as well as the temporal changes of solid reactants and products, were successfully estimated only from the observable temporal changes in the concentration of the dissolved intermediate product.

  3. Bulk-mediated surface diffusion: non-Markovian desorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, Jorge A; Budde, Carlos E; Prato, Domingo; Wio, Horacio S

    2005-01-01

    Here we analyse the dynamics of adsorbed molecules within the bulk-mediated surface diffusion framework, when the particle's desorption mechanism is characterized by a non-Markovian process, while the particle's adsorption as well as its motion in the bulk is governed by Markovian dynamics. We study the diffusion of particles in both semi-infinite and finite cubic lattices, analysing the conditional probability to find the system on the reference absorptive plane as well as the surface dispersion as functions of time. The results are compared with known Markovian cases showing the differences that can be exploited to distinguish between Markovian and non-Markovian desorption mechanisms in experimental situations

  4. Nanoparticles dynamics on a surface: fractal pattern formation and fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review our recent results on the formation and the post-growth relaxation processes of nanofractals on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate...... that these kinetic processes determine the final shape of the islands on surface after post-growth relaxation. We consider different scenarios of fractal relaxation and analyze the time evolution of the island's morphology....

  5. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  6. Structure, biomimetics, and fluid dynamics of fish skin surfaces*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V.; Wainwright, Dylan K.; Domel, August G.; Weaver, James C.; Wen, Li; Bertoldi, Katia

    2016-10-01

    The interface between the fluid environment and the surface of the body in swimming fishes is critical for both physiological and hydrodynamic functions. The skin surface in most species of fishes is covered with bony scales or toothlike denticles (in sharks). Despite the apparent importance of fish surfaces for understanding aquatic locomotion and near-surface boundary layer flows, relatively little attention has been paid to either the nature of surface textures in fishes or possible hydrodynamic effects of variation in roughness around the body surface within an individual and among species. Fish surfaces are remarkably diverse and in many bony fishes scales can have an intricate surface texture with projections, ridges, and comblike extensions. Shark denticles (or scales) are toothlike and project out of the skin to form a complexly textured surface that interacts with free-stream flow. Manufacturing biomimetic foils with fishlike surfaces allows hydrodynamic testing and we emphasize here the importance of dynamic test conditions where the effect of surface textures is assessed under conditions of self-propulsion. We show that simple two-dimensional foils with patterned cuts do not perform as well as a smooth control surface, but that biomimetic shark skin foils can swim at higher self-propelled speeds than smooth controls. When the arrangement of denticles on the foil surface is altered, we find that a staggered-overlapped pattern outperforms other arrangements. Flexible foils made of real shark skin outperform sanded controls when foils are moved with a biologically realistic motion program. We suggest that focus on the mechanisms of drag reduction by fish surfaces has been too limiting and an additional role of fish surface textures may be to alter leading edge vortices and flow patterns on moving surfaces in a way that enhances thrust. Analysis of water flow over an artificial shark skin foil under both static and dynamic conditions shows that a shear layer

  7. Electrostatic cloaking of surface structure for dynamic wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Junichiro; Nita, Satoshi; Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Yu-Chung; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic wetting problems are fundamental to the understanding of the interaction between liquids and solids. Even in a superficially simple experimental situation, such as a droplet spreading over a dry surface, the result may depend not only on the liquid properties but also strongly on the substrate-surface properties; even for macroscopically smooth surfaces, the microscopic geometrical roughness can be important. In addition, as surfaces may often be naturally charged, or electric fields are used to manipulate fluids, electric effects are crucial components that influence wetting phenomena. Here we investigate the interplay between electric forces and surface structures in dynamic wetting. While surface microstructures can significantly hinder the spreading, we find that the electrostatics can ``cloak'' the microstructures, i.e. deactivate the hindering. We identify the physics in terms of reduction in contact-line friction, which makes the dynamic wetting inertial force dominant and insensitive to the substrate properties. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, and the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  8. Sub-nanometer glass surface dynamics induced by illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nienhaus, Lea; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Illumination is known to induce stress and morphology changes in opaque glasses. Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) has a smaller bandgap than the crystal. Thus, we were able to excite with 532 nm light a 1 μm amorphous surface layer on a SiC crystal while recording time-lapse movies of glass surface dynamics by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoexcitation of the a-SiC surface layer through the transparent crystal avoids heating the STM tip. Up to 6 × 10 4 s, long movies of surface dynamics with 40 s time resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution were obtained. Clusters of ca. 3-5 glass forming units diameter are seen to cooperatively hop between two states at the surface. Photoexcitation with green laser light recruits immobile clusters to hop, rather than increasing the rate at which already mobile clusters hop. No significant laser heating was observed. Thus, we favor an athermal mechanism whereby electronic excitation of a-SiC directly controls glassy surface dynamics. This mechanism is supported by an exciton migration-relaxation-thermal diffusion model. Individual clusters take ∼1 h to populate states differently after the light intensity has changed. We believe the surrounding matrix rearranges slowly when it is stressed by a change in laser intensity, and clusters serve as a diagnostic. Such cluster hopping and matrix rearrangement could underlie the microscopic mechanism of photoinduced aging of opaque glasses

  9. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  10. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, G. M. T. [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Hosea, T. J. C., E-mail: j.hosea@surrey.ac.uk [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J. [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität Munchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.

  11. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, G. M. T.; Hosea, T. J. C.; Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices

  12. Effect of Surface Plasmon Coupling to Optical Cavity Modes on the Field Enhancement and Spectral Response of Dimer-Based sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-09-05

    We present a theoretical approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the near-field intensity at a plasmonic dimer gap (hot spot) through coupling the electric localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance of a silver hemispherical dimer with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The strong coupling is demonstrated by the large anticrossing in the reflection spectra and a Rabi splitting of 76 meV. Up to 2-fold enhancement increase can be achieved compared to that without using the cavity. Such high field enhancement has potential applications in optics, including sensors and high resolution imaging devices. In addition, the resonance splitting allows for greater flexibility in using the same array at different wavelengths. We then further propose a practical design to realize such a device and include dimers of different shapes and materials.

  13. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Chen, Kevin, E-mail: pec9@pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Liu, Lei; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  14. Mid-infrared PbTe vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrate with above 1 W output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Chappuis, D.; Corda, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-12-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) emitting above 1 W output power in pulsed mode and up to 17 mW in continuous mode at -172 °C were realized. Emission wavelength changes from 5 μm at -172 °C to 3.6 μm at 20 °C heat sink temperature. The active medium is a one wavelength thick PbTe layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si-substrate. It is followed by a 2.5 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/EuTe epitaxial Bragg mirror. The cavity is completed with an external curved Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 mirror. The VECSEL is optically pumped with 1.55 μm wavelength laser and In-soldered to Cu heat sink. No microstructural processing is needed.

  15. Effect of water table dynamics on land surface hydrologic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2010-11-01

    The representation of groundwater dynamics in land surface models has received considerable attention in recent years. Most studies have found that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component because of the additional supply of water to the root zone. However, the effect of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory (persistence) has not been explored thoroughly. In this study we investigate the effect of water table dynamics on National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model hydrologic simulations in terms of land surface hydrologic memory. Unlike soil water or evapotranspiration, results show that land surface hydrologic memory does not always increase after adding a groundwater component. In regions where the water table level is intermediate, land surface hydrologic memory can even decrease, which occurs when soil moisture and capillary rise from groundwater are not in phase with each other. Further, we explore the hypothesis that in addition to atmospheric forcing, groundwater variations may also play an important role in affecting land surface hydrologic memory. Analyses show that feedbacks of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory can be positive, negative, or neutral, depending on water table dynamics. In regions where the water table is shallow, the damping process of soil moisture variations by groundwater is not significant, and soil moisture variations are mostly controlled by random noise from atmospheric forcing. In contrast, in regions where the water table is very deep, capillary fluxes from groundwater are small, having limited potential to affect soil moisture variations. Therefore, a positive feedback of groundwater to land surface hydrologic memory is observed in a transition zone between deep and shallow water tables, where capillary fluxes act as a buffer by reducing high-frequency soil moisture variations resulting in longer land surface hydrologic memory.

  16. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  17. DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    -2004. It is the first global MSS without a polar gap including all of the Arctic Ocean by including laser altimetry from the ICESat mission. The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the quantity that bridges the geoid and the mean sea surface constraining large-scale ocean circulation. Here we present a new high...

  18. Dynamics of H2 on Ti/Al(100) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    What is the catalytic role played by titanium in the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4? This thesis aims at unraveling the dynamics of an elementary reaction: H2 dissociation on Ti/Al(100) surfaces. Although this reaction is not the rate limiting step in the hydrogen storage of NaAlH4, it is an

  19. Surface Dynamic Process Simulation with the Use of Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska-Szatko, M.; Bala, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular automata are known for many applications, especially for physical and biological simulations. Universal cellular automata can be used for modelling complex natural phenomena. The paper presents simulation of surface dynamic process. Simulation uses 2-dimensional cellular automata algorithm. Modelling and visualisation were created by in-house developed software with standard OpenGL graphic library. (authors)

  20. Ti and Zr surfaces studied by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Passianot, Roberto C.; Monti, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between point defects technique and the (0001), (1-210), (10-10) surfaces in Ti and Zr is studied by the molecular dynamics technique. Both of metals are in the hexagonal structure and within a temperature range of 100 to 900 K. The atomic interactions are modeled by EAM-type many-body potentials, that were used previously in static simulations. New migration mechanisms are unraveled and others are verified with respect to those already proposed in the static studies. Also included is an analysis of the vacancy stability in the sub-surface layers of the prismatic surfaces. (author)

  1. Decay of surface nanostructures via long-time-scale dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Stanciu, N.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have developed a new approach for extending the time scale of molecular dynamics simulations. For infrequent-event systems, the category that includes most diffusive events in the solid phase, this hyperdynamics method can extend the simulation time by a few orders of magnitude compared to direct molecular dynamics. The trajectory is run on a potential surface that has been biased to raise the energy in the potential basins without affecting the transition state region. The method is described and applied to surface and bulk diffusion processes, achieving microsecond and millisecond simulation times. The authors have also developed a new parallel computing method that is efficient for small system sizes. The combination of the hyperdynamics with this parallel replica dynamics looks promising as a general materials simulation tool

  2. Reaction dynamics of molecular hydrogen on silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratu, P.; Brenig, W.; Gross, A.

    1996-01-01

    of the preexponential factor by about one order of magnitude per lateral degree of freedom. Molecular vibrations have practically no effect on the adsorption/desorption dynamics itself, but lead to vibrational heating in desorption with a strong isotope effect. Ab initio calculations for the H-2 interaction...... between the two surfaces. These results indicate that tunneling, molecular vibrations, and the structural details of the surface play only a minor role for the adsorption dynamics. Instead, they appear to be governed by the localized H-Si bonding and Si-Si lattice vibrations. Theoretically, an effective......Experimental and theoretical results on the dynamics of dissociative adsorption and recombinative desorption of hydrogen on silicon are presented. Using optical second-harmonic generation, extremely small sticking probabilities in the range 10(-9)-10(-5) could be measured for H-2 and D-2 on Si(111...

  3. Critical bifurcation surfaces of 3D discrete dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sonis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical representation of bifurcations of each 3D discrete dynamics depending on the set of bifurcation parameters. The procedure of bifurcation analysis proposed in this paper represents the 3D elaboration and specification of the general algorithm of the n-dimensional linear bifurcation analysis proposed by the author earlier. It is proven that 3D domain of asymptotic stability (attraction of the fixed point for a given 3D discrete dynamics is bounded by three critical bifurcation surfaces: the divergence, flip and flutter surfaces. The analytical construction of these surfaces is achieved with the help of classical Routh–Hurvitz conditions of asymptotic stability. As an application the adjustment process proposed by T. Puu for the Cournot oligopoly model is considered in detail.

  4. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  5. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  6. Heat transfer in window frames with internal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer in window frames with internal air cavities is studied in this thesis. Investigations focus on two- and three-dimensional natural convection effects inside air cavities, the dependence of the emissivity on the thermal transmittance, and the emissivity of anodized and untreated aluminium profiles. The investigations are mostly conducted on window frames which are the same size as real frames found in residential buildings. Numerical and experimental investigations were performed to study the effectiveness of one commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program for simulating combined natural convection and heat transfer in simple three-dimensional window frames with internal air cavities. The accuracy of the conjugate CFD simulations was evaluated by comparing results for surface temperature on the warm side of the specimens to results from experiments that use infrared (IR) thermography to map surface temperatures during steady-state thermal tests. In general, there was good agreement between the simulations and experiments. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic and conduction simulations are performed to study the difference between treating air cavities as a fluid and as a solid when calculating the thermal transmittance of window frames. The simulations show that traditional software codes, simulating only conduction and using equivalent conductivities for the air cavities, give Uvalues that compare well with results from fluid flow simulations. The difference between the two models are mostly limited to the temperature distribution inside air cavities. It is also found that cavities with an interconnection less than about 7 mm can be treated as separate cavities. Three-dimensional natural convection effects in simple and custom-made PVC and thermally broken aluminum window frames with one open internal cavity were studied, with the use of CFD simulations and thermography experiments. Focus was put on corner effects and heat transfer

  7. Single and Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    for analysis and design of photonic crystal devices, such as 2D ring resonators for filters, single and coupled nanobeam cavities, birefringence in photonic crystal cavities, threshold analysis in photonic crystal lasers, gap solitons in photonic crystals, novel photonic atolls, dynamic characteristics...

  8. Investigating the dynamics of surface-immobilized DNA nanomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Katherine E.; Trefzer, Martin A.; Johnson, Steven; Tyrrell, Andy M.

    2016-07-01

    Surface-immobilization of molecules can have a profound influence on their structure, function and dynamics. Toehold-mediated strand displacement is often used in solution to drive synthetic nanomachines made from DNA, but the effects of surface-immobilization on the mechanism and kinetics of this reaction have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we show that the kinetics of strand displacement in surface-immobilized nanomachines are significantly different to those of the solution phase reaction, and we attribute this to the effects of intermolecular interactions within the DNA layer. We demonstrate that the dynamics of strand displacement can be manipulated by changing strand length, concentration and G/C content. By inserting mismatched bases it is also possible to tune the rates of the constituent displacement processes (toehold-binding and branch migration) independently, and information can be encoded in the time-dependence of the overall reaction. Our findings will facilitate the rational design of surface-immobilized dynamic DNA nanomachines, including computing devices and track-based motors.

  9. radiofrequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  10. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities

  11. The global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Konings, Alexandra G.; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Surface soil moisture has a direct impact on food security, human health and ecosystem function. It also plays a key role in the climate system, and the development and persistence of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods and heatwaves. However, sparse and uneven observations have made it difficult to quantify the global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture. Here we introduce a metric of soil moisture memory and use a full year of global observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to show that surface soil moisture--a storage believed to make up less than 0.001% of the global freshwater budget by volume, and equivalent to an, on average, 8-mm thin layer of water covering all land surfaces--plays a significant role in the water cycle. Specifically, we find that surface soil moisture retains a median 14% of precipitation falling on land after three days. Furthermore, the retained fraction of the surface soil moisture storage after three days is highest over arid regions, and in regions where drainage to groundwater storage is lowest. We conclude that lower groundwater storage in these regions is due not only to lower precipitation, but also to the complex partitioning of the water cycle by the surface soil moisture storage layer at the land surface.

  12. Dynamics of ice nucleation on water repellent surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Azar; Yamada, Masako; Li, Ri; Shang, Wen; Otta, Shourya; Zhong, Sheng; Ge, Liehui; Dhinojwala, Ali; Conway, Ken R; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Vinciquerra, A Joseph; Stephens, Brian; Blohm, Margaret L

    2012-02-14

    Prevention of ice accretion and adhesion on surfaces is relevant to many applications, leading to improved operation safety, increased energy efficiency, and cost reduction. Development of passive nonicing coatings is highly desirable, since current antiicing strategies are energy and cost intensive. Superhydrophobicity has been proposed as a lead passive nonicing strategy, yet the exact mechanism of delayed icing on these surfaces is not clearly understood. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of ice formation dynamics upon water droplet impact on surfaces with different wettabilities. We experimentally demonstrate that ice nucleation under low-humidity conditions can be delayed through control of surface chemistry and texture. Combining infrared (IR) thermometry and high-speed photography, we observe that the reduction of water-surface contact area on superhydrophobic surfaces plays a dual role in delaying nucleation: first by reducing heat transfer and second by reducing the probability of heterogeneous nucleation at the water-substrate interface. This work also includes an analysis (based on classical nucleation theory) to estimate various homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation rates in icing situations. The key finding is that ice nucleation delay on superhydrophobic surfaces is more prominent at moderate degrees of supercooling, while closer to the homogeneous nucleation temperature, bulk and air-water interface nucleation effects become equally important. The study presented here offers a comprehensive perspective on the efficacy of textured surfaces for nonicing applications.

  13. 1.3 μm wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding: A prospect for polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yae L.; Geske, Jon; Gan, Kian-Giap; Chiu, Yi-Jen; DenBaars, Steven P.; Bowers, John E.

    2003-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) which consists of a (311)B InP-based active region and (100) GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), with an aim to control the in-plane polarization of output power. Crystal growth on (311)B InP substrates was performed under low-migration conditions to achieve good crystalline quality. The VCSEL was fabricated by wafer bonding, which enables us to combine different materials regardless of their lattice and orientation mismatch without degrading their quality. The VCSEL was polarized with a power extinction ratio of 31 dB.

  14. Self-sustained pulsation in the oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Ustinov, V. M.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Maleev, N. A.; Blokhin, S. A.; Deryagin, A. G.; Chumak, S. V.; Shulenkov, A. S.; Mikhrin, S. S.; Kovsh, A. R.; McRobbie, A. D.; Sibbett, W.; Cataluna, M. A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the observation of strong self-pulsations in molecular-beam epitaxy-grown oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots. At continuous-wave operation, self-pulsations with pulse durations of 100-300 ps and repetition rates of 0.2-0.6 GHz were measured. The average optical power of the pulsations was 0.5-1.0 mW at the laser continuous-wave current values of 1.5-2.5 mA

  15. Influence of chemistry on wetting dynamics of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Palumbo, Fabio; d'Agostino, Riccardo

    2010-04-06

    In this work, the role of a chemical parameter, such as the degree of fluorination, on the wetting behavior of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces is investigated. Texture and chemistry tuning of the surfaces has been accomplished with single batch radiofrequency low-pressure plasma processes. Polystyrene substrates have been textured by CF(4) plasma etching and subsequently covered by thin films with a tunable F-to-C ratio, obtained in discharges fed with C(4)F(8)-C(2)H(4). Measurements of wetting dynamics reveal a regime transition from adhesive-hydrophobic to slippery-superhydrophobic, i.e., from wet to non wet states, as the F-to-C rises at constant topography. Such achievements are strengthened by calculation of the solid fraction of surface water contact area applying Cassie-Baxter advancing and receding equations to water contact angle data of textured and flat reference surfaces.

  16. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safron, S.A.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This progress report describes work carried out in the study of surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, the microscopic interactions controlling epitaxial growth and the formation of overlayers, and energy exchange in multiphonon surface scattering. The approach used is to employ high resolution helium atom scattering to study the geometry and structural features of the surfaces. Experiments have been carried out on the surface dynamics of RbCl and preliminary studies done on CoO and NiO. Epitaxial growth and overlayer dynamics experiments on the systems NaCl/NaCl(001), KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been performed. They have collaborated with two theoretical groups to explore models of overlayer dynamics with which to compare and to interpret their experimental results. They have carried out extensive experiments on the multiphonon scattering of helium atoms from NaCl and, particularly, LiF. Work has begun on self-assembling organic films on gold and silver surfaces (alkyl thiols/Au(111) and Ag(111))

  17. Unsteady cavity flow around a rectangular cylinder; Kakuchu mawari no hiteijo cavitation nagare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Kaga, T.; Ota, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mori, T. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1995-08-25

    Unsteady cavity flow around a rectangular cylinder was observed using a high-speed camera. To clarify the correlation between the cavity behavior and fluid dynamic characteristics in the transitional region and supercavitation, fluctuating forces and surface pressures on the cylinder surface were recorded simultaneously. The tested cylinder has a critical width-to-height ration 2.8, in which the shear layer separated from the leading edge intermittently reattaches near the trailing edge. Bubbly cloud originating from the separated region near the leading edge causes fluctuation of cavity termination and induces large oscillations of fluid forces and pressures. As the cavitation number decreases, the low-frequency fluctuation of the cavity developing downstream of the rear surface increases in the fluid dynamic behavior. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  19. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  20. Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Vibrated Droplets on a Micropillared Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hai Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical wetting behavior has been observed under vertical vibration of a water droplet placed on a micropillared surface. The wetting transition takes place under the different processes. In compression process, the droplet is transited from Cassie state to Wenzel state. The droplet undergoes a Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition in restoring process and the droplet bounces off from the surface in bouncing process. Meanwhile, the wetting and dewetting models during vibration are proposed. The wetting transition is confirmed by the model calculation. This study has potential to be used to control the wetting state.

  1. Assessing the Nano-Dynamics of the Cell Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chil Man [Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States); Park, Ik Keun [Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bulter, Peter J. [Dept. of Bioengineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)

    2012-06-15

    It is important to know the mechanism of cell membrane fluctuation because it can be readout for the nanomechanical interaction between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Traditional techniques, however, have drawbacks such as probe contact with the cell surface, complicate analysis, and limit spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we developed a new system for non-contact measurement of nano-scale localized-cell surface dynamics using modified-scanning ion-conductance microscopy. With 2 nm resolution, we determined that endothelial cells have local membrane fluctuations of -20 nm, actin depolymerization causes increase in fluctuation amplitude, and ATP depletion abolishes all membrane fluctuations.

  2. Dynamic Eigenvalue Problem of Concrete Slab Road Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Urszula; Szczecina, Michał

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the dynamic eigenvalue problem of concrete slab road surface. A sample concrete slab was modelled using Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis software and calculated with Finite Element Method. The slab was set on a one-parameter elastic subsoil, for which the modulus of elasticity was separately calculated. The eigen frequencies and eigenvectors (as maximal vertical nodal displacements) were presented. On the basis of the results of calculations, some basic recommendations for designers of concrete road surfaces were offered.

  3. Dynamics of the contact between a ruthenium surface with a single nanoasperity and a flat ruthenium surface: Molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros de Oliveira, Alan; Fortini, Andrea; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Srolovitz, David

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the contact between a pair of surfaces (with properties designed to mimic ruthenium) via molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we study the contact between a ruthenium surface with a single nanoasperity and a flat ruthenium surface. The results of such simulations suggest that contact behavior is highly variable. The goal of this study is to investigate the source and degree of this variability. We find that during compression, the behavior of the contact force displacement curves is reproducible, while during contact separation, the behavior is highly variable. Examination of the contact surfaces suggests that two separation mechanisms are in operation and give rise to this variability. One mechanism corresponds to the formation of a bridge between the two surfaces that plastically stretches as the surfaces are drawn apart and eventually separate in shear. This leads to a morphology after separation in which there are opposing asperities on the two surfaces. This plastic separation/bridge formation mechanism leads to a large work of separation. The other mechanism is a more brittle-like mode in which a crack propagates across the base of the asperity (slightly below the asperity/substrate junction) leading to most of the asperity on one surface or the other after separation and a slight depression facing this asperity on the opposing surface. This failure mode corresponds to a smaller work of separation. This failure mode corresponds to a smaller work of separation. Furthermore, contacts made from materials that exhibit predominantly brittle-like behavior will tend to require lower work of separation than those made from ductile-like contact materials.

  4. Dynamics and Instabilities of Free Surface and Vortex Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis consists of two main parts. The first part describes the dynamics of an ideal fluid on a stationary free surface of a given shape. It turns out that one can formulate a set of self-contained equations of momentum conservation for the tangential flow, with no reference to the flow ......)]. Finally, an experimental work on elastic collisions of wet spheres is briefly discussed....

  5. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  6. Implementation of surface hopping molecular dynamics using semiempirical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiano, E.; Keal, T.W.; Thiel, W.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics driver and surface hopping algorithm for nonadiabatic dynamics has been implemented in a development version of the MNDO semiempirical electronic structure package. The required energies, gradients and nonadiabatic couplings are efficiently evaluated on the fly using semiempirical configuration interaction methods. The choice of algorithms for the time evolution of the nuclear motion and quantum amplitudes is discussed, and different schemes for the computation of nonadiabatic couplings are analysed. The importance of molecular orbital tracking and electronic state following is underlined in the context of configuration interaction calculations. The method is applied to three case studies (ethylene, methaniminium ion, and methanimine) using the orthogonalization corrected OM2 Hamiltonian. In all three cases decay times and dynamics paths similar to high-level ab initio results are obtained

  7. Memory effects in nonadiabatic molecular dynamics at metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of temporal correlation in a Langevin equation describing nonadiabatic dynamics at metal surfaces. For a harmonic oscillator, the Langevin equation preserves the quantum dynamics exactly and it is demonstrated that memory effects are needed in order to conserve the ground state...... energy of the oscillator. We then compare the result of Langevin dynamics in a harmonic potential with a perturbative master equation approach and show that the Langevin equation gives a better description in the nonperturbative range of high temperatures and large friction. Unlike the master equation......, this approach is readily extended to anharmonic potentials. Using density functional theory, we calculate representative Langevin trajectories for associative desorption of N-2 from Ru(0001) and find that memory effects lower the dissipation of energy. Finally, we propose an ab initio scheme to calculate...

  8. Evaporation dynamics of completely wetting drops on geometrically textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian, Loucine; Sobac, Benjamin; Dehaeck, Sam; Haut, Benoît; Colinet, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    This study deals with the evaporation dynamics of completely wetting and highly volatile drops deposited on geometrically textured but chemically homogeneous surfaces. The texturation consists in a cylindrical pillars array with a square pitch. The triple line dynamics and the drop shape are characterized by an interferometric method. A parametric study is realized by varying the radius and the height of the pillars (at fixed interpillar distance), allowing to distinguish three types of dynamics: i) an evaporation-dominated regime with a receding triple line; ii) a spreading-dominated regime with an initially advancing triple line; iii) a cross-over region with strong pinning effects. The overall picture is in qualitative agreement with a mathematical model showing that the selected regime mostly depends on the value of a dimensionless parameter comparing the time scales for evaporation and spreading into the substrate texture.

  9. A free-surface lattice Boltzmann method for modelling the filling of expanding cavities by Bingham fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Steiner, Konrad

    2002-03-15

    The filling process of viscoplastic metal alloys and plastics in expanding cavities is modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method in two and three dimensions. These models combine the regularized Bingham model for viscoplastic fluids with a free-interface algorithm. The latter is based on a modified immiscible lattice Boltzmann model in which one species is the fluid and the other one is considered to be a vacuum. The boundary conditions at the curved liquid-vacuum interface are met without any geometrical front reconstruction from a first-order Chapman-Enskog expansion. The numerical results obtained with these models are found in good agreement with available theoretical and numerical analysis.

  10. Atmospheric stability analysis over statically and dynamically rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Emina; Metzger, Meredith; Singha, Arindam; Sadr, Reza

    2011-11-01

    The ratio of buoyancy flux to turbulent kinetic energy production in the atmospheric surface layer is investigated experimentally for air flow over two types of surfaces characterized by static and dynamic roughness. In this study, ``static'' refers to the time-invariant nature of naturally-occurring roughness over a mud/salt playa; while, ``dynamic'' refers to the behavior of water waves along an air-water interface. In both cases, time-resolved measurements of the momentum and heat fluxes were acquired from synchronized 3D sonic anemometers mounted on a vertical tower. Field campaigns were conducted at two sites, representing the ``statically'' and ``dynamically'' rough surfaces, respectively: (1) the SLTEST facility in Utah's western desert, and (2) the new Doha airport in Qatar under construction along the coast of the Persian Gulf. Note, at site 2, anemometers were located directly above the water by extension from a tower secured to the end of a 1 km-long pier. Comparisons of the Monin-Obukhov length, flux Richardson number, and gradient Richardson number are presented, and discussed in the context of the observed evolution of the turbulent spectra in response to diurnal variations of atmospheric stability. Supported by the Qatar National Research Fund.

  11. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12 μm{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  12. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Alexander K; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1–100 mm s −1 ), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ∼ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ∼ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ∼ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ∼ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments. (paper)

  13. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Alexander K.; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1-100 mm s-1), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ˜ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ˜ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ˜ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ˜ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments.

  14. Efficient model for low-energy transverse beam dynamics in a nine-cell 1.3 GHz cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellert, Thorsten; Dohlus, Martin; Decking, Winfried

    2017-10-01

    FLASH and the European XFEL are SASE-FEL user facilities, at which superconducting TESLA cavities are operated in a pulsed mode to accelerate long bunch-trains. Several cavities are powered by one klystron. While the low-level rf system is able to stabilize the vector sum of the accelerating gradient of one rf station sufficiently, the rf parameters of individual cavities vary within the bunch-train. In correlation with misalignments, intrabunch-train trajectory variations are induced. An efficient model is developed to describe the effect at low beam energy, using numerically adjusted transfer matrices and discrete coupler kick coefficients, respectively. Comparison with start-to-end tracking and dedicated experiments at the FLASH injector will be shown. The short computation time of the derived model allows for comprehensive numerical studies on the impact of misalignments and variable rf parameters on the transverse intrabunch-train beam stability at the injector module. Results from both, statistical multibunch performance studies and the deduction of misalignments from multibunch experiments are presented.

  15. Efficient model for low-energy transverse beam dynamics in a nine-cell 1.3 GHz cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellert, Thorsten; Dohlus, Martin; Decking, Winfried

    2017-10-15

    FLASH and the European XFEL are SASE-FEL user facilities, at which superconducting TESLA cavities are operated in a pulsed mode to accelerate long bunch-trains. Several cavities are powered by one klystron. While the low-level rf system is able to stabilize the vector sum of the accelerating gradient of one rf station sufficiently, the rf parameters of individual cavities vary within the bunch-train. In correlation with misalignments, intrabunch-train trajectory variations are induced. An efficient model is developed to describe the effect at low beam energy, using numerically adjusted transfer matrices and discrete coupler kick coefficients, respectively. Comparison with start-to-end tracking and dedicated experiments at the FLASH injector will be shown. The short computation time of the derived model allows for comprehensive numerical studies on the impact of misalignments and variable rf parameters on the transverse intrabunch-train beam stability at the injector module. Results from both, statistical multibunch performance studies and the deduction of misalignments from multibunch experiments are presented.

  16. Condensation and Wetting Dynamics on Micro/Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olceroglu, Emre

    -condensable gases (NCGs), a novel characterization technique has been developed based on image tracking of droplet growth rates. The full-field dynamic characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation has been achieved using high-speed microscopy coupled with image-processing algorithms. This method is able to resolve heat fluxes as low as 20 W/m 2 and heat transfer coefficients of up to 1000 kW/m2, across an array of 1000's of microscale droplets simultaneously. Nanostructured surfaces with mixed wettability have been used to demonstrate delayed flooding during superhydrophobic condensation. These surfaces have been optimized and characterized using optical and electron microscopy, leading to the observation of self-organizing microscale droplets. The self-organization of small droplets effectively delays the onset of surface flooding, allowing the superhydrophobic surfaces to operate at higher supersaturations. Additionally, hierarchical surfaces have been fabricated and characterized showing enhanced droplet growth rates as compared to existing models. This enhancement has been shown to be derived from the presence of small feeder droplets nucleating within the microscale unit cells of the hierarchical surfaces. Based on the experimental observations, a mechanistic model for growth rates has been developed for superhydrophobic hierarchical surfaces. While superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit high heat transfer rates they are inherently unstable due to the necessity to maintain a non-wetted state in a condensing environment. As an alternative condensation surface, a novel design is introduced here using ambiphilic structures to promote the formation of a thin continuous liquid film across the surface which can still provide the benefits of superhydrophobic condensation. Preliminary results show that the ambiphilic structures restrain the film thickness, thus maintaining a low thermal resistance while simultaneously maximizing the liquid-vapor interface available for

  17. GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SeungGeun; Forman, Charles A.; Lee, Changmin; Kearns, Jared; Young, Erin C.; Leonard, John T.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-06-01

    We report the first demonstration of III–nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contacts grown completely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). For the TJs, n++-GaN was grown on in-situ activated p++-GaN after buffered HF surface treatment. The electrical properties and epitaxial morphologies of the TJs were first investigated on TJ LED test samples. A VCSEL with a TJ intracavity contact showed a lasing wavelength of 408 nm, a threshold current of ∼15 mA (10 kA/cm2), a threshold voltage of 7.8 V, a maximum output power of 319 µW, and a differential efficiency of 0.28%.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in a Salt-Wedge Estuary Revealed by High Resolution Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Douglas R; Maher, Damien T; Wong, WeiWen; Santos, Isaac R; Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Holloway, Ceylena; Cook, Perran L M

    2017-12-05

    Estuaries are an important source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but uncertainties remain in the flux rates and production pathways of greenhouse gases in these dynamic systems. This study performs simultaneous high resolution measurements of the three major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane, above and below the pycnocline along a salt wedge estuary (Yarra River estuary, Australia). We identified distinct zones of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. At the tip of salt wedge, average CO 2 and N 2 O concentrations were approximately five and three times higher than in the saline mouth of the estuary. In anaerobic bottom waters, the natural tracer radon ( 222 Rn) revealed that porewater exchange was the likely source of the highest methane concentrations (up to 1302 nM). Isotopic analysis of CH 4 showed a dominance of acetoclastic production in fresh surface waters and hydrogenotrophic production occurring in the saline bottom waters. The atmospheric flux of methane (in CO 2 equivalent units) was a major (35-53%) contributor of atmospheric radiative forcing from the estuary, while N 2 O contributed <2%. We hypothesize that the release of bottom water gases when stratification episodically breaks down will release large pulses of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

  19. DYNAMIC SURFACE BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS - A SIMPLE BOUNDARY MODEL FOR MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JUFFER, AH; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the treatment of boundaries in molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method involves the positioning of boundary atoms on a surface that surrounds a system of interest. The boundary atoms interact with the inner region and represent the effect of atoms outside the

  20. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  1. Localization switching of a large object in a crowded cavity: A rigid/soft object prefers surface/inner positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, Chwen-Yang; Oda, Soutaro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2017-11-01

    For living cells in the real world, a large organelle is commonly positioned in the inner region away from membranes, such as the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, the nucleolus of nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplast, Golgi body, etc. It contradicts the expectation by the current depletion-force theory in that the larger particle should be excluded from the inner cell space onto cell boundaries in a crowding media. Here we simply model a sizable organelle as a soft-boundary large particle allowing crowders, which are smaller hard spheres in the model, to intrude across its boundary. The results of Monte Carlo simulation indicate that the preferential location of the larger particle switches from the periphery into the inner region of the cavity by increasing its softness. An integral equation theory is further developed to account for the structural features of the model, and the theoretical predictions are found consistent with our simulation results.

  2. Dynamics and diffusive-conformational coupling in polymer bulk samples and surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vree, C; Mayr, S G

    2010-01-01

    The impact of free surfaces on the mobility and conformational fluctuations of model polymer chains is investigated with the help of classical molecular dynamics simulations over a broad temperature range. Below a critical temperature, T*, similar to the critical temperature of the mode coupling theory, the center-of-mass displacements and temporal fluctuations of the radius of gyration of individual chains-as a fingerprint of structural reconfigurations-reveal a strong enhancement close to surfaces, while this effect diminishes with increasing temperature and observation time. Interpreting conformational fluctuations as a random walk in conformational space, identical activation enthalpies for structural reconfigurations and diffusion are obtained within the error bars in the bulk and at the surfaces, thus indicating a coupling of diffusive and conformational dynamics.

  3. Dynamic Corneal Surface Mapping with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S.; Gualini, M. M. S.

    2013-06-01

    In view of the fast advancement in ophthalmic technology and corneal surgery, there is a strong need for the comprehensive mapping and characterization techniques for corneal surface. Optical methods with precision non-contact approaches have been found to be very useful for such bio measurements. Along with the normal mapping approaches, elasticity of corneal surface has an important role in its characterization and needs to be appropriately measured or estimated for broader diagnostics and better prospective surgical results, as it has important role in the post-op corneal surface reconstruction process. Use of normal corneal topographic devices is insufficient for any intricate analysis since these devices operate at relatively moderate resolution. In the given experiment, Pulsed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been utilized along with an excitation mechanism to measure the dynamic response of the sample cornea. A Pulsed ESPI device has been chosen for the study because of its micron-level resolution and other advantages in real-time deformation analysis. A bovine cornea has been used as a sample in the subject experiment. The dynamic response has been taken on a chart recorder and it is observed that it does show a marked deformation at a specific excitation frequency, which may be taken as a characteristic elasticity parameter for the surface of that corneal sample. It was seen that outside resonance conditions the bovine cornea was not that much deformed. Through this study, the resonance frequency and the corresponding corneal deformations are mapped and plotted in real time. In these experiments, data was acquired and processed by FRAMES plus computer analysis system. With some analysis of the results, this technique can help us to refine a more detailed corneal surface mathematical model and some preliminary work was done on this. Such modelling enhancements may be useful for finer ablative surgery planning. After further experimentation

  4. An Optimization Method for Virtual Globe Ocean Surface Dynamic Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wumeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing visualization method in the virtual globe mainly uses the projection grid to organize the ocean grid. This special grid organization has the defects in reflecting the difference characteristics of different ocean areas. The method of global ocean visualization based on global discrete grid can make up the defect of the projection grid method by matching with the discrete space of the virtual globe, so it is more suitable for the virtual ocean surface simulation application.But the available global discrete grids method has many problems which limiting its application such as the low efficiency of rendering and loading, the need of repairing grid crevices. To this point, we propose an optimization for the global discrete grids method. At first, a GPU-oriented multi-scale grid model of ocean surface which develops on the foundation of global discrete grids was designed to organize and manage the ocean surface grids. Then, in order to achieve the wind-drive wave dynamic rendering, this paper proposes a dynamic wave rendering method based on the multi-scale ocean surface grid model to support real-time wind field updating. At the same time, considering the effect of repairing grid crevices on the system efficiency, this paper presents an efficient method for repairing ocean surface grid crevices based on the characteristics of ocean grid and GPU technology. At last, the feasibility and validity of the method are verified by the comparison experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient, stable and fast, and can compensate for the lack of function of the existing methods, so the application range is more extensive.

  5. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  6. Technical tasks in superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The feature of superconducting rf cavities is an extremely small surface resistance on the wall. It brings a large energy saving in the operation, even those are cooled with liquid helium. That also makes possible to operate themselves in a higher field gradient comparing to normal conducting cavities, and brings to make accelerators compact. These merits are very important for the future accelerator engineering which is planed at JAERI for the neutron material science and nuclear waste transmutation. This machine is a high intensity proton linac and uses sc cavities in the medium and high {beta} sections. In this paper, starting R and D of proton superconducting cavities, several important technical points which come from the small surface resistance of sc cavities, are present to succeed it and also differences between the medium and high - {beta} structures are discussed. (author)

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Droplets On Hydrophilic Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    and DNA microarrays technologies.Although extensive experimental, theoretical and computational work has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water, at the molecular level a complete understanding of silica-water systems has not been reached. Contact angle computations...... dynamics (MD) simulations of a hydrophilic air-water-silica system using the MD package FASTTUBE. We employ quantum chemistry calculation to obtain air-silica interaction parameters for the simulations. Our simulations are based in the following force fields: i) The silica-silica interaction is based...... of water droplets on silica surfaces offers a useful fundamental and quantitative measurement in order to study chemical and physical properties of water-silica systems. For hydrophobic systems the static and dynamic properties of the fluid-solid interface are influenced by the presence of air. Hence...

  8. Reactive surface organometallic complexes observed using dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva; Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Samantaray, Manoja; Hamzaoui, Bilel; Gurinov, Andrei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gajan, David; Lesage, Anne; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.

  9. Reactive surface organometallic complexes observed using dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Pump, Eva

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Nanodroplets on Silica Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    and DNA microarrays technologies.4,5,6,7,8 Although extensive experimental, theoretical and computational work has been devoted to study the nature of the interaction between silica and water,2,9-16 at the molecular level a complete understanding of silica-water systems has not been reached. Contact angle...... computations of water droplets on silica surfaces offers a useful fundamental and quantitative measurement in order to study chemical and physical properties of water-silica systems.3,16,17,18 For hydrophobic systems the static and dynamic properties of the fluid-solid interface are influenced by the presence...

  11. Improvement of cavity performance in the Saclay/Cornell/DESY's SC cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, E.; Noguchi, S.; Ono, M.

    2000-01-01

    Development of 1.3 GHz Nb superconducting cavities for TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Collider) has been carried out with international collaboration. Three Saclay single-cell cavities, one Cornell two-cell cavity and one DESY nine-cell cavity were sent to KEK in order to compare the cavity performance. These cavities were tested at KEK after the following surface treatment: 1) high pressure rinsing, HPR, 2) chemical polishing and HPR, 3) electropolishing and HPR. The test results, especially, improvement of the cavity performance due to electropolishing are reported in this paper. (author)

  12. Optofluidic Fabry-Pérot Micro-Cavities Comprising Curved Surfaces for Homogeneous Liquid Refractometry—Design, Simulation, and Experimental Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization of a Fabry-Pérot resonator consisting of two deeply-etched silicon cylindrical mirrors with a micro-tube in between holding the liquid analyte under study. The curved surfaces of the tube and the cylindrical mirrors provide three-dimensional light confinement and enable achieving stability for the cavity illuminated by a Gaussian beam input. The resonant optofluidic cavity attains a high-quality factor (Q—over 2800—which is necessary for a sensitive refractometer, not only by providing a sharp interference spectrum peak that enables accurate tracing of the peak wavelengths shifts, but also by providing steep side peaks, which enables detection of refractive index changes by power level variations when operating at a fixed wavelength. The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria explained in the details are met. By experimentally measuring mixtures of acetone-toluene with different ratios, refractive index variations of 0.0005 < Δn < 0.0022 could be detected, with sensitivity as high as 5500 μW/RIU.

  13. An efficient approach to characterizing and calculating carrier loss due to heating and barrier height variation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Wu; Summers, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs–AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  14. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  15. Submacropulse electron-beam dynamics correlated with higher-order modes in Tesla-type superconducting rf cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observations of submacropulse beam centroid oscillations correlated with higher order modes (HOMs which were generated by off-axis electron beam steering in TESLA-type superconducting rf cavities. The experiments were performed at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST facility using its unique configuration of a photocathode rf gun injecting beam into two separated nine-cell cavities in series with corrector magnets and beam position monitors (BPMs located before, between, and after them. Oscillations of ∼100  kHz in the vertical plane and ∼380  kHz in the horizontal plane with up to 600-μm amplitudes were observed in a 3-MHz micropulse repetition rate beam with charges of 100, 300, 500, and 1000  pC/b. However, the effects were much reduced at 100  pC/b. The measurements were based on HOM detector circuitry targeting the first and second dipole passbands, rf BPM bunch-by-bunch array data, imaging cameras, and a framing camera. Calculations reproduced the oscillation frequencies of the phenomena in the vertical case. In principle, these fundamental results may be scaled to cryomodule configurations of major accelerator facilities.

  16. Human Papillomavirus and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Correlation With Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Park, Mina; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jinna

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parameters on the basis of the status of human papillomavirus (HPV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx by use of histogram analysis. A total of 22 consecutive patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC underwent DCE-MRI before receiving treatment. DCE parameter maps of the volume transfer constant (K(trans)), the flux rate constant (kep), and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve) were obtained. The histogram parameters were calculated using the entire enhancing tumor volume and were compared between the patient subgroups on the basis of HPV and EGFR biomarker statuses. The cumulative histogram parameters of K(trans) and kep showed lower values in the HPV-negative and EFGR-overexpression group than in the HPV-positive EGFR-negative group. These differences were statistically significant for the mean (p = 0.009), 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile values of K(trans) and for the 25th percentile value of kep when correlated with HPV status in addition to the mean K(trans) value (p = 0.047) and kep value (p = 0.004) when correlated with EGFR status. No statistically significant difference in ve was found on the basis of HPV and EGFR status. DCE-MRI is useful for the assessment of the tumor microenvironment associated with HPV and EGFR biomarkers before treatment of patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC.

  17. Dynamic growth of slip surfaces in catastrophic landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, Leonid N; Kim, Sihyun; Puzrin, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    This work considers a landslide caused by the shear band that emerges along the potential slip (rupture) surface. The material above the band slides downwards, causing the band to grow along the slope. This growth may first be stable (progressive), but eventually becomes dynamic (catastrophic). The landslide body acquires a finite velocity before it separates from the substrata. The corresponding initial-boundary value problem for a dynamic shear band is formulated within the framework of Palmer & Rice's ( Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 332 , 527-548. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0040)) approach, which is generalized to the dynamic case. We obtain the exact, closed-form solution for the band velocity and slip rate. This solution assesses when the slope fails owing to a limiting condition near the propagating tip of the shear band. Our results are applicable to both submarine and subaerial landslides of this type. It appears that neglecting dynamic (inertia) effects can lead to a significant underestimation of the slide size, and that the volumes of catastrophic slides can exceed the volumes of progressive slides by nearly a factor of 2. As examples, we consider the Gaviota and Humboldt slides offshore of California, and discuss landslides in normally consolidated sediments and sensitive clays. In particular, it is conceivable that Humboldt slide is unfinished and may still displace a large volume of sediments, which could generate a considerable tsunami. We show that in the case of submarine slides, the effect of water resistance on the shear band dynamics may frequently be limited during the slope failure stage. For a varying slope angle, we formulate a condition of slide cessation.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Slip on Curved Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of liquid water confined within nanoscale geometries, including slit-like and cylindrical graphitic pores. These equilibrium results are used for calculating friction coefficients, which in turn can be used to calculate slip lengths. The slip length is a material property independent of the fluid flow rate. It is therefore a better quantity for study than the fluid velocity at the wall, also known as the slip velocity. Once the slip length has been found as a function of surface curvature, it can be used to parameterise Lattice Boltzmann (LB simulations. These larger scale simulations are able to tell us about how fluid transport is affected by slip in complex geometries; not just limited to single pores. Applications include flow and transport in nano-porous engine valve deposits and gas shales. The friction coefficient is found to be a function of curvature and is higher for fluid on convex surfaces and lower for concave surfaces. Both concave and convex surfaces approach the same value of the friction coefficient, which is constant above some critical radius of curvature, here found to be 7.4 ± 2.9 nm. The constant value of the friction coefficient is 10,000 ± 600 kg m−2 s−1, which is equivalent to a slip length of approximately 67 ± 4 nm.

  19. A scanning fluid dynamic gauging technique for probing surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Patrick W; Chew, Y M John; Wilson, D Ian; Brooker, Anju D M; York, David W

    2010-01-01

    Fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) is a technique for measuring the thickness of soft solid deposit layers immersed in a liquid environment, in situ and in real time. This paper details the performance of a novel automated, scanning FDG probe (sFDG) which allows the thickness of a sample layer to be monitored at several points during an experiment, with a resolution of ±5 µm. Its application is demonstrated using layers of gelatine, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and baked tomato purée deposits. Swelling kinetics, as well as deformation behaviour—based on knowledge of the stresses imposed on the surface by the gauging flow—can be determined at several points, affording improved experimental data. The use of FDG as a surface scanning technique, operating as a fluid mechanical analogue of atomic force microscopy on a millimetre length scale, is also demonstrated. The measurement relies only on the flow behaviour, and is thus suitable for use in opaque fluids, does not contact the surface itself and does not rely on any specific physical properties of the surface, provided it is locally stiff

  20. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  1. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water-surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface-water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of the

  2. Qubit-qubit entanglement dynamics control via external classical pumping and Kerr nonlinearity mediated by a single detuned cavity field powered by two-photon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateto, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear time-dependent two-photon Hamiltonian of a couple of classically pumped independent qubits is analytically solved, and the corresponding time evolution unitary operator, in an exact form, is derived. Using the concurrence, entanglement dynamics between the qubits under the influence of a wide range of effective parameters are examined and, in detail, analyzed. Observations analysis is documented with aid of the field phase-space distribution Wigner function. A couple of initial qubit states is considered, namely similar excited states and a Bell-like pure state. It is demonstrated that an initial Bell-like pure state is as well typical initial qubits setting for robust, regular and a high degree of entanglement. Moreover, it is established that high-constant Kerr media represent an effective tool for generating periodical entanglement at fixed time cycles of maxima reach unity forever when qubits are initially in a Bell-like pure state. Further, it is showed that the medium strength of the classical pumping stimulates efficiently qubits entanglement, specially, when the interaction occurs off resonantly. However, the high-intensity pumping thermalizes the coherent distribution of photons, thus, the least photons number is used and, hence, the least minimum degree of qubits entanglement could be created. Furthermore, when the cavity field and external pumping are detuned, the external pumping acts like an auxiliary effective frequency for the cavity, as a result, the field Gaussian distribution acquires linear chirps, and consequently, more entanglement revivals appear in the same cycle during timescale.

  3. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  4. Comparison of Mesa and Device Diameter Variation in Double Wafer-Fused Multi Quantum-Well, Long-Wavelength, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, P.S.; Kandiah, K.; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis; Shaari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LW-VCSELs) have profound advantages compared to traditional edge-emitting lasers offering improved properties with respect to mode selectivity, fibre coupling, threshold currents and integration into 2D arrays or with other electronic devices. Its commercialization is gaining momentum as the local and access network in optical communication system expand. Numerical modeling of LW-VCSEL utilizing wafer-fused InP-based multi-quantum wells (MQW) and GaAs-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is presented in this paper. Emphasis is on the device and mesa/pillar diameter design parameter comparison and its effect on the device characteristics. (author)

  5. A UWOC system based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 680 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-02-01

    This study proves that an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) based on a 6 m/5.2 Gbps 68 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based system is superior to a 405 nm UWOC system. This UWOC application is the first to use a VCSEL at approximately 680 nm. The experiment also proved that a 680 nm VCSEL has the same transmission distance as that of an approximately 405 nm laser diode. The 680 nm VCSEL has a 5.2 Gbps high transmission rate and can transmit up to 6 m. Thus, the setup is the best alternative solution for high-speed UWOC applications.

  6. Thermal dynamics of silver clusters grown on rippled silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Mukul, E-mail: mkbh10@gmail.com [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Ranjan, Mukesh [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Jolley, Kenny; Lloyd, Adam; Smith, Roger [Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, Subroto [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Low energy oblique angle ion bombardment forms ripple pattern on silicon surface. • The ripple patterns have wavelengths between 20 and 45 nm and correspondingly low height. • Silver nanoparticles have been deposited at an angle of 70° on patterned silicon templates. • The as-deposited np are annealed in vacuo at temperature of 573 K for a time duration of 1 h. • MD simulation is used to model the process and compare the results to the experiment. • Results show that silver clusters grow preferentially along parallel to the rippled surface. • Mobility of silver atoms depends on the site to which they are bonded on this amorphous surface. • MD simulations show contour ordered coalescence which is dependent on ripple periodicity. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon rippled patterned templates at an angle of incidence of 70° to the surface normal. The templates are produced by oblique incidence argon ion bombardment and as the fluence increases, the periods and heights of the structures increase. Structures with periods of 20 nm, 35 nm and 45 nm have been produced. Moderate temperature vacuum annealing shows the phenomenon of cluster coalescence following the contour of the more exposed faces of the ripple for the case of 35 nm and 45 nm but not at 20 nm where the silver aggregates into larger randomly distributed clusters. In order to understand this effect, the morphological changes of silver nanoparticles deposited on an asymmetric rippled silica surface are investigated through the use of molecular dynamics simulations for different deposition angles of incidence between 0° and 70° and annealing temperatures between 500 K and 900 K. Near to normal incidence, clusters are observed to migrate over the entire surface but for deposition at 70°, a similar patterning is observed as in the experiment. The random distribution of clusters for the periodicity ≈ of 20 nm is linked to the geometry of the silica

  7. Reaction dynamics of small molecules at metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, P.A.

    1999-09-01

    The dissociation-desorption dynamics of D 2 upon the Sn/Pt(111) surface alloy are dependent on the surface concentration of Sn. The p(2 x 2) Sn/Pt(111) alloy surface (Θ Sn = 0.25 ML), is initially ∼30 times less reactive towards D 2 adsorption than clean Pt(111). On the (√3 x √3) R30 deg Sn/Pt(111) alloy surface (Θ Sn = 0.33 ML), increased inhibition of D 2 adsorption is reported, with S o ∼ 10 -5 at low energy, coinciding with the loss of stable Pt 3 hollow sites and a significant reduction in the D atom binding energy. Sticking on the √3 alloy is activated with an increased energy threshold of ∼280 meV, with no evidence that vibration enhances dissociation. The barrier to dissociation remains in the entrance channel before the D 2 bond begins to stretch. Vibrational excitation is, however, observed in nitrogen desorption from the catalytic reaction of NO + H 2 over Pd(110). For a surface at 600 K, N 2 vibrational state population ratios of P(v=1/v=0) = 0.50 ± 0.05 and P(v=2/v=0) = 0.60 ± 0.20 are reported. Desorption occurs via the N(ad) + N(ad) recombination channel with little energy released into translation and rotation. The translational energy release observed is dependent on the N 2 vibrational state, with translational temperatures of 425 K, 315 K and 180 K reported for the v=0, 1 and 2 states respectively. Sub-thermal energy releases and normally directed angular distributions suggest the influence of a trapping mechanism, recombining molecules scattering through a molecularly adsorbed state, with a transition state of large d NN responsible for the product vibrational excitation. Although N 2 dissociation on Fe(100) forms a simple overlayer structure, on Fe(110), molecular chemisorption does not occur at or above room temperature and the sticking is extremely small (∼10 -6 to 10 -7 ). Activated nitrogen bombardment can be used to prepare a 'surface nitride' with a structure related to the geometry of bulk Fe 4 N. Scanning tunnelling

  8. Dynamics of gas-surface interactions atomic-level understanding of scattering processes at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Díez Muniño, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a representative survey of the state of the art of research on gas-surface interactions. It provides an overview of the current understanding of gas surface dynamics and, in particular, of the reactive and non-reactive processes of atoms and small molecules at surfaces. Leading scientists in the field, both from the theoretical and the experimental sides, write in this book about their most recent advances. Surface science grew as an interdisciplinary research area over the last decades, mostly because of new experimental technologies (ultra-high vacuum, for instance), as well as because of a novel paradigm, the ‘surface science’ approach. The book describes the second transformation which is now taking place pushed by the availability of powerful quantum-mechanical theoretical methods implemented numerically. In the book, experiment and theory progress hand in hand with an unprecedented degree of accuracy and control. The book presents how modern surface science targets the atomic-level u...

  9. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  10. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10"1"7 m"−"3. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  11. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  12. How internal drainage affects evaporation dynamics from soil surfaces ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Sommer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Following rainfall, infiltrated water may be redistributed internally to larger depths or lost to the atmosphere by evaporation (and by plant uptake from depths at longer time scales). A large fraction of evaporative losses from terrestrial surfaces occurs during stage1 evaporation during which phase change occurs at the wet surface supplied by capillary flow from the soil. Recent studies have shown existence of a soil-dependent characteristic length below which capillary continuity is disrupted and a drastic shift to slower stage 2 evaporation ensues. Internal drainage hastens this transition and affect evaporative losses. To predict the transition to stage 2 and associated evaporative losses, we developed an analytical solution for evaporation dynamics with concurrent internal drainage. Expectedly, evaporative losses are suppressed when drainage is considered to different degrees depending on soil type and wetness. We observe that high initial water content supports rapid drainage and thus promotes the sheltering of soil water below the evaporation depth. The solution and laboratory experiments confirm nonlinear relationship between initial water content and total evaporative losses. The concept contributes to establishing bounds on regional surface evaporation considering rainfall characteristics and soil types.

  13. Tailoring surface plasmon resonance and dipole cavity plasmon modes of scattering cross section spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Lim, Chee Ming; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Yoong, Voo Nyuk; Lee, Chuanyo; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-01-01

    Tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dipole cavity plasmon modes of the scattering cross section (SCS) spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod have been numerically investigated by using the finite element method. Various effects, such as the influence of SCS spectra under x- and y-polarizations on the surface of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod, are discussed in detail. With the single gold-shell nanorod, one can independently tune the relative SCS spectrum width by controlling the rod length and rod diameter, and the surface scattering by varying the shell thickness and polarization direction, as well as the dipole peak energy. These behaviors are consistent with the properties of localized SPRs and offer a way to optically control and produce selected emission wavelengths from the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod. The electric field and magnetic distributions provide us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod on plasmon resonance.

  14. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonergan, N.E.; Britt, L.D.; Sullivan, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane stabilization while

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of potentiometric sensor response: the effect of biomolecules, surface morphology and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B M; Skylaris, C-K; Green, N G; Shibuta, Y; Sakata, T

    2018-05-10

    The silica-water interface is critical to many modern technologies in chemical engineering and biosensing. One technology used commonly in biosensors, the potentiometric sensor, operates by measuring the changes in electric potential due to changes in the interfacial electric field. Predictive modelling of this response caused by surface binding of biomolecules remains highly challenging. In this work, through the most extensive molecular dynamics simulation of the silica-water interfacial potential and electric field to date, we report a novel prediction and explanation of the effects of nano-morphology on sensor response. Amorphous silica demonstrated a larger potentiometric response than an equivalent crystalline silica model due to increased sodium adsorption, in agreement with experiments showing improved sensor response with nano-texturing. We provide proof-of-concept that molecular dynamics can be used as a complementary tool for potentiometric biosensor response prediction. Effects that are conventionally neglected, such as surface morphology, water polarisation, biomolecule dynamics and finite-size effects, are explicitly modelled.

  16. Criteria for vacuum breakdown in rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.; Kadish, A.; Thode, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new high-voltage scaling based on Kilpatrick's criterion is presented that suggests that voltages more than twice the Kilpatrick limit can be obtained with identical initial conditions of vacuum and surface cleanliness. The calculations are based on the experimentally observed decrease in secondary electron emission with increasing ion-impact energy above 100 keV. A generalized secondary-emission package has been developed to simulate actual cavity dynamics in conjunction with our 2 1/2-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code CEMIT. The results are discussed with application to the suppression of vacuum breakdown in rf accelerator devices

  17. Guided access cavity preparation using cone-beam computed tomography and optical surface scans - an ex vivo study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, J; Buchgreitz, M; Mortensen, D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ex vivo, the accuracy of a preparation procedure planned for teeth with pulp canal obliteration (PCO) using a guide rail concept based on a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan merged with an optical surface scan. METHODOLOGY: A total of 48 teeth were mounted in acrylic bloc...

  18. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  19. Dynamic characterisation of the specific surface area for fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    One important application of chemical transport is geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste for which crystalline rock is a prime candidate for instance in Scandinavia. Interconnected heterogeneous fractures of sparsely fractured rock such as granite, act as conduits for transport of dissolved tracers. Fluid flow is known to be highly channelized in such rocks. Channels imply narrow flow paths, adjacent to essentially stagnant water in the fracture and/or the rock matrix. Tracers are transported along channelised flow paths and retained by minerals and/or stagnant water, depending on their sorption properties; this mechanism is critical for rocks to act as a barrier and ultimately provide safety for a geological repository. The sorbing tracers are retained by diffusion and sorption on mineral surfaces, whereas non-sorbing tracers can be retained only by diffusion into stagnant water of fractures. The retention and transport properties of a sparsely fractured rock will primarily depend on the specific surface area (SSA) of the fracture network which is determined by the heterogeneous structure and flow. The main challenge when characterising SSA on the field-scale is its dependence on the flow dynamics. We first define SSA as a physical quantity and clarify its importance for chemical transport. A methodology for dynamic characterisation of SSA in fracture networks is proposed that relies on three sets of data: i) Flow rate data as obtained by a flow logging procedure; ii) transmissivity data as obtained by pumping tests; iii) fracture network data as obtained from outcrop and geophysical observations. The proposed methodology utilises these data directly as well as indirectly through flow and particle tracking simulations in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. The methodology is exemplified using specific data from the Swedish site Laxemar. The potential impact of uncertainties is of particular significance and is illustrated for radionuclide

  20. Dynamic control of the asymmetric Fano resonance in side-coupled Fabry–Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tong; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya, E-mail: mpezgy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Deng, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2015-11-30

    Fano resonance is a prevailing interference phenomenon that stems from the intersection between discrete and continuum states in many fields. We theoretically and experimentally characterize the asymmetric Fano lineshape in side-coupled waveguide Fabry–Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. The measured quality-factor of the Fano resonance before tuning is 28 100. A nanoelectromechanical systems bidirectional actuator is integrated seamlessly to control the shape of the Fano resonance through in-plane translations in two directions without sacrificing the quality-factor. The peak intensity level of the Fano resonance can be increased by 8.5 dB from 60 nW to 409 nW while the corresponding dip intensity is increased by 12.8 dB from 1 nW to 18 nW. The maximum recorded quality-factor throughout the tuning procedure is up to 32 500. Potential applications of the proposed structure include enhancing the sensitivity of sensing, reconfigurable nanophotonics devices, and on-chip intensity modulator.

  1. He atom surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations have focused primarily on surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals and multiphoton studies. The surface dynamics of RbCl has been re-examined. We have developed a simple force constant model which provides insight into the dynamics of KBr overlayers on NaCl(001), a system with a large lattice mismatch. The KBr/NaCl(001) results are compared to Na/Cu(001) and NaCl/Ge(001). We have completed epitaxial growth experiments for KBr onto RbCl(001). Slab dynamics calculations using a shell model for this system with very small lattice mismatch are being carried out in collaboration with Professor Manson of Clemson University and with Professor Schroeder in Regensburg, Germany. Extensive experiments on multiphoton scattering of helium atoms onto NaCl and, particularly, LiF have been carried out and the theory has been developed to a rather advanced stage by Professor Manson. This work will permit the extraction of more information from time-of-flight spectra. It is shown that the theoretical model provides a very good description of the multiphoton scattering from organic films. Work has started on self-assembling organic films on gold (alkyl thiols/Au(111)). We have begun to prepare and characterize the gold crystal; one of the group members has spent two weeks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory learning the proper Au(111) preparation techniques. One of our students has carried out neutron scattering experiments on NiO, measuring both bulk phonon and magnon dispersion curves

  2. A Study of the interaction of radiation and semiconductor lasers: an analysis of transient and permanent effects induced on edge emitting and vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pailharey, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of laser diodes under transient environment is presented in this work. The first section describes the basic phenomena of radiation interaction with matter. The radiative environments, the main characteristics of laser diodes and the research undertaken on the subject are presented and discussed. The tests on 1300 nm edge emitting laser diode are presented in the second section. The response to a transient ionizing excitation is explored using a 532 nm laser beam. The time of return to steady state after the perturbation is decomposed into several steps: decrease of the optical power during excitation, turn-on delay, relaxation oscillations and optical power offset. Their origins are analyzed using the device structure. To include all the phenomena in a numerical simulation of the device, an individual study of low conductivity materials used for the lateral confinement of the current density is undertaken. The effects of a single particle traversing the optical cavity and an analysis of permanent damages induced by neutrons are also determined. In the last section, 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSEL) are studied. The behavior of these devices which performances are in constant evolution, is investigated as a function of both temperature and polarization. Then VCSEL are submitted to transient ionizing irradiation and their responses are compared to those of edge emitting diodes. When proton implantation is used in the process, we observe the same behavior for both technologies. VCSEL were submitted to neutron fluence and we have studied the influence of the damages on threshold current, emission patterns and maximum of optical power. (author) [fr

  3. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Overbased Detergents on a Water Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, M S; Dini, D; Heyes, D M; Breakspear, A; Chahine, S

    2017-07-25

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are reported of model overbased detergent nanoparticles on a model water surface which mimic their behavior on a Langmuir trough or large water droplet in engine oil. The simulations predict that the structure of the nanoparticle on a water surface is different to when it is immersed in a bulk hydrophobic solvent. The surfactant tails are partly directed out of the water, while the carbonate core maximizes its extent of contact with the water. Umbrella sampling calculations of the potential of mean force between two particles showed that they are associated with varying degrees with a maximum binding free energy of ca. 10 k B T for the salicylate stabilized particle, ca. 8 k B T for a sulfurized alkyl phenate stabilized particle, and ca. 5 k B T for a sulfonate stabilized particle. The differences in the strength of attraction depend on the proximity of nearest approach and the energy penalty associated with the disruption of the hydration shell of water molecules around the calcium carbonate core when the two particles approach. This is greatest for the sulfonate particle, which partially loses the surfactant ions to the solution, and least for the salicylate, which forms the weakest water "cage". The particles are separated by a water hydration layer, even at the point of closest approach.

  4. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations in this laboratory have focused on the surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators and on epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals. In the later the homoepitaxial growth of NaCl/NaCl(001) and the heteroepitaxial growth of KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been studied by monitoring the specular He scattering as a function of the coverage and by measuring the angular and energy distributions of the scattered He atoms. These data provide information on the surface structure, defect densities, island sizes and surface strain during the layer-by-layer growth. The temperature dependence of these measurements also provides information on the mobilities of the admolecules. He atom scattering is unique among surface probes because the low-energy, inert atoms are sensitive only to the electronic structure of the topmost surface layer and are equally applicable to all crystalline materials. It is proposed for the next year to exploit further the variety of combinations possible with the alkali halides in order to carry out a definitive study of epitaxial growth in the ionic insulators. The work completed so far, including measurements of the Bragg diffraction and surface dispersion at various stages of growth, appears to be exceptionally rich in detail, which is particularly promising for theoretical modeling. In addition, because epitaxial growth conditions over a wide range of lattice mismatches is possible with these materials, size effects in growth processes can be explored in great depth. Further, as some of the alkali halides have the CsCl structure instead of the NaCl structure, we can investigate the effects of the heteroepitaxy with materials having different lattice preferences. Finally, by using co-deposition of different alkali halides, one can investigate the formation and stability of alloys and even alkali halide superlattices

  5. Applications of granular-dynamics numerical simulations to asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Yu, Y.; Ballouz, R.-L.; Matsumura, S.

    2014-07-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a totally different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). (1) We carried out impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes under Earth's gravity [5] and compared the results to laboratory experiments [6] in support of JAXA's Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample-return mission. We tested different projectile shapes and confirmed that the 90-degree cone was the most efficient at excavating mass when impacting 5-mm-diameter glass beads. Results are sensitive to the normal coefficient of restitution and the coefficient of static friction. Preliminary experiments in micro-gravity for similar impact conditions show both the amount of ejected mass and the timescale of the impact process increase, as expected. (2) It has been found (e.g., [7,8]) that ''fresh'' (unreddened) Q-class asteroids have a high probability of recent planetary encounters (˜1 Myr; also see [9]), suggesting that surface refreshening may have occurred due to tidal effects. As an application of the potential effect of tidal interactions, we carried out simulations of Apophis' predicted 2029 encounter with the Earth to see whether regolith motion might occur, using a range of plausible material parameters

  6. Simulation of three-phase flow and lance height effect on the cavity shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Wei; Liu, Fu-hai

    2014-06-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate a 150-t top-blown converter. The effect of different lance heights on the cavity shape was investigated using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Numerical simulation results can reflect the actual molten bath surface waves impinged by the supersonic oxygen jets. With increasing lance height, the cavity depth decreases, and the cavity area, varying like a parabola, increases and then decreases. The cavity area maximizes at the lance height of 1.3 m. Under the three different lance heights simulated in this study, all of the largest impact velocities at the molten bath surface are between 50 m/s and 100 m/s.

  7. An iterative model for the steady state current distribution in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an iterative model for the analysis of the current distribution in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a circuit network modeling approach. This iterative model divides the VCSEL structure into numerous annular elements and uses a circuit network consisting of resistors and diodes. The measured sheet resistance of the p-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the measured sheet resistance of the layers under the oxide layer, and two empirical adjustable parameters are used as inputs to the iterative model to determine the resistance of each resistor. The two empirical values are related to the anisotropy of the resistivity of the p-DBR structure. The spontaneous current, stimulated current, and surface recombination current are accounted for by the diodes. The lateral carrier transport in the quantum well region is analyzed using drift and diffusion currents. The optical gain is calculated as a function of wavelength and carrier density from fundamental principles. The predicted threshold current densities for these VCSELs match the experimentally measured current densities over the wavelength range of 0.83 mum to 0.86 mum with an error of less than 5%. This model includes the effects of the resistance of the p-DBR mirrors, the oxide current-confining layer and spatial hole burning. Our model shows that higher sheet resistance under the oxide layer reduces the threshold current, but also reduces the current range over which single transverse mode operation occurs. The spatial hole burning profile depends on the lateral drift and diffusion of carriers in the quantum wells but is dominated by the voltage drop across the p-DBR region. To my knowledge, for the first time, the drift current and the diffusion current are treated separately. Previous work uses an ambipolar approach, which underestimates the total charge transferred in the quantum well region, especially under the oxide region. However, the total

  8. The estimation of dynamic contact angle of ultra-hydrophobic surfaces using inclined surface and impinging droplet methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasikova, Darina; Kotek, Michal

    2014-03-01

    The development of industrial technology also brings with optimized surface quality, particularly where there is contact with food. Application ultra-hydrophobic surface significantly reduces the growth of bacteria and facilitates cleaning processes. Testing and evaluation of surface quality are used two methods: impinging droplet and inclined surface method optimized with high speed shadowgraphy, which give information about dynamic contact angle. This article presents the results of research into new methods of measuring ultra-hydrophobic patented technology.

  9. He-atom surface scattering apparatus for studies of crystalline surface dynamics. Progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant is the construction of a state-of-the-art He atom-crystal surface scattering apparatus which will be capable of measuring both elastic and inelastic scattering of He atoms from crystal surfaces of metals, semiconductors and insulators. First, the apparatus will be constructed and characterized, after which a program of studies on the surface dynamics of a variety of crystal surfaces will be started. 6 refs., 2 figs

  10. He atom surface spectroscopy: Surface lattice dynamics of insulators, metals and metal overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years of this grant (1985--1988) the effort was devoted to the construction of a state-of-the-art He atom scattering (HAS) instrument which would be capable of determining the structure and dynamics of metallic, semiconductor or insulator crystal surfaces. The second three year grant period (1988--1991) has been dedicated to measurements. The construction of the instrument went better than proposed; it was within budget, finished in the proposed time and of better sensitivity and resolution than originally planned. The same success has been carried over to the measurement phase where the concentration has been on studies of insulator surfaces, as discussed in this paper. The experiments of the past three years have focused primarily on the alkali halides with a more recent shift to metal oxide crystal surfaces. Both elastic and inelastic scattering experiments were carried out on LiF, NaI, NaCl, RbCl, KBr, RbBr, RbI, CsF, CsI and with some preliminary work on NiO and MgO

  11. Near-surface eddy dynamics in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Trani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC is a crucial component of the global ocean conveyor belt, acting as a zonal link among the major ocean basins but, to some extent, limiting meridional exchange and tending to isolate the ocean south of it from momentum and heat income. In this work we investigate one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the poleward transfer of properties in the Southern Ocean, that is the eddy component of the dynamics. For this particular purpose, observations obtained from near-surface drifters have been used: they represent a very useful data set to analyse the eddy field because of their ability to catch a large number of scales of motion while providing a quasi-synoptic coverage of the investigated area. Estimates of the eddy heat and momentum fluxes are carried out using data taken from the Global Drifter Program databank; they refer to Surface Velocity Program drifter trajectories collected in the area south of 35°S between 1995 and 2006. Eddy kinetic energies, variance ellipses, momentum and heat fluxes have been calculated using the pseudo-Eulerian method, showing patterns in good agreement with those present in the literature based on observational and model data, although there are some quantitative differences. The eddy fluxes have been separated into their rotational and divergent portions, the latter being responsible for the meridional transports. The associated zonal and depth-exponentially integrated meridional heat transport exhibits values spanning over a range between -0.4 PW and –1.1 PW in the ACC region, consistent with previous estimates.

  12. Effect of Surface Plasmon Coupling to Optical Cavity Modes on the Field Enhancement and Spectral Response of Dimer-Based sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The strong coupling is demonstrated by the large anticrossing in the reflection spectra and a Rabi splitting of 76 meV. Up to 2-fold enhancement increase can be achieved compared to that without using the cavity

  13. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.

    2000-01-01

    The static and dynamic structural behavior of superconducting cavities for various projects was determined by finite element structural analysis. The β = 0.61 cavity shape for the Neutron Science Project was studied in detail and found to meet all design requirements if fabricated from five millimeter thick material with a single annular stiffener. This 600 MHz cavity will have a Lorentz coefficient of minus1.8 Hz/(Mv/meter) 2 and a lowest structural resonance of more than 100 Hz. Cavities at β = 0.48, 0.61, and 0.77 were analyzed for a Neutron Science Project concept which would incorporate 7-cell cavities. The medium and high beta cavities were found to meet all criteria but it was not possible to generate a β = 0.48 cavity with a Lorentz coefficient of less than minus3 Hz/(Mv/meter) 2

  14. The hydrophobic effect: Molecular dynamics simulations of water confined between extended hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Structural and dynamic properties of water confined between two parallel, extended, either hydrophobic or hydrophilic crystalline surfaces of n-alkane C36H74 or n-alcohol C35H71OH, are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Electron density profiles, directly compared with corresponding......-correlation functions reveal that water molecules have characteristic diffusive behavior and orientational ordering due to the lack of hydrogen bonding interactions with the surface. These observations suggest that the altered dynamical properties of water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces together...... at both surfaces. The ordering is characteristically different between the surfaces and of longer range at the hydrophilic surface. Furthermore, the dynamic properties of water are different at the two surfaces and different from the bulk behavior. In particular, at the hydrophobic surface, time...

  15. Optodynamics: dynamic aspects of laser beam-surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Možina, J; Diaci, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the results of our original research in the area of laser-material interaction and pulsed laser material processing with a special emphasis on the dynamic aspects of laser beam-surface interaction, which include the links between the laser material removal and the resulting material motion. In view of laser material processing, a laser beam is not only considered as a tool but also as a generator of information about the material transformation. The information is retained and conveyed by different kinds of optically induced mechanical waves. Several generation/detection schemes have been developed to extract this information, especially in the field of non-destructive material evaluation. Blast and acoustic waves, which propagate in the air surrounding the work-piece, have been studied using microphone detection as well as various setups of the laser beam deflection probe. Stress waves propagating through the work-piece have been studied using piezoelectric transducers and laser interferometers.

  16. Validation of a laboratory method for evaluating dynamic properties of reconstructed equine racetrack surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Setterbo

    Full Text Available Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior.To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties.Track-testing device (TTD impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression.Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic. Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces.Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof impact (TTD.Dynamic impact properties of race surfaces

  17. Continuous wave vertical cavity surface emitting lasers at 2.5 μm with InP-based type-II quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprengel, S.; Andrejew, A.; Federer, F.; Veerabathran, G. K.; Boehm, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    A concept for electrically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for emission wavelength beyond 2 μm is presented. This concept integrates type-II quantum wells into InP-based VCSELs with a buried tunnel junction as current aperture. The W-shaped quantum wells are based on the type-II band alignment between GaInAs and GaAsSb. The structure includes an epitaxial GaInAs/InP and an amorphous AlF 3 /ZnS distributed Bragg reflector as bottom and top (outcoupling) mirror, respectively. Continuous-wave operation up to 10 °C at a wavelength of 2.49 μm and a peak output power of 400 μW at −18 °C has been achieved. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB for mesa diameters up to 14 μm is presented. The long emission wavelength and current tunability over a wavelength range of more than 5 nm combined with its single-mode operation makes this device ideally suited for spectroscopy applications

  18. Complex-enhanced chaotic signals with time-delay signature suppression based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to chaotic optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Duan, Yingni; Zhong, Zhuqiang

    2018-03-01

    A chaotic system is constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a slave VCSEL subject to chaotic optical injection (COI) from a master VCSEL with the external feedback. The complex degree (CD) and time-delay signature (TDS) of chaotic signals generated by this chaotic system are investigated numerically via permutation entropy (PE) and self-correlation function (SF) methods, respectively. The results show that, compared with master VCSEL subject to optical feedback, complex-enhanced chaotic signals with TDS suppression can be achieved for S-VCSEL subject to COI. Meanwhile, the influences of several controllable parameters on the evolution maps of CD of chaotic signals are carefully considered. It is shown that the CD of chaotic signals for S-VCSEL is always higher than that for M-VCSEL due to the CIO effect. The TDS of chaotic signals can be significantly suppressed by choosing the reasonable parameters in this system. Furthermore, TDS suppression and high CD chaos can be obtained simultaneously in the specific parameter ranges. The results confirm that this chaotic system may effectively improve the security of a chaos-based communication scheme.

  19. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J th ) of ∼3.5 kA/cm 2 , compared to the ITO VCSEL J th of 8 kA/cm 2 . The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL

  20. Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J. T., E-mail: jtleona01@gmail.com; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Margalith, T.; Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    We report on a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a III-nitride tunnel junction (TJ) intracavity contact. The violet nonpolar VCSEL employing the TJ is compared to an equivalent VCSEL with a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contact. The TJ VCSEL shows a threshold current density (J{sub th}) of ∼3.5 kA/cm{sup 2}, compared to the ITO VCSEL J{sub th} of 8 kA/cm{sup 2}. The differential efficiency of the TJ VCSEL is also observed to be significantly higher than that of the ITO VCSEL, reaching a peak power of ∼550 μW, compared to ∼80 μW for the ITO VCSEL. Both VCSELs display filamentary lasing in the current aperture, which we believe to be predominantly a result of local variations in contact resistance, which may induce local variations in refractive index and free carrier absorption. Beyond the analyses of the lasing characteristics, we discuss the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) regrowth of the TJ, as well as its unexpected performance based on band-diagram simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the intrinsic advantages of using a TJ intracavity contact in a VCSEL using a 1D mode profile analysis to approximate the threshold modal gain and general loss contributions in the TJ and ITO VCSEL.

  1. Chip-integrated plasmonic cavity-enhanced single nitrogen-vacancy center emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    High temporal stability and spin dynamics of individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond crystals make them one of the most promising quantum emitters operating at room temperature. We demonstrate a chip-integrated cavity-coupled emission into propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP...

  2. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  3. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through T_{c}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80  K/m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5 to 20  μT. We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results support and enforce the previous studies. We then analyze all rf measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. The sensitivity r_{fl} of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of dT/ds dependence of R_{fl}/B_{a} are also discussed.

  4. Dynamical modeling and experiment for an intra-cavity optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched self-mode-locking laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Nianqiao; Song, Peng; Zhang, Haikun

    2016-11-01

    The rate-equation-based model for the Q-switched mode-locking (QML) intra-cavity OPO (IOPO) is developed, which includes the behavior of the fundamental laser. The intensity fluctuation mechanism of the fundamental laser is first introduced into the dynamics of a mode-locking OPO. In the derived model, the OPO nonlinear conversion is considered as a loss for the fundamental laser and thus the QML signal profile originates from the QML fundamental laser. The rate equations are solved by a digital computer for the case of an IOPO pumped by an electro-optic (EO) Q-switched self-mode-locking fundamental laser. The simulated results for the temporal shape with 20 kHz EO repetition and 11.25 W pump power, the signal average power, the Q-switched pulsewidth and the Q-switched pulse energy are obtained from the rate equations. The signal trace and output power from an EO QML Nd3+: GdVO4/KTA IOPO are experimentally measured. The theoretical values from the rate equations agree with the experimental results well. The developed model explains the behavior, which is helpful to system optimization.

  5. Proposal of a fluid flow layout to improve the heat transfer in the active absorber surface of solar central cavity receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Ramos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of concentrated solar power is to increase the thermal energy of a fluid, for the fluid to be used, for example, in a power cycle to generate electricity. Such applications present the requirement of appropriately designing the receiver active absorber surface, as the incident radiation flux can be very high. Besides that, the solar image in the receiver is not uniform, so conventional boilers designs are not well suited for these purposes. That point is particularly critical in solar central receivers systems (CRS), where concentrated solar flux is usually above 500 kW/m 2 , causing thermal and mechanical stress in the absorber panels. This paper analyzes a new thermofluidynamic design of a solar central receiver, which optimizes the heat transfer in the absorber surface. This conceptual receiver presents the following characteristics: the fluid flow pattern is designed according to the radiation flux map symmetry, so more uniform fluid temperatures at the receiver outlet are achieved; the heat transfer irreversibilities are reduced by circulating the fluid from the lower temperature region to the higher temperature region of the absorber surface; the width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient, to get lower temperature differences between the side tubes of the same pass; and the cooling requirement is ensured by means of adjusting the fluid flow velocity per tube, taking into account the pressure drop. This conceptual scheme has been applied to the particular case of a molten salt single cavity receiver, although the configuration proposed is suitable for other receiver designs and working fluids. - Highlights: ► The solar receiver design proposed optimizes heat transfer in the absorber surface. ► The fluid flow pattern is designed according to the solar flux map symmetry at noon. ► The fluid circulates from the lower to the higher temperature regions. ► The width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient.

  6. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...

  7. JLab SRF Cavity Fabrication Errors, Consequences and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhauser, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, elliptical superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are preferably made from deep-drawn niobium sheets as pursued at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The fabrication of a cavity incorporates various cavity cell machining, trimming and electron beam welding (EBW) steps as well as surface chemistry that add to forming errors creating geometrical deviations of the cavity shape from its design. An analysis of in-house built cavities over the last years revealed significant errors in cavity production. Past fabrication flaws are described and lessons learned applied successfully to the most recent in-house series production of multi-cell cavities.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF AEROSOL GAS-DYNAMIC SUSPENSION CLEANING ON SURFACE OF THE AIRCRAFT PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly D. Hizhko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  The specificity of the surface microgeometry formation under the influence of aerosol gas-dynamic suspension flow was considered. The composition and character of metallic surface layer formation of aircraft parts was investigated. The possibility of surface material composition and properties adjustment changing aerosol gas-dynamic suspension flow parameters was determined. The hypothesis about the possibility of using aerosol gas-dynamic suspension flow to form corrosion-resistant coating on the detail metallic surfaces was set up.

  9. Atomistic interactions of clusters on surfaces using molecular dynamics and hyper molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Navarro, Carlos F.

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis describes the results of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations applied to the interaction of silver clusters with graphite surfaces and some numerical and theoretical methods concerning the extension of MD simulations to longer time scales (hyper-MD). The first part of this thesis studies the implantation of clusters at normal incidence onto a graphite surface in order to determine the scaling of the penetration depth (PD) against the impact energy. A comparison with experimental results is made with good agreement. The main physical observations of the impact process are described and analysed. It is shown that there is a threshold impact velocity above which the linear dependence on PD on impact energy changes to a linear dependence on velocity. Implantation of silver clusters at oblique incidence is also considered. The second part of this work analyses the validity and feasibility of the three minimisation methods for the hyper-MD simulation method whereby time scales of an MD simulation can be extended. A correct mathematical basis for the iterative method is derived. It is found that one of the iterative methods, upon which hyper-lD is based, is very likely to fail in high-dimensional situations because it requires a too expensive convergence. Two new approximations to the hyper-MD approach are proposed, which reduce the computational effort considerably. Both approaches, although not exact, can help to search for some of the most likely transitions in the system. Some examples are given to illustrate this. (author)

  10. New method to improve the accuracy of quench position measurement on a superconducting cavity by a second sound method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhenChao Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quench is a common phenomenon in a superconducting cavity and often limits the accelerating gradient of the cavity. Accurate location of the quench site, typically located at a material or geometrical defect, is the key to improve the cavity accelerating gradient. Here, the second sound propagation in liquid helium II is used to detect the quench location on the cavity. The technique is relatively convenient and complements the traditional temperature mapping which measures the “prequench” temperature rise on the cavity using an array of sensors. The speed of the second sound in liquid helium II is roughly 1.7  cm/ms at 2 K which is sufficiently fast to provide a millimeter-size position resolution. However, the dynamics of the quench at the cavity surface are also found to significantly affect the achievable resolution with real cavities. Here we use a dynamic quench model, based on ANSYS, to calculate the quench area and the temperature distribution on the cavity. The detection error caused by the thermal conduction in the niobium was calculated.

  11. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  12. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  13. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya

    2016-02-25

    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  14. Mapping Carrier Dynamics on Material Surfaces in Space and Time using Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jingya; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Shaheen, Basamat; Yang, Haoze; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    Selectively capturing the ultrafast dynamics of charge carriers on materials surfaces and at interfaces is crucial to the design of solar cells and optoelectronic devices. Despite extensive research efforts over the past few decades, information and understanding about surface-dynamical processes, including carrier trapping and recombination remains extremely limited. A key challenge is to selectively map such dynamic processes, a capability that is hitherto impractical by time-resolved laser techniques, which are limited by the laser’s relatively large penetration depth and consequently they record mainly bulk information. Such surface dynamics can only be mapped in real space and time by applying four-dimensional (4D) scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), which records snapshots of materials surfaces with nanometer spatial and sub-picosecond temporal resolutions. In this method, the secondary electron (SE) signal emitted from the sample’s surface is extremely sensitive to the surface dynamics and is detected in real time. In several unique applications, we spatially and temporally visualize the SE energy gain and loss, the charge carrier dynamics on the surface of InGaN nanowires and CdSe single crystals and its powder film. We also provide the mechanisms for the observed dynamics, which will be the foundation for future potential applications of S-UEM to a wide range of studies on material surfaces and device interfaces.

  15. Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser

    KAUST Repository

    Sedky, Sherif M.; Tawfik, Hani H.; Ashour, Mohamed; Graham, Andrew B.; Provine, John W.; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Xixiang; Howe, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel low thermal-budget technique for sealing micromachined cavities in silicon. Cavities are sealed without deposition, similar to the silicon surface-migration sealing process. In contrast to the 1100°C furnace anneal

  16. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  17. Enhancement of slope efficiency and output power in GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a SiO2-buried lateral index guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Masaru; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Akagi, Takanobu; Tazawa, Komei; Tanaka, Kazufumi; Saito, Tatsuma; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We have achieved a high output power of 6 mW from a 441 nm GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under continuous wave (CW) operation, by reducing both the internal loss and the reflectivity of the front cavity mirror. A preliminary analysis of the internal loss revealed an enormously high transverse radiation loss in a conventional GaN-based VCSEL without lateral optical confinement (LOC). Introducing an LOC structure enhanced the slope efficiency by a factor of 4.7, with a further improvement to a factor of 6.7 upon reducing the front mirror reflectivity. The result was a slope efficiency of 0.87 W/A and an external differential quantum efficiency of 32% under pulsed operation. A flip-chip-bonded VCSEL also exhibited a high slope efficiency of 0.64 W/A and an external differential quantum efficiency of 23% for the front-side output under CW operation. The reflectivity of the cavity mirror was adjusted by varying the number of AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector pairs from 46 to 42, corresponding to reflectivity values from 99.8% to 99.5%. These results demonstrate that a combination of internal loss reduction and cavity mirror control is a very effective way of obtaining a high output GaN-based VCSEL.

  18. Extrapolation of Inter Domain Communications and Substrate Binding Cavity of Camel HSP70 1A: A Molecular Modeling and Dynamics Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 is an important chaperone, involved in protein folding, refolding, translocation and complex remodeling reactions under normal as well as stress conditions. However, expression of HSPA1A gene in heat and cold stress conditions associates with other chaperons and perform its function. Experimental structure for Camel HSP70 protein (cHSP70 has not been reported so far. Hence, we constructed 3D models of cHSP70 through multi- template comparative modeling with HSP110 protein of S. cerevisiae (open state and with HSP70 protein of E. coli 70kDa DnaK (close state and relaxed them for 100 nanoseconds (ns using all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. Two stable conformations of cHSP70 with Substrate Binding Domain (SBD in open and close states were obtained. The collective mode analysis of different transitions of open state to close state and vice versa was examined via Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Minimum Distance Matrix (MDM. The results provide mechanistic representation of the communication between Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD and SBD to identify the role of sub domains in conformational change mechanism, which leads the chaperone cycle of cHSP70. Further, residues present in the chaperon functioning site were also identified through protein-peptide docking. This study provides an overall insight into the inter domain communication mechanism and identification of the chaperon binding cavity, which explains the underlying mechanism involved during heat and cold stress conditions in camel.

  19. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... metaheuristic for solving the vehicle routing problem with time .... them the dynamic programming formulation by Bradford [3] in 1961, the nonlinear pro- ..... The concept of multi-objective optimisation naturally gives rise to the ...

  20. Dynamic of the vapor near an evaporating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Timofeev, I.B.; Yusupaliev, U.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of a plasma-dynamic accelerator with a gas fill are studied. The dynamics of a dense plasma jet in air at atmospheric pressure was studied with the help of ultrafast photography and the schlieren technique. It is shown that for impulsive injection of a dense plasma jet into the atmosphere a spherical shock wave and a cloud of intensely radiating plasma, from which under certain conditions a stable long-lived toroidal or spherical plasma configuration forms, are produced

  1. New model for surface fracture induced by dynamical stress

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, J. V.; Lewis, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a model where an isotropic, dynamically-imposed stress induces fracture in a thin film. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study how the integrated fragment distribution function depends on the rate of change and magnitude of the imposed stress, as well as on temperature. A mean-field argument shows that the system becomes unstable for a critical value of the stress. We find a striking invariance of the distribution of fragments for fixed ratio of temperature and rate of ch...

  2. Droplet based cavities and lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The self-organized and molecularly smooth surface on liquid microdroplets makes them attractive as optical cavities with very high quality factors. This chapter describes the basic theory of optical modes in spherical droplets. The mechanical properties including vibrational excitation are also d...

  3. Friction and diffusion dynamics of adsorbates at surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusco, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical study of the motion of adsorbates (e. g. atoms, molecules or clusters) on solid surfaces is presented, with a focus on surface diffusion and atomic-scale friction. These two phenomena are inextricably linked, because when an atomic or molecular adsorbate diffuses, or is pulled, it

  4. Dynamics of wetting on smooth and rough surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazabat, A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of spreading of non-volatile liquids on smooth and on rough surfaces was investigated. The radius of the wetted spot was found to agree with recently proposed scaling laws (t 1/10 for capillarity driven andt 1/8 for gravity driven spreading) when the surface was smooth. However, the

  5. Coupling surface and mantle dynamics: A novel experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Agnes; Faccenna, Claudio; Funiciello, Francesca; Sembroni, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Recent modeling shows that surface processes, such as erosion and deposition, may drive the deformation of the Earth's surface, interfering with deeper crustal and mantle signals. To investigate the coupling between the surface and deep process, we designed a three-dimensional laboratory apparatus, to analyze the role of erosion and sedimentation, triggered by deep mantle instability. The setup is constituted and scaled down to natural gravity field using a thin viscous sheet model, with mantle and lithosphere simulated by Newtonian viscous glucose syrup and silicon putty, respectively. The surface process is simulated assuming a simple erosion law producing the downhill flow of a thin viscous material away from high topography. The deep mantle upwelling is triggered by the rise of a buoyant sphere. The results of these models along with the parametric analysis show how surface processes influence uplift velocity and topography signals.

  6. An experimental study of low Re cavity vortex formation embedded in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sashank; Lang, Amy; Wilroy, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Laminar boundary layer flow across a grooved surface leads to the formation of vortices inside rectangular cavities. The nature and stability of the vortex inside any single cavity is determined by the Re and cavity geometry. According to the hypothesis, under low Re and stable vortex conditions a single cavity vortex leads to a roller-bearing effect which results in a decrease in drag as quantified by velocity profiles measured within the boundary layer. At higher Re once the vortex becomes unstable, drag should increase due to the mixing of low-momentum fluid within the cavity and the outer boundary layer flow. The primary objective of this experiment is to document the phenomenon using DPIV in a tow tank facility. This study focuses on the transition of the cavity flow from a steady to an unsteady state as the Re is increased above a critical value. The change in boundary layer momentum and cavity vortex characteristics are documented as a function of Re and boundary layer thickness. Funding from NSF CBET fluid dynamics Grant 1335848 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. The Formation and Maintenance of the Dominant Southern Polar Crown Cavity of Cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karna, N.; Pesnell, W. D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Zhang, J. [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we report a study of the longest-lived polar crown cavity of Solar Cycle 24, using an observation from 2013, and propose a physical mechanism to explain its sustained existence. We used high temporal and spatial resolution observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO ) to explore the structure and evolution of the cavity. Although it existed for more than a year, we examined the circumpolar cavity in great detail from 2013 March 21 to 2013 October 31. Our study reinforces the existing theory of formation of polar crown filaments that involves two basic processes to form any polar crown cavity as well as the long-lived cavity that we studied here. First, the underlying polarity inversion line (PIL) of the circumpolar cavity is formed between (1) the trailing part of dozens of decayed active regions distributed in different longitudes and (2) the unipolar magnetic field in the polar coronal hole. Second, the long life of the cavity is sustained by the continuing flux cancellation along the PIL. The flux is persistently transported toward the polar region through surface meridional flow and diffusion. The continuing flux cancellation leads to the shrinking of the polar coronal hole.

  8. Dynamics of Phenanthrenequinone on Carbon Nano-Onion Surfaces Probed by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamontov, Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.; Overbury, Steven H.; Mavila Chathoth, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    We used quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to study the dynamics of phenanthrenequinone (PQ) on the surface of onion-like carbon (OLC), or so called carbon onions, as a function of surface coverage and temperature. For both the high- and low-coverage samples, we observed two diffusion processes; a faster process and nearly an order of magnitude slower process. On the high-coverage surface, the slow diffusion process is of long-range translational character, whereas the fast diffusion process is spatially localized on the length scale of ∼ 4.7. On the low-coverage surface, both diffusion processes are spatially localized; on the same length scale of ∼ 4.7 for the fast diffusion and a somewhat larger length scale for the slow diffusion. Arrhenius temperature dependence is observed except for the long-range diffusion on the high-coverage surface. We attribute the fast diffusion process to the generic localized in-cage dynamics of PQ molecules, and the slow diffusion process to the long-range translational dynamics of PQ molecules, which, depending on the coverage, may be either spatially restricted, or long-range. On the low-coverage surface, uniform surface coverage is not attained, and the PQ molecules experience the effect of spatial constraints on their long-range translational dynamics. Unexpectedly, the dynamics of PQ molecules on OLC as a function of temperature and surface coverage bears qualitative resemblance to the dynamics of water molecules on oxide surfaces, including practically temperature-independent residence times for the low-coverage surface. The dynamics features that we observed may be universal across different classes of surface adsorbates.

  9. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  10. Development of superconducting cavities at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    Development of superconducting (SC) cavities is continued for the high intensity proton accelerator in JAERI. In FY-1999, we carried out R and D work; (1) 2nd vertical test of β=0.886 single-cell cavity, (2) vertical test for observation of Q-disease without heat treatment after electropolishing, (3) vertical test of β=0.5 5-cell cavity, (4) pretuning, surface treatment and vertical test of β=0.886 5-cell cavity, (5) pulsed operation of β=0.886 single-cell cavity in the vertical test to confirm the validity of a new model calculation. This paper describes the present status of the R and D work for the SC cavities in JAERI. (author)

  11. Dynamics of transportan in bicelles is surface charge dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barany-Wallje, Elsa; Andersson, August; Graeslund, Astrid; Maeler, Lena [Stockholm University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories (Sweden)], E-mail: lena.maler@dbb.su.se

    2006-06-15

    In this study we investigated the dynamic behavior of the chimeric cell-penetrating peptide transportan in membrane-like environments using NMR. Backbone amide {sup 15}N spin relaxation was used to investigate the dynamics in two bicelles: neutral DMPC bicelles and partly negatively charged DMPG-containing bicelles. The structure of the peptide as judged from CD and chemical shifts is similar in the two cases. Both the overall motion as well as the local dynamics is, however, different in the two types of bicelles. The overall dynamics of the peptide is significantly slower in the partly negatively charged bicelle environment, as evidenced by longer global correlation times for all measured sites. The local motion, as judged from generalized order parameters, is for all sites in the peptide more restricted when bound to negatively charged bicelles than when bound to neutral bicelles (increase in S{sup 2} is on average 0.11 {+-} 0.07). The slower dynamics of transportan in charged membrane model systems cause significant line broadening in the proton NMR spectrum, which in certain cases limits the observation of {sup 1}H signals for transportan when bound to the membrane. The effect of transportan on DMPC and DHPC motion in zwitterionic bicelles was also investigated, and the motion of both components in the bicelle was found to be affected.

  12. Dynamics of transportan in bicelles is surface charge dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barany-Wallje, Elsa; Andersson, August; Graeslund, Astrid; Maeler, Lena

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the dynamic behavior of the chimeric cell-penetrating peptide transportan in membrane-like environments using NMR. Backbone amide 15 N spin relaxation was used to investigate the dynamics in two bicelles: neutral DMPC bicelles and partly negatively charged DMPG-containing bicelles. The structure of the peptide as judged from CD and chemical shifts is similar in the two cases. Both the overall motion as well as the local dynamics is, however, different in the two types of bicelles. The overall dynamics of the peptide is significantly slower in the partly negatively charged bicelle environment, as evidenced by longer global correlation times for all measured sites. The local motion, as judged from generalized order parameters, is for all sites in the peptide more restricted when bound to negatively charged bicelles than when bound to neutral bicelles (increase in S 2 is on average 0.11 ± 0.07). The slower dynamics of transportan in charged membrane model systems cause significant line broadening in the proton NMR spectrum, which in certain cases limits the observation of 1 H signals for transportan when bound to the membrane. The effect of transportan on DMPC and DHPC motion in zwitterionic bicelles was also investigated, and the motion of both components in the bicelle was found to be affected

  13. Influence of surface oxidation on ion dynamics and capacitance in porous and nonporous carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyatkin, Boris [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhang, Yu [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kolesnikov, Alexander I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, Yongqiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cummings, Peter T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Here, we investigate the influence of surface chemistry and ion confinement on capacitance and electrosorption dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in supercapacitors. Using air oxidation and vacuum annealing, we produced defunctionalized and oxygen-rich surfaces of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). While oxidized surfaces of porous CDCs improve capacitance and rate handling abilities of ions, defunctionalized nonporous GNPs improve charge storage densities on planar electrodes. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) probed the structure, dynamics, and orientation of RTIL ions confined in divergently functionalized pores. Oxidized, ionophilic surfaces draw ions closer to pore surfaces and enhance potential-driven ion transport during electrosorption. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations corroborated experimental data and demonstrated the significance of surface functional groups on ion orientations, accumulation densities, and capacitance.

  14. RF control studies for moderate beamtime coupling between SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.; Wang, D.X.

    1998-01-01

    When an SRF accelerator is designed, there is motivation to move the cavities close together on the beamline. Assuming the beamline apertures are not shrunk as well, this compaction (which will increase the overall accelerating gradient and/or lower the dynamic cryogenic heat load) increases the inter-cavity coupling. Within certain limits, the control system can compensate for this coupling by retuning each of the cavities. This paper describes constraints on the RF system, tuners, couplers, and control systems that are required to provide stable operation of cavities in the presence of inter-cavity coupling that exceeds the loaded bandwidth of an individual cavity

  15. 3D-CFD analysis of diffusion and emission of VOCs in a FLEC cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q; Kato, S; Murakami, S; Ito, K

    2007-06-01

    This study is performed as a part of research that examines the emission and diffusion characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from indoor building materials. In this paper, the flow field and the emission field of VOCs from the surface of building materials in a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) cavity are examined by 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The flow field within the FLEC cavity is laminar. With a total flow of 250 ml/min, the air velocity near the test material surface ranges from 0.1 to 4.5 cm/s. Three types of emission from building materials are studied here: (i) emission phenomena controlled by internal diffusion, (ii) emission phenomena controlled by external diffusion, and (iii) emission phenomena controlled by mixed diffusion (internal + external diffusion). In the case of internal diffusion material, with respect to the concentration distribution in the cavity, the local VOC emission rate becomes uniform and the FLEC works well. However, in the case of evaporation type (external diffusion) material, or mixed type materials (internal + external diffusion) when the resistance to transporting VOCs in the material is small, the FLEC is not suitable for emission testing because of the thin FLEC cavity. In this case, the mean emission rate is restricted to a small value, since the VOC concentration in the cavity rises to the same value as the surface concentration through molecular diffusion within the thin cavity, and the concentration gradient normal to the surface becomes small. The diffusion field and emission rate depend on the cavity concentration and on the Loading Factor. That is, when the testing material surface in the cavity is partially sealed to decrease the Loading Factor, the emission rate become higher with the decrease in the exposed area of the testing material. The flow field and diffusion field within the FLEC cavity are investigated by CFD method. After presenting a summary of the velocity

  16. On niobium sputter coated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Kaufmann, U.; Downar, H.

    1988-01-01

    To coat copper cavities with a thin film of niobium, facilities for electropolishing and sputter deposition have been installed at Dornier. Experiments have been performed on samples to optimize electropolishing and deposition parameters. In this paper, characteristics concerning surface properties, adhesion of the niobium film to the copper substrate, and film properties were studied on planar samples. A 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper was sputter coated twice. First rf measurements were performed in the temperature range from 300 K to 2 K

  17. Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2012-09-14

    We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.

  18. Surface dynamics and mechanics in liquid crystal polymer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Broer, Dirk J.

    2015-03-01

    Based on liquid crystal networks we developed `smart' coatings with responsive surface topographies. Either by prepatterning or by the formation of self-organized structures they can be switched on and off in a pre-designed manner. Here we provide an overview of our methods to generate coatings that form surface structures upon the actuation by light. The coating oscillates between a flat surface and a surface with pre-designed 3D micro-patterns by modulating a light source. With recent developments in solid state lighting, light is an attractive trigger medium as it can be integrated in a device for local control or can be used remotely for flood or localized exposure. The basic principle of formation of surface topographies is based on the change of molecular organization in ordered liquid crystal polymer networks. The change in order leads to anisotropic dimensional changes with contraction along the director and expansion to the two perpendicular directions and an increase in volume by the formation of free volume. These two effects work in concert to provide local expansion and contraction in the coating steered by the local direction of molecular orientation. The surface deformation, expressed as the height difference between the activated regions and the non-activated regions divided by the initial film thickness, is of the order of 20%. Switching occurs immediately when the light is switched `on' and `off' and takes several tens of seconds.

  19. Dynamic superhydrophobic behavior in scalable random textured polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, David; Park, Sung-hoon; Lee, Sangeui; Verma, Neil; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces, created from hydrophobic materials with micro- or nano- roughness, trap air pockets in the interstices of the roughness, leading, in fluid flow conditions, to shear-free regions with finite interfacial fluid velocity and reduced resistance to flow. Significant attention has been given to SH conditions on ordered, periodic surfaces. However, in practical terms, random surfaces are more applicable due to their relative ease of fabrication. We investigate SH behavior on a novel durable polymeric rough surface created through a scalable roll-coating process with varying micro-scale roughness through velocity and pressure drop measurements. We introduce a new method to construct the velocity profile over SH surfaces with significant roughness in microchannels. Slip length was measured as a function of differing roughness and interstitial air conditions, with roughness and air fraction parameters obtained through direct visualization. The slip length was matched to scaling laws with good agreement. Roughness at high air fractions led to a reduced pressure drop and higher velocities, demonstrating the effectiveness of the considered surface in terms of reduced resistance to flow. We conclude that the observed air fraction under flow conditions is the primary factor determining the response in fluid flow. Such behavior correlated well with the hydrophobic or superhydrophobic response, indicating significant potential for practical use in enhancing fluid flow efficiency.

  20. Preparation and handling of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Takaaki

    1990-01-01

    The present paper outlines the recent preparation methods for superconducting cavities used in various laboratories and universities, and reports the problems of the cavity fabrication at KEK as an example of mass production. Preparation and handling are first addressed, focusing on material, fabrication, surface treatment, rinsing, clean environment, and heat treatment. Cavity production at KEK is then described, centering on defects on the surface and clean environments. Field gradients of more than 20 MV/m have been obtained by 1.5-3 GHz single cavities, for multi-cell cavities Eacc of 10 MV/m are available at any frequency range. The successful construction of thirty-two cavities for TRISTAN at KEK is due to the careful checking of the surface and quality control of all processes against the surface defects and contaminations. Eacc of 5 MV/m has been achieved by 94 % of the TRISTAN cavities at the first cold test, but 6 % of them had to be reworked because of the surface defects. These defects could not be detected by an X-ray photograph or visual inspections during the fabrication processes. (N.K.)