WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface based instruments

  1. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.

  2. Instruments Sniff Organic Surface Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Matthew, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    Portable instruments detecting both nonvolatile and volatile organic surface contaminants in real time developed. Instruments easy to use: operate under ordinary ambient atmospheric conditions, without need to use messy liquid solvents or install and remove witness plates, and without need to cut specimens from surfaces to be inspected. Principle of detection involves sweeping pure, activated gas across surface spot inspected, then monitoring light emitted at wavelengths characteristic of excited molecules formed by chemical reactions between activated gas and contaminants. Gas activated by dc discharge, radio-frequency induction, microwave radiation, laser beam, hot filaments, or any other suitable means that excites some of gas molecules.

  3. Calibration and Industrial Application of Instrument for Surface Mapping based on AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the calibration and application of an integrated system for topographic characterisation of fine surfaces on large workpieces. The system, consisting of an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine, was especially designed for surface mapping, i.......e., measurement and tiling of adjacent areas. A calibration procedure was proposed involving a glass artefact featuring chromium lines with different pitch distances, giving the possibility to identify the exact position of single surface areas. The calibrated system was used to surface map a hip joint prosthesis...

  4. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  5. Surface Meteorological Instrumentation for BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although India has a long experience in ship-borne experiments and oceanographic instrumentation, the atmospheric component has not received much attention in the past. In this paper, the basis of the atmospheric instrumentation system assembled for use on board ORV Sagar Kanya for the BOBMEX- Pilot experiment ...

  6. Surface Imaging Skin Friction Instrument and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Naughton, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A surface imaging skin friction instrument allowing 2D resolution of spatial image by a 2D Hilbert transform and 2D inverse thin-oil film solver, providing an innovation over prior art single point approaches. Incoherent, monochromatic light source can be used. The invention provides accurate, easy to use, economical measurement of larger regions of surface shear stress in a single test.

  7. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  8. The new versatile general purpose surface-muon instrument (GPS) based on silicon photomultipliers for μSR measurements on a continuous-wave beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A; Luetkens, H; Sedlak, K; Stoykov, A; Scheuermann, R; Elender, M; Raselli, A; Graf, D

    2017-09-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of a new spectrometer for muon-spin relaxation/rotation studies installed at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Switzerland). This new instrument is essentially a new design and replaces the old general-purpose surface-muon (GPS) instrument that has been for long the workhorse of the μSR user facility at PSI. By making use of muon and positron detectors made of plastic scintillators read out by silicon photomultipliers, a time resolution of the complete instrument of about 160 ps (standard deviation) could be achieved. In addition, the absence of light guides, which are needed in traditionally built μSR instrument to deliver the scintillation light to photomultiplier tubes located outside magnetic fields applied, allowed us to design a compact instrument with a detector set covering an increased solid angle compared with the old GPS.

  9. In Situ Instrumentation for Sub-Surface Planetary Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Parsons, A.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Novel instrumentation is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, building upon earth-based techniques for hostile environments, to infer geochemical processes important to formation and evolution of solid bodies in our Solar System. A prototype instrument, the Pulsed Neutron Generator Gamma Ray and Neutron Detectors (PNG-GRAND), has a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator coupled with gamma ray and neutron detectors to measure quantitative elemental concentrations and bulk densities of a number of major, minor and trace elements at or below the surfaces with approximately a meter-sized spatial resolution down to depths of about 50 cm without the need to drill. PNG-GRAND's in situ a meter-scale measurements and adaptability to a variety of extreme space environments will complement orbital kilometer-scale and in-situ millimeter scale elemental and mineralogical measurements to provide a more complete picture of the geochemistry of planets, moons, asteroids and comets.

  10. Market-based Economic Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Grundkategorien her er markedet som den optimale allokeringsmekanisme for de belastninger, som de økonomiske instrumenter / miljøskatterne påfører. Det mest omfattende og spektakulære eksempel på markedet som allokatorer af skatter er EU's børs for forureningstilladelser, dvs reelt CO-2 beskatnin...

  11. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  12. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  13. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within...

  14. Interpreting the probe-surface interaction of surface measuring instruments, or what is a surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard; Weckenmann, Albert; Coupland, Jeremy; Hartmann, Wito

    2014-09-01

    When using dimensional measuring instruments it is assumed that there is a property of the object, which we call surface, that is present before during and after the measurement, i.e. the surface is a fundamental property of an object that can, by appropriate means, be used to measure geometry. This paper will attempt to show that the fundamental property ‘surface’ does not exist in any simple form and that all the information we can have about a surface is the measurement data, which will include measurement uncertainty. Measurement data, or what will be referred to as the measured surface, is all that really exists. In this paper the basic physical differences between mechanically, electromagnetically and electrically measured surfaces are highlighted and discussed and accompanied by measurement results on a roughness artefact.

  15. Interpreting the probe-surface interaction of surface measuring instruments, or what is a surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Weckenmann, Albert; Hartmann, Wito; Coupland, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    When using dimensional measuring instruments it is assumed that there is a property of the object, which we call surface, that is present before during and after the measurement, i.e. the surface is a fundamental property of an object that can, by appropriate means, be used to measure geometry. This paper will attempt to show that the fundamental property ‘surface’ does not exist in any simple form and that all the information we can have about a surface is the measurement data, which will include measurement uncertainty. Measurement data, or what will be referred to as the measured surface, is all that really exists. In this paper the basic physical differences between mechanically, electromagnetically and electrically measured surfaces are highlighted and discussed and accompanied by measurement results on a roughness artefact. (paper)

  16. Surface scattering efficiency of some common materials for shielding pulsed neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, L.; Becherini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Zoppi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the surface scattering efficiency of a new ceramic composite, based on boron carbide, that was recently proposed for use as a shielding material for pulsed neutron scattering instrumentation. The results show that, due to a relevant presence of clay material in the composite, the surface scattering efficiency is higher than other common shielding materials, which are used on pulsed neutron scattering instrumentation, and suggest revising the material composition.

  17. An international comparison of surface texture parameters quantification on polymer artefacts using optical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Haitjema, H.; Leach, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    An international comparison of optical instruments measuring polymer surfaces with arithmetic mean height values in the sub-micrometre range has been carried out. The comparison involved sixteen optical surface texture instruments (focus variation instruments, confocal microscopes and coherent...

  18. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...... surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within...

  19. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yugang; Kanouté, Pascale; François, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h max (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease

  20. Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments: part 3. Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments requires testing of the resolution. Several designs of artefact that allow testing of the resolution of such instruments are currently available; however, analysis methods need to be developed to provide comparable results. A novel method for determining the lateral resolution of areal surface topography measuring instruments is presented. The method uses a type ASP (star-shaped) material measure. To demonstrate the validity of the method, the resolution of a phase shifting interferometer was determined based on the ISO definition of the lateral period limit. Using the proposed method, the type ASP material measure, which is often used to judge qualitatively an instrument's resolution, can be used to quantitatively estimate the resolution of instruments using the topography data. (paper)

  1. Aerosol Observing System Surface Meteorology (AOSMET) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrouac, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observing System (AOS) surface meteorology instrument is an ancillary sensor that provides temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation data relevant to the AOS. It consists of a Vaisala WXT520 Weather Transmitter mounted on top of the AOS aerosol inlet, at a height of approximately 10 meters.

  2. Miniaturized ASIC-based multichannel scaler instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, M. N.; Turner, G. W.; McMillan, D. E.; Hoffheins, B. S.; Todd, R. A.; Hiller, J. M.

    1994-08-01

    A miniaturized multichannel scaler instrument has been developed to address size and operational constraints for data acquisition in a portable laser-induced luminescence system. The multichannel scaling (MCS) function is implemented as a programmable application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with standard interfaces for control and data acquisition. The instrument is microcontroller-based with sufficient computing power for data manipulation and algorithmic processing. The unit includes electronics for laser control and amplification and pulse height discrimination of PMT pulses. Modification of the instrument should allow use in nuclear, chemical, and spectroscopy-related applications including Mossbauer experiments (left bracket) 1,2 (right bracket). Interfaces are incorporated allowing both computer-controlled and stand-alone operation. Implementation of the MCS function as an ASIC and comparison with conventional implementations are discussed. Full characterization of the MCS is presented including differential non-linearity (DNL), bin dead time, and bandwidth measurements.

  3. Stratospheric Flight of Three Mars Surface Instrument Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T. L.; Neidholdt, E.; Banfield, D. J.; Kokorowski, M.; Kobie, B.; Diaz, E.; Gordon, S.; Doan, D.; Salami, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Analog Site Testbed for Readiness Advancement (ASTRA) is a high-altitude balloon platform for the testing of Mars surface instrument systems. In September 2012 three prototype instruments, a mass spectrometer and two anemometers, were taken to the 6 mbar pressure level of Earth's stratosphere (~34.5 km) above New Mexico to demonstrate their current capabilities and identify the critical path-to-flight steps for future advancement. Each of the instrument systems deployed on ASTRA were rated at TRL 4 at the start of the project. Through laboratory development, environmental testing, and the ASTRA balloon flight, each has advanced to an overall system TRL of 5, with specific subsystems reaching TRL 6. The results from the Rapid Acquisition Mass Spectrometer (RAMS), the Hot-Wire Anemometer (HWA), and the Single-Axis Sonic Anemometer (SASA) from the mid-September flight are presented, with focus given to both scientific results of the terrestrial atmospheric investigations, and the engineering and technical performance of the individual instrument systems and the balloon platform. The RAMS instrument has unique ion-imaging optics which permit the acquisition of a complete mass spectrum in a single CCD frame (~50 ms minimum). This allows RAMS to see rapid fluctuations in atmospheric constituents (necessary for the study of, for instance, vapor fluxes to and from the Mars surface) and has potential applications for laser ablation mass spectroscopy. The HWA is the latest generation of hot-wire anemometer, with heritage from the Mars Pathfinder MET instrument, and the ATMIS sensors developed for the Mars Polar Lander and the NetLander project. In addition to wind speed, a thermocouple cage around the hot filament detects heat plume direction, thus permitting 2-D wind vectors to be established. The SASA is a proof-of-capability device for an eventual three-axis sonic anemometer design. Developed under PIDDP funding by Dr. Don Banfield of Cornell (thus a contributed

  4. Multipotenciostat System Based on Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta-Almario Álvaro Angel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this project an electronic multichannel system of electrochemical measurement or multipotenciostat was developed. It is based on the cyclic voltammetry measurement technique, controlled by a computer that monitors, by means of an electronic circuit, both the voltage generated from the Pc and supplied to an electrolytic cell, and the current that flows through the electrodes of it. To design the application software and the user interface, Virtual Instrumentation was used. On the other hand, to perform the communication between the multipotenciostat circuit and the designed software, the National Instruments NI9263 and NI9203 acquisition modules were used. The system was tested on a substance with a known REDOX property, as well as to discriminate and classify some samples of coffee.

  5. Optical Roughness Measuring Instrument For Fine-Machined Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Rainer; Gerstorfer, Oskar; Thurn, Gerd

    1985-06-01

    The roughness measuring instrument described is based on light scattering and is suitable in a wide range of applications, especially in micro-machining. The most important properties are the sensitivity in the measuring range from below 0.005 i.im up to 2µm (Ra value), the independence of the reflection coefficient due to normalization, and the larger tolerance of measur-ing distance of +/-2 mm.

  6. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  7. Web based remote instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhekne, P.S.; Patil, Jitendra; Kulkarni, Jitendra; Babu, Prasad; Lad, U.C.; Rahurkar, A.G.; Kaura, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Web-based technology provides a very powerful communication medium for transmitting effectively multimedia information containing data generated from various sources, which may be in the form of audio, video, text, still or moving images etc. Large number of sophisticated web based software tools are available that can be used to monitor and control distributed electronic instrumentation projects. For example data can be collected online from various smart sensors/instruments such as images from CCD camera, pressure/ humidity sensor, light intensity transducer, smoke detectors etc and uploaded in real time to a central web server. This information can be processed further, to take control action in real time from any remote client, of course with due security care. The web-based technology offers greater flexibility, higher functionality, and high degree of integration providing standardization. Further easy to use standard browser based interface at the client end to monitor, view and control the desired process parameters allow you to cut down the development time and cost to a great extent. A system based on a web client-server approach has been designed and developed at Computer division, BARC and is operational since last year to monitor and control remotely various environmental parameters of distributed computer centers. In this paper we shall discuss details of this system, its current status and additional features which are currently under development. This type of system is typically very useful for Meteorology, Environmental monitoring of Nuclear stations, Radio active labs, Nuclear waste immobilization plants, Medical and Biological research labs., Security surveillance and in many such distributed situations. A brief description of various tools used for this project such as Java, CGI, Java Script, HTML, VBScript, M-JPEG, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP etc. along with their merits/demerits have also been included

  8. Performance verification of Surface Mapping Instrument developed at CGM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    of the instrument was the development of stitching software. Successful stitching of AFM scans is demonstrated in this report. Single data files in the millimetre range can be obtained, which are entirely based on AFM probing. High definition of nanostructures can therefore be combined with a measuring range......: • A synthetic image featuring a 2D pattern for testing the stitching code performance • An optical standard containing several line patterns, for testing the whole measuring system (AFM-CMM-software) Quantitative analysis was based on: • Dimensional parameters based on the cross correlation function; these were...... calculated over the synthetic image, and the result of several partitioning and stitching operations, respectively. • FFT and dimensional measurements performed on the lines patterns resulting from stitching of single AFM scans. Deviations below 1% were experienced when measuring dimensions of several...

  9. Surface topography of machined fibre reinforced plastics obtained by stylus instruments and optical profilometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Else; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    1998-01-01

    by stylus instruments and by optical profilometers. The measurements were performed on machined surfaces with three distinct different roughness levels. The materials were two thermoplastics, polyoxymethylene and polypropylene, reinforced with short glass fibres. The two stylus instruments gave almost...

  10. Larmor-precession based neutron scattering instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Larmor precession of the neutron spin in a magnetic field allows the attachment of a Larmor clock to every neutron. Such Larmor labelling opens the possibility for the development of unusual neutron scattering techniques, where the energy (momentum) resolution does not require the initial and final states to be well selected. This principally allows for achievement of very high energy (momentum) resolution that is not feasible at all with conventional neutron scattering techniques, because the required neutron beam monochromatization (collimation) will result in intolerable intensity losses. Such decoupling of resolution and collimation allows, for example, for a significant increase in the luminosity of small-angle scattering or high-resolution diffractometers; the fact that opens new perspectives for their implementation at middle flux neutron sources. Different kinds of Larmor clock-based instrumentation, particularly two alternative NSE techniques using rotating and time-gradient magnetic field arrangements, which can be considered as inexpensive and affordable alternatives to present day NSE techniques, will be discussed and results of simulations and first experiments will be presented. (author)

  11. Research on Web-Based Networked Virtual Instrument System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, B P; Xu, C; He, Q Y; Lu, D

    2006-01-01

    The web-based networked virtual instrument (NVI) system is designed by using the object oriented methodology (OOM). The architecture of the NVI system consists of two major parts: client-web server interaction and instrument server-virtual instrument (VI) communication. The web server communicates with the instrument server and the clients connected to it over the Internet, and it handles identifying the user's name, managing the connection between the user and the instrument server, adding, removing and configuring VI's information. The instrument server handles setting the parameters of VI, confirming the condition of VI and saving the VI's condition information into the database. The NVI system is required to be a general-purpose measurement system that is easy to maintain, adapt and extend. Virtual instruments are connected to the instrument server and clients can remotely configure and operate these virtual instruments. An application of The NVI system is given in the end of the paper

  12. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  13. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  14. Influence of different instrumentation modalities on the surface characteristics and biofilm formation on dental implant neck, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kristina Emily; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Heumann, Christian; Frankenberger, Roland; Eick, Sigrun; Sculean, Anton; Arweiler, Nicole Birgit

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate surface characteristics of implants after using different instruments and biofilm formation following instrumentation. Thirty-five commercially available dental implants were embedded into seven plastic models, attached to a phantom head and randomly assigned to seven instrumentation groups: (1) stainless steel (SSC) or (2) titanium curettes (TC); air-polisher using glycine-based (3) perio (PP) or (4) soft (SP) powders or (5) erythritol powder (EP); and an ultrasonic device using (6) stainless steel (PS) or (7) plastic-coated instruments (PI). Half of each implant neck in each group (n = 5) was treated once (30 s), while the other half was left uninstrumented (control). An eighth (8) treatment group used a bur/polisher to smooth two implants (SM). Following instrumentation implants were rinsed (5 ml Ringer's solution), analysed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and subjected twice (separately) to bacterial colonization with Streptococcus gordonii (2 h) and a mixed culture (S. gordonii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia; 24 h). Visual assessment of SEM pictures revealed surface modifications (smoothening to roughening) following instrumentation. These alterations differed between the instrument groups and from the control. Quantitative scoring of the photographs revealed that SSC caused a significantly rougher surface compared to other instruments (P  0.05) were evident between instrumented or control surfaces in either culture. Overall, no significant differences were observed in the surface characteristics (except for SSC) or bacterial colonization based on one-time instrumentation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  16. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  17. Market-based instruments for environmental management: politics and institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The contributors examine the role of political processes in designing, introducing and implementing green taxes and charges and analyse the extent to which political concerns complicate the approach favoured by environmental economists. The authors then focus on the implementation of market-based......-based instruments to achieve environmental objectives and offer an ex-post evaluation of different countries’ experiences with economic instruments....

  18. Application of instrument transfer function to a fringe projection system for measuring rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Davies, Angela; Ziegert, John; Evans, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    When fringe projection profilometry is used for measuring rough/textured surfaces, the fidelity of the measurement is subject to the spatial frequency response. The instrument transfer function (ITF) is one appealing approach to characterize this property. The foundation of ITF analysis is based on the linear theory; only linear systems are appropriate for ITF analysis. A fringe projection system is intrinsically nonlinear, but it can be approximated as a linear system when certain conditions are met. Here we investigate the linear conditions of a custom fringe projection system designed for an additive manufacturing application. The applicability of ITF is discussed through mathematical analysis and simulations.

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  20. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  2. A Review of the Various Surface Treatments of NiTi Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of engine-driven nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, attempts have been made to minimize or eliminate their inherent defects, increase their surface hardness/flexibility and also improve their resistance to cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency. The various strategies of enhancing instrument surface include ion implantation, thermal nitridation, cryogenic treatment and electropolishing. The purpose of this paper was to review the metallurgy and crystal characteristics of NiTi alloy and to present a general over review of the published articles on surface treatment of NiTi endodontic instruments.

  3. Comparison of the Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity Using Different Instrument Configurations of MICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjie Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Imager Combined Active/Passive (MICAP has been designed to simultaneously retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS, sea surface temperature (SST and wind speed (WS, and its performance has also been preliminarily analyzed. To determine the influence of the first guess values uncertainties on the retrieved parameters of MICAP, the retrieval accuracies of SSS, SST, and WS are estimated at various noise levels. The results suggest that the errors on the retrieved SSS have not increased dues poorly known initial values of SST and WS, since the MICAP can simultaneously acquire SST information and correct ocean surface roughness. The main objective of this paper is to obtain the simplified instrument configuration of MICAP without loss of the SSS, SST, and WS retrieval accuracies. Comparisons are conducted between three different instrument configurations in retrieval mode, based on the simulation measurements of MICAP. The retrieval results tend to prove that, without the 23.8 GHz channel, the errors on the retrieved SSS, SST, and WS for MICAP could also satisfy the accuracy requirements well globally during only one satellite pass. By contrast, without the 1.26 GHz scatterometer, there are relatively large increases in the SSS, SST, and WS errors at middle/low latitudes.

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  6. Ultra-morphology of root surface subsequent to periodontal instrumentation: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare root surface characteristic following root planing with various hand and power driven instruments. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 single rooted teeth were used in this study, of which two specimens were used as control (no instrumentation done and remaining 18 specimens were equally divided into three groups. Specimens from each group were then subjected to root planing by one of the following instruments: (1 a Gracey curette (2 Ultrasonic tip and (3 a Rotary bur. In each case, the time required for scaling and root planing was measured. After treatment, the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope and surface roughness was measured by using Roughness and loss of tooth substance index (RLTSI. Results: The mean RLTSI scores for Gracey curette, ultrasonic and rotary instrument group were 2.5, 2.0 and 0.667 respectively. The mean scores of time spent for scaling and root planing by Gracey curette, ultrasonic and rotary instrument group in seconds were 42.50, 35.83 and 54.50. Conclusion: All the three instruments namely Gracey curette, Ultrasonic tip and Rotary bur were effective in mechanical debridement of root surface. The results favoured the use of rotary instruments for root planing to achieve smooth clean root surface; however, the use of rotary instrument was more time consuming which might limit its use in clinical practice.

  7. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  8. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  9. Calibration guidelines for surface texture instruments - horizontal axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Shem, R. Krüger

    The present report is a documentation of the work carried out at DTU, on TASK 5.1: PROCEDURES FOR CALIBRATION IN X- AND Y- DIRECTION the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale. After a short introduc...

  10. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  12. Noncontact three-dimensional evaluation of surface alterations and wear in NiTi endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiano Guerra; Barbosa, Igor Bastos; Scelza, Pantaleo; Montagnana, Marcello Bulhões; Russano, Daniel; Neff, John; Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative assessment of nanoscale alterations and wear on the surfaces of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments, before and after use, through a high-resolution, noncontact, three-dimensional optical profiler, and to verify the accuracy of the evaluation method. Cutting blade surfaces of two different brands of NiTi endodontic instruments, Reciproc R25 (n = 5) and WaveOne Primary (n = 5), were examined and compared before and after two uses in simulated root canals made in clear resin blocks. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional images which were obtained from surface areas measuring 211 × 211 µm, located 3 mm from their tips. The quantitative evaluation of the samples was conducted before and after the first and second usage, by the recordings of three amplitude parameters. The data were subjected to statistical analysis at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed statistically significant increases in the surface wear of both instruments groups after the second use. The presence of irregularities was found on the surface topography of all the instruments, before and after use. Regardless of the evaluation stage, most of the defects were observed in the WaveOne instruments. The three-dimensional technique was suitable and effective for the accurate investigation of the same surfaces of the instruments in different periods of time.

  13. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  14. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  15. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  16. Calibration of Nacelle-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements....

  17. Calibration of Nacelle-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a four-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark.Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements...... with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements....

  18. Effects of ultrasonic instrumentation on enamel surfaces with various defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-Y; Kang, M-K; Kang, S-M; Kim, H-E

    2018-03-13

    The aim of this study was to analyse the enamel damage caused by ultrasonic scaling of teeth with various enamel conditions that are difficult to identify by visual inspection, such as enamel cracks, early caries and resin restorations. In total, 120 tooth surfaces were divided into 4 experimental groups using a quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital system: sound enamel group, enamel cracks group, early caries group and resin restoration group. A skilled dental hygienist performed ultrasonic scaling under a standardized set of conditions: a ≤ 15° angle between the scaler tip and tooth surface and 40-80 g of lateral pressure at the rate of 12 times/10 s. Following scaling, the depth of enamel damage was measured using a surface profilometer and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The damage depth was the greatest in the enamel cracks group (37.63 ± 34.42 μm), followed by the early caries group (26.81 ± 8.67 μm), resin restoration group (19.63 ± 6.73 μm) and the sound enamel group (17.00 ± 5.66 μm). The damage depth was significantly deeper in the enamel cracks and early caries groups than in the sound enamel group (P cracks, early caries and resin restoration groups. The results of this study suggest that ultrasonic scaling can cause further damage to teeth with enamel cracks, early caries and resin restorations. Therefore, accurate identification of tooth conditions and calculus before the initiation of ultrasonic scaling is necessary to minimize damage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Airborne Instrument Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global coverage with a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  20. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available

  1. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available.

  2. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  3. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  4. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given....

  5. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  6. EPROM-based LSI-11 for distributed instrumentation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The LLNL Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility (NCCF) is being converted to a modern production facility. A computer network has been designed and built to implement this conversion. The outermost node of the computer network is a dedicated EPROM-based controller. The controller handles the details of driving the attached nuclear instrumentation, providing a standard interface to the remainder of the network. This paper addresses the design and the implementation of the dedicated instrumentation controller

  7. A Portable Pesticide Residues Detection Instrument Based on Impedance Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a design of portable pesticide residues detection instrument was presented based on an impedance immunosensor. The immunosensor exploited the novel multilayer films based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs and polyaniline/carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes- chitosan nanocomposite (PANI/MWCNTs/CS. The detection principle of the instrument was based on the electrochemical characteristic of antigen-specific antibody immune response. With a stronger signal generated from the antigen-specific antibody immune response, the signal detection circuit was designed more easily. We integrated immunosensor and signal detection circuit to fabricate pesticide residues detection instrument. This proposed instrument could realize the rapid detection of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables with automatic data processing and presented the result on the spot. The impedance test error was less than 5 %. The results showed that the proposed instrument had a good consistence compared with the traditional analytical methods. Thus, it would be a promising rapid detection instrument for pesticide residues in agricultural products.

  8. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Airflow resistivity instrument for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An airflow resistivity instrument features a novel specimen holder, especially designed for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface. This capability eliminates the disadvantages of prior intrusive instruments, which necessitate the removal of a test specimen from the ground. A prototype instrument can measure airflow resistivities in the range 10-5000 cgs rayl/cm, at specimen depths up to 15.24 cm (6 in.), and at differential pressures up to 2490.8 dyn sq cm (1 in. H2O) across the specimen. Because of the close relationship between flow resistivity and acoustic impedance, this instrument should prove useful in acoustical studies of the earth's ground surface. Results of airflow resistivity measurements on an uncultivated grass field for varying values of moisture content are presented.

  10. Parallel Study of HEND, RAD, and DAN Instrument Response to Martian Radiation and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniez Sierra, Luz Maria; Jun, Insoo; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear detection methods are being used to understand the radiation environment at Mars. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) assets on Mars include: Orbiter -2001 Mars Odyssey [High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND)]; Mars Science Laboratory Rover -Curiosity [(Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD); Dynamic Albedo Neutron (DAN))]. Spacecraft have instruments able to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Instrument response on orbit and on the surface of Mars to space weather and local conditions [is discussed] - Data available at NASA-PDS (Planetary Data System).

  11. Computer-based instrumentation for partial discharge detection in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Enamul Haque; Ahmad Darus; Yaacob, M.M.; Halil Hussain; Feroz Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Partial discharge is one of the prominent indicators of defects and insulation degradation in a Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS). Partial discharges (PD) have a harmful effect on the life of insulation of high voltage equipment. The PD detection using acoustic technique and subsequent analysis is currently an efficient method of performing non-destructive testing of GIS apparatus. A low cost PC-based acoustic PD detection instrument has been developed for the non-destructive diagnosis of GIS. This paper describes the development of a PC-based instrumentation system for partial discharge detection in GIS and some experimental results have also presented. (Author)

  12. Large area window on vacuum chamber surface for neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kenji; Suzuki, Junichi; Teraoku, Takuji; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a large area window using a thin aluminum plate on the surface of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments at a pulsed neutron source was investigated. In the prototype investigation for a window with an area of 1m×1.4m and a thickness of 1 mm, the measured pressure dependence of the displacement agreed well with a calculation using a nonlinear strain–stress curve up to the plastic deformation region. In addition, we confirmed the repetition test up to 2000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which is sufficient for the lifetime of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments. Based on these investigations, an actual model of the window to be mounted on the vacuum chamber of the High Resolution Chopper Spectrometer (HRC) at J-PARC was designed. By using a calculated stress distribution on the window, the clamping structure capable of balancing the tension in the window was determined. In a model with a structure identical to the actual window, we confirmed the repetition test over more than 7000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which shows a lifetime long enough for the actual usage of the vacuum chamber on the HRC.

  13. Deriving aerosol properties from measurements of the Atmosphere-Surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Xin; Xie, Yisong; Liu, Enchao

    2015-10-01

    The Atmosphere-surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI) is a newly developed hyper-spectral apparatus by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (AIOFM, CAS), measuring total spectral irradiance, diffuse spectral irradiance of atmosphere and reflected radiance of the land surface for the purpose of in-situ calibration. The instrument applies VIS-SWIR spectrum (0.4~1.0 μm) with an averaged spectral resolution of 0.004 μm. The goal of this paper is to describe a method of deriving both aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol modes from irradiance measurements under free cloudy conditions. The total columnar amounts of water vapor and oxygen are first inferred from solar transmitted irradiance at strong absorption wavelength. The AOD together with total columnar amounts of ozone and nitrogen dioxide are determined by a nonlinear least distance fitting method. Moreover, it is able to infer aerosol modes from the spectral dependency of AOD because different aerosol modes have their inherent spectral extinction characteristics. With assumption that the real aerosol is an idea of "external mixing" of four basic components, dust-like, water-soluble, oceanic and soot, the percentage of volume concentration of each component can be retrieved. A spectrum matching technology based on Euclidean-distance method is adopted to find the most approximate combination of components. The volume concentration ratios of four basic components are in accordance with our prior knowledge of regional aerosol climatology. Another advantage is that the retrievals would facilitate the TOA simulation when applying 6S model for satellite calibration.

  14. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Sébastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, François; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak™ 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  15. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Gensdarmes, Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thomas, Dominique [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, LSGC/CNRS, Nancy Universite, BP 2041, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak{sup x2122} 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  16. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  17. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  18. Design of reactor alarm instrument based on SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Lu Yi; Rong Ru

    2008-01-01

    The design of embedded alarm instrument in reactors based on Nios II CPU is introduced in this paper. This design uses the SOPC technology based on the Cyclone series FPGA as a digital bench, and connects the MPU and drivers and interface of times, RS232, sdram,and etc. into a FPGA chip. It is proved that the system achieves the design goals in primary experimentation. (authors)

  19. A New Instrument for Testing Wind Erosion by Soil Surface Shape Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-xing Hai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion, a primary cause of soil degeneration, is a problem in arid and semiarid areas throughout the world. Many methods are available to study soil erosion, but there is no an effective method for making quantitative measurements in the field. To solve this problem, we have developed a new instrument that can measure the change in the shape of the soil surface, allowing quick quantification of wind erosion. In this paper, the construction and principle of the new instrument are described. Field experiments are carried out using the instrument, and the data are analyzed. The erosion depth is found to vary by 11% compared to the average for measurement areas ranging from 30×30 cm2 to 10×10 cm2. The results show that the instrument is convenient and reliable for quantitatively measuring wind erosion in the field.

  20. Instrumental research method of qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshina, S. I.; Galeeva, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The article analyzes the practice of waste management in Russia. The system of target indicators of the efficient landfills functioning is formalized. The method of instrumental analysis of concentration and qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of the Samosyrovo landfill is presented.

  1. Response of three instruments devoted to surface-area for monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols in molecular and transition regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Gensdarmes, Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomas, Dominique, E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes (LRGP), groupe SAFE, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20041, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2011-07-06

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment. Indeed, our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP are still under development. Several studies have already identified surface-area as an important determinant of low solubility nanoparticles toxicity. As a consequence, the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to low solubility airborne NP has been proposed [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on diffusion charging. The actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration are studied in this work: LQ1-DC (Matter Engineering), AeroTrak{sup TM} 9000 (TSI) and NSAM (TSI model 3550). Their performances regarding monodisperse carbon NP have been investigated by Bau et al.. This work aims at completing the instruments characterization regarding monodisperse NP of other chemical composition (aluminium, copper, silver) and studying their performances against polydisperse aerosols of NP.

  2. Response of three instruments devoted to surface-area for monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols in molecular and transition regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, Francois; Thomas, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment. Indeed, our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP are still under development. Several studies have already identified surface-area as an important determinant of low solubility nanoparticles toxicity. As a consequence, the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to low solubility airborne NP has been proposed [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on diffusion charging. The actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration are studied in this work: LQ1-DC (Matter Engineering), AeroTrak T M 9000 (TSI) and NSAM (TSI model 3550). Their performances regarding monodisperse carbon NP have been investigated by Bau et al.. This work aims at completing the instruments characterization regarding monodisperse NP of other chemical composition (aluminium, copper, silver) and studying their performances against polydisperse aerosols of NP.

  3. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  4. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  5. Microcantilever array instrument based on optical fiber and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Wu, Lin; Li, Chao; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2017-07-01

    We developed a microcantilever array biosensor instrument based on optical readout from a microcantilever array in fluid environment. The microcantilever signals were read out sequentially by laser beams emitted from eight optical fibers. The optical fibers were coupled to lasers, while the other ends of the fibers were embedded in eight V-grooves with 250 μm pitch microfabricated from a Si wafer. Aspherical lens was used to keep the distance between lasers. A programmable logic controller was used to make the system work stably. To make sure that the output of lasers was stable, a temperature controller was set up for each laser. When the deflection signal was collected, lasers used here were set to be on for at least 400 ms in each scanning cycle to get high signal-to-noise ratio deflection curves. A test was performed by changing the temperature of the liquid cell holding a microcantilever array to verify the consistent response of the instrument to the cantilever deflections. The stability and conformance of the instrument were demonstrated by quantitative detection of mercury ions in aqueous solution and comparison detection of clenbuterol by setting test and reference cantilevers. This microcantilever array detection instrument can be applied to highly sensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules in fluid environment.

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didierjean, B.; Jobez, J-P.; Seguinot, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1997-01-01

    A Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) is currently manufactured in the framework of the tests of LHC-B collaboration. These extremely fast and sensible detectors (95% efficiency and 1 ns time accuracy for a single electron) could be utilized in many other applications: long base neutrino oscillations and possibly, HELLAZ. The model consists of an array of 2,048 1 x 1 mm 2 on Si strips of 50 mm thickness placed in glass cylinders of 127 mm diameter provided with Si windows and containing focalization electrodes. The electron circuits on 16 VA3 readout ceramic chips where designed, realized and tested. The stainless steel base card provided with 40 vacuum holes was already realised. The first production tests of visible light bi-alkali photocathodes operating in high vacuum will be performed soon. The design of the RICH2 counter (covering polar angles from 12 to 120 mrad) has been modified by turning the 120 mrad mirror to increase the spectrometer luminosity, i.e. to increase the length of the radiation path in gas by a factor of two. A second mirror sends the image in a region behind the magnetic field return, a region well-shielded from the LHC interaction zone. This design will provided 28 points for a β = 1 tracks and an angular uncertainty of 0.34 mrad per point. To cover the entire image 115 HPD will be necessary. The reconstruction of the complex systems of rings has been recently accomplished for events typical for RICH2, downstream, to discriminate between pions and kaons between 16 and 180 GeV/c. A simulation of 3,068 tracks has produced only 19 erroneous identifications, i.e. 0.6%. Another, simulation of 1,989 tracks with the RICH upstream resulted in 39 erroneous π/K identification, i.e. 2%. The report presents also the long base RICH experiment for detecting neutrino oscillations. A new version of 100 m length and 18.6 m diameter (27 kt of water) provided with HPDs of 250 mm diameter with 85 6 x 6 mm 2 arrays has been designed. Fifty such detectors will be

  7. Method for controlling a coolant liquid surface of cooling system instruments in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monta, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To prevent coolant inventory within a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant from being varied depending on loads thereby relieving restriction of varied speed of coolant flow rate to lowering of a liquid surface due to short in coolant. Structure: Instruments such as a superheater, an evaporator, and the like, which constitute a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant, have a plurality of free liquid surface of coolant. Portions whose liquid surface is controlled and portions whose liquid surface is varied are adjusted in cross-sectional area so that the sum total of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as a superheater provided with an annulus portion in the center thereof and an inner cylindrical portion and a down-comer in the side thereof comes equal to that of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as an evaporator similar to the superheater. which is provided with an overflow pipe in its inner cylindrical portion or down-comer, thereby minimizing variation in coolant inventory of the entire coolant due to loads thus minimizing variation in varied speed of the coolant. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R; O'Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-01-01

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the deployed

  9. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R; O' Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-05-07

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the

  10. Effects of electropolishing surface treatment on the cyclic fatigue resistance of BioRace nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Victor T L; Moreira, Edson J L; Marques, Raquel V L; de Oliveira, Julio C Machado; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of electropolishing surface treatment on the number of cycles to fracture of BioRace rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. BioRace size BR5C instruments with or without electropolishing surface treatment were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm until fracture. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polished instruments displayed a significantly higher number of cycles to fracture when compared with nonpolished instruments (P machining grooves. Electropolishing surface treatment of BioRace endodontic instruments significantly increased the cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the distinction between instrumented indentation technique and x-ray diffraction method in nondestructive or semi-nondestructive surface stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of machined surface layer on stress measurement by means of instrumented indentation technique and X-ray diffraction method was comparatively investigated through the use of three weld specimens of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with different machined surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished specimens. Tensile and compressive stresses exist respectively in the machined surface layer of as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens. Meanwhile, no stress and no machined surface layer exist in electrolytically-polished specimen. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) bead-on-plate welding was performed under the same welding heat input condition to introduce the residual stress into these three specimens. Against these three specimens, firstly the X-ray diffraction method was applied, then the instrumented indentation technique was applied and finally the stress relief technique was applied to measure the distributions of residual stress after welding. Based on a comparison between these stress measurement results, the instrumented indentation technique was in good agreement with the stress relief technique rather than the X-ray diffraction method, even though both machined surface layer and penetration of indenter had almost the same depths. That is why it can be considered that the instrumented indentation technique measures the residual stress in deeper areas of material surface than penetration depth of indenter. A distinction between the instrumented indentation technique and X-ray diffraction method in surface stress measurement was thus clarified from a viewpoint of measurement depth. (author)

  12. From Landsat through SLI: Ball Aerospace Instrument Architecture for Earth Surface Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, P. R.; Gilmore, A. S.; Malone, K. J.; Kampe, T. U.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Landsat legacy spans more than forty years of moderate resolution, multi-spectral imaging of the Earth's surface. Applications for Landsat data include global environmental change, disaster planning and recovery, crop and natural resource management, and glaciology. In recent years, coastal water science has been greatly enhanced by the outstanding on-orbit performance of Landsat 8. Ball Aerospace designed and built the Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument on Landsat 8, and is in the process of building OLI 2 for Landsat 9. Both of these instruments have the same design however improved performance is expected from OLI 2 due to greater image bit depth (14 bit on OLI 2 vs 12 bit on OLI). Ball Aerospace is currently working on two novel instrument architectures applicable to Sustainable Land Imaging for Landsat 10 and beyond. With increased budget constraints probable for future missions, technological improvements must be included in future instrument architectures to enable increased capabilities at lower cost. Ball presents the instrument architectures and associated capabilities enabling new science in past, current, and future Landsat missions.

  13. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-20

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  14. Effect of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces: A SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurparkash Singh Chahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A surface smear layer consisting of organic and inorganic material is formed on the root surface following mechanical instrumentation and may inhibit the formation of new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. Modification of the tooth surface by root conditioning has resulted in improved connective tissue attachment and has advanced the goal of reconstructive periodontal treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on the instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces in vitro using a scanning electron microscope. Settings and Design: A total of 45 dentin samples obtained from 15 extracted, scaled, and root planed teeth were divided into three groups. Materials and Methods: The root conditioning agents were applied with cotton pellets using the "Passive burnishing technique" for 5 minutes. The samples were then examined by the scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows. For all quantitative variables means and standard deviations were calculated and compared. For more than two groups ANOVA was applied. For multiple comparisons post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction was used. Results: Upon statistical analysis the root conditioning agents used in this study were found to be effective in removing the smear layer, uncovering and widening the dentin tubules and unmasking the dentin collagen matrix. Conclusion: Tetracycline HCl was found to be the best root conditioner among the three agents used.

  15. Decontamination of radionuclide strontium polluted the analog instruments surface by high stable foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Gaolong; Chen Shuai; Lin Xiaoyan; Luo Xuegang

    2014-01-01

    Decontamination of the radionuclide strontium polluted the analog instruments surface radionuclide strontium by foam, where the high stable foam detergent was prepared by Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a foaming agent and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a foam stabilizer. The effects of adding a foam stabilizer hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) on foam stability and the volume of drainage liquid were discussed and contact time, foaming agent concentration, temperature, humidity on foam decontamination efficiency of the analog instruments surface by radionuclide strontium were observed. The results show that there has been a significant increase of foam stability with the increase of HEC addition, the volume of drainage liquid was decrease from 7.8 g to 0 g and the half decay time of foam was extended from 305 seconds to 1050 seconds after the HEC addition increase from 0 % to 3%. The half decay time increase with the continue to increase of HEC addition but decrease of the foamability. The foam drainage speed up with the increase of temperture, the foam will burst rapidly when the temperture is higer than 600 ℃. The high table foam has a effective decontamination efficiency between 88%∼95%. contact time, foaming agent concentration, humidity do not much affect on the foam decontamination. In order to reduce the affect of volume of drainage liquid on the precision instrument, the contact time should control in 3 min. (authors)

  16. Characterization of the Effect of Wing Surface Instrumentation on UAV Airfoil Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently proposed flight research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has prompted study into the aerodynamic effects of modifications made to the surfaces of laminar airfoils. The research is focused on the high-aspect ratio, laminar-flow type wings commonly found on UAVs and other aircraft with a high endurance requirement. A broad range of instrumentation possibilities, such as structural, pressure, and temperature sensing devices may require the alteration of the airfoil outer mold line as part of the installation process. This study attempts to characterize the effect of installing this additiona1 instrumentation on key airfoil performance factors, such as transition location, lift and drag curves, and stall point. In particular, the general case of an airfoil that is channeled in the spanwise direction is considered, and the impact on key performance characteristics is assessed. Particular attention is focused on exploring the limits of channel depth and low-Reynolds number on performance and stall characteristics. To quantify the effect of increased skin friction due to premature transition caused by protruding or recessed instrumentation, two simplified, conservative scenarios are used to consider two potential sources of diaturbance: A) that leading edge alterations would cause linearly expanding areas (triangles) of turbulent flow on both surfaces of the wing upstream of the natural transition point, and B) that a channel or bump on the upper surface would trip turbulent flow across the whole upper surface upstream of the natural transition point. A potentially more important consideration than the skin friction drag increment is the change in overall airfoil performance due to the installation of instrumentation along most of the wingspan. To quantify this effect, 2D CFD simulations of the flow over a representative mid-span airfoil section were conducted in order to assess the change in lift and drag curves for the airfoil in the presence of

  17. Microseismic Monitoring Using Sparse Surface Network of Broadband Instruments: Western Canada Shale Play Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenier, E.; Baturan, D.; Karimi, S.

    2016-12-01

    network and the use of broadband instrumentation. The results indicate that sparse surface networks of high quality instruments can provide rich and reliable datasets for evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of hydraulic fracture operations in regions with favorable surface noise, local stress and attenuation characteristics.

  18. Innovative instrumentation for mineralogical and elemental analyses of solid extraterrestrial surfaces: The Backscatter Moessbauer Spectrometer/X Ray Fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelfer, T. D.; Morris, Richard V.; Nguyen, T.; Agresti, D. G.; Wills, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a four-detector research-grade backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) instrument with low resolution x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) capability. A flight-qualified instrument based on this design would be suitable for use on missions to the surfaces of solid solar-system objects (Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.). Target specifications for the flight instrument are as follows: mass less than 500 g; volumes less than 300 cu cm; and power less than 2 W. The BaMS/XRF instrument would provide data on the oxidation state of iron and its distribution among iron-bearing mineralogies and elemental composition information. This data is a primary concern for the characterization of extraterrestrial surface materials.

  19. FPGA-Based Instrumentation for the Fermilab Antiproton Source

    CERN Document Server

    Ashmanskas, Bill; Kiper, Terry; Peterson, David

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and built low-cost, low-power, ethernet-based circuit boards to apply DSP techniques to several instrumentation upgrades in the Fermilab Antiproton Source. Commodity integrated circuits such as direct digital synthesizers, D/A and A/D converters, and quadrature demodulators enable digital manipulation of RF waveforms. A low cost FPGA implements a variety of signal processing algorithms in a manner that is easily adapted to new applications. An embedded microcontroller provides FPGA configuration, control of data acquisition, and command-line interface. A small commercial daughter board provides an ethernet-based TCP/IP interface between the microcontroller and the Fermilab accelerator control network. The board is packaged as a standard NIM module. Applications include Low Level RF control for the Debuncher, readout of transfer-line Beam Position Monitors, and narrow-band spectral analysis of diagnostic signals from Schottky pickups.

  20. Virtual Instrumentation for a Fiber-Optics-Based Artificial Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Kyaw, Thet Mon; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A LabView-based computer interface for fiber-optic artificial nerves has been devised as a Masters thesis project. This project involves the use of outputs from wavelength multiplexed optical fiber sensors (artificial nerves), which are capable of producing dense optical data outputs for physical measurements. The potential advantages of using optical fiber sensors for sensory function restoration is the fact that well defined WDM-modulated signals can be transmitted to and from the sensing region allowing networked units to replace low-level nerve functions for persons desirous of "intelligent artificial limbs." Various FO sensors can be designed with high sensitivity and the ability to be interfaced with a wide range of devices including miniature shielded electrical conversion units. Our Virtual Instrument (VI) interface software package was developed using LabView's "Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench" package. The virtual instrument has been configured to arrange and encode the data to develop an intelligent response in the form of encoded digitized signal outputs. The architectural layout of our nervous system is such that different touch stimuli from different artificial fiber-optic nerve points correspond to gratings of a distinct resonant wavelength and physical location along the optical fiber. Thus, when an automated, tunable diode laser sends scans, the wavelength spectrum of the artificial nerve, it triggers responses that are encoded with different touch stimuli by way wavelength shifts in the reflected Bragg resonances. The reflected light is detected and a resulting analog signal is fed into ADC1 board and DAQ card. Finally, the software has been written such that the experimenter is able to set the response range during data acquisition.

  1. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  2. AGE (Argon Geochronology Experiment): An Instrument for Geochronology on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, T. D.; Bode, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Kring, D. A.; Williams, M.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Cremers, D. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Baldwin, S. L.

    2003-01-01

    As our knowledge of the planet Mars continues to grow, one parameter that remains elusive is the absolute chronology of the planet s geological history. Although crater counts have provided a robust relative chronology, impactor fluxes are poorly enough known that there are places on Mars where the absolute age is uncertain by a factor of two or more. To resolve these uncertainties, it will be necessary to either analyze well-documented samples returned to the Earth from the Martian surface or to perform in situ measurements with sufficient precision. Sample return is still at least a decade away, and even then it might be from a biologically interesting area that might be geologically complex. Hence an in situ measurement, within an uncertainty of 20% or better, could greatly improve our knowledge of the history of Mars. With funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), we have been working on an instrument to perform potassium-argon (K-Ar) and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) dating in situ on the surface of Mars. For either of these techniques, it is necessary to measure the abundance of one or more major or minor elements (K in the case of KAr; all majors and minors in the case of CRE) and the abundance and isotopes composition of a noble gas (Ar in the case of K-Ar; He, Ne and Ar for CRE dating). The technology for either of these types of measurements exists, but has never before been integrated for a spacecraft. We refer to the instrument as AGE, the Argon Geochronology Experiment (although we will measure the noble gases He and Ne as well for CRE ages). We report here on the basic components that go into such an instrument, both those that use existing technology and those that had to be developed to create the integrated package.

  3. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  4. Cyclic fatigue comparison among endodontic instruments with similar cross section and different surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, Eugenio; Plotino, Gianluca; Scibilia, Mauro; Grande, Nicola M; DE Santis, Daniele; Pardo, Alessia; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of rotary instruments' geometry and surface titanium-nitride (TiN) treatment on the fatigue fracture, through the comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of two endodontic systems that have similar cross-sectional design and different surface coating. 130 Mtwo (10/.04; 15/.05; 20/.06; 25/.06; 30/.05; 35/.04; 40/.04) and Easy Shape (15/.04; 20/.05; 25/.06; 30/.05; 35/.04; 40/.04) were tested for cyclic fatigue resistance. Time to fracture (TtF) was determined by counting the seconds of continuous rotation until final fracture in an artificial canal with 60° angle and a 5 mm radius of curve. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post-hoc tests. Mtwo perform a significantly (P0,05). Mtwo exhibit a higher NCF thanks to the smaller metal volume contained in their core. Titanium-nitride coating doesn't influence the performance of Easy Shape instruments on static test of cyclic fatigue.

  5. Innovative instrumentation for VVERs based in non-invasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanneau, H.; Favennec, J.M.; Tournu, E.; Germain, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants such as VVERs can greatly benefit from innovative instrumentation to improve plant safety and efficiency. In recent years innovative instrumentation has been developed for PWRs with the aim of providing additional measurements of physical parameters on the primary and secondary circuits: the addition of new instrumentation is made possible by using non-invasive techniques such as ultrasonics and radiation detection. These innovations can be adapted for upgrading VVERs presently in operation and also in future VVERs. The following innovative instrumentation for the control, monitoring or testing at VVERs is described: 1. instrumentation for more accurate primary side direct measurements (for a better monitoring of the primary circuit); 2. instrumentation to monitor radioactivity leaks (for a safer plant); 3. instrumentation-related systems to improve the plant efficiency (for a cheaper kWh)

  6. [Photoelectric parametric test system of LED based on virtual instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Tao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Li-Dong; Liang, Pei; Dong, Qian-Min

    2014-11-01

    The standardized measuring principle, requirements and implementations of the above parameters of LEDs were researched and analyzed in the present paper. Then a comprehensive test system involved with optics, machinery and computer was designed to accomplish data acquisition, algorithm design and interface design on virtual instrument using NI data acquisition card USB6210. And convincing results of LEDs' parameters, including peak wavelength, width of half-peak wavelength, centroid wavelength, chromaticity coordinates, purity, correlated color temperature and the forward voltage/current, were achieved with good consistency based on the measured spectrum. The system owns simple interface, reliable algorithms and stable results. Respective measurements on five kinds of color of LED result in an average error less than 3%, which show an ideal performance of the system.

  7. Smart phone-based Chemistry Instrumentation: Digitization of Colorimetric Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Byoung Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a mobile instrumentation platform based on a smart phone using its built-in functions for colorimetric diagnosis. The color change as a result of detection is taken as a picture through a CCD camera built in the smart phone, and is evaluated in the form of the hue value to give the well-defined relationship between the color and the concentration. To prove the concept in the present work, proton concentration measurements were conducted on pH paper coupled with a smart phone for demonstration. This report is believed to show the possibility of adapting a smart phone to a mobile analytical transducer, and more applications for bioanalysis are expected to be developed using other built-in functions of the smart phone

  8. Comparative evaluation of hand and power-driven instruments on root surface characteristics: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare root surface characteristics following root planing with various hand- and power-driven instruments. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 single, rooted teeth were used in this study; two specimens were used as control (no instrumentation done and the remaining 18 specimens were equally divided into three groups. Specimens from each group were then subjected to root planing by one of the following instruments: (1 a Gracey curette, (2 ultrasonic tip and (3 a Rotary bur. In each case, the time required for scaling and root planing and surface roughness using the Roughness and Loss of Tooth Substance Index (RLTSI was measured. Result: The mean RLTSI scores for the Gracey curette, ultrasonic and rotary instrument groups were 2.5, 2.0 and 0.667, respectively. The mean scores of time spent for scaling and root planing by the Gracey curette, ultrasonic and rotary instrument groups in seconds were 42.50, 35.83 and 54.50, respectively. Conclusions: All the three instruments, namely Gracey curette, ultrasonic tip and rotary bur, were effective in mechanical debridement of the root surface. The results favored the use of rotary instruments for root planing to achieve a smooth, clean root surface; however, the use of rotary instrument was more time consuming, which might limit its use in clinical practice.

  9. Investigation of Titan's surface and atmosphere photometric functions using the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Thomas; Altobelli, Nicolas; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, Robert; Barnes, Jason; Buratti, Bonnie; Baines, Kevin; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    After 106 flybys spread over 10 years, the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument acquired 33151 hyperspectral cubes pointing at the surface of Titan on the dayside. Despite this huge amount of data available for surface studies, and due to the strong influence of the atmosphere (methane absorption and haze scattering), Titan's surface is only visible with VIMS in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centred at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns. Atmospheric scattering and absorption effects dominate Titan's spectrum at wavelengths shorter than 3 microns, while the 5 micron window, almost insensitive to the haze scattering, only presents a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by VIMS. In all cases, the recorded I/F represents an apparent albedo, which depends on the atmospheric contributions and the surface photometry at each wavelength. We therefore aim to determine real albedo values for Titan's surface by finding photometric functions for the surface and the atmosphere that could be used as a basis for empirical corrections or Radiative Transfer calculations. After updating the navigation of the VIMS archive, we decomposed the entire VIMS data set into a MySQL relational database gathering the viewing geometry, location, time (season) and I/F (for pure atmosphere and surface-atmosphere images) for each pixel of the 33151 individual VIMS cubes. We then isolated all the VIMS pixels where Titan's surface has been repeatedly imaged at low phase angles (< 20 degrees) in order to characterize phase curves for the surface at 5 microns and for the atmosphere. Among these, the T88 flyby appears noteworthy, with a "Emergence-Phase Function (EPF)"-type observation: 25 cubes acquired during the same flyby, over the same area (close to Tortola Facula, in relatively dark terrains), at a constant incidence and with varying emergence and phase (from 0 to 60 degrees) angles. The data clearly exhibit an increase

  10. Unattended instruments for ground-based hyperspectral measurements: development and application for plant photosynthesis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, S.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Barducci, A.; Julitta, T.; Colombo, R.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is the development of ground-based hyperspectral systems capable of collecting continuous and long-term hyperspectral measurements of the Earth-surface. The development of such instruments includes the optical design, the development of the data acquisition (Auto3S) and processing software as well as the definition of the calibration procedures. In particular an in-field calibration methodologie based on the comparison between field spectra and data modeled using Radiative Transfer (RT) approach has been proposed to regularly upgrade instrument calibration coefficients. Two different automatic spectrometric systems have been developed: the HyperSpectral Irradiometer (HSI) [Meroni et al., 2011] and the Multiplexer Radiometer Irradiometer (MRI) [Cogliati, 2011]. Both instruments are able to continuously measure: sun incoming irradiance (ETOT) and irradiance (ES, HSI)/radiance (LS, MRI) upwelling from the investigated surface. Both instruments employ two Ocean Optics HR4000 spectrometers sharing the same optical signal that allow to simultaneously collect "fine" (1 nm Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM) spectra in the 400-1000 nm rangeand "ultra-fine" (0.1 nm FWHM) spectra within the 700-800 nm. The collected optical data allow to estimate biochemical/structural properties of vegetation (e.g. NDVI) as well as its photosynthetic efficiency through the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and the analysis of sun-induced chlorophyll Fluorescence in the O2-A Fraunhofer line (F@760). The automatic instruments were operated in coordination with eddy covariance flux tower measurements of carbon exchange in the framework of several field campaigns: HSI was employed in a subalpine pasture (2009-ongoing) (www.phenoalp.eu) while MRI was employed in 2009 in the Sen3Exp field survey promoted by the European Space Agency as consolidation study to the future mission Sentinel-3. Results show that the proposed instruments succeeded in collecting continuous

  11. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  12. Development of a Novel Multispectral Instrument for Handheld and UAS Measurements of Surface Albedo; First Applications for Glaciers in the Peruvian Andes and for Nevada's Black Rock Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, J. M.; Stevens, C.; Arnott, W. P.; Watts, A.; All, J.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate atmospheric aerosol characteristics derived from satellite measurements are needed over a variety of land surfaces. Nonhomogeneous and bright surface reflectance across California and Nevada may be a contributing factor in the discrepancies observed between ground based and satellite-retrieved atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD). We developed and deployed a compact and portable instrument to measure albedo to evaluate a major factor that influences the accuracy of AOD retrievals. The instrument will be operated on an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to control areal averaging for comparison with satellite derived albedo from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A handheld version of the instrument was mounted on a trekking pole and used for obtaining in situ glacier albedo measurements in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru during the summer of 2017. The instrument weighs approximately 433 g and consists of two parts, a mountable, payload portion (300 g) which houses the sensors, and a handheld screen (133 g) to display real-time data from the payload portion. Both parts are powered by a 9V battery and run on a Teensy 3.6/3.2 microcontroller. To retrieve albedo, two micro-spectrometers manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, each with a spectral range of 340 -780 nm, are utilized; one for obtaining the downwelling solar radiation and the other for measuring the solar radiation reflected from the surface. Additional components on the instrument include temperature, pressure and humidity sensors with a one second time response; a GPS for position and altitude; an infrared sensor to measure ground temperature; a digital level and compass for orienting the instrument; a camera for taking photos of the sky and surface; a radio for two-way communication between the screen display and sensor payload; and a micro SD card for recording data. We will present the instrument design along with surface albedo measurements for glaciers of the Peruvian

  13. Morphological change study on root surfaces treated with curettes, sonic instruments or Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes Filho, Arlindo Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque and dental calculus on roots surfaces, specially on cervical areas. As dental plaque is the main cause and dental calculus a secondary one, it is practically impossible to separate one factor to the other one. In order to get periodontal tissue health it is necessary to eliminate dental plaque and calculus from root surfaces. In this sense, Er:YAG laser comes in as an excellent way to control periodontal disease, not only, by removing calculus and dental plaque but also for its bacteria reduction. The aim of this study is to compare, by S.E.M., root surfaces changing when they are treated with curettes and ultrasonic scaling or Er:YAG laser irradiation with two different energy levels of 60 mJ/pulse and 100 mJ/pulse and repetition tax of 10 Hz (in the display). It is also objective of this study to check a possible thermic damage to pulp tissue when the roots surfaces are irradiated with Er:YAG laser. We used for this study, five human dental roots, each one of them were cut into four samples, giving us a total of twenty samples, which were divided in five groups of four samples each one. The control group, we did not indicated any kind of treatment. The first group, the roots samples were scaled and planned with Gracey curettes 5/6 and 7/8. The second group, the roots samples were treated with ultrasonic instruments. The third group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 60 mJ/pulse , 10 Hz and energy density of 4 J/cm 2 (approximated). The fourth group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and energy density of 7 J/cm 2 (approximated). The results analysis showed that roots scaling either with Gracey curettes or with ultrasonic instruments created smear layer covering roots surfaces; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed few roughness in the third group; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed no smear layer and the Er:YAG laser irradiation did not bring any thermic damage

  14. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures

  15. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  16. A Universal Motor Performance Test System Based on Virtual Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology universal motors play a more and more important role in daily life and production, they have been used in increasingly wide field and the requirements increase gradually. How to control the speed and monitor the real-time temperature of motors are key issues. The cost of motor testing system based on traditional technology platform is very high in many reasons. In the paper a universal motor performance test system which based on virtual instrument is provided. The system achieves the precise control of the current motor speed and completes the measurement of real-time temperature of motor bearing support in order to realize the testing of general-purpose motor property. Experimental result shows that the system can work stability in controlling the speed and monitoring the real-time temperature. It has advantages that traditional using of SCM cannot match in speed, stability, cost and accuracy aspects. Besides it is easy to expand and reconfigure.

  17. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    for teaching skills with GeoGebra, as well as an entrepreneurial attitude towards mathematics. Using the instrumental approach I discuss how open ended transdisciplinary design activities can support instrumental genesis, by considering the extent to which the pupils address mathematical knowledge...

  18. A comparison of root surface instrumentation using manual, ultrasonic and rotary instruments: An in vitro study using scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Marda

    2012-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: The RCI and LTSI showed nonsignificant differences between the three groups. RLTSI showed a significant difference between Slimline™ and hand curette as well as Slimline™ and Desmo-Clean™. Slimline™ showed the least mean scores for RCI, LTSI, and RLTSI. Thus, even though the difference was not statistically significant, Slimline™ insert was shown to be better than the other methods as assessed by the indices scores and the instrumentation time.

  19. PCI express hotplug implementation for ATCA based instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, António P. [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Rita C., E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, António J.N. [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Hotplug capabilities are designed as an expected or graceful methodology in which the user is not permitted to install or remove a PCIe endpoint device without first notifying the system software. • Hotswap capabilities allow endpoints or PCIe switches with endpoints to be inserted or removed from a PCIe system gracefully or unexpectedly without special consideration. • ATCA, advanced telecommunication computer architecture is a new specification with high availability and high reliability key features which improves data acquisition systems. • Data acquisition systems are used almost everywhere and a demand in the nuclear fusion research field. • Nuclear fusion is a future alternative for power and energy resources generation for world humanity consumption. - Abstract: This paper describes a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) hotplug and hotswap capability implementation for advanced telecommunication computer architecture (ATCA) based instrumentation. PCIe hotplug provides card insertion and removal capability from a running PCIe-based platform without causing system damages and not requiring an entire system shutdown. PCIe hotswap allows endpoints or PCIe switches with endpoint cards to be inserted or removed from a PCIe system gracefully or unexpectedly without special considerations. Control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) cards need to be replaced from a system for fault-condition repair, hardware malfunction, firmware updates or upgrades and hardware reconfiguration. ATCA specification key features such as high reliability and high availability for C&DAQ systems strongly benefits from these capabilities taking advantage from Redhat Enterprise Linux, installed operating system, and corresponding kernel with built-in mechanisms and embedded software modules for hotplug and hotswap support. PCIe hotplug and hotswap implemented solutions in the ATCA-based prototype provides described capabilities to the C&DAQ and PCIe switch

  20. An Electron Beam Profile Instrument Based on FBGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sporea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application.

  1. Hopes and Cautions for Instrument-Based Evaluation of Consent Capacity: Results of a Construct Validity Study of Three Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Jennifer; Azar, Annin R.; Karel, Michele J.; Gurrera, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Does instrument based evaluation of consent capacity increase the precision and validity of competency assessment or does ostensible precision provide a false sense of confidence without in fact improving validity? In this paper we critically examine the evidence for construct validity of three instruments for measuring four functional abilities important in consent capacity: understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and expressing a choice. Instrument based assessment of these abilities is compared through investigation of a multi-trait multi-method matrix in 88 older adults with mild to moderate dementia. Results find variable support for validity. There appears to be strong evidence for good hetero-method validity for the measurement of understanding, mixed evidence for validity in the measurement of reasoning, and strong evidence for poor hetero-method validity for the concepts of appreciation and expressing a choice, although the latter is likely due to extreme range restrictions. The development of empirically based tools for use in capacity evaluation should ultimately enhance the reliability and validity of assessment, yet clearly more research is needed to define and measure the constructs of decisional capacity. We would also emphasize that instrument based assessment of capacity is only one part of a comprehensive evaluation of competency which includes consideration of diagnosis, psychiatric and/or cognitive symptomatology, risk involved in the situation, and individual and cultural differences. PMID:27330455

  2. Studying Titan's surface photometry in the 5 microns atmospheric window with the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, T.; Altobelli, N.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Philippe, S.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the influence of methane gas and a thick aerosols haze in the atmosphere, Titan's surface is only visible in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centered at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns with the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The 5 microns atmospheric window constitutes the only one being almost insensitive to the haze scattering and which presents only a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by the instrument. Despite these advantages leading to the almost direct view of the surface, the 5 microns window is also the noisiest spectral window of the entire VIMS spectrum (an effect highly dependent on the time exposure used for the observations), and it is not totally free from atmospheric contributions, enough to keep "artefacts" in mosaics of several thousands of cubes due to atmospheric and surface photometric effects amplified by the very heterogeneous viewing conditions between each Titan flyby. At first order, a lambertian surface photometry at 5 microns has been used as an initial parameter in order to estimate atmospheric opacity and surface photometry in all VIMS atmospheric windows and to determine the albedo of the surface, yet unknown, both using radiative transfer codes on single cubes or empirical techniques on global hyperspectral mosaics. Other studies suggested that Titan's surface photometry would not be uniquely lambertian but would also contain anisotropic lunar-like contributions. In the present work, we aim at constraining accurately the surface photometry of Titan and residual atmospheric absorption effects in this 5 microns window using a comprehensive study of relevant sites located at various latitudes. Those include bright and dark (dunes) terrains, 5-microns bright terrains (Hotei Regio and Tui Regio), the Huygens Landing Site and high latitudes polar lakes and seas. The VIMS 2004 to 2014 database, composed of more than 40,000 hyperspectral cubes acquired on

  3. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  4. Methodologies for Removing/Desorbing and Transporting Particles from Surfaces to Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla J.; Cespedes, Ernesto R.

    2012-12-01

    Explosive trace detection (ETD) continues to be a key technology supporting the fight against terrorist bombing threats. Very selective and sensitive ETD instruments have been developed to detect explosive threats concealed on personnel, in vehicles, in luggage, and in cargo containers, as well as for forensic analysis (e.g. post blast inspection, bomb-maker identification, etc.) in a broad range of homeland security, law enforcement, and military applications. A number of recent studies have highlighted the fact that significant improvements in ETD systems' capabilities will be achieved, not by increasing the selectivity/sensitivity of the sensors, but by improved techniques for particle/vapor sampling, pre-concentration, and transport to the sensors. This review article represents a compilation of studies focused on characterizing the adhesive properties of explosive particles, the methodologies for removing/desorbing these particles from a range of surfaces, and approaches for transporting them to the instrument. The objectives of this review are to summarize fundamental work in explosive particle characterization, to describe experimental work performed in harvesting and transport of these particles, and to highlight those approaches that indicate high potential for improving ETD capabilities.

  5. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  6. Use of modern software - based instrumentation in safety critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.; Smith, B.

    2005-01-01

    Many Nuclear Power Plants are now ageing and in need of various degrees of refurbishment. Installed instrumentation usually uses out of date 'analogue' technology and is often no longer available in the market place. New technology instrumentation is generally un-qualified for nuclear use and specifically the new 'smart' technology contains 'firmware', (effectively 'soup' (Software of Uncertain Pedigree)) which must be assessed in accordance with relevant safety standards before it may be used in a safety application. Particular standards are IEC 61508 [1] and the British Energy (BE) PES (Programmable Electronic Systems) guidelines EPD/GEN/REP/0277/97. [2] This paper outlines a new instrument evaluation system, which has been developed in conjunction with the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper concludes with a discussion about on-line monitoring of Smart instrumentation in safety critical applications. (author)

  7. Instrumentation for PSD based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC). The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here. (author)

  8. Instrumentation for PSD-based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S. S.; Borkar, S. P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V. D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.; Kataria, S. K.

    2004-08-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system [1] is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers [2], shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC) [3]. The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here.

  9. Merging Old and New: An Instrumentation-Based Introductory Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    An instrumentation-based laboratory curriculum combining traditional unknown analyses with student-designed projects has been developed for an introductory analytical chemistry course. In the first half of the course, students develop laboratory skills and instrumental proficiency by rotating through six different instruments performing…

  10. NEWTON - NEW portable multi-sensor scienTific instrument for non-invasive ON-site characterization of rock from planetary surface and sub-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Michelena, M.; de Frutos, J.; Ordóñez, A. A.; Rivero, M. A.; Mesa, J. L.; González, L.; Lavín, C.; Aroca, C.; Sanz, M.; Maicas, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Cobos, P.; Pérez, M.; Kilian, R.; Baeza, O.; Langlais, B.; Thébault, E.; Grösser, J.; Pappusch, M.

    2017-09-01

    In space instrumentation, there is currently no instrument dedicated to susceptibly or complete magnetization measurements of rocks. Magnetic field instrument suites are generally vector (or scalar) magnetometers, which locally measure the magnetic field. When mounted on board rovers, the electromagnetic perturbations associated with motors and other elements make it difficult to reap the benefits from the inclusion of such instruments. However, magnetic characterization is essential to understand key aspects of the present and past history of planetary objects. The work presented here overcomes the limitations currently existing in space instrumentation by developing a new portable and compact multi-sensor instrument for ground breaking high-resolution magnetic characterization of planetary surfaces and sub-surfaces. This new technology introduces for the first time magnetic susceptometry (real and imaginary parts) as a complement to existing compact vector magnetometers for planetary exploration. This work aims to solve the limitations currently existing in space instrumentation by means of providing a new portable and compact multi-sensor instrument for use in space, science and planetary exploration to solve some of the open questions on the crustal and more generally planetary evolution within the Solar System.

  11. Assessment of Satellite Surface Radiation Products in Highland Regions with Tibet Instrumental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Koike, Toshio; Stackhouse, Paul; Mikovitz, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results of comparisons between instrumental radiation data in the elevated Tibetan Plateau and two global satellite products: the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment - Surface Radiation Budget (GEWEX-SRB) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project - Flux Data (ISCCP-FD). In general, shortwave radiation (SW) is estimated better by ISCCP-FD while longwave radiation (LW) is estimated better by GEWEX-SRB, but all the radiation components in both products are under-estimated. Severe and systematic errors were found in monthly-mean SRB SW (on plateau-average, -48 W/sq m for downward SW and -18 W/sq m for upward SW) and FD LW (on plateau-average, -37 W/sq m for downward LW and -62 W/sq m for upward LW) for radiation. Errors in monthly-mean diurnal variations are even larger than the monthly mean errors. Though the LW errors can be reduced about 10 W/sq m after a correction for altitude difference between the site and SRB and FD grids, these errors are still higher than that for other regions. The large errors in SRB SW was mainly due to a processing mistake for elevation effect, but the errors in SRB LW was mainly due to significant errors in input data. We suggest reprocessing satellite surface radiation budget data, at least for highland areas like Tibet.

  12. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  13. Evaluation of Satellite-Based Surface Energy Budget Products with Surface Measurements Over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Loeb, N. G.; Lenters, J. D.; Spence, C.; Blanken, P.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is fundamentally driven by the global energy balance. While Earth's energy budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) is well understood, satellite-based estimates of the global mean surface energy budget yield an imbalance of 15-20 Wm-2. The data products used to infer the components of the surface energy budget are often based upon physical or empirical models and ancillary input data sets of varying quality. In order to make progress, comparisons between satellite-based estimates of the surface energy budget components and direct surface measurements are critically needed. This study evaluates surface radiative fluxes from NASA CERES EBAF and surface turbulent heat fluxes from OAFLUX by comparing them with surface station measurements from the Great Lakes Evaporation Network (GLEN). The GLEN measurements are collected using instruments on lighthouses in the Great Lakes, and include surface evaporation measurement via eddy covariance technique. The evaluation is performed for 3 offshore and 1 nearshore Great Lakes sites. We highlight results for Stannard Rock in Lake Superior, which is the farthest lighthouse from shore ( 40km from the nearest land). Relative to the GLEN observations, the OAFLUX underestimates latent heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (19 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock (4-station average), in part due to its weaker near surface wind speed, and overestimates sensible heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (6 Wm-2), which is partly contributed by its colder surface air temperature. The CERES EBAF-Surface overestimates the surface downward all-sky shortwave (longwave) flux by 8 Wm-2 (7 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock, and is comparable to the 4-station average. As a result, the surface estimated using EBAF-Surface and OAFLUX receives 16 Wm-2 (13 Wm-2) more than the GLEN observations at Stannard Rock (4-station average). The above surface energy flux differences will be further discussed based on a comparison between the input data sets used in the satellite-based estimates and

  14. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community.

  15. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community

  16. Development of multifunctional radiation monitoring instrument based on PLC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhu Yuye; Zhuang Min

    2007-01-01

    This eight-channel multifunctional Radiation Monitoring Instrument is developed by making use of the built-in high-speed counters and the powerful instruction system of the SIEMES SIMATICS S7 series Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to record and process the pulse signal output by the detectors. The instrument with functions, such as analog and digital display, digital storage of digital data, pulse signal generator, network communication, can connect various types of pulse detectors. The initial process can be translated between Graduation Apparatus method and Formula method. the logicality of the high-dosage warning system is processed itself. The signal output will drive the alarm lights and bell directly. This paper mainly describes the configuration, programming and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  17. Comparative evaluation of surface changes in four Ni-Ti instruments with successive uses - An SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, N; Sikri, Vimal K

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the surface alterations seen in four kinds of Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for five successive uses in preparing root canals of extracted human molars and also to determine whether the design of the instrument influenced the appearance of defects on the instrument surface. Four different types of instruments namely; ProFile, ProTaper Rotary, ProTaper Hand and K3 Endo were used in 300 mesio-buccal canals. The instruments were examined under the SEM, after every use, to assess the progress of changes on their surfaces for a maximum of five uses. Chi-square test. The most prevalent defects observed were pitting, followed by metal strips. Signs of discontinuity, microfractures and disruption of cutting edge were also evident. Number of defects increased with successive uses. ProTaper Hand showed significantly more microfractures and metal strips than other instruments from third use onwards. ProTaper Rotary and K3 Endo also showed significant changes.

  18. [Research on medical instrument information integration technology based on IHE PCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianli; Liao, Yun; Yang, Yongyong

    2014-06-01

    Integrating medical instruments with medical information systems becomes more and more important in healthcare industry. To make medical instruments without standard communication interface possess the capability of interoperating and sharing information with medical information systems, we developed a medical instrument integration gateway based on Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Patient Care Device (IHE PCD) integration profiles in this research. The core component is an integration engine which is implemented according to integration profiles and Health Level Seven (HL7) messages defined in IHE PCD. Working with instrument specific Javascripts, the engine transforms medical instrument data into HL7 ORU message. This research enables medical instruments to interoperate and exchange medical data with information systems in a standardized way, and is valuable for medical instrument integration, especially for traditional instruments.

  19. The Assessment of Instruments for Detecting Surface Water Spills Associated with Oil and Gas Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  20. MSATT Workshop on Innovative Instrumentation for the In Situ Study of Atmosphere-Surface Interactions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr. (Editor); Waenke, Heinrich (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers accepted for the Mars Surface and Atmosphere Through Time (MSATT) Workshop on Innovative Instruments for the In Situ Study of Atmosphere-Surface Interaction of Mars, 8-9 Oct. 1992 in Mainz, Germany are included. Topics covered include: a backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) for use on Mars; database of proposed payloads and instruments for SEI missions; determination of martian soil mineralogy and water content using the Thermal Analyzer for Planetary Soils (TAPS); in situ identification of the martian surface material and its interaction with the martian atmosphere using DTA/GC; mass spectrometer-pyrolysis experiment for atmospheric and soil sample analysis on the surface of Mars; and optical luminescence spectroscopy as a probe of the surface mineralogy of Mars.

  1. Instrumentation for PSD-based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positions and data is acquired simultaneously from all the PSDs. Throughput is further improved by using multiple PSDs at each position. Various instruments like the powder diffractometer, high-Q diffractometer, polarized neutron reflectometer, quasi-elastic neutron spectrometer, small-angle neutron spectrometer all use ...

  2. Power comparator for continuous-time adaptive equalization in Ethernet-based instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, E.; Gimeno, C.; Sánchez-Azqueta, C.; Celma, S.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, Ethernet has been chosen as a replacement for standard-based instrumentation. Its performance is increasing, thanks to speeds of 1 Gbps, 10 Gbps and beyond on backplanes, which expands the instrumentation and measurement potential. However, these high-speed serial links need to be able to retain the integrity of the data stream through some type of equalization. This paper proposes a new differential power comparator, to be used in continuous-time adaptive equalizers inside these Ethernet-based instruments.

  3. Mars Geochemical Instrument (MarGI): An instrument for the analysis of the Martian surface and the search for evidence of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Martin, Joe; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Geochemical Instrument, MarGI, was developed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the rocks and surface material on Mars. The instrument combines Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) with miniature Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) to identify minerals, the presence and state of water, and organic compounds. Miniature pyrolysis ovens are used to both, conduct DTA analysis of soil or crushed rocks samples, and pyrolyze the samples at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C for GC-IMS analysis of the released gases. This combination of analytical processes and techniques, which can characterize the mineralogy of the rocks and soil, and identify and quantify volatiles released during pyrolysis, has applications across a wide range of target sites including comets, planets, asteroids, and moons such as Titan and Europa. The MarGI analytical approach evolved from the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX) selected to fly on the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF).

  4. Influence of clinical use on physical-structural surface properties and electrochemical potential of NiTi endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E S J; Amaral, C C F; Gomes, J A C P; Peters, O A; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2017-03-22

    To investigate the surface morphology and electrochemical potential of superelastic (SE), M-Wire (MW) and shape memory technology (SMT) NiTi instruments before and after single clinical use in vivo. A total of 60 ProTaper Universal F2 (PTU-SE), ProTaper Next X2 (PTN-MW), Typhoon (TYP), Hyflex (HF) and Vortex Blue (VB), the last three SMT, and size 25, .06 taper (n = 6 of each type) files were examined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electrochemical potential analysis were employed before and after clinical use. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc test. Significance was determined at the 95% confidence level for both tests. SEM observations of new instruments indicated the presence of marks left by the machining process during manufacturing and EDS revealed the existence of an oxide coating on shape memory instruments. After clinical use, the five types were associated with propagation of transverse cracks 3 mm from the tip. The surface oxide layer of TYP, HF and VB instruments had microcracks in multiple directions, whilst TYP and HF had fragmentation in chip form of the oxide layer. EDS analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the oxide layer in shape memory instruments, except for VB. Electrochemical potentials were higher for shape memory instruments than for M-Wire and superelastic NiTi instruments, respectively (P NiTi instruments have a dysfunctional oxide layer after clinical use. Additionally, they featured higher electrochemical potential relative to NiTi instruments manufactured from M-Wire, and conventional superelastic NiTi alloy. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ESPRESSO instrument control electronics: a PLC based distributed layout for a second generation instrument at ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is an ultra-stable fiber-fed spectrograph designed to combine incoherently the light coming from up to 4 Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. From the Nasmyth focus of each telescope the light, through an optical path, is fed by the Coudé Train subsystems to the Front End Unit placed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory. The Front End is composed by one arm for each telescope and its task is to convey the incoming light, after a calibration process, into the spectrograph fibers. To perform these operations a large number of functions are foreseen, like motorized stages, lamps, digital and analog sensors that, coupled with dedicated Technical CCDs (two per arms), allow to stabilize the incoming beam up to the level needed to exploit the ESPRESSO scientific requirements. The Instrument Control Electronics goal is to properly control all the functions in the Combined Coudé Laboratory and the spectrograph itself. It is fully based on a distributed PLC architecture, abandoning in this way the VME-based technology previously adopted for the ESO VLT instruments. In this paper we will describe the ESPRESSO Instrument Control Electronics architecture, focusing on the distributed layout and its interfaces with the other ESPRESSO subsystems.

  6. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  7. Introduction to the Design and Optimization of Experiments Using Response Surface Methodology. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for the Instrumentation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patricia L.; Miller, Benjamin I.; Nowak, Abigail Tuttle

    2006-01-01

    The study describes how to design and optimize an experiment with multiple factors and multiple responses. The experiment uses fractional factorial analysis as a screening experiment only to identify important instrumental factors and does not use response surface methodology to find the optimal set of conditions.

  8. Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

  9. New methods of magnet-based instrumentation for NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdeburg, Richard; Hauth, Daniel; Kaehler, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has displaced open surgery as the standard of care for many clinical conditions. NOTES has been described as the next surgical frontier with the objective of incision-free abdominal surgery. The principal challenge of NOTES procedures is the loss of triangulation and instrument rigidity, which is one of the fundamental concepts of laparoscopic surgery. To overcome these problems necessitates the development of new instrumentation. material and methods: We aimed to assess the use of a very simple combination of internal and external magnets that might allow the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required in NOTES procedures. The magnet retraction system consisted of an external magnetic assembly and either small internal magnets attached by endoscopic clips to the designated tissue (magnet-clip-approach) or an endoscopic grasping forceps in a magnetic deflector roll (magnet-trocar-approach). We compared both methods regarding precision, time and efficacy by performing transgastric partial uterus resections with better results for the magnet-trocar-approach. This proof-of-principle animal study showed that the combination of external and internal magnets generates sufficient coupling forces at clinically relevant abdominal wall thicknesses, making them suitable for use and evaluation in NOTES procedures, and provides the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required by the lack of additional abdominal trocars.

  10. Preliminary investigations on TINI based distributed instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, T.; Kalita, M.

    2006-04-01

    A prototype web enabled distributed instrumentation system is being proposed in the Department of Electronics Science, Gauhati University, Assam, India. The distributed instrumentation system contains sensors, legacy hardware, TCP/IP protocol converter, TCP/IP network Ethernet, Database Server, Web/Application Server and Client PCs. As part of the proposed work, Tiny Internet Interface (TINI, TBM390: Dallas Semiconductor) has been deployed as TCP/IP stack, and java programming language as software tools. A feature supported by Java, that is particularly relevant to the distributed system is its applet. An applet is a java class that can be downloaded from the web server and can be run in a context application such as web browser or an applet viewer. TINI has been installed as TCP/IP stack, as it is the best suited embedded system with java programming language and it has been uniquely designed for communicating over One Wire Devices (OWD) over network. Here we will discuss the hardware and software aspects of TINI with OWD for the present system. (author)

  11. Mobile Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (MGIPF) for In Situ Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Planetary Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Romstedt, J.; Henkel, H.; Michaelis, H.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.

    A first order requirement for any spacecraft mission to land on a solid planetary or moon surface is instrumentation for in-situ mineralogical and chemical analysis 2 Such analysis provide data needed for primary classification and characterization of surface materials present We will discuss a mobile instrument package we have developed for in-situ investigations under harsh environmental conditions like on Mercury or Mars This Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility is a compact box also called payload cab containing three small advanced geochemistry mineralogy instruments the chemical spectrometer APXS the mineralogical M o ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II 3 and a textural imager close-up camera The payload cab is equipped with two actuating arms with two degrees of freedom permitting precision placement of all instruments at a chosen sample This payload cab is the central part of the small rover Nanokhod which has the size of a shoebox 1 The Nanokhod rover is a tethered system with a typical operational range of sim 100 m Of course the payload cab itself can be attached by means of its arms to any deployment device of any other rover or deployment device 1 Andre Schiele Jens Romstedt Chris Lee Sabine Klinkner Rudi Rieder Ralf Gellert G o star Klingelh o fer Bodo Bernhardt Harald Michaelis The new NANOKHOD Engineeering model for extreme cold environments 8th International symposium on Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space 5 - 9 September 2005

  12. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  13. An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72 months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244

  14. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  15. Design of software platform based on linux operating system for γ-spectrometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Zhou Chen; Zhang Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of γ-spectrometry instrument software platform based on s3c2410a processor with arm920t core, emphases are focused on analyzing the integrated application of embedded linux operating system, yaffs file system and qt/embedded GUI development library. It presented a new software platform in portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  16. GPU based real-time instrument tracking with three dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Paul M; Stoll, Jeffrey A; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; del Nido, Pedro J; Dupont, Pierre E; Howe, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Real-time 3D ultrasound can enable new image-guided surgical procedures, but high data rates prohibit the use of traditional tracking techniques. We present a new method based on the modified Radon transform that identifies the axis of instrument shafts as bright patterns in planar projections. Instrument rotation and tip location are then determined using fiducial markers. These techniques are amenable to rapid execution on the current generation of personal computer graphics processor units (GPU). Our GPU implementation detected a surgical instrument in 31 ms, sufficient for real-time tracking at the 26 volumes per second rate of the ultrasound machine. A water tank experiment found instrument tip position errors of less than 0.2 mm, and an in vivo study tracked an instrument inside a beating porcine heart. The tracking results showed good correspondence to the actual movements of the instrument.

  17. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  18. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  19. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN and how to select an outcome measurement instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwine B. Mokkink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments is an initiative of an international multidisciplinary team of researchers who aim to improve the selection of outcome measurement instruments both in research and in clinical practice by developing tools for selecting the most appropriate available instrument. Method: In this paper these tools are described, i.e. the COSMIN taxonomy and definition of measurement properties; the COSMIN checklist to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties; a search filter for finding studies on measurement properties; a protocol for systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; a database of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments; and a guideline for selecting outcome measurement instruments for Core Outcome Sets in clinical trials. Currently, we are updating the COSMIN checklist, particularly the standards for content validity studies. Also new standards for studies using Item Response Theory methods will be developed. Additionally, in the future we want to develop standards for studies on the quality of non-patient reported outcome measures, such as clinician-reported outcomes and performance-based outcomes. Conclusions: In summary, we plea for more standardization in the use of outcome measurement instruments, for conducting high quality systematic reviews on measurement instruments in which the best available outcome measurement instrument is recommended, and for stopping the use of poor outcome measurement instruments.

  20. A virtual instrument for acquisition and analysis of the phonocardiogram and its internet-based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Moulder, C; Zou, Y; Loew, M; Durand, L G

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a phonocardiogram (PCG) acquisition and analysis instrument using virtual instrumentation technology and investigate its Internet-based application. The PCG instrument was developed using a Pentium 200 computer, a data acquisition board, and a two-channel custom designed bio-signal preamplifier. LabVIEW was used to create the instrument's front panels. Spectral and joint time-frequency analyses were implemented into the instrument. This instrument can be used to display the PCG and to analyze the individual heart sound and murmur for the detection of heart valve diseases. Using a test-bed, the PCG data acquisition and analysis were performed remotely over the Internet. Through the main PCG panel, an operator can control the acquisition and analysis of PCG signals. In the remote test, real-time transmission of the PCG signal over the Internet was possible. Remote operators were able to view smoothly scrolling PCG waveforms and could control all the acquisition parameters and perform spectral and time-frequency analyses on the acquired heart sound. This study demonstrated that a LabVIEW-based medical virtual instrument provides a low-cost and flexible solution for data acquisition and analysis of PCG. It also showed that the current Internet supports the transmission of real-time PCG signals. Compared with other telemedicine systems, this application transfers not only the medical data, but also the virtual instrument and its signal processing capability through the Internet.

  1. Developing evaluation instrument based on CIPP models on the implementation of portfolio assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Feni; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an evaluation instrument constructed by CIPP model on the implementation of portfolio assessment in science learning. This study used research and development (R & D) method; adapting 4-D by the development of non-test instrument, and the evaluation instrument constructed by CIPP model. CIPP is the abbreviation of Context, Input, Process, and Product. The techniques of data collection were interviews, questionnaires, and observations. Data collection instruments were: 1) the interview guidelines for the analysis of the problems and the needs, 2) questionnaire to see level of accomplishment of portfolio assessment instrument, and 3) observation sheets for teacher and student to dig up responses to the portfolio assessment instrument. The data obtained was quantitative data obtained from several validators. The validators consist of two lecturers as the evaluation experts, two practitioners (science teachers), and three colleagues. This paper shows the results of content validity obtained from the validators and the analysis result of the data obtained by using Aikens' V formula. The results of this study shows that the evaluation instrument based on CIPP models is proper to evaluate the implementation of portfolio assessment instruments. Based on the experts' judgments, practitioners, and colleagues, the Aikens' V coefficient was between 0.86-1,00 which means that it is valid and can be used in the limited trial and operational field trial.

  2. Arduino-based laboratory instruments for an undergraduate laser cooling experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Timothy; Tiber, Gage; Brooke, Robert W. A.; Gillis, Julie M.; Zaccagnini, Christopher A.; Corcovilos, Theodore A.

    2015-05-01

    Arduino is an inexpensive open-source microcontroller platform designed for quick development turn-around and easy interfacing, making it ideal for novice programmers and instrument designers. Based on Atmel ATMEGA microcontroller chips, the Arduino boards are programmed with standard C/C++ code and contain sufficient inputs and outputs (both digital and analog) for basic data acquisition and device control. Here we present home-built Arduino-based instruments commonly used in laser-cooling experiments, such as a wavelength meter and temperature controller. We describe the design and performance of these instruments.

  3. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  4. Fracture resistance of dental nickel-titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chih-Wen; Deng, Yu-Lun; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-05-01

    Dental nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments are widely used in endodontic therapy because they are efficient with a higher success rate. However, an unpredictable fracture of instruments may happen due to the surface characteristics of imperfection (or irregularity). This study assessed whether a novel surface treatment could increase fatigue fracture resistance of dental NiTi rotary instruments. A 200- or 500-nm thick Ti-zirconium-boron (Ti-Zr-B) thin film metallic glass was deposited on ProTaper Universal F2 files using a physical vapor deposition process. The characteristics of coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In cyclic fatigue tests, the files were performed in a simulated root canal (radius=5 mm, angulation=60°) under a rotating speed of 300rpm. The fatigue fractured cross sections of the files were analyzed with their fractographic performances through scanning electron microscopy images. The amorphous structure of the Ti-Zr-B coating was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The surface of treated files presented smooth morphologies without grinding irregularity. For the 200- and 500-nm surface treatment groups, the coated files exhibited higher resistance of cyclic fatigue than untreated files. In fractographic analysis, treated files showed significantly larger crack-initiation zone; however, no significant differences in the areas of fatigue propagation and catastrophic fracture were found compared to untreated files. The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Surface electromyogram signals classification based on bispectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Eugenio; Lopez, Natalia; Soria, Carlos; di Sciascio, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This paper bispectrum is used to classify human arm movements and control a robotic arm based on upper limb's surface electromyogram signals (sEMG). We use bispectrum based on third-order cumulant to parameterize sEMG signals and classify elbow flexion and extension, forearm pronation and supination, and rest states by an artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, a robotic manipulator is controlled based on classification and parameters extracted from the signals. All this process is made in real-time using QNX ® operative system.

  6. Automatic classification of minimally invasive instruments based on endoscopic image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Benzko, Julia; Krappe, Sebastian; Sudra, Gunther; Azad, Pedram; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is nowadays a frequently applied technique and can be regarded as a major breakthrough in surgery. The surgeon has to adopt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality techniques. To analyze the current situation for context-aware assistance, we need intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the intervention. A situation consists of information about the performed activity, the used instruments, the surgical objects, the anatomical structures and defines the state of an intervention for a given moment in time. The endoscopic images provide a rich source of information which can be used for an image-based analysis. Different visual cues are observed in order to perform an image-based analysis with the objective to gain as much information as possible about the current situation. An important visual cue is the automatic recognition of the instruments which appear in the scene. In this paper we present the classification of minimally invasive instruments using the endoscopic images. The instruments are not modified by markers. The system segments the instruments in the current image and recognizes the instrument type based on three-dimensional instrument models.

  7. Evaluation Instruments Used in Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2013-01-01

    A focus group of 18 faculty members at Campus O of a higher educational institution and another focus group of 16 faculty members at Campus S of the same institution comprised the sample, representative of close to 100% of their respective populations. Independently, both groups were engaged in interactive Problem-Based Learning sessions. They…

  8. Microcontroller-based data logging instrumentation system for wind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The collected data were transmitted to a PC through an RS-232 serial interface, and were processed using the 208W Data logger support software. Wind speed and direction measured by the microcontroller-based data logging system were analyzed using line graphs, scatter correlation charts and wind roses. Wind speeds ...

  9. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  10. Development and validation of an instrument to assess knowledge and skills of evidence-based nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mee Ock; Ha, Yeongmi; Kim, Jeongsook

    2015-05-01

    To develop an objective instrument to measure nurses' entry-level knowledge of and skills in evidence-based practice, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the instrument. To promote evidence-based practice in nursing, nurses should initially receive education about evidence-based practice knowledge and learn the skills, and this should be followed by measurement with an instrument that was developed to evaluate the extent to which they are prepared to use evidence-based practice knowledge and skills. Although some self-report instruments have been developed to measure evidence-based practice in nursing, an objective instrument to evaluate nurses' evidence-based practice knowledge and skills is not available at present. A methodological study. This study was conducted in two stages: the instrument development and its psychometric evaluation, including its validity and reliability. An instrument, 'Knowledge and Skills of Evidence-based Nursing,' was developed. Content validity was assessed by five experts in evidence-based nursing, and the construct validity was evaluated by the known-groups method. Reliability was examined with internal consistency reliability and inter-rater reliability. A content validity index >0·80 was achieved. For construct validity, there were statistically significant differences between the evidence-based practice and nonevidence-based practice groups in total scores and in the scores on each subscale of the Knowledge and Skills of Evidence-based Nursing. Cronbach's alpha was 0·96, and the inter-rater reliability was excellent. The Knowledge and Skills of Evidence-based Nursing is a valid and reliable instrument for objectively assessing nurses' evidence-based practice knowledge and skills; it is quick to complete and to score the answers. Because the Knowledge and Skills of Evidence-based Nursing objectively assesses nurses' evidence-based practice knowledge and skills, it can be used to examine the effects of evidence-based

  11. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  12. The COnsensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement INstruments (COSMIN) and how to select an outcome measurement instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, Lidwine B.; Prinsen, Cecilia A.C.; Bouter, Lex M.; de Vet, Henrica C.W.; Terwee, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) is an initiative of an international multidisciplinary team of researchers who aim to improve the selection of outcome measurement instruments both in research and in clinical practice by developing

  13. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  14. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinea, M. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)], E-mail: m.voinea@unitbv.ro; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO{sub x} cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO{sub x} was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components.

  15. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Student Evaluation of the Quality of Web-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ingrid; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2004-01-01

    We developed an instrument that allows instructors to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of Web-based courses. Development and validation of the instrument involved four phases. In Phase I, an instrument was developed based on survey results from students and instructors of Web-based courses and an extensive literature review. In…

  16. Ball Lens Fiber Optic Sensor based Smart Handheld Microsurgical Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheol; Gehlbach, Peter L; Kang, Jin U

    2013-03-20

    During freehand performance of vitreoretinal microsurgery the surgeon must perform precise and stable maneuvers that achieve surgical objectives and avoid surgical risk. Here, we present an improved smart handheld microsurgical tool which is based on a ball lens fiber optic sensor that utilizes common path swept source optical coherence tomography. Improvements include incorporation of a ball lens single mode fiber optic probe that increases the working angle of the tool to greater than 45 degrees; and increases the magnitude of the distance sensing signal through water. Also presented is a cutting function with an improved ergonomic design.

  17. Calibration of Nacelle-based Lidar instrument. Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Eisenberg, Yoram

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provide...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given...

  18. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pautoclave sterilization cycled 5 times and 10 times. The difference between 10 cycles of sterilization and the control was statistically significant (PAutoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  19. Developing formative authentic assessment instruments based on learning trajectory for elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anesa Surya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to (1 develop research formative authentic assessment instruments based on learning trajectory that is eligible for the fourth grade students of elementary schools; and (2 develop formative authentic assessment instruments based on learning trajectory that is effective for the fourth grade students of elementary schools. This developmental study refers to the model developed by Borg & Gall. The developmental design was grouped into four development procedures, consisting of: (a Exploration, (b development of the draft/prototype, (c product testing and revisions, and (d final validation. The experimental subjects are some pilot project elementary schools which used Curriculum 2013 in Ngawi Regency. The data were collected using interview guides, documentation, assessment sheets of the product instrument of authentic assessment, observation sheets of the students, achievement test, questionnaire responses of teachers and students. The data of the instrument reliability were analyzed in terms of item discrimination and item difficulty, and the agreement index was employed for the reliability of the instrument. The research finding reveals that the research instrument in terms of attitude assessment, assessment of knowledge and skills according to subject-matter experts and experts in evaluation is categorized as ‘very good’. The results of the item discrimination analysis show that nonnegative and item difficulties  range from easy to hard. The formative authentic assessment instruments are categorized as ‘reliable’ by the agreement index of ≥ 0.75.

  20. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  1. Intercomparison of O3 profiles observed by SCIAMACHY and ground based microwave instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palm

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles retrieved from limb scattering measurements of the SCIAMACHY instrument based on the satellite ENVISAT are compared to ground-based low altitude resolution remote sensors. All profiles are retrieved using optimal estimation. Following the work of Rodgers and Connor (2003 the retrievals of the ground-based instruments are simulated using the SCIAMACHY retrieval. The SCIAMACHY results and the results of the ground-based microwave radiometer in Bremen and Ny Ålesund agree within the expected covariance of the intercomparison.

  2. Comparison between instrumental sunshine duration and surface solar radiation trends for Italy over the period 1959-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of quality checked and homogenized Italian instrumental sunshine duration (SD) and surface solar radiation (SSR) records has been set up collecting data from different sources, and the regional records for North and South Italy are obtained for both the variables. The trends refer to the period 1936-2013 for SD and to the period 1959-2013 for SSR. The SD records show an increasing tendency starting at the beginning of 1980s (i.e. brightening) and a decreasing tendency (i.e., dimming) in the previous period, which is, however, less evident than the more recent brightening, especially in northern Italy [Manara et al., 2015]. The SSR series show a decrease until the mid of 1980s and a following increase until the end of the series in all seasons with the only exception of summer in the North where the dimming period is very weak and winter and autumn in the South where the brightening periods is not significant. The comparison between the two variables over the common period (1959-2013) shows some discrepancies in the magnitude of the trends, especially during the dimming period with a more intense and significant tendency for SSR than for SD. Another peculiarity of the SSR trends with respect to the ones obtained from SD is a shift of the trend reversal from the mid of 1980s to the beginning of 1980s. The correlations between the two variables for the annual mean are 0.65 and 0.50 for the North and the South respectively. At seasonal scale they range between 0.71 (autumn) and 0.88 (spring) in the North and between 0.58 (autumn) and 0.75 (spring) in the South. A more detailed understanding of differences highlighted by the comparison between SD and SSR records needs further research, based as an example on the comparison of the trends obtained also under clear-sky conditions. Nevertheless, the obtained results are in agreement with those reported in literature where the discrepancies observed during the dimming period are supposed to be caused by a different

  3. An In Vitro Evaluation of Alumina, Zirconia, and Lithium Disilicate Surface Roughness Caused by Two Scaling Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Buzzo, Ottavia; Buzzo, Maurizio; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2017-02-01

    Plaque control is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal disease. Hand scaling instruments have been shown to be efficient for the removal of plaque; however, routine periodontal prophylactic procedures may modify the surface profile of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the changes in roughness of alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate surfaces treated by two hand scaling instruments. Forty-eight alumina specimens, 48 zirconia specimens, and 48 lithium disilicate specimens, were selected. All specimens were divided into three groups of 16 each; one group for each material was considered the control group and no scaling procedures were performed; the second group of each material was exposed to scaling with steel curettes simulating standard clinical conditions; the third group of each material was exposed to scaling with titanium curettes. After scaling, the surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated with a profilometer. First, a statistical test was carried out to evaluate the difference in surface roughness before the scaling procedure of the three materials was effected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Subsequently, the effect of curette material (steel and titanium) on roughness difference and roughness ratio was analyzed throughout the entire sample and within each material group, and a nonparametric test for dependent values was conducted (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Finally, the roughness ratios of the three material groups were compared by means of a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Upon completion of profilometric evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for SEM evaluation to evaluate the effects of the two scaling systems on the different surfaces qualitatively. After scaling procedure, the roughness profile value increased in all disks. Classifying the full sample according to curette used, the roughness of the disks treated with a steel curette reached a

  4. Measuring health literacy regarding infectious respiratory diseases: a new skills-based instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS: This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual's reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials were selected to enable measurement of the skills, which were sourced from the WHO, China CDC, and Chinese Center of Health Education. The information involved the distribution of epidemics, immunization programs, early symptoms, means of disease prevention, individual's preventative behavior, use of medications and thermometers, treatment plans and the location of hospitals. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to collect participants. Psychometric properties were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. RESULTS: The overall degree of difficulty and discrimination of the instrument were 0.693 and 0.482 respectively. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.864. As for validity, six factors were extracted from 30 items, which together explained 47.3% of the instrument's variance. And based on confirmatory factor analysis, the items were grouped into five subscales representing prose, document, quantitative, oral and internet based information seeking skills (χ(2 = 9.200, P>0.05, GFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.988, AGFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.028. CONCLUSION: The new instrument has good reliability and validity, and it could be used to assess the health literacy regarding respiratory infectious disease status of different groups.

  5. Measuring Breathing Rate Variability by a Microprocessor Based Instrument in Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Dolcourt, Jack; Younger, Steve

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument was developed to measure apnea (cessation of breathing) of prematurity. This instrument analyzes real-time respiratory data obtrained from either a standard cardiorespiratory monitor or from an end-tidal CO2 analyzer. The time between successive breaths (apneic duration) is computed and recorded. These intervals are displayed as a histogram in real-time on a computer terminal screen. The effects of pharmacologic treatment and nervous system maturation as rela...

  6. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  7. The maintenance of inserted titanium implants: in-vitro evaluation of exposed surfaces cleaned with three different instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lusuardi, Donatella; Battarra, Francesca; Sassatelli, Paolo; Spinato, Sergio; Zaffe, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Changes to titanium implants smooth-surfaces after instrumentation were comparatively analyzed using low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) and white-light confocal (WLC) profilometry, to accurately evaluate curved surfaces. Sixty titanium implants screwed to their abutments were randomly split into three groups for cleaning treatment with (S) stainless-steel Gracey-curettes, (T) titanium Langer-curettes, and (P) an ultrasonic-device with the probe covered with a plastic-tip. One sector of each implant was left unprocessed (U). The other sectors were cleaned for either 60 s, to simulate a single cleaning session, or 180 s to simulate a series of sessions. Surface morphology was analyzed by LV-SEM, without metal sputtering. Quantitative evaluations of the roughness of surfaces were performed using a WLC-profilometer. The Wilcoxon and the Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical comparisons. U-surfaces showed that thin transverse ridges and grooves, i.e. a polarized surface roughness was substantially compromised after S-instrumentation. Small surface alterations, increasing with time, were also recorded after T-·and·P-instrumentation, although to a lesser degree. The gap of the fixture-abutment connection appeared almost completely clean after T-, clotted with titanium debris after S-, and clotted with plastic debris after P-treatment. The mean roughness (Ra) was unchanged after P-, significantly increased after S- and decreased after T-treatment, when compared with U. The Rz roughness-parameter, calculated along the fixture Y-axis, of S, T, and P resulted similar and significantly lower than that of U. Rz (X-axis) resulted unchanged after P-, slightly increased (+40%) after T-, and greatly increased (+260%) after S-treatment, this latter being statistically significant when compared with U. The careful use of titanium-curettes could produce only minimal smooth surface alteration particularly over prolonged treatments, and avoid debris production

  8. Nanopore-based instruments as biosensors for future planetary missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Data from automated orbiters and landers have dashed humankind's hopes of finding complex life-forms elsewhere in the Solar System. The focus of exobiological research was thus forced to shift from the detection of life through simple visual imaging to complex biochemical experiments aimed at the detection of microbial activity. Searching for biosignatures over interplanetary distances is a formidable task and poses the dilemma of what are the proper experiments that can be performed on-site to maximize the chances of success if extraterrestrial life is present but not evident. Despite their astonishing morphological diversity, all known organisms on Earth share the same basic molecular architecture; thus the vast majority of our detection and identification techniques are b(i)ased on Terran biochemistry. There is, however, a distinct possibility that life may have emerged elsewhere by using other molecular building blocks, a fact that is likely to make the outcome of most of the current molecular biological and biochemical life-detection protocols difficult to interpret if not completely ineffective. Nanopore-based sensing devices allow the analysis of single molecules, including the sequence of informational biopolymers such as DNA or RNA, by measuring current changes across an electrically resistant membrane when the analyte flows through an embedded transmembrane protein or a solid-state nanopore. Under certain basic assumptions about their physical properties, this technology has the potential to discriminate and possibly analyze biopolymers, in particular genetic information carriers, without prior detailed knowledge of their fundamental chemistry and is sufficiently portable to be used for automated analysis in planetary exploration, all of which makes it the ideal candidate for the search for life signatures in remote watery environments such as Mars, Europa, or Enceladus.

  9. A Reliability and Validity of an Instrument to Evaluate the School-Based Assessment System: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nor Hasnida Md

    2016-01-01

    A valid, reliable and practical instrument is needed to evaluate the implementation of the school-based assessment (SBA) system. The aim of this study is to develop and assess the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure the perception of teachers towards the SBA implementation in schools. The instrument is developed based on a…

  10. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  11. Analysis of surgical smoke produced by various energy-based instruments and effect on laparoscopic visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weld, Kyle J; Dryer, Stephen; Ames, Caroline D; Cho, Kuk; Hogan, Chris; Lee, Myonghwa; Biswas, Pratim; Landman, Jaime

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the smoke plume produced by various energy-based laparoscopic instruments and determined its effect on laparoscopic visibility. The Bipolar Macroforceps, Harmonic Scalpel, Floating Ball, and Monopolar Shears were applied in vitro to porcine psoas muscle. An Aerodynamic Particle Sizer and Electrostatic Classifier provided a size distribution of the plume for particles >500 nm and Visibility was calculated using the measured-size distribution data and the Rayleigh and Mie light-scattering theories. The real-time instruments were successful in measuring aerosolized particle size distributions in two size ranges. Electron microscopy revealed smaller, homogeneous, spherical particles and larger, irregular particles consistent with cellular components. The aerosol produced by the Bipolar Macroforceps obscured visibility the least (relative visibility 0.887) among the instruments tested. Particles from the Harmonic Scalpel resulted in a relative visibility of 0.801. Monopolar-based instruments produced plumes responsible for the poorest relative visibility (Floating Ball 0.252; Monopolar Shears 0.026). Surgical smoke is composed of two distinct particle populations caused by the nucleation of vapors as they cool (the small particles) and the entrainment of tissue secondary to mechanical aspects (the large particles). High concentrations of small particles are most responsible for the deterioration in laparoscopic vision. Bipolar and ultrasonic instruments generate a surgical plume that causes the least deterioration of visibility among the instruments tested.

  12. Microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for resolving conflicting nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    We describe one design for a microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for identifying and resolving false, conflicting, or misleading instrument indications resulting from certain systems interactions for a pressurized water reactor. The system processes sensor signals from groups of instruments that track together under nominal transient and certain accident conditions, and alarms when they do not track together. We examine multiple-casualty systems interaction and formulate a trial grouping of variables that track together under specified conditions. A two-of-three type redundancy check of key variables provides alarm and indication of conflicting information when one signal suddenly tracks in opposition due to multiple casualty, instrument failure, and/or locally abnormal conditions. Since a vote count of two of three variables in conflict as inconclusive evidence, the system is not designed to provide tripping or corrective action, but improves the operator/instrument interface by providing additional and partially digested information

  13. Application of instrument platform based embedded Linux system on intelligent scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jikun; Yang Run'an; Xia Minjian; Yang Zhijun; Li Lianfang; Yang Binhua

    2011-01-01

    It designs a instrument platform based on embedded Linux system and peripheral circuit, by designing Linux device driver and application program based on QT Embedded, various functions of the intelligent scaler are realized. The system architecture is very reasonable, so the stability and the expansibility and the integration level are increased, the development cycle is shorten greatly. (authors)

  14. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  15. Reliability assessment of a peer evaluation instrument in a team-based learning course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahawisan J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters. Conclusions: Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings.

  16. Surface and Thin Film Analysis A Compendium of Principles, Instrumentation, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Friedbacher, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Surveying and comparing all techniques relevant for practical applications in surface and thin film analysis, this second edition of a bestseller is a vital guide to this hot topic in nano- and surface technology. This new book has been revised and updated and is divided into four parts - electron, ion, and photon detection, as well as scanning probe microscopy. New chapters have been added to cover such techniques as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency generation (SFG). Appendices with a summary and comparison of techniques and a list of equipment suppliers make this book a rapid ref

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR NURSES BASED ON WEB IN INPATIENT UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Nuryanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Performance assessment instrument will be problematic when it is not representative in describing the competency because it is not obvious indicators and inappropriate performance standard to nursing’s task. The purpose of this study is to develop nurses’ performance assessment instrument based on the web from multi sources assessment inpatient unit at SMC Hospital. Methods: This study had two phases. The first phase was an explanatory overview of the performance assessment system using questionnaires completed by 53 respondents of nurses, selected by purposive sampling. Instrument development based on FGD with six decision makers in the hospital. Validity was tested by Pearson Product Moment Correlation and reliability of instrument’s was tested by alpha Cronbach. The second phase was socialization and instrument test to observe the quality of instrument using a questionnaire by 47 respondents and recommendations made by 8 participants of FGD. The samples were selected by purposive sampling technique. Performance assessment system was moderate at 58.49%. All questions which aimed to measure the performance of nurses were valid and reliable. The quality of nurses’ performance assessment instruments based on the web was a good category, which was functionality: 81.60; reliability: 78.16; efficiency: 80.85; usability: 81.70 and portability: 81.70. Results: The result was a web-based assessment format, scoring with Likert scale, resource assessment by the direct supervisor which was a multisource evaluator, the development of performance graph, and confidentiality of data on the database server. Discussion: Recommendations for hospital is to make policy based on the final value of the performance assessment by the supervisor which was multisource feedback and it needs a global writing on a form of performance assessment result.

  18. Ultraviolet Characterization of Comet and Asteroid Surfaces as Observed by the Rosetta Alice Instrument (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaga, L. M.; Holt, C. E.; Steffl, A.; Stern, S. A.; Bertaux, J. L.; Parker, J. W.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feldman, P.; Keeney, B. A.; Knight, M. M.; Noonan, J.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016, Alice, NASA's lightweight and low-power far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging spectrograph onboard ESA's comet-orbiting spacecraft Rosetta, completed a 2-year characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (C-G), a bi-lobed Jupiter family comet with extreme seasons and diverse surface features. In addition to coma studies, Alice monitored the sunlit surface of C-G from 700-2050 Å to establish the FUV bidirectional reflectance properties and albedo of the surface, determine homogeneity, correlate spectral features with morphological regions, and infer the compositional makeup of the comet. The heliocentric distance coverage (3.7 AU from the Sun, through perihelion at 1.24 AU, and back out to 3.8 AU) over a period of 2 years and spatial resolution of the Alice data (e.g., 30 m by 150 m at the comet from a spacecraft distance of 30 km) resulted in the first resolved observations of a cometary nucleus in the FUV throughout much of its orbit. Upon arrival in 2014, initial characteristics and properties of the surface were derived for the northern hemisphere, revealing a dark, homogeneous, and blue-sloped surface in the FUV with an average geometric albedo of 5% at 1475 Å, consistent with a homogeneous layer of dust covering that hemisphere and similar to nucleus properties derived for this and other comets in the visible. Now, with a fully calibrated dataset, properties of the southern and northern hemispheres, before and after perihelion, have been quantified and preliminarily show minimal change in the comet's surface in the FUV through the apparition. Analyses are ongoing and we will highlight any detected variability. En-route to C-G, Alice made history during the flybys of asteroid (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia obtaining the first global FUV reflectivity measurement and acquiring spatially resolved observations of an asteroid surface, respectively. The asteroid properties will be compared to those derived for C-G to demonstrate commonalities across small bodies

  19. Design of coordinated controller in nuclear power plant based on digital instrument and control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai; Zhao Qiang; Deng Xiangxin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) is a multi-input and multi-output, no-linear and time-varying complex system. The conventional PID controller is usually used in NPP control system which is based on analog instrument. The system parameters are easy to overshoot and the response time is longer in the control mode of the conventional PID. In order to improve this condition, a new coordinated control strategy which is based on expert system and the original controllers in the digital instrument and control technology was presented. In order to verify and validate it, the proposed coordinated control technology was tested by the full-scope real-time simulation system. The results prove that using digital instrument and control technology to achieve coordinated controller is feasible, the coordinated controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the system, and the coordinated controller is superior to the conventional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  20. Design and implementation of ATCA-based 100Gbps DP-QPSK optical signal test instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaojing; Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chenwu

    2014-11-01

    In order to achieve the receiving task of 100Gbps Dual Polarization-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP-QPSK) optical signal acquisition instrument, improve acquisition performance of the instrument, this paper has deeply researched DP-QPSK modulation principles, demodulation techniques and the key technologies of optical signal acquisition. The theories of DP-QPSK optical signal transmission are researched. The DP-QPSK optical signal transmission model is deduced. And the clock and data recovery in high-speed data acquisition and offset correction of multi-channel data are researched. By reasonable hardware circuit design and software system construction, the utilization of high performance Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA), this paper proposes a 100Gbps DP-QPSK optical signal acquisition instrument which is based on ATCA. The implementations of key modules are presented by comparison and argumentation. According to the modularization idea, the instrument can be divided into eight modules. Each module performs the following functions. (1) DP-QPSK coherent detection demodulation module; (2) deceleration module; (3) FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array); (4) storage module; (5) data transmission module; (6) clock module; (7) power module; (8) JTAG debugging, configuration module; What is more, this paper has put forward two solutions to test optical signal acquisition instrument performance. The first scenario is based on a standard STM-256 optical signal format and exploits the SignalTap of QuartusII software to monitor the optical signal data. Another scenario is to use a pseudo-random signal series to generate data, acquisition module acquires a certain amount of data signals, and then the signals are transferred to a computer by the Gigabit Ethernet to analyze. Two testing results show that the bit error rate of optical signal acquisition instrument is low. And the instrument fully meets the requirements of signal receiving system. At the same time

  1. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of an Invasive Medical Instrument Based on a Displacement Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadis, Dimitris A; Astaras, Alexandros; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papathanasiou, Kostas; Kalfas, Anestis

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel method for tracking the position of a medical instrument's tip. The system is based on phase locking a high frequency signal transmitted from the medical instrument's tip to a reference signal. Displacement measurement is established having the loop open, in order to get a low frequency voltage representing the medical instrument's movement; therefore, positioning is established by means of conventional measuring techniques. The voltage-controlled oscillator stage of the phase-locked loop (PLL), combined to an appropriate antenna, comprises the associated transmitter located inside the medical instrument tip. All the other low frequency PLL components, low noise amplifier and mixer, are located outside the human body, forming the receiver part of the system. The operating details of the proposed system were coded in Verilog-AMS. Simulation results indicate robust medical instrument tracking in 1-D. Experimental evaluation of the proposed position tracking system is also presented. The experiments described in this paper are based on a transmitter moving opposite a stationary receiver performing either constant velocity or uniformly accelerated movement, and also together with two stationary receivers performing constant velocity movement again. This latter setup is implemented in order to demonstrate the prototype's accuracy for planar (2-D) motion measurements. Error analysis and time-domain analysis are presented for system performance characterization. Furthermore, preliminary experimental assessment using a saline solution container to more closely approximate the human body as a radio frequency wave transmission medium has proved the system's capability of operating underneath the skin.

  3. New environmental policy instruments to realize forest expansion in Flanders (northern Belgium): A base for smart regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossum, Van P.; Ledene, L.; Arts, B.J.M.; Vreese, De R.; Langenhove, Van G.; Verheyen, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current instrument mix, designs options for smart regulation and estimates the support base of new instruments for the forest expansion policy in Flanders (northern Belgium). The framework applied is a combination of theories on instrument choice (ICT), policy transfer and

  4. Research on seamless development of surgical instruments based on biological mechanisms using CAD and 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ikuo; Ota, Ren; Zhu, Rui; Lawn, Murray; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Katsunori; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    In the area of manufacturing surgical instruments, the ability to rapidly design, prototype and test surgical instruments is critical. This paper provides a simple case study of the rapid development of two bio-mechanism based surgical instruments which are ergonomic, aesthetic and were successfully designed, prototyped and conceptually tested in a very short period of time.

  5. Evaluation of the planar sources surface homogeneity used to instruments calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivolo, Vitor [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear/SP, C.P. 11049, CEP 05422-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br; Penha Albuquerque Potiens, Maria da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear/SP, C.P. 11049, CEP 05422-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2010-04-15

    The surface homogeneity of planar sources used to calibrate contamination detectors is important considering that their dimensions are bigger than the most kind of detectors tested and the positioning in relation to the source may vary in each measurement. Using a special pancake detector the counting efficiency of alpha and beta sources was measured in several positioning covering all area of the sources. The {sup 14}C source showed the worse performance and the {sup 241}Am source showed the best behavior.

  6. Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…

  7. Explaining perceived oral texture of starch-based custard desserts from standard and novel instrumental tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of in vitro and in vivo instrumental tests have been developed to reflect various aspects of the perceived oral texture of starch-based vanilla custard desserts. These tests include measurements of the food's infra-red reflectance (IRR), of the turbidity of spat-out rinse water, and of the

  8. Design of embedded hardware platform in intelligent γ-spectrometry instrument based on ARM9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Fang Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of embedded hardware platform based on ARM9 S3C2410A, emphases are focused on analyzing the methods of design the circuits of memory, LCD and keyboard ports. It presented a new solution of hardware platform in intelligent portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  9. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  10. Developing sosiocultural base thematic-integrative learning instrument for elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Arifin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at: (1 generating sociocultural base-thematic-integrative learning instrument on the theme “My Aspiration” for the students of SD N Pujokusuman 1; and (2 identifying the effectiveness of the sociocultural base-thematic-integrative learning instrument on the theme “My Aspiration”. This study referred to the steps that had been developed by Borg & Gall. The developmental design was categorized into three procedures which consisted of: (a preliminary stage; (b development stage; and (c testing stage. The subjects of the main experiment were 28 elementary school students. Then, the subjects of the operational test were 84 students from SDN Pujokusuman 1. The subjects of operational product test in the experimental group were 56 students and in the control group were 28 students. In gathering the data for this study, the researcher employed interview guideline, learning instrument product assessment sheet, teacher’s checklist observation sheet, student’s checklist observation sheet, learning results test, and teacher’s response questionnaire. In conducting the data analysis, the researcher made use of independent sample t-test with the rate of significance 0.05. The results of the study show that the learning instrument belongs to the “Good” category. The implementation of the learning instrument, in general, belongs to the “Very Good” category. However, there are differences between the control group and the experimental group after the implementation of the sociocultural based-thematic-integrative learning instrument with p < 0.05. There is also a significant improvement with p = 0.0001.

  11. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  12. [The development and transplantation of LCD module-based interface for medical diagnosis instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huisheng; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Qiaoliang; Rao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Lin, Shumei; Yin, Li; Chen, Siping; Wang, Tianfu

    2012-11-01

    Based on LCD Module and Visual C++ development environment, this paper proposes a new method which can quickly develop the human-machine interface .We define a LCD module programming interface by designing Serial Communication Class(SCS). On this basis,we achieve the transplantation on an Embedded ARM Platform to fulfil the requirements of Medical Diagnostic Instruments (MDI). Experimental results show that this method has advantages of short development cycle and high level transplantation which has broad application prospects in the field of Medical Diagnosis Instrument.

  13. Design and implementation of embedded ion mobility spectrometry instrument based on SOPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genwei; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yanwei; Yang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    On the hardware platform with single CYCLONE IV FPGA Chip based on SOPC technology, the control functions of IP cores of a Ion Mobility Spectrometry instrument was tested, including 32 bit Nios II soft-core processor, high-voltage module, ion gate switch, gas flow, temperature and pressure sensors, signal acquisition and communication protocol. Embedded operating system μCLinux was successfully transplanted to the hardware platform, used to schedule all the tasks, such as system initialization, parameter setting, signal processing, recognition algorithm and results display. The system was validated using the IMS diagram of Acetone reagent, and the instrument was proved to have a strong signal resolution.

  14. Instrumentino: An open-source modular Python framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenka, Israel Joel; Sáiz, Jorge; Hauser, Peter C.

    2014-10-01

    Instrumentino is an open-source modular graphical user interface framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments. It expands the control capability of Arduino by allowing instruments builders to easily create a custom user interface program running on an attached personal computer. It enables the definition of operation sequences and their automated running without user intervention. Acquired experimental data and a usage log are automatically saved on the computer for further processing. The use of the programming language Python also allows easy extension. Complex devices, which are difficult to control using an Arduino, may be integrated as well by incorporating third party application programming interfaces into the Instrumentino framework.

  15. USB port compatible virtual instrument based automation for x-ray diffractometer setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Sheela, O.K.; Mallika, R.; Thiruarul, A.; Purniah, B.

    2004-01-01

    Windows based virtual instrument (VI) programs in graphic language simplify the design automation in R and D laboratories. With minimal hardware and maximum support of software, the automation becomes easier and user friendly. A novel design approach for the automation of SIEMENS make x-ray diffractometer setup is described in this paper. The automation is achieved with an indigenously developed virtual instrument program in labVIEW ver.6.0 and with a simple hardware design using 89C2051 micro-controller compatible with PC's USB port for the total automation of the experiment. (author)

  16. Prototype of a Dsp-Based Instrument for In-Service Wireless Transmitter Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angrisani Leopoldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of a DSP-based instrument for in-service transmitter power measurements is presented. The instrument implements a signal-selective algorithm for power measurements that is suitable for use in wireless environments, where possible uncontrolled interfering sources are present in the radio channel and are overlapped to the signal emitted by the transmitter under test, possibly in both time and frequency domain. The measurement method exploits the principles of cyclic spectral analysis, which are briefly recalled in the paper. Potentialities, as well as limitations of the prototype use are discussed, and the results of experiments with both modulated and unmodulated interfering sources are presented.

  17. Retrieving aerosol height from the oxygen A band: a fast forward operator and sensitivity study concerning spectral resolution, instrumental noise, and surface inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, A.; Fischer, J.

    2014-05-01

    Hyperspectral radiance measurements in the oxygen A band are sensitive to the vertical distribution of atmospheric scatterers, which in principle allows the retrieval of aerosol height from future instruments like TROPOMI, OCO2, FLEX, and CarbonSat. Discussed in this paper is a fast and flexible forward operator for the simulation of hyperspectral radiances in the oxygen A band and, based on this scheme, a sensitivity study about the inversion quality of aerosol optical thickness, aerosol mean height, and aerosol type. The forward operator is based on a lookup table with efficient data compression based on principal component analysis. Linear interpolation and computation of partial derivatives is performed in the much smaller space of expansion coefficients rather than wavelength. Thus, this approach is computationally fast and, at the same time, memory efficient. The sensitivity study explores the impact of instrument design on the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol height. Considered are signal to noise ratio, spectral resolution, and spectral sampling. Also taken into account are surface inhomogeneities and variations of the aerosol type.

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  19. Laboratory and numerical simulations of the PP-SESAME instrument onboard Philae/ROSETTA for measuring cometary surface permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A. A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Lethuilier, A.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Witasse, O.; Seidensticker, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring the complex permittivity of planetary surfaces provides insigth into their chemical composition and physical state. This can be done using a Mutual Impedance (MI) which consists in a four-electrode array generally (but not necessarily) in contact with the ground, working at a fixed frequency in the ELF-VLF (Extremely Low Frequency-Very Low Frequency) range with a dedicated electronic system [1]. The Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment onboard of the Philae/ROSETTA cometary lander relies on the MI concept. However the PP design had to be accomadated to the severe constraints of the Rosetta mission. In particular, parts of the landing gear (LG) and of other instruments are used as electrodes, introducing influences on the measurements to that need to be considered. Unfortunately, as it was not possible to perform it before launch, the calibration of the full system remains to be done. In order to prepare the analysis of PP data, a reduced size mockup of the LG built in DLR (Cologne, Germany) as well as a mockup-in-size of the instrument including a setup for Philae conductive body have been used for calibration tests in LATMOS (Guyancourt, France). Two configurations have been tested: i) tests as the instrument is in open space, as far as possible from walls, ceiling and floor, ii) Tests as the instrument is placed at several heights from a conductive floor. Such configurations aim at reproducing PP operations during the descent to the comet and the phase of first ground measurements. This would provide, together with numerical simulations under COMSOL™ a full model of the PP-SESAME instrument on Philae for the descent and first ground measurements configuration. Then slight corrections to this model would be possible using the in-flight calibration data to receive from the flight model during the descent on the comet. In this paper, we will present and discuss the results obtained with both nominal and reduced-in-size LGs in free

  20. Robust Toponym Resolution Based on Surface Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohisa; Nobesawa, Shiho Hoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Susuki, Hiroya; Matsubara, Masaki; Saito, Hiroaki

    Toponyms and other named entities are main issues in unknown word processing problem. Our purpose is to salvage unknown toponyms, not only for avoiding noises but also providing them information of area candidates to where they may belong. Most of previous toponym resolution methods were targeting disambiguation among area candidates, which is caused by the multiple existence of a toponym. These approaches were mostly based on gazetteers and contexts. When it comes to the documents which may contain toponyms worldwide, like newspaper articles, toponym resolution is not just an ambiguity resolution, but an area candidate selection from all the areas on Earth. Thus we propose an automatic toponym resolution method which enables to identify its area candidates based only on their surface statistics, in place of dictionary-lookup approaches. Our method combines two modules, area candidate reduction and area candidate examination which uses block-unit data, to obtain high accuracy without reducing recall rate. Our empirical result showed 85.54% precision rate, 91.92% recall rate and .89 F-measure value on average. This method is a flexible and robust approach for toponym resolution targeting unrestricted number of areas.

  1. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-03-01

    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  2. Safety critical FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems: assessment, development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhmach, E. S.; Siora, A. A.; Tokarev, V. I. [Research and Production Corporation Radiy, 29 Geroev Stalingrada Str., Kirovograd 25006 (Ukraine); Kharchenko, V. S.; Sklyar, V. V.; Andrashov, A. A., E-mail: marketing@radiy.co [Center for Safety Infrastructure-Oriented Research and Analysis, 37 Astronomicheskaya Str., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine)

    2010-10-15

    The stages of development, production, verification, licensing and implementation methods and technologies of safety critical instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP) based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Arrays) technologies are described. A life cycle model and multi-version technologies of dependability and safety assurance of FPGA-based instrumentation and control systems are discussed. An analysis of NPP instrumentation and control systems construction principles developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy using FPGA-technologies and results of these systems implementation and operation at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPP are presented. The RADIY{sup TM} platform has been designed and developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Ukraine. The main peculiarity of the RADIY{sup TM} platform is the use of FPGA as programmable components for logic control operation. The FPGA-based RADIY{sup TM} platform used for NPP instrumentation and control systems development ensures sca lability of system functions types, volume and peculiarities (by changing quantity and quality of sensors, actuators, input/output signals and control algorithms); sca lability of dependability (safety integrity) (by changing a number of redundant channel, tiers, diagnostic and reconfiguration procedures); sca lability of diversity (by changing types, depth and method of diversity selection). (Author)

  3. Safety critical FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems: assessment, development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmach, E. S.; Siora, A. A.; Tokarev, V. I.; Kharchenko, V. S.; Sklyar, V. V.; Andrashov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The stages of development, production, verification, licensing and implementation methods and technologies of safety critical instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP) based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Arrays) technologies are described. A life cycle model and multi-version technologies of dependability and safety assurance of FPGA-based instrumentation and control systems are discussed. An analysis of NPP instrumentation and control systems construction principles developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy using FPGA-technologies and results of these systems implementation and operation at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPP are presented. The RADIY TM platform has been designed and developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Ukraine. The main peculiarity of the RADIY TM platform is the use of FPGA as programmable components for logic control operation. The FPGA-based RADIY TM platform used for NPP instrumentation and control systems development ensures sca lability of system functions types, volume and peculiarities (by changing quantity and quality of sensors, actuators, input/output signals and control algorithms); sca lability of dependability (safety integrity) (by changing a number of redundant channel, tiers, diagnostic and reconfiguration procedures); sca lability of diversity (by changing types, depth and method of diversity selection). (Author)

  4. Ultramorphology of the root surface subsequent to hand-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation during non-surgical periodontal treatments: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone D. Aspriello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultramorphology of the root surfaces induced by mechanical instrumentation performed using conventional curettes or piezoelectric scalers when used single-handedly or with a combined technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty single-rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups: Group A, instrumentation with curettes; Group B instrumentation with titanium nitride coated periodontal tip mounted in a piezoelectric handpiece; Group C, combined technique with curette/ultrasonic piezoelectric instrumentation. The specimens were processed and analyzed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Differences between the different groups of instrumentation were determined using Pearson's χ2 with significance predetermined at α=0.001. RESULTS: Periodontal scaling and root planing performed with curettes, ultrasonic or combined instrumentation induced several morphological changes on the root surface. The curettes produced a compact and thick multilayered smear layer, while the morphology of the root surfaces after ultrasonic scaler treatment appeared irregular with few grooves and a thin smear layer. The combination of curette/ultrasonic instrumentation showed exposed root dentin tubules with a surface morphology characterized by the presence of very few grooves and slender remnants of smear layer which only partially covered the root dentin. In some cases, it was also possible to observe areas with exposed collagen fibrils. CONCLUSIONS: The curette-ultrasonic simultaneous instrumentation may combine the beneficial effects of each instrument in a single technique creating a root surface relatively free from the physical barrier of smear layer and dentin tubules orifices partial occlusion.

  5. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    OpenAIRE

    Khachidze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Magda; Archuadze, Maia

    2016-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the w...

  6. Validation of an empirically based instrument for the assessment of the quality of teaching in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Prescher, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of teaching is a necessary prerequisite for the evaluation and development of medical education and thus for high-quality patient care. Corresponding quality indicators can make the feedback for teachers comprehensible. A completely empirically based instrument for the assessment of the quality of teaching in medicine has not yet been described. Ten empirically based criteria from the field of general pedagogy were developed: clear structure, amount of true learning time...

  7. Microhollow Glow Discharge Instrument for In Situ Lunar Surface Measurements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and Penn State University (PSU) propose to develop a highly sensitive spectrometer based on glow discharge plasma emission for the...

  8. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  9. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Instrumental Develovement of 50 Meters Free Style Swimming Speed Measurement Based on Microcontroller Arduino Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruzaman; Rusdiana, A.; Gilang, M. R.; Martini, T.

    2017-03-01

    This study is purposed to make a software and hardware instrument in controlling the velocity of 50 meters free style swimming speed measurement based on microcontroller Arduino Uno. The writer uses 6 participants of advanced 2015 college students of sport education. The materials he uses are electronical series of microcontroller Arduino Uno base, laser sensors shone on light dependent resistor, laser receiver functions as a detector of laser cutting block, cables as connector transfering the data. This device consist of 4 installable censors in every 10 meters with the result of swimming speed showed on the monitors using visual basic 6.0 software. This instrument automatically works when the buzzer is pushed and also runs the timer on the application. For the procedure, the writer asks the participants to swim in free style along 50 meters. When the athlete swims, they will cut the laser of every censors so that it gives a signal to stop the running timer on the monitoring application. The output result the writer gets from this used instrument is to know how fast a swimmer swim in maximum speed, to know the time and distance of acceleration and decelaration that happens. The result of validity instrument shows 0,605 (high), while the reliability is 0,833 (very high).

  11. Study of research-based teaching mode in the course of Geometric Optics and Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Geng, Meihua; Cheng, Xiangai; Jiang, Zongfu

    2017-08-01

    Modern teaching opinions require research-based teaching mode in research universities. It is an advanced teaching mode enabling students to explore science and technology autonomously. It has a lot of advantages comparing with the conventional knowledge-oriented teaching mode. In this paper, we show some understanding of research-based teaching mode. And based on the course features of Geometric optics and optical instruments and characteristics of students, we explore the research-based teaching mode in the part of Practical Optical Systems.

  12. A New Instrument to Measure the Surface Resistance of Superconducting Samples at 400 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Chiaveri, Enrico; Häbel, E; Tessier, J M

    2003-01-01

    A 400-MHz niobium quadrupole resonator has been manufactured to study the rf properties of superconducting bulk and thin film samples at low temperatures. We describe the apparatus, i.e. the construction of the resonator, field calculations with MAFIA, and the experimental procedure. In first validation tests the surface resistance Rs of a reactor-grade bulk niobium sample as a function of temperature and applied rf field has been investigated by using a calorimetric "rf-dc-compensation" method. A critical temperature Tc = 9.15 ± 0.02 K, a thermal conductivity λ (4.2 K) = 6.9 ± 0.7 W/mK, a residual resistance Rres = 19.0 ± 0.3 nΩ and a superconducting energy gap of ∆/kBTc = 1.82 ± 0.01 have been measured. At 4.2 K we achieved a calorimetric detection limit for Rs of 0.16 nΩ at a peak field of 25 mT.

  13. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Barrow (METTWR4H) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-04-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights (2m, 10m, 20m and 40m) on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at the base of the tower. Additionally, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer and an Ultrasonic wind speed sensor are located near the 2m level for comparison purposes.

  14. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2006-01-01

    The Atqasuk meteorology station (AMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point, and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower.

  15. Effect of Aerosols on Surface Radiation and Air Quality in the Central American Region Estimated Using Satellite UV Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface is reduced by both aerosol scattering and aerosol absorption. Over many parts of the world the latter effect can be as large or larger than the former effect, and small changes in the aerosol single scattering albedo can either cancel the former effect or enhance it. In addition, absorbing aerosols embedded in clouds can greatly reduce the amount of radiation reaching the surface by multiple scattering. Though the potential climatic effects of absorbing aerosols have received considerable attention lately, their effect on surface UV, photosynthesis, and photochemistry can be equally important for our environment and may affect human health and agricultural productivity. Absorption of all aerosols commonly found in the Earth's atmosphere becomes larger in the UV and blue wavelengths and has a relatively strong wavelength dependence. This is particularly true of mineral dust and organic aerosols. However, these effects have been very difficult to estimate on a global basis since the satellite instruments that operate in the visible are primarily sensitive to aerosol scattering. A notable exception is the UV Aerosol Index (AI), first produced using NASA's Nimbus-7 TOMS data. AI provides a direct measure of the effect of aerosol absorption on the backscattered UV radiation in both clear and cloudy conditions, as well as over snow/ice. Although many types of aerosols produce a distinct color cast in the visible images, and aerosols absorption over clouds and snow/ice could, in principle be detected from their color, so far this technique has worked well only in the UV. In this talk we will discuss what we have learned from the long-term record of AI produced from TOMS and Aura/OMI about the possible role of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality in the Central American region.

  16. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  17. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F

    2011-01-01

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  18. Quality of persian addiction websites: a survey based on silberg, discern and wqet instruments (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Razieh; Taheri, Behjat; Shahrzadi, Leila; Tazhibi, Mehdi; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, World Wide Web is an accessible and widespread resource to attain medical information. So physicians and health institutions try to inform patients about different domains of medicine through Web. Addiction is a noteworthy subject in medicine and a controversial issue among them. However, quality of health information on the internet is doubtful. The objective of this study is to determine the quality of Persian addiction websites to offer recommendation for their improvement. This was survey and an applied study that the study population was all Persian addiction websites. Sample of this study was 28 Persian addiction website which were chosen by searching Persian equivalences of 7 key terms (addiction, addict, addiction center, drug, treatment of addiction, recovery of addiction, addiction withdrawal) into the Google and Yahoo search engines. Finally, the websites were ranked based on the Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments. Data were analyzed with Excel software using descriptive statistics. The overall mean of websites in Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments were 1.42, 41.89, 64.57. Also the results showed that "Unit of Substance Abuse Treatment" belonging to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences was ranked first based on the Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments. 5 (from total of 9), 60 (from total of 80) and 82 (from total of normalized grade 82) were grades for this website for these instruments respectively. It showed that the quality of Persian websites according to Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments was "low", "more than half" and "very good" respectively. Not assigning date of entering data, author names, and references of information (authority) were most important missing characteristics of these websites. In addition, lack of interactive opportunities like chat rooms was another problem that leads to dissatisfaction of users.

  19. Model-based testing of a vehicle instrument cluster for design validation using machine vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yingping; McMurran, Ross; Dhadyalla, Gunwant; Jones, R Peter; Mouzakitis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced testing system, combining model-based testing and machine vision technologies, for automated design validation of a vehicle instrument cluster. In the system, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tester, supported by model-based approaches, simulates vehicle operations in real time and dynamically provides all essential signals to the instrument cluster under test. A machine vision system with advanced image processing algorithms is designed to inspect the visual displays. Experiments demonstrate that the system developed is accurate for measuring the pointer position, bar graph position, pointer angular velocity and indicator flash rate, and is highly robust for validating various functionalities including warning lights status, symbol and text displays. Moreover, the system developed greatly eases the task of tedious validation testing and makes onerous repeated tests possible

  20. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  1. A medium resolution double crystal based small-angle neutron scattering instrument at Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, S.; Sen, D.; Saravanan, T.; Vijayaraghavan, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A double crystal-based moderate resolution small-angle neutron scattering instrument has been built and commissioned at the guide laboratory of Dhruva reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, India. The instrument consists of a non-dispersive (1,-1) setting of 111 reflections of silicon single crystals with the sample between the two crystals. The neutron wavelength used is 0.312 nm. At 65 MW of reactor power, the peak count rate of the blank rocking curve is about 55 counts per second at the detector position and the ratio of integrated signal to integrated noise is ∼450 for a typical experiment with sintered aluminia. The accessible range of wave vector transfer q is found to be 0.003-0.173 nm -1 , which corresponds to a range of resolvable real-space dimension of 2000-40 nm, for these specimens. The instrument is calibrated with respect to the high resolution ultra small-angle neutron scattering instrument S18 at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. (author)

  2. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  3. Instrumentation for low noise nanopore-based ionic current recording under laser illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Zachary; Bustamante, José A.; Carlsen, Autumn; Baker-Murray, Aidan; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    We describe a nanopore-based optofluidic instrument capable of performing low-noise ionic current recordings of individual biomolecules under laser illumination. In such systems, simultaneous optical measurements generally introduce significant parasitic noise in the electrical signal, which can severely reduce the instrument sensitivity, critically hindering the monitoring of single-molecule events in the ionic current traces. Here, we present design rules and describe simple adjustments to the experimental setup to mitigate the different noise sources encountered when integrating optical components to an electrical nanopore system. In particular, we address the contributions to the electrical noise spectra from illuminating the nanopore during ionic current recording and mitigate those effects through control of the illumination source and the use of a PDMS layer on the SiNx membrane. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our noise minimization strategies by showing the detection of DNA translocation events during membrane illumination with a signal-to-noise ratio of ˜10 at 10 kHz bandwidth. The instrumental guidelines for noise minimization that we report are applicable to a wide range of nanopore-based optofluidic systems and offer the possibility of enhancing the quality of synchronous optical and electrical signals obtained during single-molecule nanopore-based analysis.

  4. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ( 13 C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B o ), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13 C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging

  5. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  6. Classification of starch gel texture for the elderly diets based on instrumental and sensory methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Cho, Wanil; Ko, Sanghoon; Park, Sung Kwon; Lee, Suyong

    2017-10-01

    An experimental attempt was made to bridge the gap between instrumental and sensory texture for the elderly diets in a corn starch gel system. Uniaxial compression was applied to measure the instrumental hardness of corn starch gels that was correlated with their sensory properties perceived by the elderly aged 60 and older. Instrumental and sensory hardness values of the starch gel samples were found to have good polynomial and linear correlations (R 2 =.99) with the level of corn starch, respectively. A fairly linear relationship (R 2 =.96) was observed between the instrumental and sensory hardness in terms of the logarithm of stress. In principal component analysis, two principal components that accounted for 86.71% of the total variability, separated the gel texture in terms of hardness/springiness and moistness, respectively. The categories of the starch gel samples were subdivided into five groups with different stress ranges. This classification suggested in this study appeared to provide useful information for modifying the texture of solid foods for the elderly diets. As the elderly population is increasing throughout the world, there are growing interests in developing food products for older adults with difficulties in chewing and swallowing in the food industry. In this study, the instrumental texture of solid foods in a starch gel system was correlated with the sensory properties perceived by the people aged 60 and older. Based on the principal component analysis, the corn starch gel samples with different hardness were classified into the five groups that were presented with the ranges of stress values. The results obtained in this study may thus provide valuable information on the standard criteria and guidelines customized for the elderly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2013-12-01

    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application.

  8. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  9. Nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring: an instrument based on Watson's Theory of Transpersonal Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gail Holland; Kasper, Natalie

    2006-05-01

    This study describes the development and testing of an instrument to measure nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring. Originally, 69 statements about instructors' caring behaviors, based on Watson's 10 carative factors, were created with Dr. Jean Watson. The Nursing Students' Perceptions of Instructor Caring (NSPIC) instrument uses a 6-point Likert scale for students' responses to the statements. After pretesting the instrument with a small group of nursing students, the NSPIC was tested with 133 baccalaureate nursing students. Based on item analysis, factor analysis, and student comments, the number of statements were reduced to 31. Psychometric testing revealed that the NSPIC is internally consistent (alpha = 0.97) and contains five subscales. Convergent validity was established between the NSPIC and a semantic differential scale of students' perceptions of instructor caring. Predictive validity was assessed with Coates Caring Efficacy Scale. Although the NSPIC is in its early stages of development, its psychometric properties indicate that it is a valid and reliable measure of nursing students' perceptions of instructor caring.

  10. Development and design of a late-model fitness test instrument based on LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Feiqing

    2010-12-01

    Undergraduates are pioneers of China's modernization program and undertake the historic mission of rejuvenating our nation in the 21st century, whose physical fitness is vital. A smart fitness test system can well help them understand their fitness and health conditions, thus they can choose more suitable approaches and make practical plans for exercising according to their own situation. following the future trends, a Late-model fitness test Instrument based on LabView has been designed to remedy defects of today's instruments. The system hardware consists of fives types of sensors with their peripheral circuits, an acquisition card of NI USB-6251 and a computer, while the system software, on the basis of LabView, includes modules of user register, data acquisition, data process and display, and data storage. The system, featured by modularization and an open structure, is able to be revised according to actual needs. Tests results have verified the system's stability and reliability.

  11. Virtual instrumention-based linearity test platform for DCCT of digital power supply at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Li Deming; Shen Tianjian; Liu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on virtual instrumentation, a reliable and effective test platform, performing instrument control, data acquisition and data recording, has been established to evaluate linearity of high performance DCCT (DC current transducer) for digital power supply at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The software in LabVIEW language was developed to perform computer communication via serial communication (RS232) and GPIB, providing a friendly user interface to the linearity test platform. This makes it easy to test the linearity and control power on or off and current output of high-precision and high-current DC constant current output power supply. The experimental data, stored in an EXCEL file, can be processed to obtain DCCT linearity, and provide basis to further analyze DCCT performance in the future. (authors)

  12. Validation of satellite-based noontime UVI with NDACC ground-based instruments: influence of topography, environment and satellite overpass time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brogniez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral solar UV radiation measurements are performed in France using three spectroradiometers located at very different sites. One is installed in Villeneuve d'Ascq, in the north of France (VDA. It is an urban site in a topographically flat region. Another instrument is installed in Observatoire de Haute-Provence, located in the southern French Alps (OHP. It is a rural mountainous site. The third instrument is installed in Saint-Denis, Réunion Island (SDR. It is a coastal urban site on a small mountainous island in the southern tropics. The three instruments are affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and carry out routine measurements to monitor the spectral solar UV radiation and enable derivation of UV index (UVI. The ground-based UVI values observed at solar noon are compared to similar quantities derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, onboard the Aura satellite and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2, onboard the Metop-A satellite measurements for validation of these satellite-based products. The present study concerns the period 2009–September 2012, date of the implementation of a new OMI processing tool. The new version (v1.3 introduces a correction for absorbing aerosols that were not considered in the old version (v1.2. Both versions of the OMI UVI products were available before September 2012 and are used to assess the improvement of the new processing tool. On average, estimates from satellite instruments always overestimate surface UVI at solar noon. Under cloudless conditions, the satellite-derived estimates of UVI compare satisfactorily with ground-based data: the median relative bias is less than 8 % at VDA and 4 % at SDR for both OMI v1.3 and GOME-2, and about 6 % for OMI v1.3 and 2 % for GOME-2 at OHP. The correlation between satellite-based and ground-based data is better at VDA and OHP (about 0.99 than at SDR (0.96 for both space

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of penetration/removal response of endodontic instrument made of single crystal Cu-based SMA: comparison with NiTi SMA instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M.; Xolin, P.; Gevrey, A.-M.; Thiebaud, F.; Engels-Deutsch, M.; Ben Zineb, T.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study showing that single crystal shape memory alloy (SMA) Cu-based endodontic instruments can lead to equivalent mechanical performances compared to NiTi-based instruments besides their interesting biological properties. Following a previous finite element analysis (FEA) of single crystal CuAlBe endodontic instruments (Vincent et al 2015 J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24 4128-39), prototypes with the determined geometrical parameters were machined and experimentally characterized in continuous rotation during a penetration/removal (P/R) protocol in artificial canals. The obtained mechanical responses were compared to responses of NiTi endodontic files in the same conditions. In addition, FEA was conducted and compared with the experimental results to validate the adopted modeling and to evaluate the local quantities inside the instrument as the stress state and the distribution of volume fraction of martensite. The obtained results highlight that single crystal CuAlBe SMA prototypes show equivalent mechanical responses to its NiTi homologous prototypes in the same P/R experimental conditions.

  14. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  15. Modelling Angular Dependencies in Land Surface Temperatures From the SEVIRI Instrument onboard the Geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Pinheiro, AC; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    Satellite-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST) are widely applied as an input to models. A model output is often very sensitive to error in the input data, and high-quality inputs are therefore essential. One of the main sources of errors in LST estimates is the dependence on vegetat......Satellite-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST) are widely applied as an input to models. A model output is often very sensitive to error in the input data, and high-quality inputs are therefore essential. One of the main sources of errors in LST estimates is the dependence...... on vegetation structure and viewing and illumination geometry. Despite this, these effects are not considered in current operational LST products from neither polar-orbiting nor geostationary satellites. In this paper, we simulate the angular dependence that can be expected when estimating LST with the viewing...

  16. DESIGNING AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT BASED ON SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Ira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was describing the designing of instrument for affective assessment in English language teaching. The focus of the designing was only for observation sheet that will be used by English teachers during the teaching and learning process. The instrument was designed based on scientific approach that has five stages namely observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In the designing process, ADDIE Model was used as the method of research. The designing of instrument was considering the gap between the reality and the teachers’ need. The result showed that the designing was also notice to the affective taxonomy such as receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Then, three key words were used as the indicator to show the five levels of affective taxonomy such as seriously, volunteer, and without asked by teacher. Furthermore, eighteen types of affective such as religious, honesty, responsible, discipline, hard work, self confidence, logical thinking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, independent, curiosity, love knowledge, respect, polite, democracy, emotional intelligence, and pluralist were put on each stage of scientific approach. So, it is hoped that can be implemented in all of context of English language teaching at schools and can assess the students’ affective comprehensively.

  17. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  18. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  19. Improved retrieval of cloud base heights from ceilometer using a non-standard instrument method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Zhanqing; Hu, Shuzhen; Chen, Tianmeng; Tao, Fa; Wang, Yuzhao

    2018-04-01

    Cloud-base height (CBH) is a basic cloud parameter but has not been measured accurately, especially under polluted conditions due to the interference of aerosol. Taking advantage of a comprehensive field experiment in northern China in which a variety of advanced cloud probing instruments were operated, different methods of detecting CBH are assessed. The Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) and the Vaisala ceilometer (CL51) provided two types of backscattered profiles. The latter has been employed widely as a standard means of measuring CBH using the manufacturer's operational algorithm to generate standard CBH products (CL51 MAN) whose quality is rigorously assessed here, in comparison with a research algorithm that we developed named value distribution equalization (VDE) algorithm. It was applied to both the profiles of lidar backscattering data from the two instruments. The VDE algorithm is found to produce more accurate estimates of CBH for both instruments and can cope with heavy aerosol loading conditions well. By contrast, CL51 MAN overestimates CBH by 400 m and misses many low level clouds under such conditions. These findings are important given that CL51 has been adopted operationally by many meteorological stations in China.

  20. Micro-controller based air pressure monitoring instrumentation system using optical fibers as sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, D.; Pegu, D. S.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a micro-controller based instrumentation system to monitor air pressure using optical fiber sensors. The principle of macrobending is used to develop the sensor system. The instrumentation system consists of a laser source, a beam splitter, two multi mode optical fibers, two Light Dependent Resistance (LDR) based timer circuits and a AT89S8252 micro-controller. The beam splitter is used to divide the laser beam into two parts and then these two beams are launched into two multi mode fibers. One of the multi mode fibers is used as the sensor fiber and the other one is used as the reference fiber. The use of the reference fiber is to eliminate the environmental effects while measuring the air pressure magnitude. The laser beams from the sensor and reference fibers are applied to two identical LDR based timer circuits. The LDR based timer circuits are interfaced to a micro-controller through its counter pins. The micro-controller samples the frequencies of the timer circuits using its counter-0 and counter-1 and the counter values are then processed to provide the measure of air pressure magnitude.

  1. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  2. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  3. Conformal-Based Surface Morphing and Multi-Scale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun Lam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two algorithms, based on conformal geometry, for the multi-scale representations of geometric shapes and surface morphing. A multi-scale surface representation aims to describe a 3D shape at different levels of geometric detail, which allows analyzing or editing surfaces at the global or local scales effectively. Surface morphing refers to the process of interpolating between two geometric shapes, which has been widely applied to estimate or analyze deformations in computer graphics, computer vision and medical imaging. In this work, we propose two geometric models for surface morphing and multi-scale representation for 3D surfaces. The basic idea is to represent a 3D surface by its mean curvature function, H, and conformal factor function λ, which uniquely determine the geometry of the surface according to Riemann surface theory. Once we have the (λ, H parameterization of the surface, post-processing of the surface can be done directly on the conformal parameter domain. In particular, the problem of multi-scale representations of shapes can be reduced to the signal filtering on the λ and H parameters. On the other hand, the surface morphing problem can be transformed to an interpolation process of two sets of (λ, H parameters. We test the proposed algorithms on 3D human face data and MRI-derived brain surfaces. Experimental results show that our proposed methods can effectively obtain multi-scale surface representations and give natural surface morphing results.

  4. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  5. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  6. Alteration in the inherent metallic and surface properties of nickel-titanium root canal instruments to enhance performance, durability and safety: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, J L; Gao, Y

    2012-02-01

    The expanded use of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in root canal procedures has led to the development of a wide variety of shapes, designs and applications. Root canal anatomy has not changed, however, and the same challenges exist in both initial treatment and the revision of unacceptable treatment. These challenges include application with high levels of achievement and low to no levels of adverse effects, such as instrument fracture, root canal wall ledging, dentine wall perforation and so forth. To that end, many manufacturers have been seeking ways to alter the presently available and wide range of root canal instrument designs, with a focus on altering the surface of the alloy or altering the alloy microstructure with post-machining or post-twisting heat treatment. This focused review will address the impact that these modifications have had on instrument flexibility, resistance to cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. [Development of a digital EEG signal acquiring system based on virtual instrument technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Chen, Guang-Fei; He, Shi-Lin

    2009-09-01

    This paper introduces an 16-lead digital EEG signal acquisition system, which applies MCU MSP430 as central control unit with high performance analog devices and high speed multi-channel, multi-bit analog-to-digital converter as peripheral to retrench analog circuit. Data is transferred to PC by USART interface. Software on PC based on virtual instrument technology realizes real-time detection, display and storage. The system has many advantages such as high precision, stable performance, small volume and low power dissipation, thus provides a new means for digital EEG signal acquisition.

  8. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  9. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  10. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  11. Interactive CD based training on NDA instruments for facility operators and international inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Interactive multimedia training is rapidly becoming a popular and highly effective medium for learning. An interactive CD based training module on the Active Well Coincidence counter is being developed for on-site training at nuclear facility, including foreign facilities. The training module incorporates interactive text, graphics and video that demonstrate the operating principles, and the use and set-up of the instrument. The user is in control of the pace of learning and of the directions taken to acquire information based on personal need. By being in control, the user stays highly motivated. A mix of visuals (text and graphics), audio clips (in different languages), and video (with audio) clips also keeps the interest level high. Skill reviews and evaluations can be incorporated into the training to provide feedback to the student. In addition, general background information is provided on gamma and neutron based MC and A measurements. This material serves as a condensed MC and A encyclopedia. By supplying an interactive CD with an NDA instrument, nuclear facilities will have greater assurance operators are properly trained in the set-up and operation of the NDA-equipment

  12. Innovative approach to implementation of FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, Anton; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Sklyar, Volodymir; Siora, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Advantages of application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) technology for implementation of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are outlined. Specific features of FPGA technology in the context of cyber security threats for NPPs I and C systems are analyzed. Description of FPGA-based platform used for implementation of different safety I and C systems for NPPs is presented. Typical architecture of NPPs safety I and C system based on the platform, as well as approach to implementation of I and C systems using FPGA-based platform are discussed. Data on implementation experience of application of the platform for NPP safety I and C systems modernization projects are finalizing the paper. (author)

  13. DEVELOPING SCIENCE LEARNING INSTRUMENTS BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM TO IMPROVE STUDENT’S CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wahyuni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop learning instruments of science i.e. textbook, student worksheet, syllabus, and lesson plan based on local wisdom that can improve critical thinking skills of junior high school students. Indicators of student's critical thinking skills include interpretation, analysis, evaluation and inference. This study is a Research and Development by using analysis, desaign, development, implementation and evaluation (ADDIE method. Expert validation was conducted with the expert test related to the format, content/material, and language. The instruments ware used on the collection data are documentations, validation sheets, observation sheets, and tests. The result of the instrument in the 7th grade of junior high school at Bustanul Ulum Panti Jember showed that there are the improvement of critical thinking skills of student based on the data from test and observation. According to indicator of critical thinking skills, the n-gain value is around 0.47, means moderate interpretation. The conclusions of this research are the learning instruments of science based on local wisdom which develope in the valid category is quite effective to improve students' critical thinking skills.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran IPA yang berupa Buku ajar, LKS, Silabus, dan RPP berbasis kearifan lokal untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa SMP. Indikator kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa mencakup interprestasi, analisis, evaluasi dan inferensi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Research and Development dengan metode Analysis, Desaign, Development, Implimentation and Evaluastion (ADDIE. Validasi ahli dilakukan dengan uji expert terkait dengan format, isi/materi, dan bahasa. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam pengambilan data adalah dokumentasi, lembar validasi, lembar observasi, dan tes. Hasil ujicoba instrumen di kelas VII SMP Bustanul ulum Panti Kabupaten Jember menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kemampuan berpikir

  14. Patient-Specific CT-Based Instrumentation versus Conventional Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on Clinical Outcomes and In-Hospital Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kotela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a frequently performed procedure in orthopaedic surgery. Recently, patient-specific instrumentation was introduced to facilitate correct positioning of implants. The aim of this study was to compare the early clinical results of TKA performed with patient-specific CT-based instrumentation and conventional technique. A prospective, randomized controlled trial on 112 patients was performed between January 2011 and December 2011. A group of 112 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group comprised 52 patients who received the Signature CT-based implant positioning system, and the control group consisted of 60 patients with conventional instrumentation. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the KSS scale, WOMAC scale, and VAS scales to assess knee pain severity and patient satisfaction with the surgery. Specified in-hospital data were recorded. Patients were followed up for 12 months. At one year after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to clinical outcomes and in-hospital data, including operative time, blood loss, hospital length of stay, intraoperative observations, and postoperative complications. Further high-quality investigations of various patient-specific systems and longer follow-up may be helpful in assessing their utility for TKA.

  15. Hardware aspects of safety critical digital computer based instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the last 20 years, instrumentation and control systems based on digital computer technology have come to be used widely throughout industry. Included are applications that are of a safety critical nature - that is, where the consequences of failure of a device or system could have substantial adverse impact on the public. The successful application of digital computer technology in the aerospace and process industries for monitoring and control, and the benefits that this technology offers when compared to the analog technology of 25 years ago, require that consideration be given to the more widespread application of digital computer technology in US nuclear stations as obsolete monitoring and control systems are replaced. The purpose of this paper is to examine hardware aspects of safety critical digital control and instrumentation systems. It will discuss how to achieve adequate measures of system reliability and how to ensure that the required level to reliability is achieved. Special techniques for design of the hardware architecture of a digital computer based monitoring and control system that are able to make the system single or even double failure proof are discussed. Examples of hardware architectures which achieve high reliability are given, including those currently in use in US nuclear stations or expected to be applied in the future

  16. A Comparative Analysis of New Governance Instruments in the Transnational Educational Space: A Shift to Knowledge-Based Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the ongoing development towards a knowledge-based society--associated with globalization, an aging population, new technologies and organizational changes--has led to a more intensive analysis of education and learning throughout life with regard to quantitative, qualitative and financial aspects. In this framework, education…

  17. Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the efficient design of functional thin-film metamaterial devices with the effective surface conductivity approach. As an example, we demonstrate a graphene based perfect absorber. After formulating the requirements to the perfect absorber in terms of surface conductivity...... we investigate the properties of graphene wire medium and graphene fishnet metamaterials and demonstrate both narrowband and broadband tunable absorbers.......In this paper we present the efficient design of functional thin-film metamaterial devices with the effective surface conductivity approach. As an example, we demonstrate a graphene based perfect absorber. After formulating the requirements to the perfect absorber in terms of surface conductivity...

  18. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T. [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire ESYCOM, ESIEE Paris, Cite Descartes, 2 Boulevard Blaise Pascal, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2013-04-08

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  19. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.; Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G.

    2013-01-01

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  20. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, L.B.; Terwee, C.B.; Knol, D.L.; Stratford, P.W.; Alonso, J.; Patrick, D.L.; Bouter, L.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability), the requirements, the

  1. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  2. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James; Wei, Jie; Sullivan, James; Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV torso = ΔV thorax + ΔV abdomen ) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP v = ΔV thorax /ΔV torso ) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI

  3. Plasma based Ar+ beam assisted poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladkova, T.G.; Keranov, I.L.; Dineff, P.D.; Youroukov, S.Y.; Avramova, I.A.; Krasteva, N.; Altankov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma based Ar + beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow. XPS analysis was performed to study the changes in the surface chemical composition of the modified samples and the corresponding changes in the surface energy were monitored by contact angle measurements. We found that plasma based Ar + beam transforms the initially hydrophobic PDMS surface into a hydrophilic one mainly due to a raising of the polar component of the surface tension, this effect being most probably due to an enrichment of the modified surface layer with permanent dipoles of a [SiO x ]-based network and elimination of the original methyl groups. The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar + beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or bare surfaces. The cell response seems to be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar + beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting

  4. Modeling the Acid-Base Properties of Montmorillonite Edge Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Davis, James A; Chiaberge, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bourg, Ian C

    2016-12-20

    The surface reactivity of clay minerals remains challenging to characterize because of a duality of adsorption surfaces and mechanisms that does not exist in the case of simple oxide surfaces: edge surfaces of clay minerals have a variable proton surface charge arising from hydroxyl functional groups, whereas basal surfaces have a permanent negative charge arising from isomorphic substitutions. Hence, the relationship between surface charge and surface potential on edge surfaces cannot be described using the Gouy-Chapman relation, because of a spillover of negative electrostatic potential from the basal surface onto the edge surface. While surface complexation models can be modified to account for these features, a predictive fit of experimental data was not possible until recently, because of uncertainty regarding the densities and intrinsic pK a values of edge functional groups. Here, we reexamine this problem in light of new knowledge on intrinsic pK a values obtained over the past decade using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and we propose a new formalism to describe edge functional groups. Our simulation results yield reasonable predictions of the best available experimental acid-base titration data.

  5. Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis.

  6. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  7. The Study on Virtual Medical Instrument based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengwei, Li; Limei, Zhang; Xiaoming, Hu

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing performance of computer, the virtual instrument technology has greatly advanced over the years, and then virtual medical instrument technology becomes available. This paper presents the virtual medical instrument, and then as an example, an application of a signal acquisition, processing and analysis system using LabVIEW is also given.

  8. Assessment of physician competency in patient education: reliability and validity of a model-based instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; Zandbelt, Linda C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Establish the inter-rater reliability and the concept, convergent and construct validity of an instrument for assessing the competency of physicians in patient education. Three raters assessed the quality of patient education in 30 outpatient consultations with the CELI instrument. This instrument

  9. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia

    2017-08-01

    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  10. QUALITATIVE RISK COVERAGE IN AGRICULTURE THROUGH DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS BASED ON SELYANINOV INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian KEVORCHIAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The financial product designed by the authors belongs to the class of derivative financial instruments, having “weather conditions” as basic variable; the settlement is oriented to options on OTC markets, which are able to adapt to the farmers’ risk exposure level. Unfortunately, they cause certain problems at position liquidation, and, moreover, due to lack of stock prices, they require proper evaluation models. The transformation of the weather risk into financial risk and its trading on financial markets relies on the willingness for risk taking of those groups of farmers which are using this particular financial instrument. One needs to emphasize that the proposed product is covering the risk for the production segment only of a specific crop that cannot be covered by the regular agricultural insurance, and it is based upon the Selyaninov index. The calculation formulae for a put type option will be presented: pay-off, strike, tick,and the level of the insurance premium for cereals. The reference weather stations will be: Tulcea, Brăila, Buzău, Galaţi, Focşani and Medgidia.

  11. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  12. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....

  13. Microchemostat - microbial continuous culture in a polymer-based, instrumented microbioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Bocazzi, P.; Choi, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    -based microbioreactor system integrated with optical density (OD), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) real-time measurements for continuous cultivation of microbial cells. Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells are continuously cultured in a 150 mL, membrane-aerated, well-mixed microbioreactor fed by a pressure-driven flow...... of fresh medium through a microchannel. Chemotaxisial back growth of bacterial cells into the medium feed channel is prevented by local heating. Using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) copolymer films, the inner surfaces of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly......(dimethylsiloxane) ( PDMS) of the microbioreactor are modified to generate bio-inert surfaces resistant to non-specific protein adsorption and cell adhesion. The modified surfaces of microbioreactor effectively reduce wall growth of E. coli for a prolonged period of cultivation. Steady state conditions at different...

  14. Hilbert-Huang transform based instrumental assessment of intention tremor in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. This paper describes a method to extract upper limb intention tremor from gyroscope data, through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a technique suitable for the study of nonlinear and non-stationary processes. The aims of the study were to: (i) evaluate the method’s ability to discriminate between healthy controls and MS subjects; (ii) validate the proposed procedure against clinical tremor scores assigned using Fahn’s tremor rating scale (FTRS); and (iii) compare the performance of the HHT-based method with that of linear band-pass filters. Approach. HHT was applied on gyroscope data collected on 20 MS subjects and 13 healthy controls (CO) during finger-to-nose tests (FNTs) instrumented with an inertial sensor placed on the hand. The results were compared to those obtained after traditional linear filtering. The tremor amplitude was quantified with instrumental indexes (TIs) and clinical FTRS ratings. Main results. The TIs computed after HHT-based filtering discriminated between CO and MS subjects with clinically-detected intention tremor (MS_T). In particular, TIs were significantly higher in the final part of the movement (TI2) with respect to the first part (TI1), and, for all components (X, Y, Z), MST showed a TI2 significantly higher than in CO subjects. Moreover, the HHT detected subtle alterations not visible from clinical ratings, as TI2 (Z-component) was significantly increased in MS subjects without clinically-detected tremor (MS_NT). The method’s validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between clinical FTRS scores and TI2 related to X (rs = 0.587, p = 0.006) and Y (rs = 0.682, p < 0.001) components. Contrarily, fewer differences among the groups and no correlation between instrumental and clinical indexes emerged after traditional filtering. Significance. The present results supported the use of the HHT-based procedure for a fully-automated quantitative and objective measure of intention tremor in MS, which can overcome

  15. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-11-15

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  16. Application of an online ion-chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux

  17. Interactions between acid- and base-functionalized surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present an AFM force study on interactions between chemically modified surfaces. Surfaces with terminal groups of either NH2 or COOH were obtained by chemisorption of a silane-based compound (3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane) on silica or a thiol compound (11-mercapto undecanoic acid)

  18. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  19. Noninvasive conoscopic holography-based device for artworks surface acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagnì, P.; Cavallo, E.; Della Patria, A.; Gianfrate, G.; Pezzati, L.; Piccolo, R.; Pingi, P.

    2009-07-01

    Surface topography is very important for many applications. Today the most used techniques on artworks and stone artifacts require long acquisition times and invasive interventions. For this reason, here a non-contact device improved in portability is described. It can acquire wide areas in short times, so it is suitable for topography reconstruction with spatial resolution of some tens of micrometers. The starting point is a commercial conoscopic probe, the Optimet Conoline, that is able to reconstruct the depth profile of a surface line probed by a built-in laser. Its accuracy and acquisition speed are as high as to return wide measured areas in short times; its resolution permits fine details reproduction. Low interference with the artwork, high portability and low response to environmental noise are the ingredients for the instrumental setup.

  20. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Nuclear instrumentation and measurement: a review based on the ANIMMA conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Michel; Vermeeren, Ludo; Lyoussi, Abdallah; Reynard-Carette, Christelle; Lhuillier, Christian; Mégret, Patrice; Deconinck, Frank; Gonçalves, Bruno Soares

    2017-12-01

    The ANIMMA conferences offer a unique opportunity to discover research carried out in all fields of nuclear measurements and instrumentation with applications extending from fundamental physics to fission and fusion reactors, medical imaging, environmental protection and homeland security. After four successful editions of the Conference, it was decided to prepare a review based to a large extent but not exclusively on the papers presented during the first four editions of the conference. This review is organized according to the measurement methodologies: neutronic, photonic, thermal, acoustic and optical measurements, as well as medical imaging and specific challenges linked to data acquisition and electronic hardening. The paper describes the main challenges justifying research in these different areas, and summarizes the recent progress reported. It offers researchers and engineers a way to quickly and efficiently access knowledge in highly specialized areas.

  2. Nuclear instrumentation and measurement: a review based on the ANIMMA conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giot Michel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANIMMA conferences offer a unique opportunity to discover research carried out in all fields of nuclear measurements and instrumentation with applications extending from fundamental physics to fission and fusion reactors, medical imaging, environmental protection and homeland security. After four successful editions of the Conference, it was decided to prepare a review based to a large extent but not exclusively on the papers presented during the first four editions of the conference. This review is organized according to the measurement methodologies: neutronic, photonic, thermal, acoustic and optical measurements, as well as medical imaging and specific challenges linked to data acquisition and electronic hardening. The paper describes the main challenges justifying research in these different areas, and summarizes the recent progress reported. It offers researchers and engineers a way to quickly and efficiently access knowledge in highly specialized areas.

  3. A toolbox for safety instrumented system evaluation based on improved continuous-time Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardana, Awang N. I.; Kurniady, Rahman; Pambudi, Galih; Purnama, Jaka; Suryopratomo, Kutut

    2017-08-01

    Safety instrumented system (SIS) is designed to restore a plant into a safe condition when pre-hazardous event is occur. It has a vital role especially in process industries. A SIS shall be meet with safety requirement specifications. To confirm it, SIS shall be evaluated. Typically, the evaluation is calculated by hand. This paper presents a toolbox for SIS evaluation. It is developed based on improved continuous-time Markov chain. The toolbox supports to detailed approach of evaluation. This paper also illustrates an industrial application of the toolbox to evaluate arch burner safety system of primary reformer. The results of the case study demonstrates that the toolbox can be used to evaluate industrial SIS in detail and to plan the maintenance strategy.

  4. A LabVIEW-Based Virtual Instrument System for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qijun; Wang, Lufei; Zu, Lily

    2011-01-01

    We report the design and operation of a Virtual Instrument (VI) system based on LabVIEW 2009 for laser-induced fluorescence experiments. This system achieves synchronous control of equipment and acquisition of real-time fluorescence data communicating with a single computer via GPIB, USB, RS232, and parallel ports. The reported VI system can also accomplish data display, saving, and analysis, and printing the results. The VI system performs sequences of operations automatically, and this system has been successfully applied to obtain the excitation and dispersion spectra of α-methylnaphthalene. The reported VI system opens up new possibilities for researchers and increases the efficiency and precision of experiments. The design and operation of the VI system are described in detail in this paper, and the advantages that this system can provide are highlighted.

  5. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  6. Applying market-based instruments to environmental policies in China and OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth since the late 1970s has been a remarkable achievement, and is projected to continue. However, this prospect could be compromised by pollution of air, water, and land, the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, and the environmental impacts on public health. Air pollution associated with the use of coal for energy and industrial purposes is a particularly serious challenge in China, with important domestic and transboundary implications. This book presents papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and China's National Environmental Protection Agency on the application of economic instruments to control air pollution in China and OECD countries. It presents the state-of-the-air in this field, based upon contributions from Chinese and OECD country policy makers and experts

  7. Relationship between microstructure of the skin surface and surface reflection based on geometric optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenichiro; Miyaki, Masahiro; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Iwata, Kayoko

    2012-06-01

    The behavior of reflected light in skin affects skin appearance and provides clues as to the internal condition of the skin. Surface topography is one of the central physical factors contributing to surface reflection. We tried to clarify the relationship between microstructure of the skin surface and surface reflection based on geometric optics. Microstructures and surface reflections in the left cheeks of adult females were evaluated. Skin topography was acquired measuring replicas using confocal laser microscopy. Surface topography was used to calculate arithmetical mean deviation of the surface (S(a)), and geometric index from gradient of the surface (S(grad)), which is expected to correlate with the directionality of surface reflection (DoSR) based on geometric optics. A surface reflection image was acquired from differently polarized pictures of a face, and the index of surface reflection (I(obs)) was calculated as the average pixel value of the area of shine. Correlations between indices were then evaluated. S(grad) and S(a) showed significant correlation (preflection from the reflection model than S(a). In addition, S(grad) can explain differences in DoSR for some panelists even in the case of an identical S(a). The topographic element involved in DoSR was extracted from height mapping. S(grad) reflects the ratio of flat area, offering a more effective indicator than S(a) for distinguishing topographic characteristics with respect to surface reflection. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  9. The Design of a Chemical Virtual Instrument Based on LabVIEW for Determining Temperatures and Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Bin; Li, Jang-Yuan; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2007-01-01

    A LabVIEW-based self-constructed chemical virtual instrument (VI) has been developed for determining temperatures and pressures. It can be put together easily and quickly by selecting hardware modules, such as the PCI-DAQ card or serial port method, different kinds of sensors, signal-conditioning circuits or finished chemical instruments, and software modules such as data acquisition, saving, proceeding. The VI system provides individual and extremely flexible solutions for automatic measurements in physical chemistry research.

  10. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  11. Development and Testing of Screen-Based and Psychometric Instruments for Assessing Resident Performance in an Operating Room Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. McNeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC. Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878 and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886 were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948. Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level.

  12. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment. PMID:25544932

  13. The Development of an Instrument to Measure the Project Competences of College Students in Online Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to develop a self-report instrument to be used in the assessment of the project competences of college students engaged in online project-based learning. Three scales of the KIPSSE instrument developed for this study, namely, the knowledge integration, project skills, and self-efficacy scales, were based on related theories and the analysis results of three project advisor interviews. Those items of knowledge integration and project skill scales focused on the integration of different disciplines and technological skills separately. Two samples of data were collected from information technology-related courses taught with an online project-based learning strategy over different semesters at a college in southern Taiwan. The validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument were confirmed through item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling of two samples of students' online response sets separately. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the entire instrument was 0.931; for each scale, the alpha ranged from 0.832 to 0.907. There was also a significant correlation ( r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between the KIPSSE instrument results and the students' product evaluation scores. The findings of this study confirmed the validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument. The confirmation process and related implications are also discussed.

  14. Research on calculation of the IOL tilt and decentration based on surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration) and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6-12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL's location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  15. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6–12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL’s location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  16. Developing a PC-based expert system for fault analysis of reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, M.P.; Rathod, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.; Darbhe, M.D.; Joglekar, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an expert system for fault analysis of electronic instruments in the CIRUS nuclear reactor. The system was developed in Prolog on an IBM PC-XT compatible computer. A 'model-based' approach (Button et al, 1986) was adopted combining 'frames' and 'rules' to provide flexible control over the inferencing mechanisms. Frames represent the domain-objects as well as the inter-object relationships. They include 'demons' or 'active values' for triggering actions. Rules, along with frames, are used for fault analysis. The rules can be activated either in a data-driven or a goal-driven manner. The use of frames makes rule management easier. It is felt that developing in-house shell proved advantageous, compared to using commercially available shells. Choosing the model-based approach was efficient compared to a production system architecture. Therefore, the use of hybrid representations for diagnostic applications is advocated. Based on the experience, some general recommendations for developing such systems are presented. The expert system helps novice operators to understand the process of diagnosis and achieve a significant required level of competence. The system may not achieve the required level of proficiency by itself, but it can be used to train operators to become experts. (author). 12 refs

  17. A postprocessing method in the HMC framework for predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shou; Fu, Ping; Zheng, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data is a complicated and challenging hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) problem. When using local approach methods to solve this problem, a preliminary results processing method is usually needed. This paper proposed a novel preliminary results processing method called the nodes interaction method. The nodes interaction method revises the preliminary results and guarantees that the predictions are consistent with the hierarchy constraint. This method exploits the label dependency and considers the hierarchical interaction between nodes when making decisions based on the Bayesian network in its first phase. In the second phase, this method further adjusts the results according to the hierarchy constraint. Implementing the nodes interaction method in the HMC framework also enhances the HMC performance for solving the gene function prediction problem based on the Gene Ontology (GO), the hierarchy of which is a directed acyclic graph that is more difficult to tackle. The experimental results validate the promising performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art methods on eight benchmark yeast data sets annotated by the GO.

  18. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana Khachidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied. The documents were classified into three main groups (ultrasonography, endoscopy, and X-ray and 13 subgroups using two well-known methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. The results obtained demonstrated that both machine learning methods performed successfully, with a little supremacy of SVM. In the process of classification a “shrink” method, based on features selection, was introduced and applied. At the first stage of classification the results of the “shrink” case were better; however, on the second stage of classification into subclasses 23% of all documents could not be linked to only one definite individual subclass (liver or binary system due to common features characterizing these subclasses. The overall results of the study were successful.

  19. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qinghe; Liu, Hongtao; Chen, Tianchi; Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  20. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface

  1. Validity of the WHO VAW study instrument for estimating gender-based violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias O; França, Ivan; Segri, Neuber José; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas

    2010-08-01

    To validate the instrument of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) study on psychological, physical and sexual violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in several countries between 2000 and 2003, including Brazil. Representative random samples of women aged 15-49 years with intimate partners were selected, living in the city of São Paulo (n = 940) and in the Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (n = 1,188), southeastern and northeastern regions, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis on questions relating to violence was performed (four psychological, six physical and three sexual questions), with varimax rotation and creation of three factors. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to analyze the internal consistency. To validate through extreme groups, mean scores (0 to 13 points) for violence were tested in relation to the following outcomes: self-rated health, daily activities, presence of discomfort or pain, suicidal ideation or attempts, heavy alcohol consumption and presence of common mental disorders. Three factors were defined, with similar accumulated variance (0.6092 in São Paulo and 0.6350 in the Zona da Mata). For São Paulo, the first factor was determined by physical violence, the second by sexual violence and the third by psychological violence. For the Zona da Mata, the first factor was formed by psychological violence, the second by physical violence and the third by sexual violence. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.88 in São Paulo and 0.89 in the Zona da Mata. The mean scores for violence were significantly higher for less favorable outcomes, with the exception of suicide attempts in São Paulo. The instrument was shown to be adequate for estimating gender-based violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners and can be used in studies on this subject. It has high internal consistency and a capacity to discriminate between different forms of violence

  2. Swarm-Aurora: A web-based tool for quickly identifying multi-instrument auroral events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Knudsen, D. J.; Frey, H. U.; Kauristie, K.; Partamies, N.; Jackel, B. J.; Gillies, M.; Holmdahl Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in ground-based auroral imaging systems. These include the continent-wide THEMIS-ASI network, and imagers operated by other programs including GO-Canada, MIRACLE, AGO, OMTI, and more. In the near future, a new Canadian program called TREx will see the deployment of new narrow-band ASIs that will provide multi-wavelength imaging across Western Canada. At the same time, there is an unprecedented fleet of international spacecraft probing geospace at low and high altitudes. We are now in the position to simultaneously observe the magnetospheric drivers of aurora, observe in situ the waves, currents, and particles associated with MI coupling, and the conjugate aurora. Whereas a decade ago, a single magnetic conjunction between one ASI and a low altitude satellite was a relatively rare event, we now have a plethora of triple conjunctions between imagers, low-altitude spacecraft, and near-equatorial magnetospheric probes. But with these riches comes a new level of complexity. It is often difficult to identify the many useful conjunctions for a specific line of inquiry from the multitude of conjunctions where the geospace conditions are often not relevant and/or the imaging is compromised by clouds, moon, or other factors. Swarm-Aurora was designed to facilitate and drive the use of Swarm in situ measurements in auroral science. The project seeks to build a bridge between the Swarm science community, Swarm data, and the complimentary auroral data and community. Swarm-Aurora (http://swarm-aurora.phys.ucalgary.ca) incorporates a web-based tool which provides access to quick-look summary data for a large array of instruments, with Swarm in situ and ground-based ASI data as the primary focus. This web interface allows researchers to quickly and efficiently browse Swarm and ASI data to identify auroral events of interest to them. This allows researchers to be able to easily and quickly identify Swarm overflights of ASIs that

  3. Exploratory and Creative Properties of Physical-Modeling-based Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven

    be supported and even challenged by the instruments they use. What is it that makes one musical instrument more creatively inspiring than another, and how do we evaluate how well it succeeds? In order to present answers to these questions, the thesis focusses on the sound synthesis technique of physical......Digital musical instruments are developed to enable musicians to find new ways of expressing themselves. The development and evaluation of these instruments can be approached from many different perspectives depending on which capabilities one wants the musicians to have. This thesis attempts...... to approach development and evaluation of these instruments with the notion that instruments today are able to facilitate the creative process that is so crucial for creating music. The fundamental question pursued throughout the thesis is how creative work processes of composers of electronic music can...

  4. Readiness to change for interprofessional collaboration in healthcare: Development and validation of a theory-based instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mandana; Moradi, Kamran; Haeri Mehrizi, Ali Asghar; Keshmiri, Fatemeh; Montazeri, Ali

    2018-03-28

    This paper presents a study that aimed to develop and validate a theory-based instrument for the assessment of readiness to change for interprofessional collaboration in healthcare (IPC-TTM). The instrument was developed in the Persian language and tested in the Iranian context. Healthcare professionals from medical and nursing professions participated in the assessment of validity and reliability of the instrument. We conducted this psychometric study in two phases: First, the questionnaire was developed based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) through literature review and expert panel. Then, in the validation phase, we held three modified Delphi rounds to assess the content and face validity of the questionnaire. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate the fit of the questionnaire as applied to modified TTM. Reliability of the final instrument was tested by assessing the test-retest reliability of instrument items with Kappa coefficient. We also calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha to assess the test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the instrument sub-scales. The initial item pool consisted of 30 items and three sub-scales (Attitude, Intention, and Action). The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed with 17 items. Based on the CFA results two additional items were deleted to increase the fit of the model. The final instrument was confirmed with 15 items and three sub-scales. Reliability assessment on the 15-item instrument showed an acceptable test-retest reliability of the instrument items. ICC values for the Attitude, Intention, and Action sub-scales of the instrument were calculated as 0.82, 0.73, and 0.71, respectively. Moreover, Cronbach's alpha for the Attitude, Intention, and Action sub-scales were 0.85, 0.73, and 0.77, respectively. This study offers a new theory-based instrument to measure readiness to change for interprofessional collaboration in healthcare in the

  5. CRF-Based Model for Instrument Detection and Pose Estimation in Retinal Microsurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Alsheakhali, Mohamed; Eslami, Abouzar; Roodaki, Hessam; Navab, Nassir

    2016-01-01

    Detection of instrument tip in retinal microsurgery videos is extremely challenging due to rapid motion, illumination changes, the cluttered background, and the deformable shape of the instrument. For the same reason, frequent failures in tracking add the overhead of reinitialization of the tracking. In this work, a new method is proposed to localize not only the instrument center point but also its tips and orientation without the need of manual reinitialization. Our approach models the inst...

  6. Polarimetry of light scattered by surface roughness and textured films and periodic structures in nanotechnologies: a new challenge in instrumentation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrieu. F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive studies in the literature detail the Mueller matrices properties through decomposition, optical entropy and depolarization formalism. It has been applied for many years in rather different fields. In radar polarimetry, mathematical basis of depolarizing systems, have been first developed. In the visible range optics, standard diattenuation and retardance, decomposition is currently used in turbid organic media. The optical entropy concept, developed by S.R. Cloude, provides a very powerful analysis technique yielding important surface parameters such as depolarization, correlation and roughness. Complementary applications exist in scatterometry, for thin periodic grating films. With high capability polarimeters, such as the next generation of angle resolved polarimeters instruments, Polarimetry opens new fields of investigation for nanotechnologies materials as well as for gratings and photonics structures analysis: a program presently developed through a national consortium ANR08-NANO-020-03. With this instrumentation progress, simulation remains a key point to overpass as a challenge between future instruments. The theories for surfaces spectral power density (PSD and the random coupled wave approximation (RCWA in periodic structures are widely described in the literature. The implementation of some of these codes is described here for surface analysis and lithography scatterometry structures: grating overlay or double patterning.

  7. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  8. Non-contact metrology of aspheric surfaces based on MWLI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Petter, J.

    2013-09-01

    A non-contact optical scanning metrology solution measuring aspheric surfaces is presented, which is based on multi wavelength interferometry (MWLI). The technology yields high density 3D data in short measurement times (including set up time) and provides high, reproducible form measurement accuracy. It measures any asphere without restrictions in terms of spherical departures. In addition, measurement of a large variety of special optics is enabled, such as annular lenses, segmented optics, optics with diffractive steps, ground optics, optics made of opaque and transparent materials, and small and thin optics (e.g. smart phone lenses). The measurement instrument can be used under production conditions.

  9. Fracture resistance of dental nickel–titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure.

  10. 41: CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF EVIDENCE-BASED NURSING CARE GUIDELINE BY USING THE AGREE II INSTRUMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rahmatpour, Pardis; Jafaraghayee, Fatemeh; Khalili, Malahat

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are useful tools based on the best available evidence for bridging the gap between available scientific evidence and clinical practice. Implementation according CPGs in practice have positive effects on health professionals' practice and patient outcomes. However, with the increase in published CPGs, concerns about their quality have risen. The aim of this study is to Critical Appraisal of Evidence-based Nursing Care Guideline by Using the AGREE II instrument. Methods Evidence-based Nursing Care Guideline in patients with diabetic foot ulcer was developed based on Stetler Model from March to December 2015by our research team. Critical appraisal of guideline was evaluated in 6 domains of AGREEII tool by expert panel. Expert panel(n=10) consist of specialist in endocrinology and diabetes field and nursing faculty member of Guilan University of Medical Sciences(GUMS) had research in diabetes and DFU. Applicability of guideline in clinical was assess with checklist by nursing group. Nursing group (n=28) consists of head nurses and all nurses of endocrine and surgery units, and educational nursing supervisor of RAZI hospital affiliated to GUMS. Results Among 114studies, evidence of 19 studies was selected and categorized based on 8NDs. According to mean scores of CVI/CVR of evidence, some evidence was revised by research team. In AGREEII domains, guideline had the highest score in “Scope and Purpose” (92.7%) and the lowest in “Applicability” (76.2%). About applicability of guideline, 92.9% of nurses reported the positive effect of implementation of guideline recommendations on caring DFU and lack of needed equipment for its implementation. Conclusion According to results, developed guideline in all domains had acceptable score. Recommendations of guideline had effective role in prevention, reduction of complication and length of stay in hospital among DFU patients. Development, implementation and evaluation

  11. Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.

  12. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  13. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  14. Prototyping a GNSS-Based Passive Radar for UAVs: An Instrument to Classify the Water Content Feature of Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Troglia Gamba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS broadcast signals for positioning and navigation, which can be also employed for remote sensing applications. Indeed, the satellites of any GNSS can be seen as synchronized sources of electromagnetic radiation, and specific processing of the signals reflected back from the ground can be used to estimate the geophysical properties of the Earth’s surface. Several experiments have successfully demonstrated GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R, whereas new applications are continuously emerging and are presently under development, either from static or dynamic platforms. GNSS-R can be implemented at a low cost, primarily if small devices are mounted on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, which today can be equipped with several types of sensors for environmental monitoring. So far, many instruments for GNSS-R have followed the GNSS bistatic radar architecture and consisted of custom GNSS receivers, often requiring a personal computer and bulky systems to store large amounts of data. This paper presents the development of a GNSS-based sensor for UAVs and small manned aircraft, used to classify lands according to their soil water content. The paper provides details on the design of the major hardware and software components, as well as the description of the results obtained through field tests.

  15. Prototyping a GNSS-Based Passive Radar for UAVs: An Instrument to Classify the Water Content Feature of Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Micaela Troglia; Marucco, Gianluca; Pini, Marco; Ugazio, Sabrina; Falletti, Emanuela; Lo Presti, Letizia

    2015-11-10

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) broadcast signals for positioning and navigation, which can be also employed for remote sensing applications. Indeed, the satellites of any GNSS can be seen as synchronized sources of electromagnetic radiation, and specific processing of the signals reflected back from the ground can be used to estimate the geophysical properties of the Earth's surface. Several experiments have successfully demonstrated GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R), whereas new applications are continuously emerging and are presently under development, either from static or dynamic platforms. GNSS-R can be implemented at a low cost, primarily if small devices are mounted on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which today can be equipped with several types of sensors for environmental monitoring. So far, many instruments for GNSS-R have followed the GNSS bistatic radar architecture and consisted of custom GNSS receivers, often requiring a personal computer and bulky systems to store large amounts of data. This paper presents the development of a GNSS-based sensor for UAVs and small manned aircraft, used to classify lands according to their soil water content. The paper provides details on the design of the major hardware and software components, as well as the description of the results obtained through field tests.

  16. An instrument to characterize the environment for residents' evidence-based medicine learning and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa; Moseley, James L; Green, Michael L

    2012-02-01

    Many residency programs offer training in evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, these curricula often fail to achieve optimal learning outcomes, perhaps because they neglect various contextual factors in the learning environment. We developed and validated an instrument to characterize the environment for EBM learning and practice in residency programs. An EBM Environment Scale was developed following scale development principles. A survey was administered to residents across six programs in primary care specialties at four medical centers. Internal consistency reliability was analyzed with Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Validity was assessed by comparing predetermined subscales with the survey's internal structure as assessed via factor analysis. Scores were also compared for subgroups based on residency program affiliation and residency characteristics. Out of 262 eligible residents, 124 completed the survey (response rate 47%). The overall mean score was 3.89 (standard deviation=0.56). The initial reliability analysis of the 48-item scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.94). Factor analysis and further item analysis resulted in a shorter 36-item scale with a satisfactory reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.86). Scores were higher for residents with prior EBM training in medical school (4.14 versus 3.62) and in residency (4.25 versus 3.69). If further testing confirms its properties, the EBM Environment Scale may be used to understand the influence of the learning environment on the effectiveness of EBM training. Additionally, it may detect changes in the EBM learning environment in response to programmatic or institutional interventions.

  17. A magnetorheological fluid-based multifunctional haptic device for vehicular instrument controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Kim, Chan-Jung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performances of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based multifunctional haptic device which is applicable to vehicular instrument controls. By combining in-vehicle functions into a single device, the proposed haptic device can transmit various reflection forces for each comfort function to a driver without requiring the driver's visual attention. As a multifunctional haptic device, a MR knob is proposed in this work and then devised to be capable of both rotary and push motions with a single knob. Under consideration of the spatial limitations of vehicle dashboards, design parameters are optimally determined by finite element analysis, and the objective function is to maximize a relative control torque. The proposed haptic device is then manufactured, and in-vehicle comfort functions are constructed in a virtual environment which makes the functions to communicate with the haptic device. Subsequently, a feed-forward controller using torque/force maps is formulated for the force tracking control. Control performances such as reflection force of the haptic device are experimentally evaluated via the torque/force map-based feed-forward controller

  18. A GPU-based mipmapping method for water surface visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Quan, Wei; Xu, Chao; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Visualization of water surface is a hot topic in computer graphics. In this paper, we presented a fast method to generate wide range of water surface with good image quality both near and far from the viewpoint. This method utilized uniform mesh and Fractal Perlin noise to model water surface. Mipmapping technology was enforced to the surface textures, which adjust the resolution with respect to the distance from the viewpoint and reduce the computing cost. Lighting effect was computed based on shadow mapping technology, Snell's law and Fresnel term. The render pipeline utilizes a CPU-GPU shared memory structure, which improves the rendering efficiency. Experiment results show that our approach visualizes water surface with good image quality at real-time frame rates performance.

  19. Acid-base characteristics of powdered-activated-carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States)); Jensen, J.N.; Matsumoto, M.R. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    Adsorption of heavy metals onto activated carbon has been described using the surface-complex-formation (SCF) model, a chemical equilibrium model. The SCF model requires a knowledge of the amphoteric nature of activated carbon prior to metal adsorption modeling. In the past, a single-diprotic-acid-site model had been employed to describe the amphoteric nature of activated-carbon surfaces. During this study, the amphoteric nature of two powdered activated carbons were investigated, and a three-monoprotic site surface model was found to be a plausible alternative. The single-diprotic-acid-site and two-monoprotic-site models did not describe the acid-base behavior of the two carbons studied adequately. The two-diprotic site was acceptable for only one of the study carbons. The acid-base behavior of activated carbon surfaces seem to be best modeled as a series of weak monoprotic acids.

  20. 3D position estimation of flexible instruments: marker-less and marker-based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Endoscopic images can be used to allow accurate flexible endoscopic instrument control. This can be implemented using a pose estimation algorithm, which estimates the actual instrument pose from the endoscopic images. Methods In this paper, two pose estimation algorithms are compared: a

  1. A computer controlled CAMAC based instrumentation for an X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaarup, Per.

    1979-07-01

    A description is given of an instrumentation for control of an X-ray spectrometer used in solid state physics experiments. The instrumentation includes an on-line PDP-11/34 and a CAMAC system. Details are given of the operating software. (author)

  2. GPU based real-time instrument tracking with three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Paul M; Stoll, Jeff A; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; del Nido, Pedro J; Dupont, Pierre E; Zickler, Todd E; Howe, Robert D

    2007-10-01

    Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound enables new intracardiac surgical procedures, but the distorted appearance of instruments in ultrasound poses a challenge to surgeons. This paper presents a detection technique that identifies the position of the instrument within the ultrasound volume. The algorithm uses a form of the generalized Radon transform to search for long straight objects in the ultrasound image, a feature characteristic of instruments and not found in cardiac tissue. When combined with passive markers placed on the instrument shaft, the full position and orientation of the instrument is found in 3D space. This detection technique is amenable to rapid execution on the current generation of personal computer graphics processor units (GPU). Our GPU implementation detected a surgical instrument in 31 ms, sufficient for real-time tracking at the 25 volumes per second rate of the ultrasound machine. A water tank experiment found instrument orientation errors of 1.1 degrees and tip position errors of less than 1.8mm. Finally, an in vivo study demonstrated successful instrument tracking inside a beating porcine heart.

  3. The Los Alamos accelerator control system data base: A generic instrumentation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalesio, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    Controlling experimental-physics applications requires a control system that can be quickly integrated and easily modified. One aspect of the control system is the interface to the instrumentation. An instrumentation set has been chosen to implement the basic functions needed to monitor and control these applications. A data-driven interface to this instrumentation set provides the required quick integration of the control system. This type of interface is limited by its built-in capabilities. Therefore, these capabilities must provide an adequate range of functions to be of any use. The data-driven interface must support the instrumentation range requird, the events on which to read or control the instrumentation and a method for manipulating the data to calculate terms or close control loops. The database for the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System addresses these requirements. (orig.)

  4. Passive magnetic-based localization for precise untethered medical instrument tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenglong; Maréchal, Luc; Foong, Shaohui

    2018-03-01

    Motion tracking and navigation systems are paramount for both safety and efficacy in a variety of surgical insertions, interventions and procedures. Among the state-of-art tracking technology, passive magnetic tracking using permanent magnets or passive magnetic sources for localization is an effective technology to provide untethered medical instrument tracking without cumbersome wires needed for signal or power transmission. Motivated by practical needs in two medical insertion procedures: Nasogastric intubation and Ventriculostomy, we propose a unified method based on passive magnetic-field localization, for enhanced efficacy and safety. Traditional approaches to passive magnetic tracking involve solving the inverse localization problem. Limited by the idealistic magnetic field dipole model and computationally intense nonlinear optimization algorithm, the overall accuracy and computational cost are greatly compromised. The method introduced here features direct localization with artificial neural network (ANN) models that bypasses the need to resolve the inverse problem and is adaptable for a variety of real-time localization and tracking applications. The efficiency of the two methods, the inverse optimization method and the direct ANN method are experimentally evaluated by comparing the estimated position of reference trajectories for typical nasogastric and ventriculostomy insertion paths performed by a dexterous robotic arm which provides ground truth measurement. It was found that within the region of interest (ROI), the direct ANN technique could significantly improve the localization accuracy, with an average experimental localization error of less than 2 mm, while that of the traditional inverse optimization method using a dipole-based mathematical model at greater than 5 mm. Ex-vivo experiments were performed to validate the localization methods in clinical settings. While the proposed method for passive magnetic tracking requires a procedure

  5. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)

    2007-12-07

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  6. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  7. Design of structurally colored surfaces based on scalar diffraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of controlling the color and appearance of surfaces simply by modifying the height profile of the surface on a nanoscale level. The applications for such methods are numerous: new design possibilities for high-end products, color engraving on any highly...... reflective surface, paint-free text and coloration, UV-resistant coloring, etc. In this initial study, the main focus is on finding a systematic way to obtain these results. For now the simulation and optimization is based on a simple scalar diffraction theory model. From the results, several design issues...

  8. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Simulation of the Impact of New Air-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Case, Jonathan; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Jones, Linwood; Ruff, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H'Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRad is being designed to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRad will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx. 3 x the aircraft altitude). The instrument is described in a paper presented to the Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Symposium. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRad instrument on H'Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future tame the HIRad instrument is implemented.

  10. The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) Instrument, the Satellite-Based Element of an Investigation to Benefit Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Maps of airborne particulate matter (PM) derived from satellite instruments, including MISR and MODIS, have provided key contributions to many health-related investigations. Although it is well established that PM exposure increases the risks of cardiovascular and respiratory disease, adverse birth outcomes, and premature deaths, our understanding of the relative toxicity of specific PM types—mixtures having different size distributions and compositions—is relatively poor. To address this, the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) investigation was proposed to NASA's third Earth Venture Instrument (EVI-3) solicitation. MAIA was selected for funding in March 2016. The satellite-based MAIA instrument is one element of the scientific investigation, which will combine WRF-Chem transport model estimates of the abundances of different aerosol types with the data acquired from Earth orbit. Geostatistical models derived from collocated surface and MAIA retrievals will be used to relate retrieved fractional column aerosol optical depths to near-surface concentrations of major PM constituents. Epidemiological analyses of geocoded birth, death, and hospital records will be used to associate exposure to PM types with adverse health outcomes. The MAIA instrument obtains its sensitivity to particle type by building upon the legacies of many satellite sensors; observing in the UV, visible, near-IR, and shortwave-IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; acquiring images at multiple angles of view; determining the degree to which the scattered light is polarized; and integrating these capabilities at moderately high spatial resolution. The instrument concept is based on the first and second generation Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imagers, AirMSPI and AirMSPI-2. MAIA incorporates a pair of pushbroom cameras on a two-axis gimbal to provide regional multiangle observations of selected, globally distributed target areas. A set of Primary Target Areas (PTAs) on five

  11. “Lock-in” effect of emission standard and its impact on the choice of market based instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haoqi, Qian; Libo, Wu; Weiqi, Tang

    2017-01-01

    A country's existing emission standard policy will lead to a “lock in” effect. When the country plans to adopt new market-based instruments to control greenhouse gas emissions, it must consider this effect as it chooses among instruments to avoid larger efficiency loss. In this paper, we find that the “lock in” effect will cause a kink point to occur on the marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve. This change of shape for the MAC curve reminds us to be cautious in choosing market-based instruments when applying Weitzman's rule. We also introduce this concept into a dynamic multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for China and simulate MAC curves for all regions. After applying Weitzman's rule, we propose a timeline for introducing price instruments under different marginal benefit (MB) curve scenarios. - Highlights: • China's existing carbon intensity policy has a “lock-in” effect and leads to a “kink point” on MAC. • A dynamic inter-regional CGE model is developed to simulate the regional kinked MAC curves in China. • A timeline of introducing new market based instrument is proposed by combining different MB scenarios.

  12. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of miniaturization techniques for consumer electronics has brought forth the relatively new and exciting field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, due to the inherent forces that exist between surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale, scientists and semiconductor manufacturers are still struggling to improve the lifetime and reliability of complex microdevices. Due to the extremely large surface area-to-volume ratio of typical MEMS and microstructured surfaces, dominant interfacial forces exist which can be detrimental to their operational lifetime. In particular, van der Waals, capillary, and electrostatic forces contribute to the permanent adhesion, or stiction , of microfabricated surfaces. This strong adhesion force also contributes to the friction and wear of these silicon-based systems. The scope of this work was to examine the effect of utilizing nanoparticles as the basis for roughening surfaces for the purpose of creating films with anti-adhesive and/or superhydrophobic properties. All of the studies presented in this work are focused around a gas-expanded liquid (GXL) process that promotes the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into conformal thin films. The GXL particle deposition process is finalized by a critical point drying step which is advantageous to the microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor (IC) industries. In fact, preliminary results illustrated that the GXL particle deposition process can easily be integrated into current MEMS microfabrication processes. Thin films of AuNPs deposited onto the surfaces of silicon-based MEMS and tribology test devices were shown to have a dramatic effect on the adhesion of microstructures. In the various investigations, the apparent work of adhesion between surfaces was reduced by 2-4 orders of magnitude. This effect is greatly attributed to the roughening of the typically smooth silicon oxide surfaces which, in turn, dramatically decreases the "real are of

  13. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  14. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  15. CRF-Based Model for Instrument Detection and Pose Estimation in Retinal Microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsheakhali, Mohamed; Eslami, Abouzar; Roodaki, Hessam; Navab, Nassir

    2016-01-01

    Detection of instrument tip in retinal microsurgery videos is extremely challenging due to rapid motion, illumination changes, the cluttered background, and the deformable shape of the instrument. For the same reason, frequent failures in tracking add the overhead of reinitialization of the tracking. In this work, a new method is proposed to localize not only the instrument center point but also its tips and orientation without the need of manual reinitialization. Our approach models the instrument as a Conditional Random Field (CRF) where each part of the instrument is detected separately. The relations between these parts are modeled to capture the translation, rotation, and the scale changes of the instrument. The tracking is done via separate detection of instrument parts and evaluation of confidence via the modeled dependence functions. In case of low confidence feedback an automatic recovery process is performed. The algorithm is evaluated on in vivo ophthalmic surgery datasets and its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art methods with the advantage that no manual reinitialization is needed.

  16. A quality control method for nuclear instrumentation and control systems based on software safety prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2000-04-01

    In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control (NI&C), safety-oriented quality control is required. The objective of this paper is to present a software safety classification method as a safety-oriented quality control tool. Based on this method, we predict the risk (and thus safety) of software items that are at the core of NI&C systems. Then we classify the software items according to the degree of the risk. The method can be used earlier than at the detailed design phase. Furthermore, the method can also be used in all the development phases without major changes. The proposed method seeks to utilize the measures that can be obtained from the safety analysis and requirements analysis. Using the measures proved to be desirable in a few aspects. The authors have introduced fuzzy approximate reasoning to the classification method because experts' knowledge covers the vague frontiers between good quality and bad quality with linguistic uncertainty and fuzziness. Fuzzy Colored Petri Net (FCPN) is introduced in order to offer a formal framework for the classification method and facilitate the knowledge representation, modification, or verification. Through the proposed quality control method, high-quality NI&C systems can be developed effectively and used safely.

  17. An instrument based on an insertion probe for monitoring radionuclides in bulk foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.L.; Cornett, R.J.; Wong, P.; Seo, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Events following the Chernobyl reactor accident highlighted the need for rapid methods of monitoring fallout radionuclides in food. Even five years later, there is still a need to monitor radionuclides in certain types of foodstuffs produced in certain areas of the world. This project was initiated to study the feasibility of adapting a probe, which was developed earlier at Chalk River for measurements in boreholes, for the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in bulk foodstuffs. This waterproof probe, which is about 2.5cm in diameter and 60cm long, contains a 0.5in x 2in Nal(TI) detector, high voltage supply and preamplifier. It operates on 12V DC power. It could be inserted into loose bulk materials and liquids in order to measure the concentrations of radionuclides present. The probe could be coupled to a rather simple ratemeter for screening measurements or to a more sophisticated microprocessor-based instrument, which would allow quantitative measurements to be carried out by less skilled personnel. In the early stages after an accident the probe would probably be most useful for screening samples, because the spectra would be complicated due to the presence of short-lived gamma-emitters. After the short-lived activities had decayed away, the probe could be used for quantitative measurements of residual caesium isotopes

  18. Analyses of a cantilever-beam based instrument for evaluating the development of polymerization stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Martin Y M; Giuseppetti, Anthony A M; Qian, Jing; Dunkers, Joy P; Antonucci, Joseph M; Schumacher, Gary E; Gibson, Sheng-Lin

    2011-09-01

    This investigation was to generate (1) guidelines for designing a tensometer that satisfies the necessary accuracy and sensitivity requirements for measuring polymerization stress (PS), and (2) a formula for calculating PS. Polymerization stress remains one of the most critical properties of polymeric dental materials, yet methods that can accurately quantify PS have been limited in part due to the complexity of polymerization, and in part due to the instrumentation itself. In this study, we performed analytical and finite element analyses on a cantilever-beam based tensometer that is used to evaluate shrinkage stresses during the polymerization of dental restorative composites. The PS generated by a commercial dental composite determined using our new tensometer agrees with the predicted trend when the beam length and/or specimen height is varied. This work demonstrates the importance of beam dimension and component relative rigidity to the accuracy of PS evaluation. An analytical solution is also derived for the vertical beam deflection, which can be used for any combination of bending and shearing to properly calculate the PS. In addition, an easy-to-conduct calibration procedure is provided that is desirable for periodic tensometer recalibration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Integrated Instrumentation and Sensor Systems Enabling Condition-Based Maintenance of Aerospace Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work reported herein was to use a systems engineering approach to guide development of integrated instrumentation/sensor systems (IISS incorporating communications, interconnections, and signal acquisition. These require enhanced suitability and effectiveness for diagnostics and health management of aerospace equipment governed by the principles of Condition-based maintenance (CBM. It is concluded that the systems engineering approach to IISS definition provided clear benefits in identifying overall system requirements and an architectural framework for categorizing and evaluating alternative architectures, relative to a bottom up focus on sensor technology blind to system level user needs. CBM IISS imperatives identified include factors such as tolerance of the bulk of aerospace equipment operational environments, low intrusiveness, rapid reconfiguration, and affordable life cycle costs. The functional features identified include interrogation of the variety of sensor types and interfaces common in aerospace equipment applications over multiplexed communication media with flexibility to allow rapid system reconfiguration to adapt to evolving sensor needs. This implies standardized interfaces at the sensor location (preferably to open standards, reduced wire/connector pin count in harnesses (or their elimination through use of wireless communications.

  20. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Attack tree based cyber security analysis of nuclear digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the cyber security, nuclear digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems must be analyzed for security risks because a single security breach due to a cyber attack can cause system failure, which can have catastrophic consequences on the environment and staff of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Attack trees have been widely used to analyze the cyber security of digital systems due to their ability to capture system specific as well as attacker specific details. Therefore, a methodology based on attack trees has been proposed to analyze the cyber security of the systems. The methodology has been applied for the Cyber Security Analysis (CSA) of a Bistable Processor (BP) of a Reactor Protection System (RPS). Threats have been described according to their source. Attack scenarios have been generated using the attack tree and possible counter measures according to the Security Risk Level (SRL) of each scenario have been suggested. Moreover, cyber Security Requirements (SRs) have been elicited, and suitability of the requirements has been checked. (author)

  2. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENT FOR DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana D. BUFAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian manufacturing company. The study shows that the ABC/ABM system helps managers to properly manage indirect costs (by activities and understand the profitability of products, distribution channels and customers. Therefore, it offers a powerful instrument for decision-making. Although ABC is a new system of cost calculation that is absolutely necessary, in most cases the ABC method must be implemented in addition to the traditional costing systems, which are essential for the purposes of management accounting.

  3. Fast surface-based travel depth estimation algorithm for macromolecule surface shape description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Joachim; Alface, Patrice Rondao; Gala, Jean-Luc; Macq, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    Travel Depth, introduced by Coleman and Sharp in 2006, is a physical interpretation of molecular depth, a term frequently used to describe the shape of a molecular active site or binding site. Travel Depth can be seen as the physical distance a solvent molecule would have to travel from a point of the surface, i.e., the Solvent-Excluded Surface (SES), to its convex hull. Existing algorithms providing an estimation of the Travel Depth are based on a regular sampling of the molecule volume and the use of the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. Since Travel Depth is only defined on the molecular surface, this volume-based approach is characterized by a large computational complexity due to the processing of unnecessary samples lying inside or outside the molecule. In this paper, we propose a surface-based approach that restricts the processing to data defined on the SES. This algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of Travel Depth estimation and makes possible the analysis of large macromolecule surface shape description with high resolution. Experimental results show that compared to existing methods, the proposed algorithm achieves accurate estimations with considerably reduced processing times.

  4. Report of the 2. research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research programme on the development of computer-based troubleshooting tools and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The Research coordination meeting reviewed current results on the Development of Computer-Based Troubleshooting Tools and Instruments. Presentations at the meeting were made by the participants, and the project summary reports include: PC based software for troubleshooting microprocessor-based instruments; technical data base software; design and construction of a random pulser for maintenance and quality control of a nuclear counting system; microprocessor-based power conditioner; in-circuit emulator for microprocessor-based nuclear instruments; PC-based analog signal generator for simulated detector signals and arbitrary test waveforms for testing of nuclear instruments; expert system for nuclear instrument troubleshooting; development and application of versatile computer-based measurement and diagnostic tools; and development of a programmable signal generator for troubleshooting of nuclear instrumentation

  5. Infra-red surface thermography. Evaluation of a new radiometry instrument for measuring skin temperature over joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M H; Preston, S J; Beller, E M; Buchanan, W W

    1989-06-01

    A study is reported of the evaluation of a new portable, light-weight, infrared thermometer, for the measurement of the skin temperature over joints. A high degree of reproducibility was observed, but no increase in heat was found over selected rheumatoid joints. The instrument will prove useful in detecting temperature changes in disease states where the changes are considerable, and where the ambient temperature can be strictly controlled.

  6. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  7. Using new estimates of methane emissions over Europe to assess how proposed space-borne laser instruments will advance our scientific understanding of methane surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C. J.; Kiemle, C.; Riris, H.; Kawa, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Laser instruments designed to measure methane from air- and space-borne platforms are being developed at DLR (MERLIN) and at NASA (GSFC Methane Sounder). Designing these instrument with sufficient accuracy to advance our understanding of emission source strengths and locations is crucial. Here we present a model simulation of methane used to test the potential of laser measurements to improve methane source/sink estimates. Our approach uses the FLEXPART lagrangian particle transport model, a global chemistry transport model, and hourly methane measurements from ground-based stations in Europe. We retrieve slowly varying (15 days) source strengths from European wetlands and anthropogenic emission regions from 2008-2011. A by-product of our model is tropospheric methane column amounts, which can be displayed in a movie format as methane weather. We will examine the seasonal horizontal spatial variability in the methane fields and compare with the current proposed accuracy and precision specifications of the laser instrument design

  8. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Lunar Spectral Irradiance and Radiance (LUSI): New Instrumentation to Characterize the Moon as a Space-Based Radiometric Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan W; Lorentz, Steven R; Stone, Thomas C; Datla, Raju V

    2012-01-01

    The need to understand and monitor climate change has led to proposed radiometric accuracy requirements for space-based remote sensing instruments that are very stringent and currently outside the capabilities of many Earth orbiting instruments. A major problem is quantifying changes in sensor performance that occur from launch and during the mission. To address this problem on-orbit calibrators and monitors have been developed, but they too can suffer changes from launch and the harsh space environment. One solution is to use the Moon as a calibration reference source. Already the Moon has been used to remove post-launch drift and to cross-calibrate different instruments, but further work is needed to develop a new model with low absolute uncertainties capable of climate-quality absolute calibration of Earth observing instruments on orbit. To this end, we are proposing an Earth-based instrument suite to measure the absolute lunar spectral irradiance to an uncertainty(1) of 0.5 % (k=1) over the spectral range from 320 nm to 2500 nm with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.3 %. Absolute measurements of lunar radiance will also be acquired to facilitate calibration of high spatial resolution sensors. The instruments will be deployed at high elevation astronomical observatories and flown on high-altitude balloons in order to mitigate the effects of the Earth's atmosphere on the lunar observations. Periodic calibrations using instrumentation and techniques available from NIST will ensure traceability to the International System of Units (SI) and low absolute radiometric uncertainties.

  11. Surface Segregation during Directional Solidification of Ni-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, G.; Dong, H. B.; Green, N. R.; D'Souza, N.

    2008-02-01

    Some aspects pertaining to the increased microsegregation at the external casting surface during directional solidification of a typical Ni-base superalloy, CMSX 10N, are presented. Increased eutectic coverage was observed at the external surface along the solidification length. This eutectic appears as a thin segregated layer proud of the secondary dendrite arms preventing them from impinging onto the mold wall. The extent of surface eutectic coverage was represented as a fractional measure of the ingot perimeter. Possible mechanisms focusing on the following: (1) interaction between mold and metal, (2) inclination of primary dendrite, and (3) contraction of the dendrite network have been investigated in relation to the observed phenomenon. We deduce that the most likely explanation is associated with the contraction of the dendritic network, which qualitatively accounts both for the observed morphology and the increased eutectic fraction at the external surface of the casting.

  12. Peer Evaluation Instrument Development, Administration, and Assessment in a Team-based Learning Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fete, Matthew G; Haight, Robert C; Clapp, Peter; McCollum, Marianne

    2017-05-01

    Objective. To design and implement an instrument capable of providing students with valuable peer feedback on team behaviors and to provide results of the administration of the instrument. Methods. A three-part instrument was designed that requires teammate rankings with justification on attributes aligned with school outcomes and team functioning, reporting of student behaviors, and provision of feedback on the value of peer contributions to their team. Score results after three years of administration were analyzed. Results. Six evaluations per year were completed by members of four different professional classes over a three-year time period. Mean scores increased slightly as students progressed through the program. Students were able to differentially score peers on attributes and behaviors. Conclusion. The peer evaluation instrument presented here provides formative and summative feedback through qualitative and quantitative scores that allow students to acknowledge differential contributions of individual team members.

  13. Investigating the Quality of Project-Based Science and Technology Learning Environments in Elementary School: A Critical Review of Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…

  14. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  15. A silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Robert J.; van Loon, Rob V.A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Polman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at low temperatures using silicon nanocrystal doped alumina within a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide geometry. The fabrication method uses established microtechnology processes

  16. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Li; Wenke Lu; Changchun Zhu; Qinghong Liu; Haoxin Zhang; Chenchao Tang

    2014-01-01

    Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established ...

  17. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. A Vehicular Mobile Standard Instrument for Field Verification of Traffic Speed Meters Based on Dual-Antenna Doppler Radar Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Sun, Qiao; Cai, Changqing; Bai, Jie; Fan, Zhe; Zhang, Yue

    2018-04-05

    Traffic speed meters are important legal measuring instruments specially used for traffic speed enforcement and must be tested and verified in the field every year using a vehicular mobile standard speed-measuring instrument to ensure speed-measuring performances. The non-contact optical speed sensor and the GPS speed sensor are the two most common types of standard speed-measuring instruments. The non-contact optical speed sensor requires extremely high installation accuracy, and its speed-measuring error is nonlinear and uncorrectable. The speed-measuring accuracy of the GPS speed sensor is rapidly reduced if the amount of received satellites is insufficient enough, which often occurs in urban high-rise regions, tunnels, and mountainous regions. In this paper, a new standard speed-measuring instrument using a dual-antenna Doppler radar sensor is proposed based on a tradeoff between the installation accuracy requirement and the usage region limitation, which has no specified requirements for its mounting distance and no limitation on usage regions and can automatically compensate for the effect of an inclined installation angle on its speed-measuring accuracy. Theoretical model analysis, simulated speed measurement results, and field experimental results compared with a GPS speed sensor with high accuracy showed that the dual-antenna Doppler radar sensor is effective and reliable as a new standard speed-measuring instrument.

  19. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  20. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  1. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  2. Face recognition based on depth maps and surface curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gaile G.

    1991-09-01

    This paper explores the representation of the human face by features based on the curvature of the face surface. Curature captures many features necessary to accurately describe the face, such as the shape of the forehead, jawline, and cheeks, which are not easily detected from standard intensity images. Moreover, the value of curvature at a point on the surface is also viewpoint invariant. Until recently range data of high enough resolution and accuracy to perform useful curvature calculations on the scale of the human face had been unavailable. Although several researchers have worked on the problem of interpreting range data from curved (although usually highly geometrically structured) surfaces, the main approaches have centered on segmentation by signs of mean and Gaussian curvature which have not proved sufficient in themselves for the case of the human face. This paper details the calculation of principal curvature for a particular data set, the calculation of general surface descriptors based on curvature, and the calculation of face specific descriptors based both on curvature features and a priori knowledge about the structure of the face. These face specific descriptors can be incorporated into many different recognition strategies. A system that implements one such strategy, depth template comparison, giving recognition rates between 80% and 90% is described.

  3. Effect of fillers in epoxy coatings based on the ED-20 resin on the mechanical properties determined by instrumented microindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. V.; Veretennikova, I. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Pestov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxy lacquer coatings based on the ED-20 epoxy-diane resin, filled with nanosized TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO oxides and applied on an aluminum-magnesium alloy base, are studied by instrumented indentation. The effect of the duration of loading and the duration of holding under a constant load of 1 N on Martens hardness and the normal elastic modulus, depending on the material of the epoxy lacquer filler, has been established.

  4. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  5. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  6. Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pazmino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC. The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14–52 km ozone and 17–40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2 plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and −0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14–52 km satellite and 0–14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree

  7. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  8. Wavelet Packet based Detection of Surface Faults on Compact Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the detection of faults on the surface of a compact disc is addressed. Surface faults like scratches and fingerprints disturb the on-line measurement of the pick-up position relative to the track. This is critical since the pick-up is focused on and tracked at the information track...... based on these measurements. A precise detection of the surface fault is a prerequisite to a correct handling of the faults in order to protect the pick-up of the compact disc player from audible track losses. The actual fault handling which is addressed in other publications can be carried out...... by the use of dedicated filters adapted to remove the faults from the measurements. In this paper detection using wavelet packet filters is demonstrated. The filters are designed using the joint best basis method. Detection using these filters shows a distinct improvement compared to detection using ordinary...

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  10. Roughness-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Fundamentals and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Neelesh

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobicity of rough surfaces has attracted global interest through the past decade. There are naturally occurring instances of such surfaces, e.g., lotus leaves, which led to the popular term ``lotus effect.'' Numerous applications in wide ranging areas such as drag reduction, self-cleaning, heat exchangers, energy conversion, condensation, anti-icing, textile, desalination, etc., are being explored by researchers worldwide. The signature configuration for superhydrophobicity has been ``bead-like'' drops on rough surfaces that roll-off easily. This becomes possible if the liquid does not impale the roughness grooves, and if the contact angle hysteresis is low. Finding appropriate surface roughness is therefore necessary. A thermodynamic framework to enable analysis of this problem will be presented. It will be noted that the success of rough superhydrophobic substrates relies on the presence of gas pockets in the roughness grooves underneath the liquid. These gas pockets could be those of air from the surrounding environment. Current design strategies rely on the availability of air. However, if the rough substrates are fully submerged in the liquid then the trapped air in the roughness grooves may not be sustained. A design approach based on sustaining a vapor phase of the liquid itself in the roughness grooves, instead of relying on the presence of air, will be presented. The resulting surfaces, referred to as vapor stabilizing substrates, are deemed to be robust against wetting transition even if no air is present. Applications of this approach include low drag surfaces, nucleate boiling at dramatically low superheats, among others. The concept can be generalized to other transitions on the phase diagram, thus enabling the design of rough surfaces for phase manipulation in general.

  11. Surface-based determination of the pelvic coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Lorenz; Eschweiler, Jörg; Heger, Stefan; Kabir, Koroush; Gravius, Sascha; de la Fuente, Matías; Radermacher, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    In total hip replacement (THR) one technical factor influencing the risk of dislocation is cup orientation. Computer-assisted surgery systems allow for cup navigation in anatomy-based reference frames. The pelvic coordinate system most used for cup navigation in THR is based on the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) and the anterior pelvic plane (APP). From a geometrical point of view, the MSP can be considered as a mirror plane, whereas the APP can be considered as a tangent plane comprising the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) and the pubic tubercles. In most systems relying on the pelvic coordinate system, the most anterior points of the ASIS and the pubic tubercles are selected manually. As manual selection of landmark points is a tedious, time-consuming and error-prone task, a surface-based approach for combined MSP and APP computation is presented in this paper: Homologous points defining the MSP and the landmark points defining the APP are selected automatically from surface patches. It is investigated how MSP computation can benefit from APP computation and vice versa, and clinical perspectives of combined MSP and APP computation are discussed. Experimental results on computed tomography data show that the surface-based approach can improve accuracy.

  12. A systematic review of readability and comprehension instruments used for print and web-based cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2006-06-01

    Adequate functional literacy skills positively influence individuals' ability to take control of their health. Print and Web-based cancer information is often written at difficult reading levels. This systematic review evaluates readability instruments (FRE, F-K, Fog, SMOG, Fry) used to assess print and Web-based cancer information and word recognition and comprehension tests (Cloze, REALM, TOFHLA, WRAT) that measure people's health literacy. Articles on readability and comprehension instruments explicitly used for cancer information were assembled by searching MEDLINE and Psyc INFO from 1993 to 2003. In all, 23 studies were included; 16 on readability, 6 on comprehension, and 1 on readability and comprehension. Of the readability investigations, 14 focused on print materials, and 2 assessed Internet information. Comprehension and word recognition measures were not applied to Web-based information. None of the formulas were designed to determine the effects of visuals or design factors that could influence readability and comprehension of cancer education information.

  13. State-of-the-art report for the instrumentation and control technology based on the nuclear-information technology convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Cheol Kwon; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    As digitalized the instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, in the past that were implemented in an analog system or circuit for monitoring, control and protection, most of the them is implemented in embedded software based on hardware platform. Digital instrumentation and control system hardware platforms and a digital safety systems have developed in Korea. The fundamental technology of the software part of MMIS (Man-Machine Interface System) has achieved the localization. But in order to secure our global competitiveness, in the -based software, the source of the content areas / It is needed to develop core technologies of the software and contents areas based on the nuclear-IT convergence technology. In this report, the IT technology centered for the characteristics of embedded software applied to nuclear power is described. Also state-of-the-art IT technologies that will converge to nuclear power plants are mentioned

  14. Surface morphology effects in a vibration based triboelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafari, A.; Sodano, H. A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the abundance of ambient mechanical energy in our environment, it is often neglected and left unused. However, recent studies have demonstrated that mechanical vibrations can be harvested and used to power small wireless electronic devices, such as micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) and actuators. Most commonly, these energy harvesters convert vibration into electrical energy by utilizing piezoelectric, electromagnetic or electrostatic effects. Recently, triboelectric based energy harvesters have shown to be among the simplest and most cost-effective techniques for scavenging mechanical energy. The basis of triboelectric energy harvesters is the periodic contact and separation of two surfaces with opposite triboelectric properties which results in induced charge flow through an external load. Here, a vibration driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is fabricated and the effect of micro/nano scale surface modification is studied. The TENG produces electrical energy on the basis of periodic out-of-plane charge separation between gold and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with opposite triboelectric charge polarities. By introducing micro/nano scale surface modifications to the PDMS and gold, the TENG’s power output is further enhanced. This work demonstrates that the morphology of the surfaces in a TENG device is important and by increasing the effective surface area through micro/nano scale modification, the power output of the device can increase by 118%. Moreover, it is shown that unlike many TENGs proposed in the literature, the fabricated device has a high RMS open circuit voltage and short circuit current and can perform for an extended period of time.

  15. Satellite Based Analysis of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gémes Orsolya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most obvious characteristics of urban climate are higher air and surface temperatures compared to rural areas and large spatial variation of meteorological parameters within the city. This research examines the long term and seasonal development of urban surface temperature using satellite data during a period of 30 years and within a year. The medium resolution Landsat data were (preprocessed using open source tools. Besides the analysis of the long term and seasonal changes in land surface temperature within a city, also its relationship with changes in the vegetation cover was investigated. Different urban districts and local climate zones showed varying strength of correlation. The temperature difference between urban surfaces and surroundings is defined as surface urban heat island (SUHI. Its development shows remarkable seasonal and spatial anomalies. The satellite images can be applied to visualize and analyze the SUHI, although they were not collected at midday and early afternoon, when the phenomenon is normally at its maximum. The applied methodology is based on free data and software and requires minimal user interaction. Using the results new urban developments (new built up and green areas can be planned, that help mitigate the negative effects of urban climate.

  16. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  17. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  18. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  19. Benefits of using customized instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: results from an activity-based costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, Carsten O; Hofer, Pamela; Portegies, Wesley; Ruys, C J M; Fennema, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) associated with the efforts to contain healthcare expenditure by advanced economies necessitates the use of economically effective technologies in TKA. The present analysis based on activity-based costing (ABC) model was carried out to estimate the economic value of patient-matched instrumentation (PMI) compared to standard surgical instrumentation in TKA. The costs of the two approaches, PMI and standard instrumentation in TKA, were determined by the use of ABC which measures the cost of a particular procedure by determining the activities involved and adding the cost of each activity. Improvement in productivity due to increased operating room (OR) turn-around times was determined and potential additional revenue to the hospital by the efficient utilization of gained OR time was estimated. Increased efficiency in the usage of OR and utilization of surgical trays were noted with patient-specific approach. Potential revenues to the hospital were estimated with the use of PMI by efficient utilization of time saved in OR. Additional revenues of 78,240 per year were estimated considering utilization of gained OR time to perform surgeries other than TKA. The analysis suggests that use of PMI in TKA is economically effective when compared to standard instrumentation.

  20. Object-based Dimensionality Reduction in Land Surface Phenology Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Bunker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised classification or clustering of multi-decadal land surface phenology provides a spatio-temporal synopsis of natural and agricultural vegetation response to environmental variability and anthropogenic activities. Notwithstanding the detailed temporal information available in calibrated bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and comparable time series, typical pre-classification workflows average a pixel’s bi-monthly index within the larger multi-decadal time series. While this process is one practical way to reduce the dimensionality of time series with many hundreds of image epochs, it effectively dampens temporal variation from both intra and inter-annual observations related to land surface phenology. Through a novel application of object-based segmentation aimed at spatial (not temporal dimensionality reduction, all 294 image epochs from a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS bi-monthly NDVI time series covering the northern Fertile Crescent were retained (in homogenous landscape units as unsupervised classification inputs. Given the inherent challenges of in situ or manual image interpretation of land surface phenology classes, a cluster validation approach based on transformed divergence enabled comparison between traditional and novel techniques. Improved intra-annual contrast was clearly manifest in rain-fed agriculture and inter-annual trajectories showed increased cluster cohesion, reducing the overall number of classes identified in the Fertile Crescent study area from 24 to 10. Given careful segmentation parameters, this spatial dimensionality reduction technique augments the value of unsupervised learning to generate homogeneous land surface phenology units. By combining recent scalable computational approaches to image segmentation, future work can pursue new global land surface phenology products based on the high temporal resolution signatures of vegetation index time series.

  1. X-ray measurements from the cathode surface of glow discharge tube used as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Wagatsuma, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagata, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    As previously reported, when a high-voltage is applied to a Grimm glow discharge tube, high-energy electrons emitted from the cathode surface bombard the glass window, leading to X-ray emissions from the window. In this study, we have applied an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to detect X-rays from the cathode which are excited by X-rays emitted from the glass window. Thus, we have proposed to utilize this glow discharge tube as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument, to which both the X-ray emission source and the sample are directly attached. This compact X-ray fluorescence instrument has the same advantages of easy maintenance, exchangeable target and sample, and simple construction. The quantitative determination of Si, Ti, and Mn in Fe-Si, Fe-Ti, and Fe-Mn alloys was demonstrated with the detection limits of 21, 150 and 420 ppm, respectively. The X-ray measurement form the cathode is a useful method to directly monitor the cathode surface during the glow discharge process. This would be applied to understand and control the glow discharge processes. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction peaks as well as the fluorescent X-ray peaks were observed, indicating that the structure analysis of the cathode material would also be possible. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Measuring Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Initial Instrument Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta; Cribbs, Jennifer; Simmons, Lakisha

    2015-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to operationalise Moore's transactional distance theory by developing and validating an instrument measuring the related constructs: dialogue, structure, learner autonomy and transactional distance. Data were collected from 227 online students and analysed through an exploratory factor analysis. Results suggest…

  3. Assessment of physician competency in patient education : Reliability and validity of a model-based instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouda, Jan C.; Zandbelt, Linda C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Establish the inter-rater reliability and the concept, convergent and construct validity of an instrument for assessing the competency of physicians in patient education. Methods: Three raters assessed the quality of patient education in 30 outpatient consultations with the CELI

  4. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  5. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  6. Incorporating Students' Self-Designed, Research-Based Analytical Chemistry Projects into the Instrumentation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruomei

    2015-01-01

    In a typical chemistry instrumentation laboratory, students learn analytical techniques through a well-developed procedure. Such an approach, however, does not engage students in a creative endeavor. To foster the intrinsic motivation of students' desire to learn, improve their confidence in self-directed learning activities and enhance their…

  7. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  8. Survismeter, 3-in-1 Instrument for Simultaneous Measurements of Surface Tension, Inter Facial Tension (IFT and Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Singh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents Inter Facial Tension (IFT (ift, N m-1 of benzene-water; surface tensions (, N m-1 and viscosities (, N s m-2 of ethanol, glycerol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform, benzene, carbon tetrachloride [CCl4], formic acid, measured with Survismeter with ± 1.1x10-5 N m-1, ± 1.3x10-5 N m-1 and ± 1.1x10-6 N s m-2 accuracies respectively. Also the surface tension and viscosities of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DBSA and tetramethylammoniumhydroxide (TMAH in aqueous media have been measured with survismeter at 298.15 K. IFT of water and benzene interface was determined with survismeter. The survismeter saves resources, user’s efforts and infrastructure more than 80 % as compared to usual methods and prevents 80% disposal of materials to environment. It very accurately measures surface tension and IFT of volatile and poisonous liquids at any desired temperatures as liquids are jacked (jacketed in closed glass made bulbs.

  9. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  10. Microprocessor-based simulator of surface ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, A E; Rossi, E; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a simulator of surface electrocardiogram recorded signals (ECG) is presented. The device, based on a microcontroller and commanded by a personal computer, produces an analog signal resembling actual ECGs, not only in time course and voltage levels, but also in source impedance. The simulator is a useful tool for electrocardiograph calibration and monitoring, to incorporate as well in educational tasks and in clinical environments for early detection of faulty behaviour

  11. Surfaced-based investigations plan, Volume 4: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document represents a detailed summary of design plans for surface-based investigations to be conducted for site characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. These plans are current as of December 1988. The description of surface-based site characterization activities contained in this document is intended to give all interested parties an understanding of the current plans for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. The maps presented in Volume 4 are products of the Geographic Information System (GIS) being used by the Yucca Mountain Project. The ARC/INFO GIS software, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, was used to digitize and process these SBIP maps. The maps were prepared using existing US Geological Survey (USGS) maps as a planimetric base. Roads and other surface features were interpreted from a variety of sources and entered into the GIS. Sources include the USGS maps, 1976 USGS orthophotoquads and aerial photography, 1986 and 1987 aerial photography, surveyed coordinates of field sites, and a combination of various maps, figures, descriptions and approximate coordinates of proposed locations for future activities

  12. Instrumentation For Multiple Radiation Detection Based On Novel Mercurous Halides For Nuclear Planetology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation detectors that sense gamma and neutron radiation are critical to the exploration of planetary surface composition. Among the key technological challenges...

  13. Spatio-temporal image-based parametric water surface reconstruction: a novel methodology based on refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, L.; Creëlle, S.; Schindfessel, L.; De Mulder, T.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a low-cost and easy-to-implement image-based reconstruction technique for laboratory experiments, which results in a temporal description of the water surface topography. The distortion due to refraction of a known pattern, located below the water surface, is used to fit a low parameter surface model that describes the time-dependent and three-dimensional surface variation. Instead of finding the optimal water depth for characteristic points on the surface, the deformation of the entire pattern is compared to its original shape. This avoids the need for feature tracking adopted in similar techniques, which improves the robustness to suboptimal optical conditions and small-scale, high-frequency surface perturbations. Experimental validation, by comparison with water depth measurements using a level gauge and pressure sensor, proves sub-millimetre accuracy for smooth and steady surface shapes. Although such accuracy cannot be achieved in case of highly dynamic surface phenomena, the low-frequency and large-scale free surface oscillations can still be measured with a temporal and spatial resolution mostly limited by the available optical set-up. The technique is initially intended for periodic surface phenomena, but the results presented in this paper indicate that also irregular surface shapes can robustly be reconstructed. Therefore, the presented technique is a promising tool for other research applications that require non-intrusive, low-cost surface measurements while maintaining visual access to the water below the surface. The latter ensures that the suggested surface reconstruction is compatible with simultaneous image-based velocity measurements, enabling a detailed study of the flow.

  14. FPGA-Based Reconfigurable Measurement Instruments with Functionality Defined by User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Guo-Ruey; Lin, Min-Chuan

    2006-12-01

    Using the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded software-core processor and/or digital signal processor cores, we are able to construct a hardware kernel for measurement instruments, which can fit common electronic measurement and test requirements. We call this approach the software-defined instrumentation (SDI). By properly configuring, we have used the hardware kernel to implement an[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-channel arbitrary waveform generator with various add-on functions, a wideband and precise network analyzer, a high-speed signal digitizer, and a real-time sweep spectrum analyzer. With adaptively reconfiguring the hardware kernel, SDI concept can easily respond to the rapidly changing user-application-specified needs in measurement and test markets.

  15. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  16. Microprocessor- and LSI-based CAMAC RAM controllers in a modular multiparameter instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarda, V.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution deals with the main features and with the hardware modifications of RAM controllers in the dual-port accessed CAMAC memory modules that have been applied in a modular multichannel analyzer instrumentation system. The modules described in this paper are fully compatible with the CAMAC standard EUR 4100 and with the COMPEX draft proposal of the ESONE Study Group, as well. Special attention is paid to the possible application of modern LSI bipolar circuits. (orig.)

  17. Accounting Information - Power Instrument for Advanced Management in Knowledge Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Potecea, Olga; Gabroveanu, Emilia; Radneantu, Nicoleta

    2008-01-01

    In elaborating the paper, we started from the idea of the necessity of knowing the reasons that determined the reconsideration of the importance of accounting information, in order to ensure survival, performance and durability of businesses in the context of the new challenges launched by the world economy. Continuous adjustments that influence companies impose the necessity of reassessment of accounting information as a management instrument, to determine the situation, to notice the opport...

  18. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  19. Transcultural adaptation into Portuguese of an instrument for pain evaluation based on the biopsychosocial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rocha Peixoto dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Pain is an individual experience influenced by multiple interacting factors. The “biopsychosocial” care model has gained popularity in response to growing research evidence indicating the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors on the pain experience. The implementation of this model is a challenge in the practice of the health professional. Objective: To perform the transcultural adaptation of the SCEBS method into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: The instrument was translated and applied to 50 healthy subjects and 50 participants with non-specific chronic pain in the spine. The process of cross-cultural adaptation included the following steps: transcultural adaptation, content analysis of the scale, pre-test, revision, back-translation review, cross-cultural adaptation, revised text correction and final report. Results: The translated and adapted 51-item Portuguese version of the SCEBS method produced an instrument called SCEBS-BR. In the assessment by the target population, 50 adult users of the Brazilian Unified Health System answered the questionnaire and showed good understanding of the instrument on the verbal rating scale. Conclusion: The SCEBS-BR was proved to be easily understandable, showing good semantic validation regardless of schooling level or age, and can be considered adequate for clinical use.

  20. Microchemostat - microbial continuous culture in a polymer-based, instrumented microbioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Bocazzi, P.; Choi, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    (dimethylsiloxane) ( PDMS) of the microbioreactor are modified to generate bio-inert surfaces resistant to non-specific protein adsorption and cell adhesion. The modified surfaces of microbioreactor effectively reduce wall growth of E. coli for a prolonged period of cultivation. Steady state conditions at different...

  1. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Loyens, Sofie M M; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-12-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review investigates: (1) the effects of PBL on students' deep and surface approaches to learning, (2) whether and why these effects do differ across (a) the context of the learning environment (single vs. curriculum wide implementation), and (b) study quality. Studies were searched dealing with PBL and students' approaches to learning. Twenty-one studies were included. The results indicate that PBL does enhance deep learning with a small positive average effect size of .11 and a positive effect in eleven of the 21 studies. Four studies show a decrease in deep learning and six studies show no effect. PBL does not seem to have an effect on surface learning as indicated by a very small average effect size (.08) and eleven studies showing no increase in the surface approach. Six studies demonstrate a decrease and four an increase in surface learning. It is concluded that PBL does seem to enhance deep learning and has little effect on surface learning, although more longitudinal research using high quality measurement instruments is needed to support this conclusion with stronger evidence. Differences cannot be explained by the study quality but a curriculum wide implementation of PBL has a more positive impact on the deep approach (effect size .18) compared to an implementation within a single course (effect size of -.05). PBL is assumed to enhance active learning and students' intrinsic motivation, which enhances deep learning. A high perceived workload and assessment that is perceived as not rewarding deep learning are assumed to enhance surface learning.

  2. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  3. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  4. Shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Itoh, H.; Masutani, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Maeda, E.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hayashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive (FP) reduction. In the proposed system, the FP existing in internal of vessel bifurcation is removed using extracted surface of vessels and nodules. From the validation with 16 chest CT scans, we find that the proposed CAD system achieves 18.7 FPs/scan at 90% sensitivity, and 7.8 FPs/scan at 80% sensitivity. (orig.)

  5. Duration of second stage of labor and instrumental delivery as risk factors for severe perineal lacerations: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Marija; Cnattingius, Sven; Petersson, Gunnar; Sandström, Anna; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-02-21

    We sought to investigate the impact of the duration of second stage of labor on risk of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). This population based cohort study was conducted in the Stockholm/Gotland region, Sweden, 2008-2014. Study population included 52 211 primiparous women undergoing vaginal delivery with cephalic presentation at term. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main exposure was duration of second stage of labor, and main outcome was risks of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). Risk of severe perineal lacerations increased with duration of second stage of labor. Compared with a second stage of labor of 1 h or less, women with a second stage of more than 2 h had an increased risk (aOR 1.42; 95% CI 1.28-1.58). Compared with non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, the risk was elevated among instrumental vaginal deliveries (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 2.07-2.42). The risk of perineal laceration increased with duration of second stage of labor until less than 3 h in both instrumental and non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, but after 3 h, the ORs did not further increase. After adjustments for potential confounders, macrosomia (birth weight > 4 500 g) and occiput posterior fetal position were risk factors of severe perineal lacerations. The risk of severe perineal laceration increases with duration until the third hour of second stage of labor. Instrumental delivery is the most significant risk factor for severe lacerations, followed by duration of second stage of labor, fetal size and occiput posterior fetal position.

  6. Preference-based disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for glaucoma: a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, Sergei; Podbielski, Dominik W; Jack, Susan M; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Mitchell, Levine A H; Baltaziak, Monika; Xie, Feng

    2016-11-08

    A primary objective of healthcare services is to improve patients' health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Glaucoma, which affects a substantial proportion of the world population, has a significant detrimental impact on HRQoL. Although there are a number of glaucoma-specific questionnaires to measure HRQoL, none is preference-based which prevent them from being used in health economic evaluation. The proposed study is aimed to develop a preference-based instrument that is capable of capturing important effects specific to glaucoma and treatments on HRQoL and is scored based on the patients' preferences. A sequential, exploratory mixed methods design will be used to guide the development and evaluation of the HRQoL instrument. The study consists of several stages to be implemented sequentially: item identification, item selection, validation and valuation. The instrument items will be identified and selected through a literature review and the conduct of a qualitative study. Validation will be conducted to establish psychometric properties of the instrument followed by a valuation exercise to derive utility scores for the health states described. This study has been approved by the Trillium Health Partners Research Ethics Board (ID number 753). All personal information will be de-identified with the identification code kept in a secured location including the rest of the study data. Only qualified and study-related personnel will be allowed to access the data. The results of the study will be distributed widely through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and internal meetings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  8. Wide steering angle microscanner based on curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser; Khalil, Diaa; Saadany, Bassam; Bourouina, Tarik

    2013-03-01

    Intensive industrial and academic research is oriented towards the design and fabrication of optical beam steering systems based on MEMS technology. In most of these systems, the scanning is achieved by rotating a flat micromirror around a central axis in which the main challenge is achieving a wide mirror rotation angle. In this work, a novel method of optical beam scanning based on reflection from a curved surface is presented. The scanning occurs when the optical axis of the curved surface is displaced with respect to the optical axis of the incident beam. To overcome the possible deformation of the spot with the scanning angle, the curved surface is designed with a specific aspherical profile. Moreover, the scanning exhibits a more linearized scanning angle-displacement relation than the conventional spherical profile. The presented scanner is fabricated using DRIE technology on an SOI wafer. The curved surface (reflector) is metalized and attached to a comb-drive actuator fabricated in the same lithography step. A single-mode fiber, behaving as a Gaussian beam source, is positioned on the substrate facing the mirror. The reflected optical beam angle and spotsize in the far field is recorded versus the relative shift between the fiber and the curved mirror. The spot size is plotted versus the scanning angle and a scanning spot size uniformity of about +/-10% is obtained for optical deflection angles up to 100 degrees. As the optical beam is propagating parallel to the wafer substrate, a completely integrated laser scanner can be achieved with filters and actuators self-aligned on the same chip that allows low cost and mass production of this important product.

  9. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2014-09-17

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  10. The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

    2006-03-15

    The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

  11. A wireless Transient Electromagnetic Data Acquisition System based on Virtual Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic survey equipment is widely used in the geophysical field, such as mineral exploration and underground oil detection. To meet the demand of high processing speed and flexible maneuverability, this paper proposes a wireless transient electromagnetic system combined virtual instrument and Wi-Fi technology. Transient electromagnetic receiver and transmitter, Wi-Fi communication links and human operation terminal comprise the whole acquisition system. With the implementation of software programmed by using LabVIEW, the system can process in real-time. This system replaces the old dedicated hardware with compact and flexible device with the same functionality and superior performance.

  12. Egyptian and American Internet-Based Cross-Cultural Information Seeking Behavior. Part I: Research Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Paul L. Hover

    2006-01-01

    This article is the first of three in an exploratory study of the cross-cultural, cross-language information-seeking (IS) behavior of a group of eighty-four academic and public reference librarians from Egypt and the USA. The present article describes the design of the cross-cultural research instrument used to record the behavior of participants when presented with a choice of information resources in several languages unfamiliar to them. A review of literature demonstrates the need in cross...

  13. An Ab Initio Based Potential Energy Surface for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Harry; Schwenke, David W.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new determination of the water potential energy surface. A high quality ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function of water have been computed. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base. The adjustment is small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Of the 27,245 assigned transitions in the HITRAN 92 data base for H2(O-16), the overall root mean square (rms) deviation between the computed and observed line positions is 0.125/cm. However the deviations do not correspond to a normal distribution: 69% of the lines have errors less than 0.05/cm. Overall, the agreement between the line intensities computed in the present work and those contained in the data base is quite good, however there are a significant number of line strengths which differ greatly.

  14. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  15. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  16. A new space instrumental concept based on dispersive components for the measurement of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Véronique; Buil, Christian; Cansot, Elodie; Loesel, Jacques; Tauziede, Laurie; Pierangelo, Clémence; Bermudo, François

    2017-11-01

    Measuring the concentration of greenhouse gases from space is a current challenge. This measurement is achieved via a precise analysis of the signature of chemical gaseous species (CO2, CH4, CO, etc.) in the spectrum of the reflected sunlight. First at all, two families of spectrometers have been studied for the MicroCarb mission. The first family is based on the phenomena of interference between two radiation waves (Michelson Interferometer). The second family is based on the use of dispersive optical components. The second family has been selected for the forthcoming studies in the MicroCarb project. These instruments must have high radiometric and spectral resolutions, in narrow spectral bands, in order to discriminate between absorption lines from various atmospheric chemical species, and to quantify their concentration. This is the case, for example, for the instrument onboard the OCO-2 satellite (NASA/JPL). Our analysis has led us to define a new instrumental concept, based on a dispersive grating spectrometer, with the aim of providing the same accuracy level as the OCO-2, but with a more compact design for accommodation on the Myriade Evolution microsatellite class. This compact design approach will allow us to offer a moderate-cost solution to fulfil mission objectives. Two other studies based on dispersive grating are in progress by CNES prime contractors (ASTRIUM and THALES ALENIA SPACE). A summary of the main specifications of this design will be described, in particular the approach with the so-called "merit function". After a description of such a space instrument, which uses a specific grating component, a preliminary assessment of performances will be presented, including the theoretical calculations and formula. A breadboard implementation of this specific grating has allowed us to show the practicality of this concept and its capabilities. Some results of this breadboard will be described. In addition, an instrument simulator is being developed to

  17. Silicon nanohybrid-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors are highly promising analytical tools, capable of ultrasensitive, multiplex, and nondestructive detection of chemical and biological species. Extensive efforts have been made to design various silicon nanohybrid-based SERS substrates such as gold/silver nanoparticle (NP)-decorated silicon nanowires, Au/Ag NP-decorated silicon wafers (AuNP@Si), and so forth. In comparison to free AuNP- and AgNP-based SERS sensors, the silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors feature higher enhancement factors (EFs) and excellent reproducibility, since SERS hot spots are efficiently coupled and stabilized through interconnection to the semiconducting silicon substrates. Consequently, in the past decade, giant advancements in the development of silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors have been witnessed for myriad sensing applications. In this review, the representative achievements related to the design of high-performance silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors and their use for chemical and biological analysis are reviewed in a detailed way. Furthermore, the major opportunities and challenges in this field are discussed from a broad perspective and possible future directions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Conceptual design of wearpack with physiology detector feature based on wearable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Melani; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Priadythama, Ilham; Susmartini, Susy; Suhardi, Bambang

    2017-11-01

    Every company in Indonesia is responsible for their worker health and safety condition as mentioned in UU No I year 1970. In manufacturing industries, there are many manual tasks dealing with high work load and risk, so that they require excellent concentration and physical condition. There is no ideal way to guarantee worker safety without a real time physiological monitoring. This paper reports our ongoing study in conceptual design development of worker's clothing which is equipped with a wearable instrumentation system. The system is designed to detect and measure body temperature and pulse in real time. Some electrical components such as, LCD (liquid crystal display), LEDs (light emitting diode), batteries, and physiological sensors were assembled. All components are controlled by a wearable on board controller. LEDs is used as alert which can indicate abnormal physical conditions. The LCD was added to provide more detail information. TMP 36 and XD-58C were selected as the physiological sensors. Finally, an Arduino Lilypad was chosen for the controller. This instrumentation system was verified by accurately detected and inform physiological condition of 3 subjects. Further we are going to attach the system to a worker's clothing which was specifically designed to simplify and comfortable usage.

  19. The JPSS CrIS Instrument and the Evolution of Space-Based Infrared Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Suwinski, Lawrence; Wells, Steven; Glumb, Anna; Malloy, Rebecca; Colton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper will summarize the development of infrared sounders since the 1970s, describe the technological hurdles that were overcome to provide ever-increasing performance capabilities, and highlight the radiometric performance of the CrIS instrument on JPSS-1 (CrIS-JPSS1). This includes details of the CrIS-JPSS1 measured noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NEdN) performance, radiometric uncertainty performance utilizing a new and improved internal calibration target, short-term and long-term repeatability, spectral uncertainty, and spectral stability. In addition, the full-resolution operating modes for CrIS-JPSS1 will be reviewed, including a discussion of how these modes will be used during on-orbit characterization tests. We will provide a brief update of CrIS-SNPP on-obit performance and the production status of the CrIS instruments for JPSS-2 through JPSS-4. Current technological challenges will also be reviewed, including how ongoing research and development is enabling improvements to future sounders. The expanding usage of infrared sounding data will also be discussed, including demonstration of value via data assimilation, the roles of the public/private sector in communicating the importance of sounding data for long-term observations, and the long road to success from research to operational data products.

  20. The development of special equipment amplitude detection instrument based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Sidan; Chen Ligang; Lan Peng; Wang Huiting; Zhang Liangxu; Wang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Development and industrial application of special equipment plays an important role in the development of nuclear energy process. Equipment development process need to do a lot of tests, amplitude detection is a key test,it can analysis the device's electromechanical and physical properties. In the industrial application, the amplitude detection can effectively reflect the operational status of the current equipment, the equipment can also be a certain degree of fault diagnosis, identify problems in a timely manner. The main development target in this article is amplitude detection of special equipment. This article describes the development of special equipment amplitude detection instrument. The instrument uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as the central processing unit, and uses the DSP + CPLD + high-speed AD technology to build a complete set of high-precision signal acquisition and analysis processing systems, rechargeable lithium battery as the powered device. It can do a online monitoring of special equipment amplitude, speed parameters by acquiring and analysing the tachometer signal in the special equipment, and locally display through the LCD screen. (authors)

  1. The Communication Supports Inventory-Children & Youth (CSI-CY), a new instrument based on the ICF-CY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Charity; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Bowser, Gayl; Granlund, Mats; Lollar, Donald; Phelps, Randall; Simeonsson, Rune J; Steiner, Sandra A M

    2016-09-01

    Two studies are presented that evaluated the Communication Supports Inventory-Children & Youth (CSI-CY), an instrument designed to facilitate the development of communication-related educational goals for students with complex communication needs (CCN). The CSI-CY incorporates a code set based on the ICF-CY. The studies were designed to determine the effect of using the CSI-CY on IEP goals for students with CCN and to evaluate consumer satisfaction. In Study 1, sixty-one educators and speech-language pathologists were randomly assigned to either (a) provide a student's current IEP (control group) or (b) complete the CSI-CY prior to preparing a student's next IEP and to submit the new IEP (experimental group). Study 2 was a field test to generate consumer satisfaction data. Study 1 showed that IEP goals submitted by participants in the experimental group referenced CSI-CY-related content significantly more frequently than did those submitted by control participants. Study 2 revealed high satisfaction with the instrument. The code set basis of the CSI-CY extends the common language of the ICF-CY to practical educational use for children with CCN across diagnostic groups. The CSI-CY is well regarded as an instrument to inform the content of communication goals related to CCN. Implications for Rehabilitation The CSI-CY will guide rehabilitation professionals to develop goals for children with complex communication impairments. The CSI-CY is a new instrument that is based on the ICF-CY for documentation of communication goals.

  2. Validation of a performance assessment instrument in problem-based learning tutorials using two cohorts of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming; Wimmers, Paul F

    2016-05-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely used in medical schools, few studies have attended to the assessment of PBL processes using validated instruments. This study examined reliability and validity for an instrument assessing PBL performance in four domains: Problem Solving, Use of Information, Group Process, and Professionalism. Two cohorts of medical students (N = 310) participated in the study, with 2 years of PBL evaluation data extracted from archive rated by a total of 158 faculty raters. Analyses based on generalizability theory were conducted for reliability examination. Validity was examined through following the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to evaluate content validity, response processes, construct validity, predictive validity, and the relationship to the variable of training. For construct validity, correlations of PBL scores with six other outcome measures were examined, including Medical College Admission Test, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1, National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination, NBME Comprehensive Clinical Science Examination, Clinical Performance Examination, and USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge. Predictive validity was examined by using PBL scores to predict five medical school outcomes. The highest percentage of PBL total score variance was associated with students (60 %), indicating students in the study differed in their PBL performance. The generalizability and dependability coefficients were moderately high (Ep(2) = .68, ϕ = .60), showing the instrument is reliable for ranking students and identifying competent PBL performers. The patterns of correlations between PBL domain scores and the outcome measures partially support construct validity. PBL performance ratings as a whole significantly (p < .01) predicted all the major medical school achievements. The second year PBL scores were significantly higher than those of the first

  3. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  4. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  5. The applicability of a validated team-based learning student assessment instrument to assess United Kingdom pharmacy students’ attitude toward team-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It aimed at testing the validity and reliability of a validated team-based learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI) to assess United Kingdom pharmacy students’ attitude toward TBL. Methods TBL-SAI, consisting of 33 items, was administered to undergraduate pharmacy students from two schools of pharmacy each at University of Wolverhampton and University of Bradford were conducted on the data, along with comparison between the two schools. Results Students’ response rate was 80.0% (138/173) in completion of the instrument. Overall, the instrument demonstrated validity and reliability when used with pharmacy students. Sub-analysis between schools of pharmacy did, however, show that four items from Wolverhampton data, had factor loadings of less than 0.40. No item in the Bradford data had factor loadings less than 0.40. Cronbach’s alpha score was reliable at 0.897 for the total instrument: Wolverhampton, 0.793 and Bradford, 0.902. Students showed preference to TBL, with Bradford’s scores being statistically higher (P<0.005). Conclusion This validated instrument has demonstrated reliability and validity when used with pharmacy students. Furthermore students at both schools preferred TBL compared to traditional teaching. PMID:27568493

  6. Temperature rise on the surface of NiTi and stainless steel fractured instruments during ultrasonic removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarati, A A

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the temperature rise induced by ultrasonic tips when activated against two types of fragments at two power-settings. Twenty-four F2-ProTaper Universal rotary files and 36 stainless steel K-files, size 50, were sectioned at a point 5.5 mm from their tips. At specific power-settings, ET40D ultrasonic tips were activated against the peripheral surface of the fragment coronal part (1 mm) for 30 s with/without Air-Active function according to each group; (i) without Air-Active function at power-setting 1.5 against NiTi fragments, (ii) without Air-Active function at power-setting 1.5 against SS fragments, (iii) without Air-Active function at power-setting 3 against SS fragments, (iv) with Air-Active function at power-setting 3 against SS fragments, and (v) with Air-Active at power-setting 3 against NiTi fragments. Temperature rises were inspected at 15 and 30 s using the thermocouples. With no Air-Active function and power-setting 1.5, the temperature rises induced on NiTi fragments at 15 and 30 s (36.33 and 55.44 °C, respectively) were significantly greater than those induced on SS fragments at 15 and 30 s (26.08 and 35.27 °C, respectively) (P = 0.001 and NiTi fragments compared with SS ones. Air-Active function, as a coolant, is recommended when dealing with both types of fragments. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Applying tensor-based morphometry to parametric surfaces can improve MRI-based disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Jie; Greve, Alexander; Ye, Jieping; Toga, Arthur W; Reiss, Allan L; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Many methods have been proposed for computer-assisted diagnostic classification. Full tensor information and machine learning with 3D maps derived from brain images may help detect subtle differences or classify subjects into different groups. Here we develop a new approach to apply tensor-based morphometry to parametric surface models for diagnostic classification. We use this approach to identify cortical surface features for use in diagnostic classifiers. First, with holomorphic 1-forms, we compute an efficient and accurate conformal mapping from a multiply connected mesh to the so-called slit domain. Next, the surface parameterization approach provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects using a constrained harmonic map. To analyze anatomical differences, we then analyze the full Riemannian surface metric tensors, which retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. As the number of voxels in a 3D image is large, sparse learning is a promising method to select a subset of imaging features and to improve classification accuracy. Focusing on vertices with greatest effect sizes, we train a diagnostic classifier using the surface features selected by an L1-norm based sparse learning method. Stability selection is applied to validate the selected feature sets. We tested the algorithm on MRI-derived cortical surfaces from 42 subjects with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and 40 age-matched controls, multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave greater effect sizes for detecting group differences relative to other TBM-based statistics including analysis of the Jacobian determinant and the largest eigenvalue of the surface metric. Our method also gave reasonable classification results relative to the Jacobian determinant, the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix and volume features. This analysis pipeline may boost the power of morphometry studies, and may assist with image-based classification. Copyright © 2013

  8. 3D-NTT: A New Instrument for the NTT Based on Versatile Tunable Filter Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, M.

    The 3D-NTT will be a visitor instrument for the NTT, built by GEPI (Paris) and LAM (Marseille) with the collaboration of LAE (Montréal, Canada) and AAO (Australia). It is a spectro-imager offering two modes: a low resolution mode (100-5000) with a Tunable Filter, and a high resolution mode (5000 - 40 000) with a standard scanning Fabry-Perot. A large variety of programmes may be led with such an instrument as has been shown recently (1997-2003) with the Taurus Tunable Filter on the AAT and WHT. In the frame of a large scientific coollaboration, gathering European teams as well as collaborators from other countries, we propose a Large Programme (IOGA) dedicated to the study of ionized gas in galaxies, at low and high z, to be undertaken with the 3D-NTT. Nearby IR galaxies (IRGs) are the key to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, as they are believed to be the local counter-part of the numerous luminous starburst galaxies at high z. To understand the nature, origin and evolution of IRGs, we propose to map the star formation and kinematics in 500 galaxies and obtain dust extinction, metal abundances and electron density maps in 50 of them for obtaining a reference sample with high spectral and spatial resolution (sub-kpc) to be compared with distant objects being observed on the VLT (GIRAFFE, SINFONI). We will take advantage of both modes proposed by the instrument: high resolution mode with scanning Fabry Perot (FOV 5.5' or 11'), and low resolution mode with Tunable Filter and larger field (FOV 20'). This mode will be used at high z to look for star forming galaxies around quasars with a range of intrinsic UV luminosity. Star forming galaxies exist in significant numbers around low power quasars and we want to check if this remains true around more distant and luminous quasars. This may be the first evidence that powerful UV fields can suppress or delay widespread star formation in galaxies and, as such, may provide important constraints on

  9. From theory based policy evaluation to SMART Policy Design: Lessons learned from 20 ex-post evaluations of energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Harmsen, Robert; Nilsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of an in-depth ex-post analysis of 20 energy efficiency policy instruments applied across different sectors and countries. Within the AID-EE project, we reconstructed and analysed the implementation process of energy efficiency policy instruments with the aim to identify key factors behind successes and failures. The analysis was performed using a uniform methodology called 'theory based policy evaluation'. With this method the whole implementation process is assessed with the aim to identify: (i) the main hurdles in each step of the implementation process, (ii) key success factors for different types of instruments and (iii) the key indicators that need to be monitored to enable a sound evaluation of the energy efficiency instruments. Our analysis shows that: Energy efficiency policies often lack quantitative targets and clear timeframes; Often policy instruments have multiple and/or unclear objectives; The need for monitoring information does often not have priority in the design phase; For most instruments, monitoring information is collected on a regular basis. However, this information is often insufficient to determine the impact on energy saving, cost-effectiveness and target achievement of an instrument; Monitoring and verification of actual energy savings have a relatively low priority for most of the analyzed instruments. There is no such thing as the 'best' policy instrument. However, typical circumstances in which to apply different types of instruments and generic characteristics that determine success or failure can be identified. Based on the assessments and the experience from applying theory based policy evaluation ex-post, we suggest that this should already be used in the policy formulation and design phase of instruments. We conclude that making policy theory an integral and mandated part of the policy process would facilitate more efficient and effective energy efficiency instruments

  10. Automated landmark identification for human cortical surface-based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Dierker, Donna L; Harwell, John W; Coalson, Timothy S; Barch, Deanna M; Van Essen, David C

    2012-02-01

    Volume-based registration (VBR) is the predominant method used in human neuroimaging to compensate for individual variability. However, surface-based registration (SBR) techniques have an inherent advantage over VBR because they respect the topology of the convoluted cortical sheet. There is evidence that existing SBR methods indeed confer a registration advantage over affine VBR. Landmark-SBR constrains registration using explicit landmarks to represent corresponding geographical locations on individual and atlas surfaces. The need for manual landmark identification has been an impediment to the widespread adoption of Landmark-SBR. To circumvent this obstacle, we have implemented and evaluated an automated landmark identification (ALI) algorithm for registration to the human PALS-B12 atlas. We compared ALI performance with that from two trained human raters and one expert anatomical rater (ENR). We employed both quantitative and qualitative quality assurance metrics, including a biologically meaningful analysis of hemispheric asymmetry. ALI performed well across all quality assurance tests, indicating that it yields robust and largely accurate results that require only modest manual correction (<10 min per subject). ALI largely circumvents human error and bias and enables high throughput analysis of large neuroimaging datasets for inter-subject registration to an atlas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface relief gratings in azobenzene supramolecular systems based on polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Sobolewska, Anna; Stumpe, Joachim; Hamryszak, Lukasz; Bujak, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    The paper describes formation of new supramolecular azopolymers based on hydrogen bonds as perspective materials for laser induced surface relief gratings (SRGs) and for polarization gratings. Supramolecular films were built on the basis of hydrogen bonds between the functional groups of polymer and azobenzene derivatives, that is 4-[4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)phenylazo]-pyridine and 4-[4-(6-hydroxyhexyloxy)phenylazo]pyridine. Polymers with imide rings, i.e., poly(esterimide)s and poly(etherimide)s, with phenolic hydroxyl or carboxylic groups were applied as matrixes for polymer-dye supramolecular systems. They revealed glass transition temperatures (Tg) in the range of 170-260 °C, whereas supramolecular systems exhibited lower Tg (88-187 °C). The polymers were easily soluble in aprotic polar solvents and exhibited remarkable good film forming properties. Moreover, new chromophore 4-[4-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)phenylazo]pyridine was synthesized and characterized. The light induced SRGs formation and simultaneous formation of the polarization gratings were explored in prepared polymer-chromophore assembles films using a holographic grating recording technique. First time to the best of our knowledge SRGs were formed in hydrogen-bonded supramolecular systems based on polyimides. The highest SRG amplitude and thus the highest diffraction efficiency were obtained in poly(esterimide)s with the hydroxyl functional group. Additionally, the thermal stability of the photoinduced surface gratings and polarization gratings were tested revealing in the case of the SRGs partial stability and almost complete erasure of the polarization gratings.

  12. Market based instruments for urban mobility management: the case of parking fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatti, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The increasing difficulties met by the Italian authorities in facing congestion and environmental pollution caused by urban traffic have obliged all administrative levels to implement measures to tackle the problem in an effective way. At first, from the beginning of the Eighties, interventions have been directed - mainly at the European and national level - to the improvement of environmental and safety performances of the vehicle fleet, in particular the private one. Only later, due to the continuous growth of car ownership and use, that in some cases have more than compensated the progress obtained in engine technology and brought about new emergencies as congestion, excessive land use and casualties, an increasing need came out to carry out measures aiming at controlling and influencing, above all in metropolitan areas, mobility pattern and modal split, independently from progress in the vehicle fleet. This need led first, at the local level, to the introduction of command and control measures (pedestrian areas, traffic bans and circulation with alternate plate number, until the wide implementation of car free areas), mainly in the inner parts of cities, which have progressively shown some of the common drawbacks associated with regulatory instruments: difficult enforcement, increasing number of permissions and exceptions, concentration of policies in small areas, reduced spatial and temporal flexibility. In this framework, a high share of Italian municipalities has introduced since the end of the nineties parking fees to salve (at least potentially) some of the problems considered, so that, in the common view, they have become the most diffused instrument (numerically and spatially) to tackle mobility growth in large urban areas. However, as commonly found in literature, the Italian experience has been characterized by some problematic aspects: both in terms of the real capacity of parking fees to represent adequately external costs associated to mobility (no

  13. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  14. Characterizing a New Surface-Based Shortwave Cloud Retrieval Technique, Based on Transmitted Radiance for Soil and Vegetated Surface Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. McBride

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach using the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA tool and general inverse theory diagnostics including the maximum likelihood solution and the Shannon information content to investigate the performance of a new spectral technique for the retrieval of cloud optical properties from surface based transmittance measurements. The cumulative retrieval information over broad ranges in cloud optical thickness (τ, droplet effective radius (re, and overhead sun angles is quantified under two conditions known to impact transmitted radiation; the variability in land surface albedo and atmospheric water vapor content. Our conclusions are: (1 the retrieved cloud properties are more sensitive to the natural variability in land surface albedo than to water vapor content; (2 the new spectral technique is more accurate (but still imprecise than a standard approach, in particular for τ between 5 and 60 and re less than approximately 20 μm; and (3 the retrieved cloud properties are dependent on sun angle for clouds of  from 5 to 10 and re < 10 μm, with maximum sensitivity obtained for an overhead sun.

  15. Engineering aperiodic nanostructured surfaces for scattering-based optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuk Kwan Sylvanus

    Novel optical devices such as biosensors, color displays and authentication devices can be obtained from the distinctive light scattering properties of resonant nanoparticles and nanostructured arrays. These arrays can be optimized through the choice of material, particle morphology and array geometry. In this thesis, by engineering the multi-frequency colorimetric responses of deterministic aperiodic nanostructured surfaces (DANS) with various spectral Fourier properties, I designed, fabricated and characterized scattering-based devices for optical biosensing and structural coloration applications. In particular, using analytical and numerical optimization, colorimetric biosensors are designed and fabricated with conventional electron beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering imaging as well as image autocorrelation analysis of scattered intensity in the visible spectral range. These sensors, which consist of aperiodic surfaces ranging from quasi-periodic to pseudo-random structures with flat Fourier spectra, sustain highly complex structural resonances that enable a novel optical sensing approach beyond the traditional Bragg scattering. To this end, I have experimentally demonstrated that DANS with engineered structural colors are capable of detecting nanoscale protein monolayers with significantly enhanced sensitivity over periodic structures. In addition, different aperiodic arrays of gold (Au) nanoparticles are integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic structures by soft-lithographic micro-imprint techniques. Distinctive scattering spectral shifts and spatial modifications of structural color patterns in response to refractive index variations were simultaneously measured. The successful integration of DANS with microfluidics technology has introduced a novel opto-fluidic sensing platform for label-free and multiplexed lab-on-a-chip applications. Moreover, by studying the isotropic scattering properties of homogenized

  16. Specification for modular plug-in unit and standard 19-inch rack mounting unit based on NIM standard (for electronic nuclear instruments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The object is to define standard dimensions of a modular system based on NIM standard and comprising the plug-in unit Type N specified in IEC Publication 482, Dimensions of Electronic Instrument Modules (for Nuclear Electronic Instruments), the corresponding 19-inch rack mounting unit Type NC (conforming to IEC Publication 297, Dimensions of Panels and Racks) and the associated connectors. (author)

  17. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  18. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  19. Detecting Nasal Vowels in Speech Interfaces Based on Surface Electromyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Freitas

    Full Text Available Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI, collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics.

  20. Quantifying the Influence of Near-Surface Water-Energy Budgets on Soil Thermal Properties Using a Network of Coupled Meteorological and Vadose Zone Instrument Arrays in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Gustin, A. R.; Ellett, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather stations that collect reliable, sustained meteorological data sets are becoming more widely distributed because of advances in both instrumentation and data server technology. However, sites collecting soil moisture and soil temperature data remain sparse with even fewer locations where complete meteorological data are collected in conjunction with soil data. Thanks to the advent of sensors that collect continuous in-situ thermal properties data for soils, we have gone a step further and incorporated thermal properties measurements as part of hydrologic instrument arrays in central and northern Indiana. The coupled approach provides insights into the variability of soil thermal conductivity and diffusivity attributable to geologic and climatological controls for various hydrogeologic settings. These data are collected to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) in the glaciated Midwest by establishing publicly available data that can be used to parameterize system design models. A network of six monitoring sites was developed in Indiana. Sensors that determine thermal conductivity and diffusivity using radial differential temperature measurements around a heating wire were installed at 1.2 meters below ground surface— a typical depth for horizontal GSHP systems. Each site also includes standard meteorological sensors for calculating reference evapotranspiration following the methods by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Vadose zone instrumentation includes time domain reflectometry soil-moisture and temperature sensors installed at 0.3-meter depth intervals down to a 1.8-meter depth, in addition to matric potential sensors at 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 meters. Cores collected at 0.3-meter intervals were analyzed in a laboratory for grain size distribution, bulk density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. Our work includes developing methods for calibrating thermal properties sensors based on

  1. Observations of surface radiation and stratospheric processes at Thule Air Base, Greenland, during the IPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Muscari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based measurements of atmospheric parameters have been carried out for more than 20 years at the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC station at Thule Air Base (76.5°N, 68.8°W, on the north-western coast of Greenland. Various instruments dedicated to the study of the lower and middle polar atmosphere are installed at Thule in the framework of a long standing collaboration among Danish, Italian, and US research institutes and universities. This effort aims at monitoring the composition, structure and dynamics of the polar stratosphere, and at studying the Arctic energy budget and the role played by different factors, such as aerosols, water vapour, and surface albedo. During the International Polar Year (IPY, in winter 2008-2009, an intensive measurement campaign was conducted at Thule within the framework of the IPY project “Ozone layer and UV radiation in a changing climate evaluated during IPY” (ORACLE-O3 which sought to improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to the Arctic stratospheric O3 depletion. The campaign involved a lidar system, measuring aerosol backscatter and depolarization ratios up to 35 km and atmospheric temperature profiles from 25 to 70 km altitude, a ground-based millimeter-wave spectrometer (GBMS used to derive stratospheric mixing ratio profiles of different chemical species involved in the stratospheric ozone depletion cycle, and then ground-based radiometers and a Cimel sunphotometer to study the Arctic radiative budget at the surface. The observations show that the surface radiation budget is mainly regulated by the longwave component throughout most of the year. Clouds have a significant impact contributing to enhance the role of longwave radiation. Besides clouds, water vapour seasonal changes produce the largest modification in the shortwave component at the surface, followed by changes in surface albedo and in aerosol amounts. For what concerns the

  2. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. The Openness/Intellect Model on the M5-50: Supporting the Flexibility of IPIP-Based Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Vuyk, M. Alexandra; University of Kansas; Ingram IV, Paul B.; University of Kansas; Multon, Karen D.; University of Kansas; Warlick, Craig A.; University of Kansas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ways to improve fit and interpretive capacity of the M5-50, an IPIP-based personality instrument, using the Openness/Intellect model (O/I) given a history of poor performance of the M5-50 Openness scale (Author, 2013; Socha, Cooper, & McCord, 2010). With participants from Amazon’s MTurk (n = 305), theoretical models for the five-factor model, Openness as a 10-item single factor, and the O/I model were tested and fitted poorly After removing one problematic item, the O/I m...

  4. Development of a Portable, Ground-based Ozone Lidar Instrument for Tropospheric Ozone Research and Educational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Thomas; Zemker, Thomas; Fishman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a portable, eye-safe, ground-based ozone lidar instrument specialized for ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements in the troposphere. This research project directly supports the goal of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to understand the distribution and budget of tropospheric ozone (objective 1.5 of the Earth Science Strategic Enterprise Plan, 1998-2002). It can participate in ground validation experiments for TES, a tropospheric ozone satellite mission due to be launched in 2002. It can also be utilized for correlative ground measurements in future GTE (Global Tropospheric Experiment) and space-based ozone lidar missions, such as ORACLE. Multiple ground-based ozone lidar systems would improve the data obtained through current ozone-sonde networks. This prototype instrument could to serve as the basic unit for these and other future monitoring projects requiring multi-instrument networks, such as that proposed for the Global Tropospheric Ozone Project (GTOP). GTOP is currently being formulated by a scientific panel of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project to meet its goal to better understand the processes that control the global distribution of tropospheric ozone. In order for the lidar to be widely deployed in networks, it must be fairly easy to use and maintain as well as being cost-competitive with a ground station launching ozonesondes several times a day. A second 2-year grant to continue this effort with students participating in ground tests and system improvements has been awarded by the Office of Equal Employment Opportunities (OEOP). This project also supports existing NASA lidar missions through its development of advanced, compact lidar technology. Innovations in both transmitters and receivers have been made in this project. Finally, this system could be modified in the future to probe more deeply into the stratosphere. This could be accomplished by increasing the

  5. Damage identification in beams by a response surface based technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teidj S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, identification of damage in uniform homogeneous metallic beams was considered through the propagation of non dispersive elastic torsional waves. The proposed damage detection procedure consisted of the following sequence. Giving a localized torque excitation, having the form of a short half-sine pulse, the first step was calculating the transient solution of the resulting torsional wave. This torque could be generated in practice by means of asymmetric laser irradiation of the beam surface. Then, a localized defect assumed to be characterized by an abrupt reduction of beam section area with a given height and extent was placed at a known location of the beam. Next, the response in terms of transverse section rotation rate was obtained for a point situated afterwards the defect, where the sensor was positioned. This last could utilize in practice the concept of laser vibrometry. A parametric study has been conducted after that by using a full factorial design of experiments table and numerical simulations based on a finite difference characteristic scheme. This has enabled the derivation of a response surface model that was shown to represent adequately the response of the system in terms of the following factors: defect extent and severity. The final step was performing the inverse problem solution in order to identify the defect characteristics by using measurement.

  6. Embedded water-based surface heating part 2: experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    : hybrid 3D numerical model. Journal of Building Physics 33: 357-391). The thermal response of the system is tested in both long (16 h) and short (30 min) cycle experiments where the water flow alters between on and off. Temperature distribution, within the floor construction, and the heat exchange process...... are studied throughout the test cycles. The model underestimates the steady-state heat exchange from the pipe loop by 16% when boundary conditions and thermal properties according to the reference case are applied. Temperatures at the floor surface are assessed with good precision while temperatures......The transient operation of an embedded water-based floor heating system has been studied by means of a numerical simulation tool. Prior to this study, Caccavelli and Richard (Caccavelli D, Richard P (1994) Etude portant sur le dimensionnement d'un plancher chauffant a eau chaude en CIC. Rapport n...

  7. Station-based Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Q. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Xie, S. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) station-based surface data (ARMBESTNS) value-added product. It is a twin data product of the ARMBE 2-Dimensional gridded (ARMBE2DGRID) data set. Unlike the ARMBE2DGRID data set, ARMBESTNS data are reported at the original site locations and show the original information (except for the interpolation over time). Therefore, the users have the flexibility to process the data with the approach more suitable for their applications. This document provides information about the input data, quality control (QC) method, and output format of this data set. As much of the information is identical to that of the ARMBE2DGRID data, this document will emphasize more on the different aspects of these two data sets.

  8. Detection of explosives based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerbarth, Hainer; Salb, Christian; Gundrum, Lars; Niederkrüger, Matthias; Christou, Konstantin; Beushausen, Volker; Viöl, Wolfgang

    2010-08-10

    In this study we present a device based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the detection of airborne explosives. The explosives are resublimated on a cooled nanostructured gold substrate. The explosives trinitrotoluene (TNT) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) are used. The SERS spectrum of the explosives is analyzed. Thus, TNT is deposited from an acetonitrile solution on the gold substrate. In the case of TATP, first the bulk TATP Raman spectrum was recorded and compared with the SERS spectrum, generated by deposition out of the gas phase. The frequencies of the SERS spectrum are hardly shifted compared to the spectrum of bulk TATP. The influence of the nanostructured gold substrate temperature on the signals of TATP was studied. A decrease in temperature up to 200 K increased the intensities of the TATP bands in the SERS spectrum; below 200 K, the TATP fingerprint disappeared.

  9. Prototype of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Ground-Based Instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Iodine Monoxide (IO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer: (1) IO participates in depletion episodes of O3 and in the removal of mercury in the Arctic polar spring by enhancing atomic Br mixing ratios. Recent observations and computer simulations suggest that mercury sequestration is closely tied to halogen photochemistry and that gaseous atomic Hg depletion can be enhanced significantly by the presence of small amounts of iodine-containing compounds. (2) IO and higher- order iodine oxides are involved in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments. Studies using smog chamber experiments simulating coastal atmospheric conditions have demonstrated that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapors and that their concentrations over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. (3) IO has also been shown to affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere by altering the partitioning of NO2/NO and HO2/HO and by activating chlorine and bromine in sea salt aerosols. In the stratosphere, these same processes can lead to enhanced ozone loss rates. Detailed photochemical models that include iodine photochemistry, however, are hampered by the lack of observational data. The distribution of IO in vertical, horizontal, and temporal coordinates is unknown, so the impact of IO on global photochemistry cannot be predicted. The resolution of these important scientific issues requires an in situ IO instrument. A fully functional nanosecond Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser system and a prototype IO ground-based instrument have been built in our lab. With the current setup, the laser system was situated 10 m from the field station, and the laser light was coupled via an optical fiber. With the use of highly efficient fluorescence detection optics and photon counting techniques, sensitivities of better than 0.1 ppt in 1 s for IO was achieved in the

  10. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  11. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien

    2015-10-29

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  12. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft- and Satellite-based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on Estimates of Hurricane Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhorn, Eric; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; Chen, Shuyi; El-Nimri, Salem; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor currently under development to enhance real-time hurricane ocean surface wind observations. HIRAD builds on the capabilities of the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which now operates on NOAA P-3, G-4, and AFRC C-130 aircraft. Unlike the SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 times the aircraft altitude). To demonstrate potential improvement in the measurement of peak hurricane winds, we present a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing platforms (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a high-resolution (approximately 1.7 km) numerical model. Simulated retrieval errors due to both instrument noise as well as model function accuracy are considered over the expected range of incidence angles, wind speeds and rain rates. Based on numerous simulated flight patterns and data source combinations, statistics are developed to describe relationships between the observed and true (from the model s perspective) peak wind speed. These results have implications for improving the estimation of hurricane intensity (as defined by the peak sustained wind anywhere in the storm), which may often go un-observed due to sampling limitations.

  13. A photogrammetry-based system for 3D surface reconstruction of prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-kun; Gao, Fan; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative close range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) system using the commercial digital SLR cameras to measure and reconstruct the 3D surface of prosthetics and orthotics. This paper describes the instrumentation, techniques and preliminary results of the proposed system. The technique works by taking pictures of the object from multiple view angles. The series of pictures were post-processed via feature point extraction, point match and 3D surface reconstruction. In comparison with the traditional method such as laser scanning, the major advantages of our instrument include the lower cost, compact and easy-to-use hardware, satisfactory measurement accuracy, and significantly less measurement time. Besides its potential applications in prosthetics and orthotics surface measurement, the simple setup and its ease of use will make it suitable for various 3D surface reconstructions.

  14. Design and Calibration of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy Instrument Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James

    2016-01-01

    This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy instrument to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The instrument is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted instrument into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger instrument. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and calibrated with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to

  15. Neural Network-Based Retrieval of Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture using Multi-Frequency Remotely-Sensed Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Kolassa, Jana; Prigent, Catherine; Aires, Filipe; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of root zone soil moisture is essential in studying plant's response to different stress conditions since plant photosynthetic activity and transpiration rate are constrained by the water available through their roots. Current global root zone soil moisture estimates are based on either outputs from physical models constrained by observations, or assimilation of remotely-sensed microwave-based surface soil moisture estimates with physical model outputs. However, quality of these estimates are limited by the accuracy of the model representations of physical processes (such as radiative transfer, infiltration, percolation, and evapotranspiration) as well as errors in the estimates of the surface parameters. Additionally, statistical approaches provide an alternative efficient platform to develop root zone soil moisture retrieval algorithms from remotely-sensed observations. In this study, we present a new neural network based retrieval algorithm to estimate surface and root zone soil moisture from passive microwave observations of SMAP satellite (L-band) and AMSR2 instrument (X-band). SMAP early morning observations are ideal for surface soil moisture retrieval. AMSR2 mid-night observations are used here as an indicator of plant hydraulic properties that are related to root zone soil moisture. The combined observations from SMAP and AMSR2 together with other ancillary observations including the Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) estimates from GOME-2 instrument provide necessary information to estimate surface and root zone soil moisture. The algorithm is applied to observations from the first 18 months of SMAP mission and retrievals are validated against in-situ observations and other global datasets.

  16. A curvature theory for discrete surfaces based on mesh parallelity

    KAUST Repository

    Bobenko, Alexander Ivanovich

    2009-12-18

    We consider a general theory of curvatures of discrete surfaces equipped with edgewise parallel Gauss images, and where mean and Gaussian curvatures of faces are derived from the faces\\' areas and mixed areas. Remarkably these notions are capable of unifying notable previously defined classes of surfaces, such as discrete isothermic minimal surfaces and surfaces of constant mean curvature. We discuss various types of natural Gauss images, the existence of principal curvatures, constant curvature surfaces, Christoffel duality, Koenigs nets, contact element nets, s-isothermic nets, and interesting special cases such as discrete Delaunay surfaces derived from elliptic billiards. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  17. An instrument based on protection motivation theory to predict Chinese adolescents' intention to engage in protective behaviors against schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Peng, Minjin; Yan, Hong; Gao, Mengting; Li, Jingjing; Yu, Bin; Wu, Hanbo; Li, Shiyue

    2016-01-01

    Further advancement in schistosomiasis prevention requires new tools to assess protective motivation, and promote innovative intervention program. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an instrument developed based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict protective behavior intention against schistosomiasis among adolescents in China. We developed the Schistosomiasis PMT Scale based on two appraisal pathways of protective motivation- threat appraisal pathway and coping appraisal pathway. Data from a large sample of middle school students ( n  = 2238, 51 % male, mean age 13.13 ± 1.10) recruited in Hubei, China was used to evaluated the validity and reliability of the scale. The final scale contains 18 items with seven sub-constructs. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients for the entire instrument was 0.76, and for the seven sub-constructs of severity, vulnerability, intrinsic reward, extrinsic reward, response efficacy, self-efficacy and response cost was 0.56, 0.82, 0.75, 0.80, 0.90, 0.72 and 0.70, respectively. The construct validity analysis revealed that the one level 7 sub-constructs model fitted data well (GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, Chi-sq/df = 3.90, p  motivation in schistosomiasis prevention control. Further studies are needed to develop more effective intervention programs for schistosomiasis prevention.

  18. Experimental and statistical models of impact determination of the electron beam parameters on surface layers properties of optical elements in precision instruments building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Yatsenko

    2016-05-01

    external heat flows in 1.3...1.5 times higher than before treatment. Conclusions: As results of the research the experimental and statistical models to determine the impact of parameters of the electron beam on the basic properties of the surface layers of the optical elements and their resistance to thermal action have been developed. This makes it possible (with a relative error of 5 ... 9% automatically in real time to form a managed database with improved properties that impact on the technical and operational characteristics of optical components and devices based on them.

  19. Development of Novel, Optically-Based Instrumentation for Aircraft System Testing and Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and evaluate a prototype of a compact, robust, optically-based sensor for making temperature and multi-species concentration measurements...

  20. Development of Novel, Optically-Based Instrumentation for Aircraft System Testing and Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact, robust, optically-based sensor for making temperature and multi-species concentration measurements in aircraft system ground and...

  1. Evaluation of upper limb muscle fatigue based on surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianxiang; Chen, Yuhong; Ma, Chao; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2011-10-01

    Fatigue is believed to be a major contributory factor to occupational injuries in machine operators. The development of accurate and usable techniques to measure operator fatigue is therefore important. In this study, we used a novel method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) of the biceps brachii and the Borg scale to evaluate local muscle fatigue in the upper limb after isometric muscle action. Thirteen young males performed isometric actions with the upper limb at different force levels. sEMG activities of the biceps brachii were recorded during the actions. Borg scales were used to evaluate the subjective sensation of local fatigue of the biceps brachii after the actions. sEMG activities were analyzed using the one-third band octave method, and an equation to determine the degree of fatigue was derived based on the relationship between the variable and the Borg scale. The results showed that the relationship could be expressed by a conic curve, and could be used to evaluate muscle fatigue during machine operation.

  2. Design of LabVIEW®-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E.; Lewis, Simon W.

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW®-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-6 M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05x+8.9164 (R2 =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 × 10-8 M). The limit of detection (3σ) was determined as 5 × 10-11 M morphine. PMID:18924729

  3. Design of LabVIEW-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.

  4. Development of validated instrument to measure medical student learning in clinical urology: a step toward evidence based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, B Price; Baker, Harley; Volkan, Kevin; Church, Paul A; Federman, Daniel D; Masser, Barbara A; DeWOLF, William C

    2004-07-01

    To date published efforts to assess and improve medical student learning in urology have been limited due to the lack of an assessment tool with which to measure student learning. We report the development of a validated measure of medical student learning in urology. Four core topics in clinical urology were selected as the focus of the test development, namely prostate cancer, screening with prostate specific antigen, benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction. Detailed curricula and multiple choice questions were created for each topic. Content validity of the curriculum and 28 item examination was established by a panel of 2 urologists and 2 medical physicians. Instrument reliability was determined by administering the test on line to third-year surgery students. Test construct validity was established through its administration to 19 urology residents and attending physicians. Reliability of the 28-item test instrument was measured by Cronbach's alpha at 0.76 and its 1-week test-retest reliability was 0.72. All urology experts performed well on the test. Mean urological expert scores were significantly higher than mean student post-test scores (24.9 +/- 2.1 vs 17.8 +/- 3.8, 2-tailed t test p <0.001). Urological experts with greater urological training had higher scores than those with less residency training. This study documents the development of a validated measure of medical student learning in urology. This validated instrument has the potential to improve educational quality control at medical schools and facilitate the development of effective, evidence based teaching methods.

  5. The development and psychometric testing of a theory-based instrument to evaluate nurses' perception of clinical reasoning competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Liu, Hsiu-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and psychometrically test the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale. Clinical reasoning is an essential skill for providing safe and quality patient care. Identifying pre-graduates' and nurses' needs and designing training courses to improve their clinical reasoning competence becomes a critical task. However, there is no instrument focusing on clinical reasoning in the nursing profession. Cross-sectional design was used. This study included the development of the scale, a pilot study that preliminary tested the readability and reliability of the developed scale and a main study that implemented and tested the psychometric properties of the developed scale. The Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale was developed based on the Clinical Reasoning Model. The scale includes 15 items using a Likert five-point scale. Data were collected from 2013-2014. Two hundred and fifty-one participants comprising clinical nurses and nursing pre-graduates completed and returned the questionnaires in the main study. The instrument was tested for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Its validity was tested with content, construct and known-groups validity. One factor emerged from the factor analysis. The known-groups validity was confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha for the entire instrument was 0·9. The reliability and validity of the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale were supported. The scale is a useful tool and can be easily administered for the self-assessment of clinical reasoning competence of clinical nurses and future baccalaureate nursing graduates. Study limitations and further recommendations are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com. Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2 in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

  7. Formation of Reflecting Surfaces Based on Spline Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyatin, A. V.; Zamyatina, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with problem of reflecting barriers surfaces generation by spline methods. The cases of reflection when a geometric model is applied are considered. The surfaces of reflecting barriers are formed in such a way that they contain given points and the rays reflected at these points and hit at the defined points of specified surface. The reflecting barrier surface is formed by cubic splines. It enables a comparatively simple implementation of proposed algorithms in the form of software applications. The algorithms developed in the article can be applied in architecture and construction design for reflecting surface generation in optics and acoustics providing the geometrical model of reflex processes is used correctly.

  8. The research of period measuring instruments on zero power assembly based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhongxiong

    2007-12-01

    In order to improving measure precision and anti-interference capacity, and respond to the digital trend, a new technique to measure reactor period is promoted, which is based on the DSP technique, calculate period with least-squares-fitting method. The systematic design is promoted, in which TMS320F2812 chip is chosen as the Central Processing/Controlling unit and software design is based on DSP/BIOS embedded operating system. Testing of both a simulation of the lab environment and an experiment shows that, as expected, the new TMS320F2812 based reactor period inspection equipment has excellent anti-interference capacity, high precision and fast response time, all of which prove that it has good prospective. (authors)

  9. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for the Surface of Mars: An Instrument for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Danilatos, G.; Doloboff, I. J.; Effinger, M. R.; Harvey, R. P.; Jerman, G. A.; Klein-Schoder, R.; Mackie, W.; Magera, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope(MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs for lunar and International Space Station (ISS) applications and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. By the end of the PICASSO work, a prototype of the primary proof-of-concept components (i.e., the electron gun, focusing optics and scanning system)will be assembled and preliminary testing in a Mars analog chamber at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be completed to partially fulfill Technology Readiness Level to 5 requirements for those components. The team plans to have Secondary Electron Imaging(SEI), Backscattered Electron (BSE) detection, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) capabilities through the MVP-SEM.

  10. Automatic calibration system of the temperature instrument display based on computer vision measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Li, Jinze; Bao, Changchun; Hou, Guifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Cheng, Fang; Xiao, Nianxin

    2010-07-01

    With the development of computers and the techniques of dealing with pictures and computer optical measurement, various measuring techniques are maturing gradually on the basis of optical picture processing technique and using in practice. On the bases, we make use of the many years' experience and social needs in temperature measurement and computer vision measurement to come up with the completely automatic way of the temperature measurement meter with integration of the computer vision measuring technique. It realizes synchronization collection with theory temperature value, improves calibration efficiency. based on least square fitting principle, integrate data procession and the best optimize theory, rapidly and accurately realizes automation acquisition and calibration of temperature.

  11. Spectral-based features ranking for gamelan instruments identification using filter techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah P Wulandari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an approach of spectral-based features ranking for Javanese gamelaninstruments identification using filter techniques. The model extracted spectral-based features set of thesignal using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT. The rank of the features was determined using the fivealgorithms; namely ReliefF, Chi-Squared, Information Gain, Gain Ratio, and Symmetric Uncertainty. Then,we tested the ranked features by cross validation using Support Vector Machine (SVM. The experimentshowed that Gain Ratio algorithm gave the best result, it yielded accuracy of 98.93%.

  12. The RFI situation for a space-based low-frequency radio astronomy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Space based ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy has recently gained a lot of interest. Techniques to open the virtually unexplored frequency band below 30 MHz are becoming within reach at this moment. Due to the ionosphere and the radio interference (RFI) on Earth exploring this frequency band

  13. Brief Instrumental School-Based Mentoring for Middle School Students: Theory and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillin, Samuel D.; Lyons, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of an intentionally brief school-based mentoring program. This academic goal-focused mentoring program was developed through a series of iterative randomized controlled trials, and is informed by research in social cognitive theory, cognitive dissonance theory, motivational interviewing, and research in academic…

  14. The Development of Instruments to Measure Motivational Interviewing Skill Acquisition for School-Based Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Frey, Andy J.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.

    2014-01-01

    As specialized instructional support personnel begin learning and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in school-based settings, there is growing need for context-specific measures to assess initial MI skill development. In this article, we describe the iterative development and preliminary evaluation of two measures of MI skill adapted…

  15. The Design and Validation of EQUIP: An Instrument to Assess Inquiry-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeff C.; Smart, Julie; Horton, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    To monitor and evaluate program success and to provide teachers with a tool that could support their transformation in teaching practice, we needed an effective and valid protocol to measure the quantity and quality of inquiry-based instruction being led. Existing protocols, though helpful, were either too generic or too program specific.…

  16. Testing Causal Impacts of a School-Based SEL Intervention Using Instrumental Variable Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Catalina; Nathanson, Lori; Rivers, Susan; Brackett, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Children's social-emotional skills, such as conflict resolution and emotion regulation, have been linked to a number of highly regarded academic and social outcomes. The current study presents preliminary results from a causal test of the theory of change of RULER, a universal school-based approach to social and emotional learning (SEL).…

  17. A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Z.; Li, Z.L.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4--0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10--12.5 microm IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2--3 K

  18. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  19. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S; Nixon, J; Keen, J; Muir, D; Wilson, L; McGinnis, E; Stubbs, N; Dealey, C; Nelson, E A

    2016-11-16

    Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056). This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the methods used may have wider instrument development application

  20. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coleman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056. This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. Methods A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Results Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. Conclusions The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the