WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface based instruments

  1. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.

  2. Calibration and Industrial Application of Instrument for Surface Mapping based on AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the calibration and application of an integrated system for topographic characterisation of fine surfaces on large workpieces. The system, consisting of an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine, was especially designed for surface mapping, i.e., mea...... consisting of a steel sphere with a polished surface having 3 nm roughness....

  3. VIGO: Instrumental Interaction in Multi-Surface Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses interaction in multi-surface environments and questions whether the current application-centric approaches to user interfaces are adequate in this context, and presents an alternative approach based on instrumental interaction. The paper presents the VIGO (Views, Instruments...

  4. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  5. The new versatile general purpose surface-muon instrument (GPS) based on silicon photomultipliers for μSR measurements on a continuous-wave beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A; Luetkens, H; Sedlak, K; Stoykov, A; Scheuermann, R; Elender, M; Raselli, A; Graf, D

    2017-09-01

    We report on the design and commissioning of a new spectrometer for muon-spin relaxation/rotation studies installed at the Swiss Muon Source (SμS) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Switzerland). This new instrument is essentially a new design and replaces the old general-purpose surface-muon (GPS) instrument that has been for long the workhorse of the μSR user facility at PSI. By making use of muon and positron detectors made of plastic scintillators read out by silicon photomultipliers, a time resolution of the complete instrument of about 160 ps (standard deviation) could be achieved. In addition, the absence of light guides, which are needed in traditionally built μSR instrument to deliver the scintillation light to photomultiplier tubes located outside magnetic fields applied, allowed us to design a compact instrument with a detector set covering an increased solid angle compared with the old GPS.

  6. Noise evaluation of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculotti, Giacomo; Feng, Xiaobing; Galetto, Maurizio; Leach, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument is evaluated, as the first step towards establishing a route to traceability for this type of instrument. The evaluation is based on the determination of the metrological characteristics for noise as outlined in draft ISO specification standards by using a calibrated optical flat. The static noise and repeatability of the autofocus sensor are evaluated. The influence of environmental disturbances on the measured surface topography and the built-in software to compensate for such influences are also investigated. The instrument was found to have a measurement noise of approximately 2 nm or, when expressed with the measurement bandwidth, 0.4 nm for a single-point measurement.

  7. Development of an alpha scattering instrument for heavy element detection in surface materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkevich, A.L.; Economou, T.; Blume, E.; Anderson, W.

    1974-12-01

    The development and characteristics of a portable instrument for detecting and measuring the amounts of lead in painted surfaces are discussed. The instrument is based on the ones used with the alpha scattering experiment on the Surveyor lunar missions. The principles underlying the instrument are described. It is stated that the performance tests of the instrument were satisfactory. (auth)

  8. Market-based Economic Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Grundkategorien her er markedet som den optimale allokeringsmekanisme for de belastninger, som de økonomiske instrumenter / miljøskatterne påfører. Det mest omfattende og spektakulære eksempel på markedet som allokatorer af skatter er EU's børs for forureningstilladelser, dvs reelt CO-2 beskatnin...

  9. Dynamic surface-pressure instrumentation for rods in parallel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.; Lawrence, W.

    1979-01-01

    Methods employed and experience gained in measuring random fluid boundary layer pressures on the surface of a small diameter cylindrical rod subject to dense, nonhomogeneous, turbulent, parallel flow in a relatively noise-contaminated flow loop are described. Emphasis is placed on identification of instrumentation problems; description of transducer construction, mounting, and waterproofing; and the pretest calibration required to achieve instrumentation capable of reliable data acquisition

  10. Calibration of the geometrical characteristics of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusca, C L; Leach, R K; Helery, F; Gutauskas, T

    2011-01-01

    The use of areal surface topography measuring instruments has increased significantly over the past ten years as industry starts to embrace the use of surface structuring to affect the function of a component. This has led to a range of areal surface topography measuring instruments being developed and becoming available commercially. For such instruments to be used as part of quality control during production, it is essential for them to be calibrated according to international standards. The ISO 25178 suite of specification standards on areal surface topography measurement presents a series of tests that can be used to calibrate the metrological characteristics of an areal surface topography measuring instrument. Calibration artefacts and test procedures have been developed that are compliant with ISO 25178. The material measures include crossed gratings, resolution artefacts and pseudorandom surfaces. Traceability is achieved through the NPL Areal Instrument - a primary stylus-based instrument that uses laser interferometers to measure the displacement of the stylus tip. Good practice guides on areal calibration have also been drafted for stylus instruments, coherence scanning interferometers, scanning confocal microscopes and focus variation instruments.

  11. Development of a surface topography instrument for automotive textured steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shenghuai; Chen, Yurong; Xie, Tiebang

    2010-08-01

    The surface topography of automotive steel plate is decisive to its stamping, painting and image clarity performances. For measuring this kind of surface topography, an instrument has been developed based on the principle of vertical scanning white light microscopy interference principle. The microscopy interference system of this instrument is designed based on the structure of Linnik interference microscopy. The 1D worktable of Z direction is designed and introduced in details. The work principle of this instrument is analyzed. In measuring process, the interference microscopy is derived as a whole and the measured surface is scanned in vertical direction. The measurement accuracy and validity is verified by templates. Surface topography of textured steel plate is also measured by this instrument.

  12. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  13. An international comparison of surface texture parameters quantification on polymer artefacts using optical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Haitjema, H.; Leach, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    An international comparison of optical instruments measuring polymer surfaces with arithmetic mean height values in the sub-micrometre range has been carried out. The comparison involved sixteen optical surface texture instruments (focus variation instruments, confocal microscopes and coherent...

  14. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yugang; Kanouté, Pascale; François, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h max (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease

  15. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yugang, E-mail: yugang.li@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Kanouté, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.kanoute@onera.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); The French Aerospace Lab (ONERA), DMSM/MCE, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc-BP 72, F-92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); François, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.francois@utt.fr [Université de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), ICD-LASMIS, UMR CNRS 6281, 12, rue Marie Curie-CS 42060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2015-08-26

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h{sub max} (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease.

  16. Surface topography of machined fibre reinforced plastics obtained by stylus instruments and optical profilometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Else; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    1998-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry it is important to be able to specify and control the surface quality of the components produced. This is often done with stylus profilometers, by which standardized roughness parameters are found. In recent years instruments based on laser autofocusing have been int...

  17. Multipotenciostat System Based on Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta-Almario Álvaro Angel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this project an electronic multichannel system of electrochemical measurement or multipotenciostat was developed. It is based on the cyclic voltammetry measurement technique, controlled by a computer that monitors, by means of an electronic circuit, both the voltage generated from the Pc and supplied to an electrolytic cell, and the current that flows through the electrodes of it. To design the application software and the user interface, Virtual Instrumentation was used. On the other hand, to perform the communication between the multipotenciostat circuit and the designed software, the National Instruments NI9263 and NI9203 acquisition modules were used. The system was tested on a substance with a known REDOX property, as well as to discriminate and classify some samples of coffee.

  18. A hybrid instrument combining electronic and photonic tunnelling for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechou, R.; Ajustron, F.; Seine, G.; Coratger, R.; Maurel, C.; Beauvillain, J.

    2004-01-01

    A PSTM working in the collection mode and based on an STM probe-sample regulation scheme has been developed. This original hybrid instrument for surface analysis uses apertureless metal-coated chemically etched optical fibres. The use of an electronic tunnelling-based feedback loop significantly reduces tip-sample distance and leads to the collection of a high level near-field optical (NFO) signal. A simple amplified photodiode is thus used to perform optical signal acquisition and to draw electromagnetic field maps of sample surfaces. Experimental results on nanostructured gold surfaces are presented

  19. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  20. Web based remote instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhekne, P.S.; Patil, Jitendra; Kulkarni, Jitendra; Babu, Prasad; Lad, U.C.; Rahurkar, A.G.; Kaura, H.K.

    2001-01-01

    The Web-based technology provides a very powerful communication medium for transmitting effectively multimedia information containing data generated from various sources, which may be in the form of audio, video, text, still or moving images etc. Large number of sophisticated web based software tools are available that can be used to monitor and control distributed electronic instrumentation projects. For example data can be collected online from various smart sensors/instruments such as images from CCD camera, pressure/ humidity sensor, light intensity transducer, smoke detectors etc and uploaded in real time to a central web server. This information can be processed further, to take control action in real time from any remote client, of course with due security care. The web-based technology offers greater flexibility, higher functionality, and high degree of integration providing standardization. Further easy to use standard browser based interface at the client end to monitor, view and control the desired process parameters allow you to cut down the development time and cost to a great extent. A system based on a web client-server approach has been designed and developed at Computer division, BARC and is operational since last year to monitor and control remotely various environmental parameters of distributed computer centers. In this paper we shall discuss details of this system, its current status and additional features which are currently under development. This type of system is typically very useful for Meteorology, Environmental monitoring of Nuclear stations, Radio active labs, Nuclear waste immobilization plants, Medical and Biological research labs., Security surveillance and in many such distributed situations. A brief description of various tools used for this project such as Java, CGI, Java Script, HTML, VBScript, M-JPEG, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP etc. along with their merits/demerits have also been included

  1. Calibrate the aerial surveying instrument by the limited surface source and the single point source that replace the unlimited surface source

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Cun Heng

    1999-01-01

    It is described that the calculating formula and surveying result is found on the basis of the stacking principle of gamma ray and the feature of hexagonal surface source when the limited surface source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate the aerial survey instrument on the ground, and that it is found in the light of the exchanged principle of the gamma ray when the single point source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate aerial surveying instrument in the air. Meanwhile through the theoretical analysis, the receiving rate of the crystal bottom and side surfaces is calculated when aerial surveying instrument receives gamma ray. The mathematical expression of the gamma ray decaying following height according to the Jinge function regularity is got. According to this regularity, the absorbing coefficient that air absorbs the gamma ray and the detective efficiency coefficient of the crystal is calculated based on the ground and air measuring value of the bottom surface receiving cou...

  2. Larmor-precession based neutron scattering instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Larmor precession of the neutron spin in a magnetic field allows the attachment of a Larmor clock to every neutron. Such Larmor labelling opens the possibility for the development of unusual neutron scattering techniques, where the energy (momentum) resolution does not require the initial and final states to be well selected. This principally allows for achievement of very high energy (momentum) resolution that is not feasible at all with conventional neutron scattering techniques, because the required neutron beam monochromatization (collimation) will result in intolerable intensity losses. Such decoupling of resolution and collimation allows, for example, for a significant increase in the luminosity of small-angle scattering or high-resolution diffractometers; the fact that opens new perspectives for their implementation at middle flux neutron sources. Different kinds of Larmor clock-based instrumentation, particularly two alternative NSE techniques using rotating and time-gradient magnetic field arrangements, which can be considered as inexpensive and affordable alternatives to present day NSE techniques, will be discussed and results of simulations and first experiments will be presented. (author)

  3. Research on Web-Based Networked Virtual Instrument System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, B P; Xu, C; He, Q Y; Lu, D

    2006-01-01

    The web-based networked virtual instrument (NVI) system is designed by using the object oriented methodology (OOM). The architecture of the NVI system consists of two major parts: client-web server interaction and instrument server-virtual instrument (VI) communication. The web server communicates with the instrument server and the clients connected to it over the Internet, and it handles identifying the user's name, managing the connection between the user and the instrument server, adding, removing and configuring VI's information. The instrument server handles setting the parameters of VI, confirming the condition of VI and saving the VI's condition information into the database. The NVI system is required to be a general-purpose measurement system that is easy to maintain, adapt and extend. Virtual instruments are connected to the instrument server and clients can remotely configure and operate these virtual instruments. An application of The NVI system is given in the end of the paper

  4. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  5. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  6. Some suggestions based on the instrumentation installation experience at RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, M.R.; Singh, S.; Jain, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Suggestions regarding installation of reactor instrumentation have been made based on the instrumentation installation experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant. It has been mentioned that the instrumentation installation work has to proceed simultaneously with that of the heavy equipment and piping errection work, to meet the commissioning target dates. (S.K.K.)

  7. A Computer-Based Instrument That Identifies Common Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Timothy G.; Stein, Mary; Barman, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the rationale for and development of a computer-based instrument that helps identify commonly held science misconceptions. The instrument, known as the Science Beliefs Test, is a 47-item instrument that targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy. The use of an online data collection system…

  8. A comparison of root surface instrumentation using manual, ultrasonic and rotary instruments: an in vitro study using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marda, Preeti; Prakash, Shobha; Devaraj, C G; Vastardis, S

    2012-01-01

    The commonly accepted idea concerning root planing is that excessive removal of cementum is not necessary for removal of endotoxins. The ideal instrument should enable the removal of all extraneous substances from the root surfaces, without causing any iatrogenic effects. To compare the remaining calculus, loss of tooth substance, and roughness of root surface after root planing with Gracey curette, ultrasonic instrument (Slimline insert FSI-SLI-10S), and DesmoClean rotary bur. The efficiency of calculus removal, the amount of lost tooth substance, and root surface roughness resulting from the use of hand curette, ultrasonic instrument, and rotary bur on 36 extracted mandibular incisors were examined by SEM. We used three indices to measure the changes: Remaining calculus index (RCI), Loss of tooth substance index (LTSI), and Roughness loss of tooth substance index (RLTSI). Twelve samples were treated with each instrument. The time required for instrumentation was also noted. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and the Mann-Whitney test for group-wise comparisons. Analysis was carried out with SPSS software (version 13). The RCI and LTSI showed nonsignificant differences between the three groups. RLTSI showed a significant difference between Slimline and hand curette as well as Slimline and Desmo-Clean. Slimline showed the least mean scores for RCI, LTSI, and RLTSI. Thus, even though the difference was not statistically significant, Slimline insert was shown to be better than the other methods as assessed by the indices scores and the instrumentation time.

  9. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  10. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  12. Development of BC based nuclear instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolida Yussup; Atsushi Birumachi; Kazuaki Shimizu

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a low-power portable dose rate meter with RS232 interface for data acquisition during 6 months course under MEXT Nuclear Researchers Exchange Program 2004 at JAERI, Japan. The development involved defining the system, selection of detector and components, designing the pre-amplifier, main amplifier, noise discriminator and testing. Software programming was developed on PC to acquire the data via RS232 and display the real-time data. This will allow a small nuclear instrument to have powerful data processing and bigger data storage capability. (Author)

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  16. FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface a level of pollution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    On the pipe surface contamination were detected α level of pollution is a frequently encountered dose-detection work. Because the pipeline surface arc, while the measuring probe for the plane, which for accurate measurement difficult. In this paper, on the FJ-2207-type pipe surface contamination measuring instrument measuring pollution levels in the α method was studied. Introduced the FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface α pollution levels. Studied this measuring instrument on the same sources of surface, plane α level of radioactivity measured differences in the results obtained control of the apparatus when the direct measurement of the surface correction factor, and gives 32-216 specifications commonly used pipe direct measurement of the amendment factor. Convenient method, test results are reliable for the accurate measurement of pipe pollution levels in the surface of α as a reference and learning. (authors)

  17. Comparison of the Retrieval of Sea Surface Salinity Using Different Instrument Configurations of MICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjie Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Imager Combined Active/Passive (MICAP has been designed to simultaneously retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS, sea surface temperature (SST and wind speed (WS, and its performance has also been preliminarily analyzed. To determine the influence of the first guess values uncertainties on the retrieved parameters of MICAP, the retrieval accuracies of SSS, SST, and WS are estimated at various noise levels. The results suggest that the errors on the retrieved SSS have not increased dues poorly known initial values of SST and WS, since the MICAP can simultaneously acquire SST information and correct ocean surface roughness. The main objective of this paper is to obtain the simplified instrument configuration of MICAP without loss of the SSS, SST, and WS retrieval accuracies. Comparisons are conducted between three different instrument configurations in retrieval mode, based on the simulation measurements of MICAP. The retrieval results tend to prove that, without the 23.8 GHz channel, the errors on the retrieved SSS, SST, and WS for MICAP could also satisfy the accuracy requirements well globally during only one satellite pass. By contrast, without the 1.26 GHz scatterometer, there are relatively large increases in the SSS, SST, and WS errors at middle/low latitudes.

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  19. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  20. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  1. Calibration guidelines for surface texture instruments - horizontal axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Shem, R. Krüger

    The present report is a documentation of the work carried out at DTU, on TASK 5.1: PROCEDURES FOR CALIBRATION IN X- AND Y- DIRECTION the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale. After a short introduc......The present report is a documentation of the work carried out at DTU, on TASK 5.1: PROCEDURES FOR CALIBRATION IN X- AND Y- DIRECTION the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale. After a short...

  2. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  3. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  5. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  6. Feasibility of Optical Instruments Based on Multiaperture Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-16

    system may be configured. The optical elements may be nonimaging concentrators (light horns), the field of view (FOV) of which may be controlled by a...RD-RI58 868 FEASIBILITY OF OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS BASED ON i/I MULTIAPERTURE OPTICS (U) FLORIDA UNIV GAINESVILLE DEPT OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING SCIENCES J D...d Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ’ 0 Feasibility of Optical Instruments Based on Final Report * CD Multiaperature Optics 615/83 to 9/30

  7. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  8. Calibrate the aerial surveying instrument by the limited surface source and the single point source that replace the unlimited surface source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Cunheng

    1999-01-01

    It is described that the calculating formula and surveying result is found on the basis of the stacking principle of gamma ray and the feature of hexagonal surface source when the limited surface source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate the aerial survey instrument on the ground, and that it is found in the light of the exchanged principle of the gamma ray when the single point source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate aerial surveying instrument in the air. Meanwhile through the theoretical analysis, the receiving rate of the crystal bottom and side surfaces is calculated when aerial surveying instrument receives gamma ray. The mathematical expression of the gamma ray decaying following height according to the Jinge function regularity is got. According to this regularity, the absorbing coefficient that air absorbs the gamma ray and the detective efficiency coefficient of the crystal is calculated based on the ground and air measuring value of the bottom surface receiving count rate (derived from total receiving count rate of the bottom and side surface). Finally, according to the measuring value, it is proved that imitating the change of total receiving gamma ray exposure rate of the bottom and side surfaces with this regularity in a certain high area is feasible

  9. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  10. Effects of ultrasonic instrumentation on enamel surfaces with various defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-Y; Kang, M-K; Kang, S-M; Kim, H-E

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the enamel damage caused by ultrasonic scaling of teeth with various enamel conditions that are difficult to identify by visual inspection, such as enamel cracks, early caries and resin restorations. In total, 120 tooth surfaces were divided into 4 experimental groups using a quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital system: sound enamel group, enamel cracks group, early caries group and resin restoration group. A skilled dental hygienist performed ultrasonic scaling under a standardized set of conditions: a ≤ 15° angle between the scaler tip and tooth surface and 40-80 g of lateral pressure at the rate of 12 times/10 s. Following scaling, the depth of enamel damage was measured using a surface profilometer and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The damage depth was the greatest in the enamel cracks group (37.63 ± 34.42 μm), followed by the early caries group (26.81 ± 8.67 μm), resin restoration group (19.63 ± 6.73 μm) and the sound enamel group (17.00 ± 5.66 μm). The damage depth was significantly deeper in the enamel cracks and early caries groups than in the sound enamel group (P enamel loss in the enamel cracks, early caries and resin restoration groups. The results of this study suggest that ultrasonic scaling can cause further damage to teeth with enamel cracks, early caries and resin restorations. Therefore, accurate identification of tooth conditions and calculus before the initiation of ultrasonic scaling is necessary to minimize damage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Airborne Instrument Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global coverage with a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  12. Influence of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Endodontic Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Márcia V B; Vieira, Victor T L; de Souza, Letícia Chaves; Dos Santos, Alexander Lopes

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of surface grooves (peaks and valleys) resulting from machining during the manufacturing process of polished and unpolished nickel-titanium BR4C endodontic files on the fatigue life of the instruments. Ten electropolished and 10 unpolished endodontic files were provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were from the same batch, but the unpolished instruments were removed from the production line before surface treatment. The instruments were evaluated with a profilometer to quantify the surface roughness on the working part of the instruments. Then the files were subjected to rotating bending fatigue tests. Analysis with the profilometer showed that surface grooves were deeper on the unpolished instruments compared with their electropolished counterparts. In the rotating bending fatigue test, the mean and standard deviation for the number of cycles until fracture (NCF) were greater for instruments with less pronounced grooves. Student t test revealed significant differences in all tests (P instruments tested; the smaller the groove depth, the greater the NCF. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Avoidance-based human Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea H.; Niznikiewicz, Michael A.; Delamater, Andrew R.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm probes the influence of Pavlovian cues over instrumentally learned behavior. The paradigm has been used extensively to probe basic cognitive and motivational processes in studies of animal learning but, more recently, PIT and its underlying neural basis have been extended to investigations in humans. These initial neuroimaging studies of PIT have focused on the influence of appetitively conditioned stimuli on instrumental responses maintained by positive reinforcement, and highlight the involvement of the striatum. In the current study, we sought to understand the neural correlates of PIT in an aversive Pavlovian learning situation when instrumental responding was maintained through negative reinforcement. Participants exhibited specific PIT, wherein selective increases in instrumental responding to conditioned stimuli occurred when the stimulus signaled a specific aversive outcome whose omission negatively reinforced the instrumental response. Additionally, a general PIT effect was observed such that when a stimulus was associated with a different aversive outcome than was used to negatively reinforce instrumental behavior, the presence of that stimulus caused a non-selective increase in overall instrumental responding. Both specific and general PIT behavioral effects correlated with increased activation in corticostriatal circuitry, particularly in the striatum, a region involved in cognitive and motivational processes. These results suggest that avoidance-based PIT utilizes a similar neural mechanism to that seen with PIT in an appetitive context, which has implications for understanding mechanisms of drug-seeking behavior during addiction and relapse. PMID:24118624

  14. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  15. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available

  16. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available.

  17. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  18. Advanced Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques for Near Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadel, Daniel R.

    The development of aerodynamic boundary layers on wind turbine blades is an important consideration in their performance. It can be quite challenging to replicate full scale conditions in laboratory experiments, and advanced diagnostics become valuable in providing data not available from traditional means. A new variant of Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) known as cross-correlation DGV is developed to measure boundary layer profiles on a wind turbine blade airfoil in the large scale Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel. The instrument provides mean velocity vectors with reduced sensitivity to external conditions, a velocity measurement range from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1, and an absolute uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations with synthetic signals reveal that the processing routine approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound in optimized conditions. A custom probe-beam technique is implanted to eliminate laser flare for measuring boundary layer profiles on a DU96-W-180 wind turbine airfoil model. Agreement is seen with laser Doppler velocimetry data within the uncertainty estimated for the DGV profile. Lessons learned from the near-wall flow diagnostics development were applied to a novel benchmark model problem incorporating the relevant physical mechanisms of the high amplitude periodic turbulent flow experienced by turbine blades in the field. The model problem is developed for experimentally motivated computational model development. A circular cylinder generates a periodic turbulent wake, in which a NACA 63215b airfoil with a chord Reynolds number Rec = 170,000 is embedded for a reduced frequency k = pi f c/V = 1.53. Measurements are performed with particle image velocimetry on the airfoil suction side and in highly magnified planes within the boundary layer. Outside of the viscous region, the Reynolds stress profile is consistent with the prediction of Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT), confirming that the redistribution of normal stresses is an inviscid effect. The

  19. Realization of OFCC based Transimpedance Mode Instrumentation Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three Operational Floating Current Conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematicThe paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three operational floating current conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematic.

  20. Project B-610 instrument data base. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The following technical information document contains the published data base listing for the instrumentation to be connected into the new MICON distributed control computer. Project B-610 PFP Instrument Upgrade (PFP HVAC Control Room Upgrade) will install the MICON system in PFP and provide for a new control room at the present site of the new SWP change room EDT-150750 1/11/93

  1. EPROM-based LSI-11 for distributed instrumentation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The LLNL Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility (NCCF) is being converted to a modern production facility. A computer network has been designed and built to implement this conversion. The outermost node of the computer network is a dedicated EPROM-based controller. The controller handles the details of driving the attached nuclear instrumentation, providing a standard interface to the remainder of the network. This paper addresses the design and the implementation of the dedicated instrumentation controller

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  3. Evaluation of surface characteristics of rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by different manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U; Gurel, M

    2017-02-01

    Instrument fracture is a serious concern in endodontic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface quality of new and used rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments manufactured by the traditional grinding process and twisting methods. Total 16 instruments of two rotary NiTi systems were used in this study. Eight Twisted Files (TF) (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and 8 Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) instruments were evaluated. New and used of 4 experimental groups were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). New and used instruments were analyzed on 3 points along a 3 mm. section at the tip of the instrument. Quantitative measurements according to the topographical deviations were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test. Mean root mean square (RMS) values for new and used TF 25.06 files were 10.70 ± 2.80 nm and 21.58 ± 6.42 nm, respectively, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P instruments produced by twisting method (TF 25.06) had better surface quality than the instruments produced by traditional grinding process (Mtwo 25.06 files).

  4. A new method for the assessment of the surface topography of NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F; Barbosa, I; Scelza, P; Russano, D; Neff, J; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-09-01

    To describe a new method for the assessment of nanoscale alterations in the surface topography of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments using a high-resolution optical method and to verify the accuracy of the technique. Noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry was used to evaluate defects on a size 25, .08 taper reciprocating instrument (WaveOne ® ), which was subjected to a cyclic fatigue test in a simulated root canal in a clear resin block. For the investigation, an original procedure was established for the analysis of similar areas located 3 mm from the tip of the instrument before and after canal preparation to enable the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements with precision. All observations and analysis were taken in areas measuring 210 × 210 μm provided by the software of the equipment. The three-dimensional high-resolution image analysis showed clear alterations in the surface topography of the examined cutting blade and flute of the instrument, before and after use, with the presence of surface irregularities such as deformations, debris, grooves, cracks, steps and microcavities. Optical profilometry provided accurate qualitative nanoscale evaluation of similar surfaces before and after the fatigue test. The stability and repeatability of the technique enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of wear on the surface of endodontic instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Airflow resistivity instrument for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An airflow resistivity instrument features a novel specimen holder, especially designed for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface. This capability eliminates the disadvantages of prior intrusive instruments, which necessitate the removal of a test specimen from the ground. A prototype instrument can measure airflow resistivities in the range 10-5000 cgs rayl/cm, at specimen depths up to 15.24 cm (6 in.), and at differential pressures up to 2490.8 dyn sq cm (1 in. H2O) across the specimen. Because of the close relationship between flow resistivity and acoustic impedance, this instrument should prove useful in acoustical studies of the earth's ground surface. Results of airflow resistivity measurements on an uncultivated grass field for varying values of moisture content are presented.

  7. Parallel Study of HEND, RAD, and DAN Instrument Response to Martian Radiation and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniez Sierra, Luz Maria; Jun, Insoo; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear detection methods are being used to understand the radiation environment at Mars. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) assets on Mars include: Orbiter -2001 Mars Odyssey [High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND)]; Mars Science Laboratory Rover -Curiosity [(Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD); Dynamic Albedo Neutron (DAN))]. Spacecraft have instruments able to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Instrument response on orbit and on the surface of Mars to space weather and local conditions [is discussed] - Data available at NASA-PDS (Planetary Data System).

  8. Reconstructing the Surface Permittivity Distribution from Data Measured by the CONSERT Instrument aboard Rosetta: Method and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettemeier, D.; Statz, C.; Hegler, S.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    One of the main scientific objectives of the Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) aboard Rosetta is to perform a dielectric characterization of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko's nucleus by means of a bi-static sounding between the lander Philae launched onto the comet's surface and the orbiter Rosetta. For the sounding, the lander part of CONSERT will receive and process the radio signal emitted by the orbiter part of the instrument and transmit a signal to the orbiter to be received by CONSERT. CONSERT will also be operated as bi-static RADAR during the descent of the lander Philae onto the comet's surface. From data measured during the descent, we aim at reconstructing a surface permittivity map of the comet at the landing site and along the path below the descent trajectory. This surface permittivity map will give information on the bulk material right below and around the landing site and the surface roughness in areas covered by the instrument along the descent. The proposed method to estimate the surface permittivity distribution is based on a least-squares based inversion approach in frequency domain. The direct problem of simulating the wave-propagation between lander and orbiter at line-of-sight and the signal reflected on the comet's surface is modelled using a dielectric physical optics approximation. Restrictions on the measurement positions by the descent orbitography and limitations on the instrument dynamic range will be dealt with by application of a regularization technique where the surface permittivity distribution and the gradient with regard to the permittivity is projected in a domain defined by a viable model of the spatial material and roughness distribution. The least-squares optimization step of the reconstruction is performed in such domain on a reduced set of parameters yielding stable results. The viability of the proposed method is demonstrated by reconstruction results based on simulated data.

  9. Effects of electropolishing surface treatment on the cyclic fatigue resistance of BioRace nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Victor T L; Moreira, Edson J L; Marques, Raquel V L; de Oliveira, Julio C Machado; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of electropolishing surface treatment on the number of cycles to fracture of BioRace rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. BioRace size BR5C instruments with or without electropolishing surface treatment were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm until fracture. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polished instruments displayed a significantly higher number of cycles to fracture when compared with nonpolished instruments (P ductile morphologic characteristics. Evaluation of the separated fragments after cyclic fatigue testing showed the presence of microcracks near the fracture surface. Polished instruments exhibited fine cracks that assumed an irregular path (zigzag crack pattern), whereas nonpolished instruments showed cracks running along the machining grooves. Electropolishing surface treatment of BioRace endodontic instruments significantly increased the cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Large area window on vacuum chamber surface for neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kenji; Suzuki, Junichi; Teraoku, Takuji; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a large area window using a thin aluminum plate on the surface of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments at a pulsed neutron source was investigated. In the prototype investigation for a window with an area of 1m×1.4m and a thickness of 1 mm, the measured pressure dependence of the displacement agreed well with a calculation using a nonlinear strain–stress curve up to the plastic deformation region. In addition, we confirmed the repetition test up to 2000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which is sufficient for the lifetime of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments. Based on these investigations, an actual model of the window to be mounted on the vacuum chamber of the High Resolution Chopper Spectrometer (HRC) at J-PARC was designed. By using a calculated stress distribution on the window, the clamping structure capable of balancing the tension in the window was determined. In a model with a structure identical to the actual window, we confirmed the repetition test over more than 7000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which shows a lifetime long enough for the actual usage of the vacuum chamber on the HRC.

  11. Computer-based instrumentation for partial discharge detection in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Enamul Haque; Ahmad Darus; Yaacob, M.M.; Halil Hussain; Feroz Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Partial discharge is one of the prominent indicators of defects and insulation degradation in a Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS). Partial discharges (PD) have a harmful effect on the life of insulation of high voltage equipment. The PD detection using acoustic technique and subsequent analysis is currently an efficient method of performing non-destructive testing of GIS apparatus. A low cost PC-based acoustic PD detection instrument has been developed for the non-destructive diagnosis of GIS. This paper describes the development of a PC-based instrumentation system for partial discharge detection in GIS and some experimental results have also presented. (Author)

  12. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, Francois; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak x2122 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  13. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Gensdarmes, Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thomas, Dominique [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, LSGC/CNRS, Nancy Universite, BP 2041, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak{sup x2122} 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  14. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  15. Mobile device-based optical instruments for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-05-01

    Realizing that a current smart-mobile device such as a cell phone and a tablet can be considered as a pocket-size computer embedded with a built-in digital camera, this paper reviews and demonstrates on how a mobile device can be specifically functioned as a portable optical instrument for agricultural applications. The paper highlights several mobile device-based optical instruments designed for searching small pests, measuring illumination level, analyzing spectrum of light, identifying nitrogen status in the rice field, estimating chlorine in water, and determining ripeness level of the fruit. They are suitable for individual use as well as for small and medium enterprises.

  16. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  17. A New Instrument for Testing Wind Erosion by Soil Surface Shape Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, C.; Yuan, X.; Jiang, H.; Zhou, R.; Wang, J.; Liu, B.; Ye, Y.; Du, P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind erosion, a primary cause of soil degeneration, is a problem in arid and semiarid areas throughout the world. Many methods are available to study soil erosion, but there is no an effective method for making quantitative measurements in the field. To solve this problem, we have developed a new instrument that can measure the change in the shape of the soil surface, allowing quick quantification of wind erosion. In this paper, the construction and principle of the new instrument are described. Field experiments are carried out using the instrument, and the data are analyzed. The erosion depth is found to vary by 11% compared to the average for measurement areas ranging from 30 x 30 cm 2 to 10 x 10 cm 2 . The results show that the instrument is convenient and reliable for quantitatively measuring wind erosion in the field.

  18. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  19. Beam diagnostics based on virtual instrument technology for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Baogen; Lu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Wang Baoyun; Wang Junhua; Gu Liming; Fang Jia; Ma Tianji

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduce the beam diagnostics system using virtual instrument technology for Hefei Light Source (HLS), which includes a GPIB bus-based DCCT measurement system to measure the beam DC current and beam life, a VXIbus-based closed orbit measurement system to measure the beam position, a PCIbus-based beam profile measurement system to measure the beam profile and emittance, a GPIB-LAN based bunch length system using photoelectric method, and a Ethernet-based photon beam position measurement system. The software is programmed by LabVIEW, which reduces much developing work. (authors)

  20. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  1. Design of reactor alarm instrument based on SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Lu Yi; Rong Ru

    2008-01-01

    The design of embedded alarm instrument in reactors based on Nios II CPU is introduced in this paper. This design uses the SOPC technology based on the Cyclone series FPGA as a digital bench, and connects the MPU and drivers and interface of times, RS232, sdram,and etc. into a FPGA chip. It is proved that the system achieves the design goals in primary experimentation. (authors)

  2. Aerosols and surface UV products form Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, O.; Tanskanen, A.; Veihelmann, B.; Ahn, C.; Braak, R.; Bhartia, P.K.; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol and surface UV algorithms. Aerosol properties are derived from two independent algorithms. The nearUV algorithm makes use of OMI observations in the 350-390 nm spectral region to

  3. Response of three instruments devoted to surface-area for monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols in molecular and transition regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, Francois; Thomas, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment. Indeed, our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP are still under development. Several studies have already identified surface-area as an important determinant of low solubility nanoparticles toxicity. As a consequence, the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to low solubility airborne NP has been proposed [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on diffusion charging. The actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration are studied in this work: LQ1-DC (Matter Engineering), AeroTrak T M 9000 (TSI) and NSAM (TSI model 3550). Their performances regarding monodisperse carbon NP have been investigated by Bau et al.. This work aims at completing the instruments characterization regarding monodisperse NP of other chemical composition (aluminium, copper, silver) and studying their performances against polydisperse aerosols of NP.

  4. Response of three instruments devoted to surface-area for monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols in molecular and transition regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Gensdarmes, Francois [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Physique et de Metrologie des Aerosols, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomas, Dominique, E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes (LRGP), groupe SAFE, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20041, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2011-07-06

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment. Indeed, our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP are still under development. Several studies have already identified surface-area as an important determinant of low solubility nanoparticles toxicity. As a consequence, the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to low solubility airborne NP has been proposed [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on diffusion charging. The actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration are studied in this work: LQ1-DC (Matter Engineering), AeroTrak{sup TM} 9000 (TSI) and NSAM (TSI model 3550). Their performances regarding monodisperse carbon NP have been investigated by Bau et al.. This work aims at completing the instruments characterization regarding monodisperse NP of other chemical composition (aluminium, copper, silver) and studying their performances against polydisperse aerosols of NP.

  5. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  6. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  7. OFCC based voltage and transadmittance mode instrumentation amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Deva; Pandey, Neeta; Pandey, Rajeshwari; Tripathi, Prateek; Gola, Prashant

    2017-07-01

    The operational floating current conveyor (OFCC) is a versatile active block due to the availability of both low and high input and output impedance terminals. This paper addresses the realization of OFCC based voltage and transadmittance mode instrumentation amplifiers (VMIA and TAM IA). It employs three OFCCs and seven resistors. The transadmittance mode operation can easily be obtained by simply connecting an OFCC based voltage to current converter at the output. The effect of non-idealities of OFCC, in particular finite transimpedance and tracking error, on system performance is also dealt with and corresponding mathematical expressions are derived. The functional verification is performed through SPICE simulation using CMOS based implementation of OFCC.

  8. Cell Attachment Following Instrumentation with Titanium and Plastic Instruments, Diode Laser, and Titanium Brush on Titanium, Titanium-Zirconium, and Zirconia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melissa S; Cerutis, D Roselyn; Miyamoto, Takanari; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics and gingival fibroblast adhesion of disks composed of implant and abutment materials following brief and repeated instrumentation with instruments commonly used in procedures for implant maintenance, stage-two implant surgery, and periimplantitis treatment. One hundred twenty disks (40 titanium, 40 titaniumzirconium, 40 zirconia) were grouped into treatment categories of instrumentation by plastic curette, titanium curette, diode microlaser, rotary titanium brush, and no treatment. Twenty strokes were applied to half of the disks in the plastic and titanium curette treatment categories, while half of the disks received 100 strokes each to simulate implant maintenance occurring on a repetitive basis. Following analysis of the disks by optical laser profilometry, disks were cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. Cell counts were conducted from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Differences in surface roughness across all instruments tested for zirconia disks were negligible, while both titanium disks and titaniumzirconium disks showed large differences in surface roughness across the spectrum of instruments tested. The rotary titanium brush and the titanium curette yielded the greatest overall mean surface roughness, while the plastic curette yielded the lowest mean surface roughness. The greatest mean cell counts for each disk type were as follows: titanium disks with plastic curettes, titanium-zirconium disks with titanium curettes, and zirconia disks with the diode microlaser. Repeated instrumentation did not result in cumulative changes in surface roughness of implant materials made of titanium, titanium-zirconium, or zirconia. Instrumentation with plastic implant curettes on titanium and zirconia surfaces appeared to be more favorable than titanium implant curettes in terms of gingival fibroblast attachment on these surfaces.

  9. Method for controlling a coolant liquid surface of cooling system instruments in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monta, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To prevent coolant inventory within a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant from being varied depending on loads thereby relieving restriction of varied speed of coolant flow rate to lowering of a liquid surface due to short in coolant. Structure: Instruments such as a superheater, an evaporator, and the like, which constitute a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant, have a plurality of free liquid surface of coolant. Portions whose liquid surface is controlled and portions whose liquid surface is varied are adjusted in cross-sectional area so that the sum total of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as a superheater provided with an annulus portion in the center thereof and an inner cylindrical portion and a down-comer in the side thereof comes equal to that of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as an evaporator similar to the superheater. which is provided with an overflow pipe in its inner cylindrical portion or down-comer, thereby minimizing variation in coolant inventory of the entire coolant due to loads thus minimizing variation in varied speed of the coolant. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R; O'Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-01-01

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the deployed

  11. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R; O' Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-05-07

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the

  12. From Landsat through SLI: Ball Aerospace Instrument Architecture for Earth Surface Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, P. R.; Gilmore, A. S.; Malone, K. J.; Kampe, T. U.; Good, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Landsat legacy spans more than forty years of moderate resolution, multi-spectral imaging of the Earth's surface. Applications for Landsat data include global environmental change, disaster planning and recovery, crop and natural resource management, and glaciology. In recent years, coastal water science has been greatly enhanced by the outstanding on-orbit performance of Landsat 8. Ball Aerospace designed and built the Operational Land Imager (OLI) instrument on Landsat 8, and is in the process of building OLI 2 for Landsat 9. Both of these instruments have the same design however improved performance is expected from OLI 2 due to greater image bit depth (14 bit on OLI 2 vs 12 bit on OLI). Ball Aerospace is currently working on two novel instrument architectures applicable to Sustainable Land Imaging for Landsat 10 and beyond. With increased budget constraints probable for future missions, technological improvements must be included in future instrument architectures to enable increased capabilities at lower cost. Ball presents the instrument architectures and associated capabilities enabling new science in past, current, and future Landsat missions.

  13. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  14. Effect of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces: A SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurparkash Singh Chahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A surface smear layer consisting of organic and inorganic material is formed on the root surface following mechanical instrumentation and may inhibit the formation of new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. Modification of the tooth surface by root conditioning has resulted in improved connective tissue attachment and has advanced the goal of reconstructive periodontal treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of citric acid, tetracycline, and doxycycline on the instrumented periodontally involved root surfaces in vitro using a scanning electron microscope. Settings and Design: A total of 45 dentin samples obtained from 15 extracted, scaled, and root planed teeth were divided into three groups. Materials and Methods: The root conditioning agents were applied with cotton pellets using the "Passive burnishing technique" for 5 minutes. The samples were then examined by the scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, version 15.0 for Windows. For all quantitative variables means and standard deviations were calculated and compared. For more than two groups ANOVA was applied. For multiple comparisons post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction was used. Results: Upon statistical analysis the root conditioning agents used in this study were found to be effective in removing the smear layer, uncovering and widening the dentin tubules and unmasking the dentin collagen matrix. Conclusion: Tetracycline HCl was found to be the best root conditioner among the three agents used.

  15. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  16. Characterization of the Effect of Wing Surface Instrumentation on UAV Airfoil Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently proposed flight research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has prompted study into the aerodynamic effects of modifications made to the surfaces of laminar airfoils. The research is focused on the high-aspect ratio, laminar-flow type wings commonly found on UAVs and other aircraft with a high endurance requirement. A broad range of instrumentation possibilities, such as structural, pressure, and temperature sensing devices may require the alteration of the airfoil outer mold line as part of the installation process. This study attempts to characterize the effect of installing this additiona1 instrumentation on key airfoil performance factors, such as transition location, lift and drag curves, and stall point. In particular, the general case of an airfoil that is channeled in the spanwise direction is considered, and the impact on key performance characteristics is assessed. Particular attention is focused on exploring the limits of channel depth and low-Reynolds number on performance and stall characteristics. To quantify the effect of increased skin friction due to premature transition caused by protruding or recessed instrumentation, two simplified, conservative scenarios are used to consider two potential sources of diaturbance: A) that leading edge alterations would cause linearly expanding areas (triangles) of turbulent flow on both surfaces of the wing upstream of the natural transition point, and B) that a channel or bump on the upper surface would trip turbulent flow across the whole upper surface upstream of the natural transition point. A potentially more important consideration than the skin friction drag increment is the change in overall airfoil performance due to the installation of instrumentation along most of the wingspan. To quantify this effect, 2D CFD simulations of the flow over a representative mid-span airfoil section were conducted in order to assess the change in lift and drag curves for the airfoil in the presence of

  17. Microseismic Monitoring Using Sparse Surface Network of Broadband Instruments: Western Canada Shale Play Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenier, E.; Baturan, D.; Karimi, S.

    2016-12-01

    network and the use of broadband instrumentation. The results indicate that sparse surface networks of high quality instruments can provide rich and reliable datasets for evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of hydraulic fracture operations in regions with favorable surface noise, local stress and attenuation characteristics.

  18. Rapid characterisation of surface modifications and treatments using a benchtop SIMS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, D. S.; Sokhan, M.; Rees, E. E.; Cliff, B.; Eccles, A. J.; Chater, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The development of a novel benchtop SIMS instrument (Millbrook MiniSIMS) [Appl. Surf. Sci. 144 (1999) 106] has brought routine SIMS analysis to many new users, for example museum conservators. This is a result of the simple operation and the relatively low capital cost of the instrument. We report here on the continued development of the system in terms of increasing performance and functionality and its use in museum conservation based applications where a mobile instrument for high throughput, rapid SIMS analysis has proven to be of great benefit to the user. The example we describe here is the application of the MiniSIMS to the analysis of silver thread woven into a silk dress before and after laser cleaning.

  19. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  20. Separation of musical instruments based on amplitude and frequency comodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Barry D.; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    2002-05-01

    In previous work, amplitude comodulation was investigated as a basis for monaural source separation. Amplitude comodulation refers to similarities in amplitude envelopes of individual spectral components emitted by particular types of sources. In many types of musical instruments, amplitudes of all resonant modes rise/fall, and start/stop together during the course of normal playing. We found that under certain well-defined conditions, a mixture of constant frequency, amplitude comodulated sources can unambiguously be decomposed into its constituents on the basis of these similarities. In this work, system performance was improved by relaxing the constant frequency requirement. String instruments, for example, which are normally played with vibrato, are both amplitude and frequency comodulated sources, and could not be properly tracked under the constant frequency assumption upon which our original algorithm was based. Frequency comodulation refers to similarities in frequency variations of individual harmonics emitted by these types of sources. The analytical difficulty is in defining a representation of the source which properly tracks frequency varying components. A simple, fixed filter bank can only track an individual spectral component for the duration in which it is within the passband of one of the filters. Alternatives are therefore explored which are amenable to real-time implementation.

  1. Innovative instrumentation for VVERs based in non-invasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanneau, H.; Favennec, J.M.; Tournu, E.; Germain, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants such as VVERs can greatly benefit from innovative instrumentation to improve plant safety and efficiency. In recent years innovative instrumentation has been developed for PWRs with the aim of providing additional measurements of physical parameters on the primary and secondary circuits: the addition of new instrumentation is made possible by using non-invasive techniques such as ultrasonics and radiation detection. These innovations can be adapted for upgrading VVERs presently in operation and also in future VVERs. The following innovative instrumentation for the control, monitoring or testing at VVERs is described: 1. instrumentation for more accurate primary side direct measurements (for a better monitoring of the primary circuit); 2. instrumentation to monitor radioactivity leaks (for a safer plant); 3. instrumentation-related systems to improve the plant efficiency (for a cheaper kWh)

  2. Smart phone-based Chemistry Instrumentation: Digitization of Colorimetric Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Byoung Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a mobile instrumentation platform based on a smart phone using its built-in functions for colorimetric diagnosis. The color change as a result of detection is taken as a picture through a CCD camera built in the smart phone, and is evaluated in the form of the hue value to give the well-defined relationship between the color and the concentration. To prove the concept in the present work, proton concentration measurements were conducted on pH paper coupled with a smart phone for demonstration. This report is believed to show the possibility of adapting a smart phone to a mobile analytical transducer, and more applications for bioanalysis are expected to be developed using other built-in functions of the smart phone

  3. Embedded design based virtual instrument program for positron beam automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Gururaj, K.; Abhaya, S.; Parimala, J.; Amarendra, G.

    2008-01-01

    Automation of positron beam experiment with a single chip embedded design using a programmable system on chip (PSoC) which provides easy interfacing of the high-voltage DC power supply is reported. Virtual Instrument (VI) control program written in Visual Basic 6.0 ensures the following functions (i) adjusting of sample high voltage by interacting with the programmed PSoC hardware, (ii) control of personal computer (PC) based multi channel analyzer (MCA) card for energy spectroscopy, (iii) analysis of the obtained spectrum to extract the relevant line shape parameters, (iv) plotting of relevant parameters and (v) saving the file in the appropriate format. The present study highlights the hardware features of the PSoC hardware module as well as the control of MCA and other units through programming in Visual Basic

  4. Electronically Tunable Transimpedance Instrumentation Amplifier Based on OTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA is the most suitable analog building block (ABB for transimpedance type signal processing due to its very nature of current input and voltage output. In this paper, OTRA-based transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is presented. It provides high differential gain and bandwidth, which is independent of gain. It also offers high common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR. The amplifier gain can be controlled electronically by implementing resistors using MOS transistors operating in linear region. The circuit can be made fully integrated. The proposed circuit is insensitive to parasitic input capacitances and input resistances due to the internally grounded input terminals of OTRA. Theoretical analysis is verified through PSPICE simulations and experimentation.

  5. Investigation of Titan's surface and atmosphere photometric functions using the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Thomas; Altobelli, Nicolas; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, Robert; Barnes, Jason; Buratti, Bonnie; Baines, Kevin; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    After 106 flybys spread over 10 years, the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument acquired 33151 hyperspectral cubes pointing at the surface of Titan on the dayside. Despite this huge amount of data available for surface studies, and due to the strong influence of the atmosphere (methane absorption and haze scattering), Titan's surface is only visible with VIMS in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centred at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns. Atmospheric scattering and absorption effects dominate Titan's spectrum at wavelengths shorter than 3 microns, while the 5 micron window, almost insensitive to the haze scattering, only presents a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by VIMS. In all cases, the recorded I/F represents an apparent albedo, which depends on the atmospheric contributions and the surface photometry at each wavelength. We therefore aim to determine real albedo values for Titan's surface by finding photometric functions for the surface and the atmosphere that could be used as a basis for empirical corrections or Radiative Transfer calculations. After updating the navigation of the VIMS archive, we decomposed the entire VIMS data set into a MySQL relational database gathering the viewing geometry, location, time (season) and I/F (for pure atmosphere and surface-atmosphere images) for each pixel of the 33151 individual VIMS cubes. We then isolated all the VIMS pixels where Titan's surface has been repeatedly imaged at low phase angles (< 20 degrees) in order to characterize phase curves for the surface at 5 microns and for the atmosphere. Among these, the T88 flyby appears noteworthy, with a "Emergence-Phase Function (EPF)"-type observation: 25 cubes acquired during the same flyby, over the same area (close to Tortola Facula, in relatively dark terrains), at a constant incidence and with varying emergence and phase (from 0 to 60 degrees) angles. The data clearly exhibit an increase

  6. Finite Elements on Point Based Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, U.; Rumpf, M.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for processing point-based surfaces via partial differential equations (PDEs). Our framework efficiently and effectively brings well-known PDE-based processing techniques to the field of point-based surfaces. Our method is based on the construction of local tangent planes and

  7. GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument): A New Airborne GNSS-R receiver for land surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    GLORI (GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument) is a new receiver dedicated to the airborne measurement of surface parameters such as soil moisture and biomass above ground and sea state (wave height and direction) above oceans. The instrument is based on the PARIS concept [Martin-Neira, 1993] using both the direct and surface-reflected L-band signals from the GPS constellation as a multistatic radar source. The receiver is based on one up-looking and one down-looking dual polarization hemispherical active antennas feeding a low-cost 4-channel SDR direct down-conversion receiver tuned to the GPS L1 frequency. The raw measurements are sampled at 16.368MHz and stored as 2-bit, IQ binary files. In post-processing, GPS acquisition and tracking are performed on the direct up-looking signal while the down-looking signal is processed blindly using tracking parameters from the direct signal. The obtained direct and reflected code-correlation waveforms are the basic observables for geophysical parameters inversion. The instrument was designed to be installed aboard the ATR42 experimental aircraft from the French SAFIRE fleet as a permanent payload. The long term goal of the project is to provide real-time continuous surface information for every flight performed. The aircraft records attitude information through its Inertial Measurement Unit and a commercial GPS receiver records additional information such as estimated doppler and code phase, receiver location, satellites azimuth and elevation. A series of test flights were performed over both the Toulouse and Gulf of Lion (Mediterranean Sea) regions during the period 17-21 Nov 2014 together with the KuROS radar [Hauser et al., 2014]. Using processing methods from the literature [Egido et al., 2014], preliminary results demonstrate the instrument sensitivity to both ground and ocean surface parameters estimation. A dedicated scientific flight campaign is planned at the end of second quarter 2015 with

  8. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  9. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system

  10. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: ogawa@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakatani, N. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Otake, H. [JAXA Space Exploration Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  11. Morphological change study on root surfaces treated with curettes, sonic instruments or Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes Filho, Arlindo Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque and dental calculus on roots surfaces, specially on cervical areas. As dental plaque is the main cause and dental calculus a secondary one, it is practically impossible to separate one factor to the other one. In order to get periodontal tissue health it is necessary to eliminate dental plaque and calculus from root surfaces. In this sense, Er:YAG laser comes in as an excellent way to control periodontal disease, not only, by removing calculus and dental plaque but also for its bacteria reduction. The aim of this study is to compare, by S.E.M., root surfaces changing when they are treated with curettes and ultrasonic scaling or Er:YAG laser irradiation with two different energy levels of 60 mJ/pulse and 100 mJ/pulse and repetition tax of 10 Hz (in the display). It is also objective of this study to check a possible thermic damage to pulp tissue when the roots surfaces are irradiated with Er:YAG laser. We used for this study, five human dental roots, each one of them were cut into four samples, giving us a total of twenty samples, which were divided in five groups of four samples each one. The control group, we did not indicated any kind of treatment. The first group, the roots samples were scaled and planned with Gracey curettes 5/6 and 7/8. The second group, the roots samples were treated with ultrasonic instruments. The third group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 60 mJ/pulse , 10 Hz and energy density of 4 J/cm 2 (approximated). The fourth group was irradiated with Er:YAG laser using 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and energy density of 7 J/cm 2 (approximated). The results analysis showed that roots scaling either with Gracey curettes or with ultrasonic instruments created smear layer covering roots surfaces; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed few roughness in the third group; roots surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG laser showed no smear layer and the Er:YAG laser irradiation did not bring any thermic damage

  12. Development of a Novel Multispectral Instrument for Handheld and UAS Measurements of Surface Albedo; First Applications for Glaciers in the Peruvian Andes and for Nevada's Black Rock Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, J. M.; Stevens, C.; Arnott, W. P.; Watts, A.; All, J.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate atmospheric aerosol characteristics derived from satellite measurements are needed over a variety of land surfaces. Nonhomogeneous and bright surface reflectance across California and Nevada may be a contributing factor in the discrepancies observed between ground based and satellite-retrieved atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD). We developed and deployed a compact and portable instrument to measure albedo to evaluate a major factor that influences the accuracy of AOD retrievals. The instrument will be operated on an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to control areal averaging for comparison with satellite derived albedo from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A handheld version of the instrument was mounted on a trekking pole and used for obtaining in situ glacier albedo measurements in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru during the summer of 2017. The instrument weighs approximately 433 g and consists of two parts, a mountable, payload portion (300 g) which houses the sensors, and a handheld screen (133 g) to display real-time data from the payload portion. Both parts are powered by a 9V battery and run on a Teensy 3.6/3.2 microcontroller. To retrieve albedo, two micro-spectrometers manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, each with a spectral range of 340 -780 nm, are utilized; one for obtaining the downwelling solar radiation and the other for measuring the solar radiation reflected from the surface. Additional components on the instrument include temperature, pressure and humidity sensors with a one second time response; a GPS for position and altitude; an infrared sensor to measure ground temperature; a digital level and compass for orienting the instrument; a camera for taking photos of the sky and surface; a radio for two-way communication between the screen display and sensor payload; and a micro SD card for recording data. We will present the instrument design along with surface albedo measurements for glaciers of the Peruvian

  13. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  14. Development of microcontroller based instrumentation for low dose implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, K.; Saravanan, K.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    In experiments like ion implantation based ion track formations, the sample is implanted to low doses of the order of 10 10 ions/cm 2 , limiting the ion beam currents to be less than 1-5 x 10 -12 A. However the standard current integrators available are not sensitive to very low currents, causing an unacceptable high level of error in dose measurement. Hence a low dose implantation measurement system has been developed. It consists of a very sensitive low current preamplifier with full scale input 1nA/100pA, a standard current integrator, a microcontroller based interface circuit, which are connected to a personal computer(PC) through USB. Two types of the software are developed for the system: the microcontroller firmware using C and windows based virtual instrument programs using LabVIEW 7.0. Necessary precautions associated with pA level measurement like rigidly fastened good quality cables, low ripple DC power supply, shielding, close mounting of the preamplifier to the sample are adopted. After necessary calibrations with an ECIL make low current source, the system has been put into regular use. Design and development details, salient features are discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Effect of autoclaving on the surfaces of TiN -coated and conventional nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, G; Ametrano, G; D'Antò, V; Rengo, C; Simeone, M; Riccitiello, F; Amato, M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments. A total of 60 NiTi rotary instruments, 30 ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) and 30 TiN -coated AlphaKite (Komet/Gebr. Brasseler), were analysed. Instruments were evaluated in the as-received condition and after 1, 5 and 10 sterilization cycles. After sterilization, the samples were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface chemical analysis was performed on each instrument with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the samples were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square value (RMS) of the scanned surface profiles were recorded. Data were analysed by means of anova followed by Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the presence of pitting and deep milling marks in all instruments. EDS analysis confirmed that both types of instruments were composed mainly of nickel and titanium, whilst AlphaKite had additional nitride. After multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, SEM examinations revealed an increase in surface alterations, and EDS values indicated changes in chemical surface composition in all instruments. Ra and RMS values of ProTaper significantly increased after 5 (P = 0.006) and 10 cycles (P = 0.002) with respect to the as-received instruments, whilst AlphaKite showed significant differences compared with the controls after 10 cycles (P = 0.03). Multiple autoclave sterilization cycles modified the surface topography and chemical composition of conventional and TiN -coated NiTi rotary instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  16. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures

  17. A comparison of root surface instrumentation using manual, ultrasonic and rotary instruments: An in vitro study using scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Marda

    2012-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: The RCI and LTSI showed nonsignificant differences between the three groups. RLTSI showed a significant difference between Slimline™ and hand curette as well as Slimline™ and Desmo-Clean™. Slimline™ showed the least mean scores for RCI, LTSI, and RLTSI. Thus, even though the difference was not statistically significant, Slimline™ insert was shown to be better than the other methods as assessed by the indices scores and the instrumentation time.

  18. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  19. Measurement of radiation dose with a PC-based instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangland, L.; Neubeck, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in what way the introduction of Digital Subtraction Angiography has influenced absorbed doses to the patient and personnel. Calculation of the energy imparted to the patient, ε, was based on measurements of the dose-area product, tube potential and tube current which were registered with a PC-based instrument. The absorbed doses to the personnel were measured with TLD. The measurements on the personnel were made only at the digital system. The results indicate large variations in ε between different types of angiographic examinations of the same type. The total ε were similar on both systems, although the relative contribution from image acquisition and fluoroscopy were different. At the conventional system fluoroscopy and image acquisition contributed almost equally to the total ε. At the digital system 25% of the total ε was due to fluoroscopy and 75% to image acquisition. The differences were due to longer fluoroscopic times on the conventional system, mainly due to lack of image memory and road mapping, and lower ε/image, due to lower dose settings to the film changer compared to the image intensifier on the digital system. 11 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  20. A Universal Motor Performance Test System Based on Virtual Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology universal motors play a more and more important role in daily life and production, they have been used in increasingly wide field and the requirements increase gradually. How to control the speed and monitor the real-time temperature of motors are key issues. The cost of motor testing system based on traditional technology platform is very high in many reasons. In the paper a universal motor performance test system which based on virtual instrument is provided. The system achieves the precise control of the current motor speed and completes the measurement of real-time temperature of motor bearing support in order to realize the testing of general-purpose motor property. Experimental result shows that the system can work stability in controlling the speed and monitoring the real-time temperature. It has advantages that traditional using of SCM cannot match in speed, stability, cost and accuracy aspects. Besides it is easy to expand and reconfigure.

  1. PCI express hotplug implementation for ATCA based instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, António P. [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Rita C., E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, António J.N. [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Hotplug capabilities are designed as an expected or graceful methodology in which the user is not permitted to install or remove a PCIe endpoint device without first notifying the system software. • Hotswap capabilities allow endpoints or PCIe switches with endpoints to be inserted or removed from a PCIe system gracefully or unexpectedly without special consideration. • ATCA, advanced telecommunication computer architecture is a new specification with high availability and high reliability key features which improves data acquisition systems. • Data acquisition systems are used almost everywhere and a demand in the nuclear fusion research field. • Nuclear fusion is a future alternative for power and energy resources generation for world humanity consumption. - Abstract: This paper describes a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) hotplug and hotswap capability implementation for advanced telecommunication computer architecture (ATCA) based instrumentation. PCIe hotplug provides card insertion and removal capability from a running PCIe-based platform without causing system damages and not requiring an entire system shutdown. PCIe hotswap allows endpoints or PCIe switches with endpoint cards to be inserted or removed from a PCIe system gracefully or unexpectedly without special considerations. Control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) cards need to be replaced from a system for fault-condition repair, hardware malfunction, firmware updates or upgrades and hardware reconfiguration. ATCA specification key features such as high reliability and high availability for C&DAQ systems strongly benefits from these capabilities taking advantage from Redhat Enterprise Linux, installed operating system, and corresponding kernel with built-in mechanisms and embedded software modules for hotplug and hotswap support. PCIe hotplug and hotswap implemented solutions in the ATCA-based prototype provides described capabilities to the C&DAQ and PCIe switch

  2. Studying Titan's surface photometry in the 5 microns atmospheric window with the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, T.; Altobelli, N.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Philippe, S.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the influence of methane gas and a thick aerosols haze in the atmosphere, Titan's surface is only visible in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centered at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns with the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The 5 microns atmospheric window constitutes the only one being almost insensitive to the haze scattering and which presents only a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by the instrument. Despite these advantages leading to the almost direct view of the surface, the 5 microns window is also the noisiest spectral window of the entire VIMS spectrum (an effect highly dependent on the time exposure used for the observations), and it is not totally free from atmospheric contributions, enough to keep "artefacts" in mosaics of several thousands of cubes due to atmospheric and surface photometric effects amplified by the very heterogeneous viewing conditions between each Titan flyby. At first order, a lambertian surface photometry at 5 microns has been used as an initial parameter in order to estimate atmospheric opacity and surface photometry in all VIMS atmospheric windows and to determine the albedo of the surface, yet unknown, both using radiative transfer codes on single cubes or empirical techniques on global hyperspectral mosaics. Other studies suggested that Titan's surface photometry would not be uniquely lambertian but would also contain anisotropic lunar-like contributions. In the present work, we aim at constraining accurately the surface photometry of Titan and residual atmospheric absorption effects in this 5 microns window using a comprehensive study of relevant sites located at various latitudes. Those include bright and dark (dunes) terrains, 5-microns bright terrains (Hotei Regio and Tui Regio), the Huygens Landing Site and high latitudes polar lakes and seas. The VIMS 2004 to 2014 database, composed of more than 40,000 hyperspectral cubes acquired on

  3. An Electron Beam Profile Instrument Based on FBGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sporea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application.

  4. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  5. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  6. NEWTON - NEW portable multi-sensor scienTific instrument for non-invasive ON-site characterization of rock from planetary surface and sub-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Michelena, M.; de Frutos, J.; Ordóñez, A. A.; Rivero, M. A.; Mesa, J. L.; González, L.; Lavín, C.; Aroca, C.; Sanz, M.; Maicas, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Cobos, P.; Pérez, M.; Kilian, R.; Baeza, O.; Langlais, B.; Thébault, E.; Grösser, J.; Pappusch, M.

    2017-09-01

    In space instrumentation, there is currently no instrument dedicated to susceptibly or complete magnetization measurements of rocks. Magnetic field instrument suites are generally vector (or scalar) magnetometers, which locally measure the magnetic field. When mounted on board rovers, the electromagnetic perturbations associated with motors and other elements make it difficult to reap the benefits from the inclusion of such instruments. However, magnetic characterization is essential to understand key aspects of the present and past history of planetary objects. The work presented here overcomes the limitations currently existing in space instrumentation by developing a new portable and compact multi-sensor instrument for ground breaking high-resolution magnetic characterization of planetary surfaces and sub-surfaces. This new technology introduces for the first time magnetic susceptometry (real and imaginary parts) as a complement to existing compact vector magnetometers for planetary exploration. This work aims to solve the limitations currently existing in space instrumentation by means of providing a new portable and compact multi-sensor instrument for use in space, science and planetary exploration to solve some of the open questions on the crustal and more generally planetary evolution within the Solar System.

  7. Instrumentation for PSD based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC). The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here. (author)

  8. Instrumentation for PSD-based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S. S.; Borkar, S. P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V. D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.; Kataria, S. K.

    2004-08-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system [1] is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers [2], shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC) [3]. The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here.

  9. Use of modern software - based instrumentation in safety critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.; Smith, B.

    2005-01-01

    Many Nuclear Power Plants are now ageing and in need of various degrees of refurbishment. Installed instrumentation usually uses out of date 'analogue' technology and is often no longer available in the market place. New technology instrumentation is generally un-qualified for nuclear use and specifically the new 'smart' technology contains 'firmware', (effectively 'soup' (Software of Uncertain Pedigree)) which must be assessed in accordance with relevant safety standards before it may be used in a safety application. Particular standards are IEC 61508 [1] and the British Energy (BE) PES (Programmable Electronic Systems) guidelines EPD/GEN/REP/0277/97. [2] This paper outlines a new instrument evaluation system, which has been developed in conjunction with the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper concludes with a discussion about on-line monitoring of Smart instrumentation in safety critical applications. (author)

  10. Comparison of sea surface flux measured by instrumented aircraft and ship during SOFIA and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Pierre; Dupuis, HéLèNe; Lambert, Dominique; BéNech, Bruno; Druilhet, Aimé; Katsaros, Kristina; Taylor, Peter K.; Weill, Alain

    1998-10-01

    Two major campaigns (Surface of the Oceans, Fluxes and Interactions with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) and Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE)) devoted to the study of ocean-atmosphere interaction were conducted in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in the Azores region. Among the various platforms deployed, instrumented aircraft and ship allowed the measurement of the turbulent flux of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum. From coordinated missions we can evaluate the sea surface fluxes from (1) bulk relations and mean measurements performed aboard the ship in the atmospheric surface layer and (2) turbulence measurements aboard aircraft, which allowed the flux profiles to be estimated through the whole atmospheric boundary layer and therefore to be extrapolated toward the sea surface level. Continuous ship fluxes were calculated with bulk coefficients deduced from inertial-dissipation measurements in the same experiments, whereas aircraft fluxes were calculated with eddy-correlation technique. We present a comparison between these two estimations. Although momentum flux agrees quite well, aircraft estimations of sensible and latent heat flux are lower than those of the ship. This result is surprising, since aircraft momentum flux estimates are often considered as much less accurate than scalar flux estimates. The various sources of errors on the aircraft and ship flux estimates are discussed. For sensible and latent heat flux, random errors on aircraft estimates, as well as variability of ship flux estimates, are lower than the discrepancy between the two platforms, whereas the momentum flux estimates cannot be considered as significantly different. Furthermore, the consequence of the high-pass filtering of the aircraft signals on the flux values is analyzed; it is weak at the lowest altitudes flown and cannot therefore explain the discrepancies between the two platforms but becomes

  11. MIXS on BepiColombo and its DEPFET based focal plane instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, J., E-mail: jft@hll.mpg.d [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Andricek, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Aschauer, F. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Heinzinger, K. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Munich (Germany); Herrmann, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hilchenbach, M. [MPI for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Lauf, T. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Majewski, P. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Munich (Germany); Porro, M. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Richter, R.H. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Schaller, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schnecke, M. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    Focal plane instrumentation based on DEPFET Macropixel devices, being a combination of the Detector-Amplifier structure DEPFET with a silicon drift chamber (SDD), has been proposed for the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on ESA's Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo. MIXS images X-ray fluorescent radiation from the Mercury surface with a lightweight X-ray mirror system on the focal plane detector to measure the spatially resolved element abundance in Mercury's crust. The sensor needs to have an energy resolution better than 200 eV FWHM at 1 keV and is required to cover an energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV, for a pixel size of 300x300{mu}m{sup 2}. Main challenges for the instrument are radiation damage and the difficult thermal environment in the mercury orbit. The production of the first batch of flight devices has been finished at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. Prototype modules have been assembled to verify the electrical properties of the devices; selected results are presented here. The prototype devices, Macropixel prototypes for the SIMBOL-X focal plane, are electrically fully compatible, but have a pixel size of 0.5x0.5 mm{sup 2}. Excellent homogeneity and near Fano-limited energy resolution at high readout speeds have been observed on these devices.

  12. MIXS on BepiColombo and its DEPFET based focal plane instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treis, J.; Andricek, L.; Aschauer, F.; Heinzinger, K.; Herrmann, S.; Hilchenbach, M.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Majewski, P.; Porro, M.; Richter, R.H.; Schaller, G.; Schnecke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Focal plane instrumentation based on DEPFET Macropixel devices, being a combination of the Detector-Amplifier structure DEPFET with a silicon drift chamber (SDD), has been proposed for the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on ESA's Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo. MIXS images X-ray fluorescent radiation from the Mercury surface with a lightweight X-ray mirror system on the focal plane detector to measure the spatially resolved element abundance in Mercury's crust. The sensor needs to have an energy resolution better than 200 eV FWHM at 1 keV and is required to cover an energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV, for a pixel size of 300x300μm 2 . Main challenges for the instrument are radiation damage and the difficult thermal environment in the mercury orbit. The production of the first batch of flight devices has been finished at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. Prototype modules have been assembled to verify the electrical properties of the devices; selected results are presented here. The prototype devices, Macropixel prototypes for the SIMBOL-X focal plane, are electrically fully compatible, but have a pixel size of 0.5x0.5 mm 2 . Excellent homogeneity and near Fano-limited energy resolution at high readout speeds have been observed on these devices.

  13. MIXS on BepiColombo and its DEPFET based focal plane instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treis, J.; Andricek, L.; Aschauer, F.; Heinzinger, K.; Herrmann, S.; Hilchenbach, M.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Majewski, P.; Porro, M.; Richter, R. H.; Schaller, G.; Schnecke, M.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; de Vita, G.

    2010-12-01

    Focal plane instrumentation based on DEPFET Macropixel devices, being a combination of the Detector-Amplifier structure DEPFET with a silicon drift chamber (SDD), has been proposed for the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on ESA's Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo. MIXS images X-ray fluorescent radiation from the Mercury surface with a lightweight X-ray mirror system on the focal plane detector to measure the spatially resolved element abundance in Mercury's crust. The sensor needs to have an energy resolution better than 200 eV FWHM at 1 keV and is required to cover an energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV, for a pixel size of 300×300μm2. Main challenges for the instrument are radiation damage and the difficult thermal environment in the mercury orbit. The production of the first batch of flight devices has been finished at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. Prototype modules have been assembled to verify the electrical properties of the devices; selected results are presented here. The prototype devices, Macropixel prototypes for the SIMBOL-X focal plane, are electrically fully compatible, but have a pixel size of 0.5×0.5 mm2. Excellent homogeneity and near Fano-limited energy resolution at high readout speeds have been observed on these devices.

  14. Comparative evaluation of surface changes in four Ni-Ti instruments with successive uses - An SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, N; Sikri, Vimal K

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the surface alterations seen in four kinds of Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for five successive uses in preparing root canals of extracted human molars and also to determine whether the design of the instrument influenced the appearance of defects on the instrument surface. Four different types of instruments namely; ProFile, ProTaper Rotary, ProTaper Hand and K3 Endo were used in 300 mesio-buccal canals. The instruments were examined under the SEM, after every use, to assess the progress of changes on their surfaces for a maximum of five uses. Chi-square test. The most prevalent defects observed were pitting, followed by metal strips. Signs of discontinuity, microfractures and disruption of cutting edge were also evident. Number of defects increased with successive uses. ProTaper Hand showed significantly more microfractures and metal strips than other instruments from third use onwards. ProTaper Rotary and K3 Endo also showed significant changes.

  15. The Assessment of Instruments for Detecting Surface Water Spills Associated with Oil and Gas Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  16. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community

  17. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community.

  18. Gas Detection Instrument Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANSONG FENG

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network is used to simulate poisonous gas generating system in the Fire-Fighting Simulated Training System. In the paper, we use the wireless signal to simulate the poisonous gas source and use received signal strength indicator (RSSI to simulate the distance between the fireman and the gas source. The gas detection instrument samples the temperature and sphygmus of the trainee and uses the wireless signal as poisonous gas signal. When the trainee enters into the poisonous gas area, the gas detection instrument warns with sound and light and sends the type, density value, the location of the poisonous gas and vital signs of the trainee to host. The paper discusses the software and hardware design of the gas detection instrument. The system has been used to the several of Fire-Fighting training systems.

  19. Development of multifunctional radiation monitoring instrument based on PLC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhu Yuye; Zhuang Min

    2007-01-01

    This eight-channel multifunctional Radiation Monitoring Instrument is developed by making use of the built-in high-speed counters and the powerful instruction system of the SIEMES SIMATICS S7 series Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to record and process the pulse signal output by the detectors. The instrument with functions, such as analog and digital display, digital storage of digital data, pulse signal generator, network communication, can connect various types of pulse detectors. The initial process can be translated between Graduation Apparatus method and Formula method. the logicality of the high-dosage warning system is processed itself. The signal output will drive the alarm lights and bell directly. This paper mainly describes the configuration, programming and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  20. [Research on medical instrument information integration technology based on IHE PCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianli; Liao, Yun; Yang, Yongyong

    2014-06-01

    Integrating medical instruments with medical information systems becomes more and more important in healthcare industry. To make medical instruments without standard communication interface possess the capability of interoperating and sharing information with medical information systems, we developed a medical instrument integration gateway based on Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise Patient Care Device (IHE PCD) integration profiles in this research. The core component is an integration engine which is implemented according to integration profiles and Health Level Seven (HL7) messages defined in IHE PCD. Working with instrument specific Javascripts, the engine transforms medical instrument data into HL7 ORU message. This research enables medical instruments to interoperate and exchange medical data with information systems in a standardized way, and is valuable for medical instrument integration, especially for traditional instruments.

  1. Mars Geochemical Instrument (MarGI): An instrument for the analysis of the Martian surface and the search for evidence of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Martin, Joe; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Geochemical Instrument, MarGI, was developed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the rocks and surface material on Mars. The instrument combines Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) with miniature Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) to identify minerals, the presence and state of water, and organic compounds. Miniature pyrolysis ovens are used to both, conduct DTA analysis of soil or crushed rocks samples, and pyrolyze the samples at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C for GC-IMS analysis of the released gases. This combination of analytical processes and techniques, which can characterize the mineralogy of the rocks and soil, and identify and quantify volatiles released during pyrolysis, has applications across a wide range of target sites including comets, planets, asteroids, and moons such as Titan and Europa. The MarGI analytical approach evolved from the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX) selected to fly on the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF).

  2. Optical switches based on surface plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Cong; Wang Pei; Yuan Guanghui; Wang Xiaolei; Min Changjun; Deng Yan; Lu Yonghua; Ming Hai

    2008-01-01

    Great attention is being paid to surface plasmons (SPs) because of their potential applications in sensors, data storage and bio-photonics. Recently, more and more optical switches based on surface plasmon effects have been demonstrated either by simulation or experimentally. This article describes the principles, advantages and disadvantages of various types of optical switches based on SPs, in particular the all-optical switches. (authors)

  3. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional team-based primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Parchman, Michael L; Fuda, Kathleen Kerwin; Schaefer, Judith; Levin, Jessica; Hunt, Meaghan; Ricciardi, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional team-based care is increasingly regarded as an important feature of delivery systems redesigned to provide more efficient and higher quality care, including primary care. Measurement of the functioning of such teams might enable improvement of team effectiveness and could facilitate research on team-based primary care. Our aims were to develop a conceptual framework of high-functioning primary care teams to identify and review instruments that measure the constructs identified in the framework, and to create a searchable, web-based atlas of such instruments (available at: http://primarycaremeasures.ahrq.gov/team-based-care/ ). Our conceptual framework was developed from existing frameworks, the teamwork literature, and expert input. The framework is based on an Input-Mediator-Output model and includes 12 constructs to which we mapped both instruments as a whole, and individual instrument items. Instruments were also reviewed for relevance to measuring team-based care, and characterized. Instruments were identified from peer-reviewed and grey literature, measure databases, and expert input. From nearly 200 instruments initially identified, we found 48 to be relevant to measuring team-based primary care. The majority of instruments were surveys (n = 44), and the remainder (n = 4) were observational checklists. Most instruments had been developed/tested in healthcare settings (n = 30) and addressed multiple constructs, most commonly communication (n = 42), heedful interrelating (n = 42), respectful interactions (n = 40), and shared explicit goals (n = 37). The majority of instruments had some reliability testing (n = 39) and over half included validity testing (n = 29). Currently available instruments offer promise to researchers and practitioners to assess teams' performance, but additional work is needed to adapt these instruments for primary care settings.

  4. Automatic track counting with an optic RAM-based instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, Alfredo

    1986-01-01

    A new image sensor, the optic RAM, is now used in a microprocessor controlled instrument to read and digitize images from CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The system performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation in a fully automatic way, not requiring an optic microscope, nor photographic or television devices. The proposed system is a very compact and low power device. (author)

  5. SQUID-based Nondestructive Testing Instrument of Dished Niobium Sheets for SRF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Q. S. Shu; I. Ben-Zvi; G. Cheng; I. M. Phipps; J. T. Susta; P. Kneisel; G. Myneni; J. Mast; R. Selim

    2007-01-01

    Currently available technology can only inspect flat sheets and allow the elimination of defective flat sheets before the expensive forming and machining of the SRF cavity half-cells, but it does not eliminate the problem of remaining or uncovered surface impurities after partial chemical etching of the half-cells, nor does it detect any defects that may have been added during the fabrication of the half-cells. AMAC has developed a SQUID scanning system based on eddy current technique that allows the scanning of curved Nb samples that are welded to make superconducting RF cavity half-cells. AMAC SQUID scanning system successfully located the defects (Ta macro particles about 100 mm diameter) in a flat Nb sample (top side) and was able to also locate the defects in a cylindrical surface sample (top side). It is more significant that the system successfully located the defects on the backside of the flat sample and curved sample or 3-mm from the top surface. The 3-D SQUID-based Nondestructive instrument will be further optimized and improved in making SRF cavities and allow inspection and detection during cavity manufacturing for achieving highest accelerating fields

  6. Musical Instrument Classification Based on Nonlinear Recurrence Analysis and Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the phase space reconstruction of time series produced by different instruments is discussed based on the nonlinear dynamic theory. The dense ratio, a novel quantitative recurrence parameter, is proposed to describe the difference of wind instruments, stringed instruments and keyboard instruments in the phase space by analyzing the recursive property of every instrument. Furthermore, a novel supervised learning algorithm for automatic classification of individual musical instrument signals is addressed deriving from the idea of supervised non-negative matrix factorization (NMF algorithm. In our approach, the orthogonal basis matrix could be obtained without updating the matrix iteratively, which NMF is unable to do. The experimental results indicate that the accuracy of the proposed method is improved by 3% comparing with the conventional features in the individual instrument classification.

  7. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  8. Recognition of risk situations based on endoscopic instrument tracking and knowledge based situation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Sudra, Gunther; Senemaud, Julien; Drentschew, Maximilian; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2008-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has gained significantly in importance over the last decade due to the numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality (AR) techniques. In order to generate a context-aware assistance it is necessary to recognize the current state of the intervention using intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the surgical intervention. In this paper we present the recognition of risk situations, the system warns the surgeon if an instrument gets too close to a risk structure. The context-aware assistance system starts with an image-based analysis to retrieve information from the endoscopic images. This information is classified and a semantic description is generated. The description is used to recognize the current state and launch an appropriate AR visualization. In detail we present an automatic vision-based instrument tracking to obtain the positions of the instruments. Situation recognition is performed using a knowledge representation based on a description logic system. Two augmented reality visualization programs are realized to warn the surgeon if a risk situation occurs.

  9. Study on the communication technology of instrument based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Lai Qinggui; Zhang Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    The hardware and software structure of communication of universal instrument is discussed based on LabVIEW, the several realization of remote communication is compared too. In the control and measure system of LIA, using LabVIEW, the communication is realized among the plenty of instruments which have the various interfaces, in this paper the frame of hardware and software about instrument communication is showed. (authors)

  10. Preliminary investigations on TINI based distributed instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, T.; Kalita, M.

    2006-04-01

    A prototype web enabled distributed instrumentation system is being proposed in the Department of Electronics Science, Gauhati University, Assam, India. The distributed instrumentation system contains sensors, legacy hardware, TCP/IP protocol converter, TCP/IP network Ethernet, Database Server, Web/Application Server and Client PCs. As part of the proposed work, Tiny Internet Interface (TINI, TBM390: Dallas Semiconductor) has been deployed as TCP/IP stack, and java programming language as software tools. A feature supported by Java, that is particularly relevant to the distributed system is its applet. An applet is a java class that can be downloaded from the web server and can be run in a context application such as web browser or an applet viewer. TINI has been installed as TCP/IP stack, as it is the best suited embedded system with java programming language and it has been uniquely designed for communicating over One Wire Devices (OWD) over network. Here we will discuss the hardware and software aspects of TINI with OWD for the present system. (author)

  11. New methods of magnet-based instrumentation for NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdeburg, Richard; Hauth, Daniel; Kaehler, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has displaced open surgery as the standard of care for many clinical conditions. NOTES has been described as the next surgical frontier with the objective of incision-free abdominal surgery. The principal challenge of NOTES procedures is the loss of triangulation and instrument rigidity, which is one of the fundamental concepts of laparoscopic surgery. To overcome these problems necessitates the development of new instrumentation. material and methods: We aimed to assess the use of a very simple combination of internal and external magnets that might allow the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required in NOTES procedures. The magnet retraction system consisted of an external magnetic assembly and either small internal magnets attached by endoscopic clips to the designated tissue (magnet-clip-approach) or an endoscopic grasping forceps in a magnetic deflector roll (magnet-trocar-approach). We compared both methods regarding precision, time and efficacy by performing transgastric partial uterus resections with better results for the magnet-trocar-approach. This proof-of-principle animal study showed that the combination of external and internal magnets generates sufficient coupling forces at clinically relevant abdominal wall thicknesses, making them suitable for use and evaluation in NOTES procedures, and provides the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required by the lack of additional abdominal trocars.

  12. An Automated Sorting System Based on Virtual Instrumentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Holonec

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The application presented in this paper represents an experimental model and it refers to the implementing of an automated sorting system for pieces of same shape but different sizes and/or colors. The classification is made according to two features: the color and weight of these pieces. The system is a complex combination of NI Vision hardware and software tools, strain gauges transducers, signal conditioning connected to data acquisition boards, motion and control elements. The system is very useful for students to learn and experiment different virtual instrumentation techniques in order to be able to develop a large field of applications from inspection and process control to sorting and assembly

  13. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  14. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  15. Artificial Niches for Stromal Stem Cells as a Potential Instrument for the Design of the Surface of Biomimetic Osteogenic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlusov, I. A.; Khlusova, M. Yu.; Pichugin, V. F.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Legostaeva, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    A relationship between the topography of rough calcium phosphate surfaces having osteogenic niche-reliefs and the electrostatic potential of these surfaces as a possible instrument to control stromal stem cells has been investigated. The in vitro culture of human lung prenatal stromal cells on nanostructured/ultrafine-grained VT1.0 titanium alloy plates with bilateral rough calcium phosphate (CaP) microarc coating was used. It was established that the amplitude of the electret CaP surface potential linearly increased with increasing area of valleys (sockets), and the negative charge is formed on the socket surface. The area of alkaline phosphatase staining (the marker of osteoblast maturation and differentiation) of adherent CD34- CD44+ cells increases linearly with increasing area of artificial microterritory (socket) of the CaP surface occupied with each cell. The negative electret potential in valleys (sockets) of microarc CaP coatings can be the physical mechanism mediating the influence of the surface topography on osteogenic maturation and differentiation of cells in vitro. This mechanism can be called "niche-potential" and can be used as an instrument for biomimetic modification of smooth CaP surfaces to strengthen their integration with the bone tissue.

  16. An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72 months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244

  17. Single-item screening for agoraphobic symptoms : validation of a web-based audiovisual screening instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Donker, Tara; Martin Abello, Katherina; Marks, Isaac; Cuijpers, Pim

    2012-01-01

    The advent of web-based treatments for anxiety disorders creates a need for quick and valid online screening instruments, suitable for a range of social groups. This study validates a single-item multimedia screening instrument for agoraphobia, part of the Visual Screener for Common Mental Disorders

  18. Design of software platform based on linux operating system for γ-spectrometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Zhou Chen; Zhang Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of γ-spectrometry instrument software platform based on s3c2410a processor with arm920t core, emphases are focused on analyzing the integrated application of embedded linux operating system, yaffs file system and qt/embedded GUI development library. It presented a new software platform in portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  19. The Domain Five Observation Instrument: A Competency-Based Coach Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangraw, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The Domain Five Observation Instrument (DFOI) is a competency-based observation instrument recommended for sport leaders or researchers who wish to evaluate coaches' instructional behaviors. The DFOI includes 10 behavior categories and four timed categories that encompass 34 observable instructional benchmarks outlined in domain five of the…

  20. Study on virtual instrument developing system based on intelligent virtual control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Baoping; Cheng Fabin; Qin Shuren

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces a non-programming developing system of a virtual instrument (VI), i.e., a virtual measurement instrument developing system (VMIDS) based on intelligent virtual control (IVC). The background of the IVC-based VMIDS is described briefly, and the hierarchical message bus (HMB)-based software architecture of VMIDS is discussed in detail. The three parts and functions of VMIDS are introduced, and the process of non-programming developing VI is further described

  1. Study on virtual instrument developing system based on intelligent virtual control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Baoping; Cheng Fabin; Qin Shuren [Test Center, College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University , Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces a non-programming developing system of a virtual instrument (VI), i.e., a virtual measurement instrument developing system (VMIDS) based on intelligent virtual control (IVC). The background of the IVC-based VMIDS is described briefly, and the hierarchical message bus (HMB)-based software architecture of VMIDS is discussed in detail. The three parts and functions of VMIDS are introduced, and the process of non-programming developing VI is further described.

  2. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  3. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  4. Evaluation of Surface Fatigue Strength Based on Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    Surface temperature is considered to be an integrated index that is dependent on not only the load and the dimensions at the contact point but also the sliding velocity, rolling velocity, surface roughness, and lubrication conditions. Therefore, the surface durability of rollers and gears can be evaluated more exactly and simply by the use of surface temperature rather than Hertzian stress. In this research, surface temperatures of rollers under different rolling and sliding conditions are measured using a thermocouple. The effects of load P, mean velocity Vm and sliding velocity Vs on surface temperature are clarified. An experimental formula, which expresses the linear relationship between surface temperature and the P0.86Vs1.31Vm-0.83 value, is used to determine surface temperature. By comparing calculated and measured temperature on the tooth surface of a gear, this formula is confirmed to be applicable for gear tooth surface temperature calculation.

  5. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pinstruments were intensified greatly after 10 cycles of sterilization. Cycle fatigue resistance is different among instruments of different brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  6. The application of neoglycopeptides in the development of sensitive surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, C.E.P.; de Souza, A.C.; Halkes, K.M.; Upton, P.J.; Reeman, S.M.; André, S.; Gabius, H.-J.; McDonnell, M.B.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance is described for the detection of carbohydrate-binding proteins in solution on a Biacore 2000 instrument, using immobilized glycopeptides as ligands. Their selection was based on previous screenings of solid-phase glycopeptide

  7. Practical guidelines for developing a smartphone-based survey instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    The increasing relevance of mobile surveys makes it important to gather empirical evidence on designs of such surveys. This research note presents the results of a test study conducted to identify the best set-up for a smartphone-based survey. We base our analysis on a random sample of Danish...

  8. A new time-of-flight instrument for quantitative surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryovkin, Igor V.; Calaway, Wallis F.; Moore, Jerry F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Burnett, Donald S.

    2004-01-01

    A new generation of time-of-flight mass spectrometers that implement ion sputtering and laser desorption for probing solid samples and can operate in regimes of laser post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These new instruments feature novel ion optical systems for efficient extraction of ions from large laser post-ionization volumes and for lossless transport of these ions to detectors. Another feature of this design is a new in-vacuum all-reflecting optical microscope with 0.5-μm resolution. Advanced ion and light optics and three ion sources, including a liquid metal ion gun (focusable to 50 nm) and a low energy ion gun, give rise to an instrument capable of quantitative analyses of samples for the most challenging applications, such as determining elemental concentrations in shallow implants at ultra-trace levels (for example, solar wind samples delivered by NASA Genesis mission) and analyzing individual sub-micrometer particles on a sample stage (such as, interstellar dust delivered by NASA Stardust mission). Construction of a prototype instrument has been completed and testing is underway. A more advanced instrument of similar design is under construction. The overall design of the new instrument and the innovations that make it unique are outlined. Results of the first tests to characterize its analytical capabilities are presented also

  9. Application of non-destructive impedance-based monitoring technique for cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Liu, Mou-Chuan; Pai, Che-An; Lin, Chun-Li; Yen, Kuang-I

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the application of non-destructive testing based on the impedance theory in the cyclic fatigue evaluation of endodontic Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Fifty Ni-Ti ProTaper instruments were divided into five groups (n=10 in Groups A to E). Groups A to D were subjected to cyclic fatigue within an artificial canal (Group E was the control group). The mean value of the total life limit (TLL), defined as the instrument being rotated until fracture occurred was found to be 104 s in Group A. Each rotary instrument in Groups B, C and D were rotated until the tested instruments reached 80% (84 s), 60% (62 s) and 40% (42 s) of the TLL. After fatigue testing, each rotary instrument was mounted onto a custom-developed non-destructive testing device to give the tip of the instrument a progressive sideways bend in four mutually perpendicular directions to measure the corresponding impedance value (including the resistance and the reactance). The results indicated that the impedance value showed the same trend as the resistance, implying that the impedance was primarily affected by the resistance. The impedance value for the instruments in the 80% and 60% TLL groups increased by about 6 mΩ (about 7.5%) more than that of the instruments in the intact and 40% TLL groups. The SEM analysis result showed that crack striations were only found at the tip of the thread on the cracked surface of the instrument, consistent with the impedance measurements that found the impedance value of the cracked surface to be significantly different from those in other surfaces. These findings indicate that the impedance value may represent an effective parameter for evaluating the micro-structural status of Ni-Ti rotary instruments subjected to fatigue loading. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fracture resistance of dental nickel-titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chih-Wen; Deng, Yu-Lun; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-05-01

    Dental nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments are widely used in endodontic therapy because they are efficient with a higher success rate. However, an unpredictable fracture of instruments may happen due to the surface characteristics of imperfection (or irregularity). This study assessed whether a novel surface treatment could increase fatigue fracture resistance of dental NiTi rotary instruments. A 200- or 500-nm thick Ti-zirconium-boron (Ti-Zr-B) thin film metallic glass was deposited on ProTaper Universal F2 files using a physical vapor deposition process. The characteristics of coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In cyclic fatigue tests, the files were performed in a simulated root canal (radius=5 mm, angulation=60°) under a rotating speed of 300rpm. The fatigue fractured cross sections of the files were analyzed with their fractographic performances through scanning electron microscopy images. The amorphous structure of the Ti-Zr-B coating was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The surface of treated files presented smooth morphologies without grinding irregularity. For the 200- and 500-nm surface treatment groups, the coated files exhibited higher resistance of cyclic fatigue than untreated files. In fractographic analysis, treated files showed significantly larger crack-initiation zone; however, no significant differences in the areas of fatigue propagation and catastrophic fracture were found compared to untreated files. The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  12. Developing evaluation instrument based on CIPP models on the implementation of portfolio assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Feni; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an evaluation instrument constructed by CIPP model on the implementation of portfolio assessment in science learning. This study used research and development (R & D) method; adapting 4-D by the development of non-test instrument, and the evaluation instrument constructed by CIPP model. CIPP is the abbreviation of Context, Input, Process, and Product. The techniques of data collection were interviews, questionnaires, and observations. Data collection instruments were: 1) the interview guidelines for the analysis of the problems and the needs, 2) questionnaire to see level of accomplishment of portfolio assessment instrument, and 3) observation sheets for teacher and student to dig up responses to the portfolio assessment instrument. The data obtained was quantitative data obtained from several validators. The validators consist of two lecturers as the evaluation experts, two practitioners (science teachers), and three colleagues. This paper shows the results of content validity obtained from the validators and the analysis result of the data obtained by using Aikens' V formula. The results of this study shows that the evaluation instrument based on CIPP models is proper to evaluate the implementation of portfolio assessment instruments. Based on the experts' judgments, practitioners, and colleagues, the Aikens' V coefficient was between 0.86-1,00 which means that it is valid and can be used in the limited trial and operational field trial.

  13. Testing Differential Effects of Computer-Based, Web-Based and Paper-Based Administration of Questionnaire Research Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Crowson, H. Michael; Xie, Kui; Ly, Cong

    2007-01-01

    Translation of questionnaire instruments to digital administration systems, both self-contained and web-based, is widespread and increasing daily. However, the literature is lean on controlled empirical studies investigating the potential for differential effects of administrative methods. In this study, two university student samples were…

  14. Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams. Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling Tristan E. Johnson, Ph.D. Learning ...REPORT DATE AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies to Enhance Online Learning ...TeamsTeam Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams: Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  15. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  16. Automatic classification of minimally invasive instruments based on endoscopic image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Stefanie; Benzko, Julia; Krappe, Sebastian; Sudra, Gunther; Azad, Pedram; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is nowadays a frequently applied technique and can be regarded as a major breakthrough in surgery. The surgeon has to adopt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination and restricted mobility. To alleviate these constraints we propose to enhance the surgeon's capabilities by providing a context-aware assistance using augmented reality techniques. To analyze the current situation for context-aware assistance, we need intraoperatively gained sensor data and a model of the intervention. A situation consists of information about the performed activity, the used instruments, the surgical objects, the anatomical structures and defines the state of an intervention for a given moment in time. The endoscopic images provide a rich source of information which can be used for an image-based analysis. Different visual cues are observed in order to perform an image-based analysis with the objective to gain as much information as possible about the current situation. An important visual cue is the automatic recognition of the instruments which appear in the scene. In this paper we present the classification of minimally invasive instruments using the endoscopic images. The instruments are not modified by markers. The system segments the instruments in the current image and recognizes the instrument type based on three-dimensional instrument models.

  17. Microcontroller-based data logging instrumentation system for wind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a microcontroller based data logger for measuring wind speed and wind direction has been designed. The designed system uses the Atmel microcontroller family which consists of sensor inputs, a microcontroller and a data storage device. The system was designed and developed to measure the wind speed ...

  18. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  19. Effect of irrigation on surface roughness and fatigue resistance of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J-J; Tang, X-N; Ge, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of irrigation on the surface roughness and fatigue resistance of HyFlex and M3 controlled memory (CM) wire nickel-titanium instruments. Two new files of each brand were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Then, the instruments were dynamically immersed in either 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for 10 min, followed by AFM analysis. The roughness average (Ra) and root mean square (RMS) values were analysed statistically using an independent sample t-test. Then, 36 files of each brand were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 (the control group) was composed of new instruments. Groups 2 and 3 were dynamically immersed in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions for 10 min, respectively. The number of rotations to failure for various groups was analysed using the one-way analysis of variance software. For M3 files, the Ra and RMS values significantly increased (P  0.05) NaOCl. The resistance to cyclic fatigue of both HyFlex and M3 files did not significantly decrease (P > 0.05) by immersing in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Except the HyFlex files immersed in NaOCl, the surface roughness of other files exposed to irrigants increased. However, a change in the surface tomography of CM wire instruments caused by contact with irrigants for 10 min did not trigger a decrease in cyclic fatigue resistance. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  1. Fiber-optic based instrumentation for water and air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCraith, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper real-time in-situ water and air monitoring capabilities based on fiber-optic sensing technology are described. This relatively new technology combines advances in fiber optic and optoelectronics with chemical spectorscopic techniques to enable field environmental monitoring of sub ppm quantities of specific pollutants. The advantages of this technology over conventional sampling methods are outlined. As it is the more developed area the emphasis is on water quality monitoring rather than air. Examples of commercially available, soon-to be available and laboratory systems are presented. One such example is a system used to detect hydrocarbon spills and leaking of underground hydrocarbon storage tanks

  2. Intercomparison of radiation protection instruments based on microdosimetric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schmitz, T.

    1986-11-01

    Dosemeters based on low-pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters were developed for the application in radiation protection area monitoring by several groups in Europe. Five different prototypes have been intercompared in a 60 Co photon field, in monoenergetic neutron fields with various energies between 73 keV and 5 MeV and in three neutron fields at a 252 Cf source moderated by a D 2 O sphere. This report describes the radiation fields, the measuring devices and first results of the intercomparison. Additional measurements with a system used in microdosimetry and with a conventional dose equivalent rate meter for neutrons (Rem Counter) were also described. (orig.) [de

  3. Reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions has no effect on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schicht, Olivier; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals. Aqueous solutions containing 15.5% EDTA, 10% citric acid, or 18% 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) were prepared with and without 1% (wt/wt) polysorbate (Tween) 80 and 9% propylene glycol. Surface tension in these solutions was measured using the Wilhelmy method. Sixty-four extracted, single-rooted human teeth of similar length were instrumented and irrigated with a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and then randomly assigned (n = 8 per group) to receive a final one-minute rinse with 5 ml of test solutions, water, or the pure aqueous Tween/propylene glycol solution. Calcium concentration in eluates was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Incorporation of wetting agents resulted in a reduction of surface tension values by approximately 50% in all tested solutions. However, none of the solutions with reduced surface tension chelated more calcium from canals than their pure counterparts (p > 0.05).

  4. An In Vitro Evaluation of Alumina, Zirconia, and Lithium Disilicate Surface Roughness Caused by Two Scaling Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Buzzo, Ottavia; Buzzo, Maurizio; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2017-02-01

    Plaque control is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal disease. Hand scaling instruments have been shown to be efficient for the removal of plaque; however, routine periodontal prophylactic procedures may modify the surface profile of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the changes in roughness of alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate surfaces treated by two hand scaling instruments. Forty-eight alumina specimens, 48 zirconia specimens, and 48 lithium disilicate specimens, were selected. All specimens were divided into three groups of 16 each; one group for each material was considered the control group and no scaling procedures were performed; the second group of each material was exposed to scaling with steel curettes simulating standard clinical conditions; the third group of each material was exposed to scaling with titanium curettes. After scaling, the surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated with a profilometer. First, a statistical test was carried out to evaluate the difference in surface roughness before the scaling procedure of the three materials was effected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Subsequently, the effect of curette material (steel and titanium) on roughness difference and roughness ratio was analyzed throughout the entire sample and within each material group, and a nonparametric test for dependent values was conducted (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Finally, the roughness ratios of the three material groups were compared by means of a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Upon completion of profilometric evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for SEM evaluation to evaluate the effects of the two scaling systems on the different surfaces qualitatively. After scaling procedure, the roughness profile value increased in all disks. Classifying the full sample according to curette used, the roughness of the disks treated with a steel curette reached a

  5. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  6. The design of a simple radon-detecting instrument based on MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Genyuan; Qiu Yingyu; Zhang Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Introduction are given on the internal composition of the radon-detecting instrument based on MCU and the working of the real electric circuit. The single-chip microcomputer P89C58 of PHILIPS is adopted as the micro-controller of the instrument, realizing such functions as counting input pulses within fixed time, data processing, liquid crystal display, keyboard interface, serial communication, etc. The instrument turns out to be low in work consumption, with relatively high degree of concentration and computerization, and is recommended for field operations. (authors)

  7. The design of a simple radon-detecting instrument based on MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Genyuan; Chen Jianjun; Zhang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Introduction are given on the internal composition of the radon-detecting instrument based on MCU and the working of the real electric circuit. The single-chip microcomputer P89C58 of PHILIPS is adopted as the micro-controller of the instrument, realizing such functions as counting input pulses within fixed time, data processing, liquid crystal display, keyboard interface, serial communication, etc. The instrument turns out to be low in work consumption, with relatively high degree of concentration and computerization, and is recommended for field operations. (authors)

  8. The design of a simple portable γ ray detecting instrument based on MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunmei; Cao Wen; Zhang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The internal composition of the γ ray detecting instrument based on MCU and the working of the real electric circuit are introduced. The single-chip microcomputer of PHILIPS is adopted as the micro-controller of the instrument, realizing such functions as counting input pulses within fixed time, data processing, liquid crystal display, keyboard interface, serial communication, etc. The instrument turns out to be low in work consumption, with relatively high degree of concentration and computerization, and is recommended for field operations. (authors)

  9. A leak-detection instrument for long buried pipelines based on radioactive tracer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingqian; Zhou Shuxuan; Tang Yonghua; Sun Xiaolei; Hu Xusheng; Li Deyi; Yin Liqiang

    1987-01-01

    The instrument introduced provides a means for leak detection of long buried pipelines based on the radioactive tracer technique. The principle, block diagram and performances for the instrument are described. The leak-detecting method and the determination of some related parameters are also presented. Leak-detection sensitivity of the instrument is 185 kBq (5 μCi). Accuracy for leak localization is within 2.5 m (per km). It is suitable for the buried light oil (gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil) and industrial water pipelines with a diameter of 15 or 20 cm. The detection length for a single operation reaches up to 50 km

  10. Analysis and research of PWR instrument commissioning based on Simulink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhenhua; Liu Daoguang; Qiu Shaoshuai; Yang Zongwei; Feng Guangyu

    2013-01-01

    Based on Simulink platform, a mathematical model of the lead lag link, differential unit, arithmetic logic module is built. Considering the specific problems encountered in the debug field work, this model is applied in the analysis of key modules and controller and in the resolving of eddy current problems. The test process dynamic control characteristic is simulated, to analyze the trend of the actual response, and conduct the simulation study and propose the concrete solutions. The actual debugging process proved that the use of simulation technology to find the problem, optimize the control data, and adjust the control strategy is very important for the early detection of problems and to speed the test process, shorten the debug duration and increase the debug quality. (authors)

  11. The maintenance of inserted titanium implants: in-vitro evaluation of exposed surfaces cleaned with three different instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lusuardi, Donatella; Battarra, Francesca; Sassatelli, Paolo; Spinato, Sergio; Zaffe, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Changes to titanium implants smooth-surfaces after instrumentation were comparatively analyzed using low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) and white-light confocal (WLC) profilometry, to accurately evaluate curved surfaces. Sixty titanium implants screwed to their abutments were randomly split into three groups for cleaning treatment with (S) stainless-steel Gracey-curettes, (T) titanium Langer-curettes, and (P) an ultrasonic-device with the probe covered with a plastic-tip. One sector of each implant was left unprocessed (U). The other sectors were cleaned for either 60 s, to simulate a single cleaning session, or 180 s to simulate a series of sessions. Surface morphology was analyzed by LV-SEM, without metal sputtering. Quantitative evaluations of the roughness of surfaces were performed using a WLC-profilometer. The Wilcoxon and the Mann-Whitney tests were used in statistical comparisons. U-surfaces showed that thin transverse ridges and grooves, i.e. a polarized surface roughness was substantially compromised after S-instrumentation. Small surface alterations, increasing with time, were also recorded after T-·and·P-instrumentation, although to a lesser degree. The gap of the fixture-abutment connection appeared almost completely clean after T-, clotted with titanium debris after S-, and clotted with plastic debris after P-treatment. The mean roughness (Ra) was unchanged after P-, significantly increased after S- and decreased after T-treatment, when compared with U. The Rz roughness-parameter, calculated along the fixture Y-axis, of S, T, and P resulted similar and significantly lower than that of U. Rz (X-axis) resulted unchanged after P-, slightly increased (+40%) after T-, and greatly increased (+260%) after S-treatment, this latter being statistically significant when compared with U. The careful use of titanium-curettes could produce only minimal smooth surface alteration particularly over prolonged treatments, and avoid debris production

  12. VME-based remote instrument control without ground loops

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; González, J L

    1997-01-01

    New electronics has been developed for the remote control of the pick-up electrodes at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS). Communication between VME-based control computers and remote equipment is via full duplex point-to-point digital data links. Data are sent and received in serial format over simple twisted pairs at a rate of 1 Mbit/s, for distances of up to 300 m. Coupling transformers are used to avoid ground loops. The link hardware consists of a general-purpose VME-module, the 'TRX' (transceiver), containing four FIFO-buffered communication channels, and a dedicated control card for each remote station. Remote transceiver electronics is simple enough not to require micro-controllers or processors. Currently, some sixty pick-up stations of various types, all over the PS Complex (accelerators and associated beam transfer lines) are equipped with the new system. Even though the TRX was designed primarily for communication with pick-up electronics, it could also be used for other purposes, for example to for...

  13. A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert; Königer, Martina; Schjeide, Brit-Maren; Dikmak, George; Kohler, Susan; Harris, Gary C

    2006-03-01

    A new microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring blue light dependent changes in leaf transmission (chloroplast movement) was developed based on a modification of the double-beam technique developed by Walzcak and Gabrys [(1980) Photosynthetica 14: 65-72]. A blue and red bicolor light emitting diode (LED) provided both a variable intensity blue actinic light and a low intensity red measuring beam. A phototransistor detected the intensity of the transmitted measuring light. An inexpensive microcontroller independently and precisely controlled the light emission of the bicolor LED. A typical measurement event involved turning off the blue actinic light for 100 mus to create a narrow temporal window for turning on and measuring the transmittance of the red light. The microcontroller was programmed using LogoChip Logo (http://www.wellesley.edu/Physics/Rberg/logochip/) to record fluence rate response curves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to correlate the changes in leaf transmission with intercellular chloroplast position. In the dark, the chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll exhibited no evident asymmetries in their distribution, however, in the palisade layer the cell surface in contact with the overlying epidermis was devoid of chloroplasts. The low light dependent decrease in leaf transmittance in dark acclimated leaves was correlated with the movement of chloroplasts within the palisade layer into the regions previously devoid of chloroplasts. Changes in leaf transmittance were evident within one minute following the onset of illumination. Minimal leaf transmittance was correlated with chloroplasts having retreated from cell surfaces perpendicular to the incident light (avoidance reaction) in both spongy and palisade layers.

  14. Development of a web based instrument on higher education structures of industrial engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Tarba Ioan-Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The research and development of assisted operational instruments on higher education structures of industrial engineering represent a continuous and complex process. The present paper contributes to the building up of support elements and an assisted operational instrument on higher education structures of industrial engineering, with focus on the specific curricula. The use of tested and validated constructive solutions from other projects, as base for the new design, reduces the design time.

  15. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  16. Analysis of Surface Characteristics of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next Instruments by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffery; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Fong, Hanson; Johnson, James; Paranjpe, Avina

    2017-07-01

    Many new rotary files systems have been introduced, however, limited research has been conducted related to the surface irregularities of these files and if these have any effects on the files themselves. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze surface irregularities of the ProTaper® Universal rotary files (PTU) and the ProTaper Next™ rotary files (PTN) before and after instrumentation in curved canals. The main objective was to investigate the nature of these irregularities and how they might influence the use and fracture of rotary files during root-canal treatments. The files were examined pre-operatively using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) to analyze surface imperfections and the presence of particles. Mesial roots of forty extracted mandibular molars were selected. Each instrument was used to prepare one of the mesial canals. The files were then rinsed with alcohol, and autoclaved and analyzed again. Of the 80 files used in this study, five files fractured, five files unwound and seven files were curved or bent and they all belonged to the PTU group. Irregularities and debris could be visualized with the SEM on both unused PTU and PTN files. Most of the debris was found associated with deeper milling grooves and defects on the surface of the metal. Surface analysis of the files that were used and sterilized were performed and the SEM images demonstrated organic debris, metal flash, and crack formation and initiation of fractures for both file types. All files showed machining grooves, metal flash, debris, and defects on cutting edges. These irregularities appear to be critical in the accumulation of debris and initiation of fatigue and crack propagation within the NiTi alloy. The accumulation of debris could be a concern due to the potential exchange of organic debris between patients. Key words: ProTaper® Universal, ProTaper Next™, surface characteristics, SEM.

  17. An integrated high temperature environmental cell for atom probe tomography studies of gas-surface reactions: Instrumentation and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.R.; Bagot, P.A.J.; Rajan, K.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated environmental cell has been designed and developed for the latest generation of Atom Probe Tomography LEAP™ instruments, allowing controlled exposure of samples to gases at high temperatures. Following treatment, samples can be transferred through the LEAP vacuum system for subsequent APT analysis, which provides detailed information on changes to chemical microstructures following the reactions with near-atomic resolution. A full description of the cell is presented, along with some sample results on the oxidation of aluminum and two platinum-group alloys, demonstrating the capability of combining exposure/characterization functionality in a single instrument. - Highlights: • Designed and built atom probe environmental cell for in situ reactions. • Investigated Al oxidation, and demonstrated improvement with new cell. • in situ APT analysis of Pt-alloys showed surface segregation of Rh and Ir

  18. TextureCam Field Test Results from the Mojave Desert, California: Autonomous Instrument Classification of Sediment and Rock Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, R.; Abbey, W. J.; Bekker, D. L.; Cabrol, N. A.; Francis, R.; Manatt, K.; Ortega, K.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2013-12-01

    TextureCam is an intelligent camera that uses integrated image analysis to classify sediment and rock surfaces into basic visual categories. This onboard image understanding can improve the autonomy of exploration spacecraft during the long periods when they are out of contact with operators. This could increase the number of science activities performed in each command cycle by, for example, autonomously targeting science features of opportunity with narrow field of view remote sensing, identifying clean surfaces for autonomous placement of arm-mounted instruments, or by detecting high value images for prioritized downlink. TextureCam incorporates image understanding directly into embedded hardware with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This allows the instrument to perform the classification in real time without taxing the primary spacecraft computing resources. We use a machine learning approach in which operators train a statistical model of surface appearance using examples from previously acquired images. A random forest model extrapolates from these training cases, using the statistics of small image patches to characterize the texture of each pixel independently. Applying this model to each pixel in a new image yields a map of surface units. We deployed a prototype instrument in the Cima Volcanic Fields during a series of experiments in May 2013. We imaged each environment with a tripod-mounted RGB camera connected directly to the FPGA board for real time processing. Our first scenario assessed ground surface cover on open terrain atop a weathered volcanic flow. We performed a transect consisting of 16 forward-facing images collected at 1m intervals. We trained the system to categorize terrain into four classes: sediment, basalt cobbles, basalt pebbles, and basalt with iron oxide weathering. Accuracy rates with regards to the fraction of the actual feature that was labeled correctly by the automated system were calculated. Lower accuracy rates were

  19. A Reliability and Validity of an Instrument to Evaluate the School-Based Assessment System: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nor Hasnida Md

    2016-01-01

    A valid, reliable and practical instrument is needed to evaluate the implementation of the school-based assessment (SBA) system. The aim of this study is to develop and assess the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure the perception of teachers towards the SBA implementation in schools. The instrument is developed based on a…

  20. Endoscopic vision-based tracking of multiple surgical instruments during robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jiwon; Choi, Jaesoon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is effective for operations in limited space. Enhancing safety based on automatic tracking of surgical instrument position to prevent inadvertent harmful events such as tissue perforation or instrument collisions could be a meaningful augmentation to current robotic surgical systems. A vision-based instrument tracking scheme as a core algorithm to implement such functions was developed in this study. An automatic tracking scheme is proposed as a chain of computer vision techniques, including classification of metallic properties using k-means clustering and instrument movement tracking using similarity measures, Euclidean distance calculations, and a Kalman filter algorithm. The implemented system showed satisfactory performance in tests using actual robot-assisted surgery videos. Trajectory comparisons of automatically detected data and ground truth data obtained by manually locating the center of mass of each instrument were used to quantitatively validate the system. Instruments and collisions could be well tracked through the proposed methods. The developed collision warning system could provide valuable information to clinicians for safer procedures. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for resolving conflicting nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    We describe one design for a microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for identifying and resolving false, conflicting, or misleading instrument indications resulting from certain systems interactions for a pressurized water reactor. The system processes sensor signals from groups of instruments that track together under nominal transient and certain accident conditions, and alarms when they do not track together. We examine multiple-casualty systems interaction and formulate a trial grouping of variables that track together under specified conditions. A two-of-three type redundancy check of key variables provides alarm and indication of conflicting information when one signal suddenly tracks in opposition due to multiple casualty, instrument failure, and/or locally abnormal conditions. Since a vote count of two of three variables in conflict as inconclusive evidence, the system is not designed to provide tripping or corrective action, but improves the operator/instrument interface by providing additional and partially digested information

  2. Application of instrument platform based embedded Linux system on intelligent scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jikun; Yang Run'an; Xia Minjian; Yang Zhijun; Li Lianfang; Yang Binhua

    2011-01-01

    It designs a instrument platform based on embedded Linux system and peripheral circuit, by designing Linux device driver and application program based on QT Embedded, various functions of the intelligent scaler are realized. The system architecture is very reasonable, so the stability and the expansibility and the integration level are increased, the development cycle is shorten greatly. (authors)

  3. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  4. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  5. Evaluation of two disinfection/sterilization methods on silicon rubber-based composite finishing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Vánia A; Pereira, Leandro O; Hirata JUNIOR, Raphael; Perez, Cesar R

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of disinfection/sterilization methods and their effects on polishing capacity, micomorphology, and composition of two different composite fiishing and polishing instruments. Two brands of finishing and polishing instruments (Jiffy and Optimize), were analyzed. For the antimicrobial test, 60 points (30 of each brand) were used for polishing composite restorations and submitted to three different groups of disinfection/sterilization methods: none (control), autoclaving, and immersion in peracetic acid for 60 minutes. The in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the polishing performance on resin composite disks (Amelogen) using a 3D scanner (Talyscan) and to evaluate the effects on the points' surface composition (XRF) and micromorphology (MEV) after completing a polishing and sterilizing routine five times. Both sterilization/disinfection methods were efficient against oral cultivable organisms and no deleterious modification was observed to point surface.

  6. Reliability assessment of a peer evaluation instrument in a team-based learning course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahawisan J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the reliability of a peer evaluation instrument in a longitudinal team-based learning setting. Methods: Student pharmacists were instructed to evaluate the contributions of their peers. Evaluations were analyzed for the variance of the scores by identifying low, medium, and high scores. Agreement between performance ratings within each group of students was assessed via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Results: We found little variation in the standard deviation (SD based on the score means among the high, medium, and low scores within each group. The lack of variation in SD of results between groups suggests that the peer evaluation instrument produces precise results. The ICC showed strong concordance among raters. Conclusions: Findings suggest that our student peer evaluation instrument provides a reliable method for peer assessment in team-based learning settings.

  7. A compact HV supply for field/PC based nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, A.; Nikhare, D.M.; Madhavi, V.; Bayala, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Kataria, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent years, most of the nuclear instruments that were earlier based on NIM Bin standards, are becoming available as PC Add-on cards. This trend is due to the decreasing prices of desktop personal computers and the necessity for automation in radioactivity measurements. This paper describes the design and development of a HV supply module and its PC Add-on card version for field portable/ PC based nuclear instrumentation. The HV supply though being very compact in size meets all the stringent specifications required for detector biasing applications and it has been tested for use with NaI, BF 3 . (author)

  8. A Method for Modeling the Virtual Instrument Automatic Test System Based on the Petri Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Min; CHEN Guang-ju

    2005-01-01

    Virtual instrument is playing the important role in automatic test system. This paper introduces a composition of a virtual instrument automatic test system and takes the VXIbus based a test software platform which is developed by CAT lab of the UESTC as an example. Then a method to model this system based on Petri net is proposed. Through this method, we can analyze the test task scheduling to prevent the deadlock or resources conflict. At last, this paper analyzes the feasibility of this method.

  9. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  10. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  11. The Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot: Development of Workplace-Based Assessment Content, Instruments, and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Patricia J; Margolis, Melissa; Poynter, Sue E; Chaffinch, Christa; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Turner, Teri L; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda; Lockridge, Robin; Clyman, Stephen G; Schwartz, Alan

    2016-05-01

    To report on the development of content and user feedback regarding the assessment process and utility of the workplace-based assessment instruments of the Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot (PMAP). One multisource feedback instrument and two structured clinical observation instruments were developed and refined by experts in pediatrics and assessment to provide evidence for nine competencies based on the Pediatrics Milestones (PMs) and chosen to inform residency program faculty decisions about learners' readiness to serve as pediatric interns in the inpatient setting. During the 2012-2013 PMAP study, 18 U.S. pediatric residency programs enrolled interns and subinterns. Faculty, residents, nurses, and other observers used the instruments to assess learner performance through direct observation during a one-month rotation. At the end of the rotation, data were aggregated for each learner, milestone levels were assigned using a milestone classification form, and feedback was provided to learners. Learners and site leads were surveyed and/or interviewed about their experience as participants. Across the sites, 2,338 instruments assessing 239 learners were completed by 630 unique observers. Regarding end-of-rotation feedback, 93% of learners (128/137) agreed the assessments and feedback "helped me understand how those with whom I work perceive my performance," and 85% (117/137) agreed they were "useful for constructing future goals or identifying a developmental path." Site leads identified several benefits and challenges to the assessment process. PM-based instruments used in workplace-based assessment provide a meaningful and acceptable approach to collecting evidence of learner competency development. Learners valued feedback provided by PM-based assessment.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR NURSES BASED ON WEB IN INPATIENT UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Nuryanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Performance assessment instrument will be problematic when it is not representative in describing the competency because it is not obvious indicators and inappropriate performance standard to nursing’s task. The purpose of this study is to develop nurses’ performance assessment instrument based on the web from multi sources assessment inpatient unit at SMC Hospital. Methods: This study had two phases. The first phase was an explanatory overview of the performance assessment system using questionnaires completed by 53 respondents of nurses, selected by purposive sampling. Instrument development based on FGD with six decision makers in the hospital. Validity was tested by Pearson Product Moment Correlation and reliability of instrument’s was tested by alpha Cronbach. The second phase was socialization and instrument test to observe the quality of instrument using a questionnaire by 47 respondents and recommendations made by 8 participants of FGD. The samples were selected by purposive sampling technique. Performance assessment system was moderate at 58.49%. All questions which aimed to measure the performance of nurses were valid and reliable. The quality of nurses’ performance assessment instruments based on the web was a good category, which was functionality: 81.60; reliability: 78.16; efficiency: 80.85; usability: 81.70 and portability: 81.70. Results: The result was a web-based assessment format, scoring with Likert scale, resource assessment by the direct supervisor which was a multisource evaluator, the development of performance graph, and confidentiality of data on the database server. Discussion: Recommendations for hospital is to make policy based on the final value of the performance assessment by the supervisor which was multisource feedback and it needs a global writing on a form of performance assessment result.

  13. Surface composition of Europa based on VLT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, N.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a global salty ocean under an 80-170 km thick outer layer consisting of an icy crust (Anderson et al. 1998). Meanwhile, the 10-50 My old surface, dated by cratering rates (Pappalardo et al. 1999) implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing that could result in tectonic activity (Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface could thus exhibit fingerprints of chemical species, as minerals characteristics of an ocean-mantle interaction and/or organics of exobiological interest, directly originating from the subglacial ocean. In order to re-investigate the composition of Europa's surface, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) and large signal noise ratio in comparison to previous observations are adequate to detect sharp absorptions in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. In addition, the spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s ( 35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Several icy and non-icy compounds were detected and mapped at <100 km resolution. They are unevenly distributed on the moon's surface. Amorphous and crystalline water ice are both present and, in spite of a particularly strong amorphization process likely engendered by the Io plasma torus, the crystalline form is found to be approximately twice as abundant as the amorphous ice based on the analysis of the 1.65 μm band. If the surface is dominated by small and mid-sized water ice grains (25-200 μm), crystalline water-ice grains exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in their distribution. The sulfuric acid hydrate distribution exhibits the typical "bullseye" feature on the trailing hemisphere. The presence of Mg-bearing chlorinated salts (chloride

  14. Instrumental studies on silicone oil adsorption to the surface of intraocular lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Ho [Lab. of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Choun-Ki [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Medical College of Catholic University, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Heung Jae, E-mail: chunhj@catholic.ac.kr [Institute of Cell and Tissue Engineering, Medical College of Catholic University, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Bok Ryul [Organosilicone Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Dong Il; Shim, Young Bock [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Korea Bone Bank Co. Ltd., Seoul 153-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that PHEMA and Acrysof IOLs possess silicone oil repellant ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The residual silicone oil was detected on the surfaces of PMMA and silicone IOLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS studies showed that silicone oil coverage of PMMA lenses was 12%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicone oil covered the entire surface of the silicone IOLs. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of adherence of silicone oil to various intraocular lenses (IOLs) through comparison of the physico-chemical properties of the oil and IOLs. Four kinds of IOLs comprising various biomaterials were examined: PMMA (720A Trade-Mark-Sign ), PHEMA (IOGEL 1103 Trade-Mark-Sign ), Acrysof (MA60BM Trade-Mark-Sign ), and silicone (SI30NB Trade-Mark-Sign ). Each lens was immersed in silicone oil or carboxylated silicone (CS-PDMS) oil for 72 h. For determination of the changes in chemical and elemental compositions on the surfaces of IOLs caused by the contact with silicone oil, IOLs were washed and rinsed with n-pentane to remove as much of the adsorbed silicone oil as possible, then subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses. The results of FTIR studies strongly indicate that washing with n-pentane completely removed the adhered silicone oil on the surfaces of PHEMA and Acrysof IOLs, whereas the residual silicone oil was detected on the surfaces of PMMA and silicone IOLs. XPS studies showed that silicone oil coverage of PMMA lenses was 12%, even after washing with n-pentane. In the case of silicone IOLs, the relative O1s peak area of carboxyl group in the residual CS-PDMS oil was found to be {approx}2.7%. Considering that 2.8% carboxyl group-substituted silicone oil was used in the present study, CS-PDMS oil covered the entire surface of the silicone IOLs.

  15. Development and validity of mathematical learning assessment instruments based on multiple intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmiah Suryani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to develop and produce an assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence. The methods in this study used Borg & Gall-Research and Development approach (Research & Development. The subject of research was 289 students. The results of research: (1 Result of Aiken Analysis showed 58 valid items were between 0,714 to 0,952. (2 Result of the Exploratory on factor analysis indicated the instrument consist of three factors i.e. mathematical logical intelligence-spatial intelligence-and linguistic intelligence. KMO value was 0.661 df 0.780 sig. 0.000 with valid category. This research succeeded to developing the assessment instrument of mathematical learning results based on multiple intelligence of second grade in elementary school with characteristics of logical intelligence of mathematics, spatial intelligence, and linguistic intelligence.

  16. Design of coordinated controller in nuclear power plant based on digital instrument and control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai; Zhao Qiang; Deng Xiangxin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) is a multi-input and multi-output, no-linear and time-varying complex system. The conventional PID controller is usually used in NPP control system which is based on analog instrument. The system parameters are easy to overshoot and the response time is longer in the control mode of the conventional PID. In order to improve this condition, a new coordinated control strategy which is based on expert system and the original controllers in the digital instrument and control technology was presented. In order to verify and validate it, the proposed coordinated control technology was tested by the full-scope real-time simulation system. The results prove that using digital instrument and control technology to achieve coordinated controller is feasible, the coordinated controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the system, and the coordinated controller is superior to the conventional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  17. An instrumentation amplifier based readout circuit for a dual element microbolometer infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, D. J.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    The infrared band is widely used in many applications to solve problems stretching over very diverse fields, ranging from medical applications like inflammation detection to military, security and safety applications employing thermal imaging in low light conditions. At the heart of these optoelectrical systems lies a sensor used to detect incident infrared radiation, and in the case of this work our focus is on uncooled microbolometers as thermal detectors. Microbolometer based thermal detectors are limited in sensitivity by various parameters, including the detector layout and design, operating temperature, air pressure and biasing that causes self heating. Traditional microbolometers use the entire membrane surface for a single detector material. This work presents the design of a readout circuit amplifier where a dual detector element microbolometer is used, rather than the traditional single element. The concept to be investigated is based on the principle that both elements will be stimulated with a similar incoming IR signal and experience the same resistive change, thus creating a common mode signal. However, such a common mode signal will be rejected by a differential amplifier, thus one element is placed within a negative resistance converter to create a differential mode signal that is twice the magnitude of the comparable single mode signal of traditional detector designs. An instrumentation amplifier is used for the final stage of the readout amplifier circuit, as it allows for very high common mode rejection with proper trimming of the Wheatstone bridge to compensate for manufacturing tolerance. It was found that by implementing the above, improved sensitivity can be achieved.

  18. Principal components based support vector regression model for on-line instrument calibration monitoring in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, In Yong; Ha, Bok Nam; Lee, Sung Woo; Shin, Chang Hoon; Kim, Seong Jun

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPPs), periodic sensor calibrations are required to assure that sensors are operating correctly. By checking the sensor's operating status at every fuel outage, faulty sensors may remain undetected for periods of up to 24 months. Moreover, typically, only a few faulty sensors are found to be calibrated. For the safe operation of NPP and the reduction of unnecessary calibration, on-line instrument calibration monitoring is needed. In this study, principal component based auto-associative support vector regression (PCSVR) using response surface methodology (RSM) is proposed for the sensor signal validation of NPPs. This paper describes the design of a PCSVR-based sensor validation system for a power generation system. RSM is employed to determine the optimal values of SVR hyperparameters and is compared to the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed PCSVR model is confirmed with the actual plant data of Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and is compared with the Auto-Associative support vector regression (AASVR) and the auto-associative neural network (AANN) model. The auto-sensitivity of AASVR is improved by around six times by using a PCA, resulting in good detection of sensor drift. Compared to AANN, accuracy and cross-sensitivity are better while the auto-sensitivity is almost the same. Meanwhile, the proposed RSM for the optimization of the PCSVR algorithm performs even better in terms of accuracy, auto-sensitivity, and averaged maximum error, except in averaged RMS error, and this method is much more time efficient compared to the conventional GA method

  19. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  20. Research on seamless development of surgical instruments based on biological mechanisms using CAD and 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ikuo; Ota, Ren; Zhu, Rui; Lawn, Murray; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Katsunori; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    In the area of manufacturing surgical instruments, the ability to rapidly design, prototype and test surgical instruments is critical. This paper provides a simple case study of the rapid development of two bio-mechanism based surgical instruments which are ergonomic, aesthetic and were successfully designed, prototyped and conceptually tested in a very short period of time.

  1. Developing Learning Model Based on Local Culture and Instrument for Mathematical Higher Order Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…

  2. Design of embedded hardware platform in intelligent γ-spectrometry instrument based on ARM9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Fang Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of embedded hardware platform based on ARM9 S3C2410A, emphases are focused on analyzing the methods of design the circuits of memory, LCD and keyboard ports. It presented a new solution of hardware platform in intelligent portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  3. A Checklist for Reporting Valuation Studies of Multi-Attribute Utility-Based Instruments (CREATE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Feng; Pickard, A. Simon; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Revicki, Dennis; Viney, Rosalie; Devlin, Nancy; Feeny, David

    Multi-attribute utility-based instruments (MAUIs) assess health status and provide an index score on the full health-dead scale, and are widely used to support reimbursement decisions for new healthcare interventions worldwide. A valuation study is a key part of the development of MAUIs, with the

  4. Explaining perceived oral texture of starch-based custard desserts from standard and novel instrumental tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of in vitro and in vivo instrumental tests have been developed to reflect various aspects of the perceived oral texture of starch-based vanilla custard desserts. These tests include measurements of the food's infra-red reflectance (IRR), of the turbidity of spat-out rinse water, and of the

  5. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  6. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  7. USB port compatible virtual instrument based automation for x-ray diffractometer setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Sheela, O.K.; Mallika, R.; Thiruarul, A.; Purniah, B.

    2004-01-01

    Windows based virtual instrument (VI) programs in graphic language simplify the design automation in R and D laboratories. With minimal hardware and maximum support of software, the automation becomes easier and user friendly. A novel design approach for the automation of SIEMENS make x-ray diffractometer setup is described in this paper. The automation is achieved with an indigenously developed virtual instrument program in labVIEW ver.6.0 and with a simple hardware design using 89C2051 micro-controller compatible with PC's USB port for the total automation of the experiment. (author)

  8. Design and implementation of embedded ion mobility spectrometry instrument based on SOPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genwei; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yanwei; Yang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    On the hardware platform with single CYCLONE IV FPGA Chip based on SOPC technology, the control functions of IP cores of a Ion Mobility Spectrometry instrument was tested, including 32 bit Nios II soft-core processor, high-voltage module, ion gate switch, gas flow, temperature and pressure sensors, signal acquisition and communication protocol. Embedded operating system μCLinux was successfully transplanted to the hardware platform, used to schedule all the tasks, such as system initialization, parameter setting, signal processing, recognition algorithm and results display. The system was validated using the IMS diagram of Acetone reagent, and the instrument was proved to have a strong signal resolution.

  9. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  10. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  11. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes

  12. The roles of lesson study in the development of mathematics learning instrument based on learning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnasanti; Dien, C. A.; Azizah, F.

    2018-03-01

    This study is aimed to describe Lesson Study (LS) activity and its roles in the development of mathematics learning instruments based on Learning Trajectory (LT). This study is a narrative study of teacher’s experiences in joining LS activity. Data collecting in this study will use three methods such as observation, documentations, and deep interview. The collected data will be analyzed with Milles and Huberman’s model that consists of reduction, display, and verification. The study result shows that through LS activity, teachers know more about how students think. Teachers also can revise their mathematics learning instrument in the form of lesson plan. It means that LS activity is important to make a better learning instruments and focus on how student learn not on how teacher teach.

  13. Safety critical FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems: assessment, development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhmach, E. S.; Siora, A. A.; Tokarev, V. I. [Research and Production Corporation Radiy, 29 Geroev Stalingrada Str., Kirovograd 25006 (Ukraine); Kharchenko, V. S.; Sklyar, V. V.; Andrashov, A. A., E-mail: marketing@radiy.co [Center for Safety Infrastructure-Oriented Research and Analysis, 37 Astronomicheskaya Str., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine)

    2010-10-15

    The stages of development, production, verification, licensing and implementation methods and technologies of safety critical instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP) based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Arrays) technologies are described. A life cycle model and multi-version technologies of dependability and safety assurance of FPGA-based instrumentation and control systems are discussed. An analysis of NPP instrumentation and control systems construction principles developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy using FPGA-technologies and results of these systems implementation and operation at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPP are presented. The RADIY{sup TM} platform has been designed and developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Ukraine. The main peculiarity of the RADIY{sup TM} platform is the use of FPGA as programmable components for logic control operation. The FPGA-based RADIY{sup TM} platform used for NPP instrumentation and control systems development ensures sca lability of system functions types, volume and peculiarities (by changing quantity and quality of sensors, actuators, input/output signals and control algorithms); sca lability of dependability (safety integrity) (by changing a number of redundant channel, tiers, diagnostic and reconfiguration procedures); sca lability of diversity (by changing types, depth and method of diversity selection). (Author)

  14. Safety critical FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems: assessment, development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmach, E. S.; Siora, A. A.; Tokarev, V. I.; Kharchenko, V. S.; Sklyar, V. V.; Andrashov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The stages of development, production, verification, licensing and implementation methods and technologies of safety critical instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP) based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Arrays) technologies are described. A life cycle model and multi-version technologies of dependability and safety assurance of FPGA-based instrumentation and control systems are discussed. An analysis of NPP instrumentation and control systems construction principles developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy using FPGA-technologies and results of these systems implementation and operation at Ukrainian and Bulgarian NPP are presented. The RADIY TM platform has been designed and developed by Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Ukraine. The main peculiarity of the RADIY TM platform is the use of FPGA as programmable components for logic control operation. The FPGA-based RADIY TM platform used for NPP instrumentation and control systems development ensures sca lability of system functions types, volume and peculiarities (by changing quantity and quality of sensors, actuators, input/output signals and control algorithms); sca lability of dependability (safety integrity) (by changing a number of redundant channel, tiers, diagnostic and reconfiguration procedures); sca lability of diversity (by changing types, depth and method of diversity selection). (Author)

  15. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-03-01

    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  16. Validation of an empirically based instrument for the assessment of the quality of teaching in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Prescher, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the quality of teaching is a necessary prerequisite for the evaluation and development of medical education and thus for high-quality patient care. Corresponding quality indicators can make the feedback for teachers comprehensible. A completely empirically based instrument for the assessment of the quality of teaching in medicine has not yet been described. Ten empirically based criteria from the field of general pedagogy were developed: clear structure, amount of true learning time...

  17. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  18. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Instrumental Develovement of 50 Meters Free Style Swimming Speed Measurement Based on Microcontroller Arduino Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruzaman; Rusdiana, A.; Gilang, M. R.; Martini, T.

    2017-03-01

    This study is purposed to make a software and hardware instrument in controlling the velocity of 50 meters free style swimming speed measurement based on microcontroller Arduino Uno. The writer uses 6 participants of advanced 2015 college students of sport education. The materials he uses are electronical series of microcontroller Arduino Uno base, laser sensors shone on light dependent resistor, laser receiver functions as a detector of laser cutting block, cables as connector transfering the data. This device consist of 4 installable censors in every 10 meters with the result of swimming speed showed on the monitors using visual basic 6.0 software. This instrument automatically works when the buzzer is pushed and also runs the timer on the application. For the procedure, the writer asks the participants to swim in free style along 50 meters. When the athlete swims, they will cut the laser of every censors so that it gives a signal to stop the running timer on the monitoring application. The output result the writer gets from this used instrument is to know how fast a swimmer swim in maximum speed, to know the time and distance of acceleration and decelaration that happens. The result of validity instrument shows 0,605 (high), while the reliability is 0,833 (very high).

  20. Development of a Symptom-Based Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Functional Dyspepsia: A Preliminary Conceptual Model and an Evaluation of the Adequacy of Existing Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona; Reasner, David S; Carson, Robyn T; Deal, Linda S; Foley, Catherine; Iovin, Ramon; Lundy, J Jason; Pompilus, Farrah; Shields, Alan L; Silberg, Debra G

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to document, from the perspective of the empirical literature, the primary symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD), evaluate the extent to which existing questionnaires target those symptoms, and, finally, identify any missing evidence that would impact the questionnaires' use in regulated clinical trials to assess treatment efficacy claims intended for product labeling. A literature review was conducted to identify the primary symptoms of FD and existing symptom-based FD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. Following a database search, abstracts were screened and articles were retrieved for review. The primary symptoms of FD were organized into a conceptual model and the PRO instruments were evaluated for conceptual coverage as well as compared against evidentiary requirements presented in the FDA's PRO Guidance for Industry. Fifty-six articles and 16 instruments assessing FD symptoms were reviewed. Concepts listed in the Rome III criteria for FD (n = 7), those assessed by existing FD instruments (n = 34), and symptoms reported by patients in published qualitative research (n = 6) were summarized in the FD conceptual model. Except for vomiting, all of the identified symptoms from the published qualitative research reports were also specified in the Rome III criteria. Only three of the 16 instruments, the Dyspepsia Symptom Severity Index (DSSI), Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI), and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI), measure all seven FD symptoms defined by the Rome III criteria. Among these three, each utilizes a 2-week recall period and 5-point Likert-type scale, and had evidence of patient involvement in development. Despite their coverage, when these instruments were evaluated in light of regulatory expectations, several issues jeopardized their potential qualification for substantiation of a labeling claim. No existing PRO instruments that measured all seven symptoms adhered to the regulatory principles necessary to support product

  1. Physical characterisation of endodontic instruments in NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2000-01-01

    NiTi based endodontic instruments are investigated in functionality and wear. The instrument surfaces have been studied applying Auger electron spectroscopy, mechanical analysis, differential-scanning calorimetry, wear tests, and scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  2. Replacement of the control and instrumentation system with the microprocessor based systems in Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.

    1998-01-01

    In Ohi Units 3 and 4, Ikata Unit 3, and Genkai Units 3 and 4, the latest of PWR plants now under operation in Japan, the reactor control system and turbine control system employ the microprocessor base digital control systems with a view to improving reliability, operability and maintainability. In the next stage plants, another application of such digital system is also planned for the instrumentation rack for the reactor protection system for further improvement. On the other hand, in Mihama Unit 1, the first of domestic PWR plants, and later plants except for the latest 5 plants, analog control systems are employed for the instrumentation racks. For the analog control systems of these plants, FOXBORO H-Line instruments, equivalent domestic box type instruments or WH7300 Series card type instruments were initially employed, and later replaced with domestic card type control systems after 10-15 year operation. However, 8-12 years have passed since these replacements, so the 15th year generally quoted as an interval for replacing C and I systems is near at hand. This is the time to consider next replacement. This replacement will be based on the latest digital technology. However, it is not practical way for the existing plants to apply the same integrated digital C and I system configuration for the next stage plants, because it requires the drastic change of the C and I system configuration and significant cost-up. Therefore, we must investigate the optimum digital C and I system configuration for the existing system. (author)

  3. Quality of persian addiction websites: a survey based on silberg, discern and wqet instruments (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Razieh; Taheri, Behjat; Shahrzadi, Leila; Tazhibi, Mehdi; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, World Wide Web is an accessible and widespread resource to attain medical information. So physicians and health institutions try to inform patients about different domains of medicine through Web. Addiction is a noteworthy subject in medicine and a controversial issue among them. However, quality of health information on the internet is doubtful. The objective of this study is to determine the quality of Persian addiction websites to offer recommendation for their improvement. This was survey and an applied study that the study population was all Persian addiction websites. Sample of this study was 28 Persian addiction website which were chosen by searching Persian equivalences of 7 key terms (addiction, addict, addiction center, drug, treatment of addiction, recovery of addiction, addiction withdrawal) into the Google and Yahoo search engines. Finally, the websites were ranked based on the Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments. Data were analyzed with Excel software using descriptive statistics. The overall mean of websites in Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments were 1.42, 41.89, 64.57. Also the results showed that "Unit of Substance Abuse Treatment" belonging to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences was ranked first based on the Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments. 5 (from total of 9), 60 (from total of 80) and 82 (from total of normalized grade 82) were grades for this website for these instruments respectively. It showed that the quality of Persian websites according to Silberg, DISCERN and WQET instruments was "low", "more than half" and "very good" respectively. Not assigning date of entering data, author names, and references of information (authority) were most important missing characteristics of these websites. In addition, lack of interactive opportunities like chat rooms was another problem that leads to dissatisfaction of users.

  4. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  5. Surface characterization of graphene based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarek, M.; Holdynski, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Nowakowski, R.; Roguska, A.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Jablonski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kind of samples: commercial graphene on Cu substrate and rGO flakes. • EPES applied to measure the IMFPs in graphene based materials. • Characterization by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS. • EPES IMFPs for rGO deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data. - Abstract: In the present study, two kind of samples were used: (i) a monolayer graphene film with a thickness of 0.345 nm deposited by the CVD method on Cu foil, (ii) graphene flakes obtained by modified Hummers method and followed by reduction of graphene oxide. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport in graphene/Cu sample and reduced graphene oxide material, which determines the sampling depth of XPS and AES were evaluated from relative Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) measurements with the Au standard in the energy range 0.5–2 keV. The measured IMFPs were compared with IMFPs resulting from experimental optical data published in the literature for the graphite sample. The EPES IMFP values at 0.5 and 1.5 keV was practically identical to that calculated from optical data for graphite (less than 4% deviation). For energies 1 and 2 keV, the EPES IMFPs for rGO were deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data by Tanuma et al. [1]. Before EPES measurements all samples were characterized by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS to visualize the surface morphology/topography and identify the chemical composition.

  6. Surface characterization of graphene based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarek, M., E-mail: mpisarek@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Holdynski, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Nowakowski, R.; Roguska, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Malolepszy, A. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, 00-065 Warsaw (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, 00-065 Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Two kind of samples: commercial graphene on Cu substrate and rGO flakes. • EPES applied to measure the IMFPs in graphene based materials. • Characterization by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS. • EPES IMFPs for rGO deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data. - Abstract: In the present study, two kind of samples were used: (i) a monolayer graphene film with a thickness of 0.345 nm deposited by the CVD method on Cu foil, (ii) graphene flakes obtained by modified Hummers method and followed by reduction of graphene oxide. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport in graphene/Cu sample and reduced graphene oxide material, which determines the sampling depth of XPS and AES were evaluated from relative Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) measurements with the Au standard in the energy range 0.5–2 keV. The measured IMFPs were compared with IMFPs resulting from experimental optical data published in the literature for the graphite sample. The EPES IMFP values at 0.5 and 1.5 keV was practically identical to that calculated from optical data for graphite (less than 4% deviation). For energies 1 and 2 keV, the EPES IMFPs for rGO were deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data by Tanuma et al. [1]. Before EPES measurements all samples were characterized by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS to visualize the surface morphology/topography and identify the chemical composition.

  7. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbag, M Alison; Pedersen, Nancy L; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13-0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.

  8. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  9. AFRRI's conversion to a microprocessor-based reactor instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark L.; Hodgdon, Kenneth M.

    1986-01-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is procuring a state-of- the-art microprocessor-based instrumentation and control system to operate AFRRI's 1 MW (steady-state), 3000 MW (pulse) TRIGA Mark-F reactor. This system will replace the current control console while improving or maintaining the existing operational capabilities and safety characteristics. The new unit will have a 15-year design life using state-of-the-art components

  10. The Development of an Instrument to Measure the Project Competences of College Students in Online Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to develop a self-report instrument to be used in the assessment of the project competences of college students engaged in online project-based learning. Three scales of the KIPSSE instrument developed for this study, namely, the knowledge integration, project skills, and self-efficacy scales, were based on related theories and…

  11. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ( 13 C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B o ), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13 C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging

  12. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  13. Instrumentation for low noise nanopore-based ionic current recording under laser illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Zachary; Bustamante, José A.; Carlsen, Autumn; Baker-Murray, Aidan; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    We describe a nanopore-based optofluidic instrument capable of performing low-noise ionic current recordings of individual biomolecules under laser illumination. In such systems, simultaneous optical measurements generally introduce significant parasitic noise in the electrical signal, which can severely reduce the instrument sensitivity, critically hindering the monitoring of single-molecule events in the ionic current traces. Here, we present design rules and describe simple adjustments to the experimental setup to mitigate the different noise sources encountered when integrating optical components to an electrical nanopore system. In particular, we address the contributions to the electrical noise spectra from illuminating the nanopore during ionic current recording and mitigate those effects through control of the illumination source and the use of a PDMS layer on the SiNx membrane. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our noise minimization strategies by showing the detection of DNA translocation events during membrane illumination with a signal-to-noise ratio of ˜10 at 10 kHz bandwidth. The instrumental guidelines for noise minimization that we report are applicable to a wide range of nanopore-based optofluidic systems and offer the possibility of enhancing the quality of synchronous optical and electrical signals obtained during single-molecule nanopore-based analysis.

  14. Content comparison of occupation-based instruments in adult rheumatology and musculoskeletal rehabilitation based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Tanja A; Cieza, Alarcos; Machold, Klaus P; Smolen, Josef S; Stucki, Gerold

    2004-12-15

    To compare the content of clinical, occupation-based instruments that are used in adult rheumatology and musculoskeletal rehabilitation in occupational therapy based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Clinical instruments of occupational performance and occupation in adult rehabilitation and rheumatology were identified in a literature search. All items of these instruments were linked to the ICF categories according to 10 linking rules. On the basis of the linking, the content of these instruments was compared and the relationship between the capacity and performance component explored. The following 7 instruments were identified: the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, the Sequential Occupational Dexterity Assessment, the Jebson Taylor Hand Function Test, the Moberg Picking Up Test, the Button Test, and the Functional Dexterity Test. The items of the 7 instruments were linked to 53 different ICF categories. Five items could not be linked to the ICF. The areas covered by the 7 occupation-based instruments differ importantly: The main focus of all 7 instruments is on the ICF component activities and participation. Body functions are covered by 2 instruments. Two instruments were linked to 1 single ICF category only. Clinicians and researchers who need to select an occupation-based instrument must be aware of the areas that are covered by this instrument and the potential areas that are not covered at all.

  15. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  16. Computer-based nuclear radiation detection and instrumentation teaching laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.; He, Q.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of computers into the University of Florida's Nuclear Engineering Sciences teaching laboratories is based on the innovative use of MacIntosh 2 microcomputers, IEEE-488 (GPIB) communication and control bus system and protocol, compatible modular nuclear instrumentation (NIM) and test equipment, LabVIEW graphics and applications software, with locally prepared, interactive, menu-driven, HyperCard based multi-exercise laboratory instruction sets and procedures. Results thus far have been highly successful with the majority of the laboratory exercises having been implemented

  17. Evaluation of a reconfigurable portable instrument for copper determination based on luminescent carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Castillo, Alfonso; Morales, Diego P; Lapresta-Fernández, Alejandro; Ariza-Avidad, María; Castillo, Encarnación; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Palma, Alberto J; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis Fermin

    2016-04-01

    A portable reconfigurable platform for copper (Cu(II)) determination based on luminescent carbon dot (Cdots) quenching is described. The electronic setup consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the carbon dot optical exciter and a photodiode as a light-to-current converter integrated in the same instrument. Moreover, the overall analog conditioning is simply performed with one integrated solution, a field-programmable analog array (FPAA), which makes it possible to reconfigure the filter and gain stages in real time. This feature provides adaptability to use the platform as an analytical probe for carbon dots coming from different batches with some variations in luminescence characteristics. The calibration functions obtained that fit a modified Stern-Volmer equation were obtained using luminescence signals from Cdots quenching by Cu(II). The analytical applicability of the reconfigurable portable instrument for Cu(II) using Cdots has been successfully demonstrated in tap water analysis.

  18. Development and design of a late-model fitness test instrument based on LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Feiqing

    2010-12-01

    Undergraduates are pioneers of China's modernization program and undertake the historic mission of rejuvenating our nation in the 21st century, whose physical fitness is vital. A smart fitness test system can well help them understand their fitness and health conditions, thus they can choose more suitable approaches and make practical plans for exercising according to their own situation. following the future trends, a Late-model fitness test Instrument based on LabView has been designed to remedy defects of today's instruments. The system hardware consists of fives types of sensors with their peripheral circuits, an acquisition card of NI USB-6251 and a computer, while the system software, on the basis of LabView, includes modules of user register, data acquisition, data process and display, and data storage. The system, featured by modularization and an open structure, is able to be revised according to actual needs. Tests results have verified the system's stability and reliability.

  19. Robust IFE Based Order Analysis of Rotating Machinery in Virtual Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y; Chi, Y L; Huang, Y Y; Qin, S R

    2006-01-01

    Character analysis plays an important role in fault-find and diagnosis of rotating machinery. Order analysis is one of the major methods in character analysis for the analysis of non-stationary vibration signals in run-up or coast down of rotating machinery. An order analysis method, which employs instantaneous frequency estimation based on time-frequency analysis, is introduced. In contrast with traditional order analysis methods, this method avoids the use of tachometer and other special hardware; hence it makes the application of order analysis simplified. The order analysis introduced in the paper with the character that only software is depended for order tracking makes it specially satisfy the requirement of Virtual Instruments. Corresponding order analysis items, such as order spectrum, order spectrum matrix and tracking order spectrum etc., which are applied in Virtual Instruments, are also introduced. A test example is provided to demonstrate the validity of the method presented

  20. Recent applications of microprocessor-based instruments in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, N.R.; Dennis, U.E.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of microprocessors in the design of nuclear power plant instrumentation has led to levels of measurement and control not available previously. In addition to the expected expansion of functional (system) capability, numerous desirable features now are possible. The added ability to both self-calibrate and perform compensation algorithms has led to dramatic improvements in accuracies, response times, and noise rejection. Automated performance checking and self-testing simplify troubleshooting and required periodic surveillance. Alphanumeric displays allow both menu-driven operation and user-prompting, which, in turn, contribute to mistake avoidance. New features of these microprocessor-based instruments are of specific benefit in nuclear power reactors, were safety is of prime concern. Greater reliability and accuracy can be provided. Shortened calibration, surveillance, and repair times reduce the exposure to unnecessary challenges of the plant's protection systems that can arise from spurious noise signals

  1. Virtual instrumention-based linearity test platform for DCCT of digital power supply at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Li Deming; Shen Tianjian; Liu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on virtual instrumentation, a reliable and effective test platform, performing instrument control, data acquisition and data recording, has been established to evaluate linearity of high performance DCCT (DC current transducer) for digital power supply at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The software in LabVIEW language was developed to perform computer communication via serial communication (RS232) and GPIB, providing a friendly user interface to the linearity test platform. This makes it easy to test the linearity and control power on or off and current output of high-precision and high-current DC constant current output power supply. The experimental data, stored in an EXCEL file, can be processed to obtain DCCT linearity, and provide basis to further analyze DCCT performance in the future. (authors)

  2. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  3. DESIGNING AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT BASED ON SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Ira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was describing the designing of instrument for affective assessment in English language teaching. The focus of the designing was only for observation sheet that will be used by English teachers during the teaching and learning process. The instrument was designed based on scientific approach that has five stages namely observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In the designing process, ADDIE Model was used as the method of research. The designing of instrument was considering the gap between the reality and the teachers’ need. The result showed that the designing was also notice to the affective taxonomy such as receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Then, three key words were used as the indicator to show the five levels of affective taxonomy such as seriously, volunteer, and without asked by teacher. Furthermore, eighteen types of affective such as religious, honesty, responsible, discipline, hard work, self confidence, logical thinking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, independent, curiosity, love knowledge, respect, polite, democracy, emotional intelligence, and pluralist were put on each stage of scientific approach. So, it is hoped that can be implemented in all of context of English language teaching at schools and can assess the students’ affective comprehensively.

  4. Promoting Environmental Justice through Civil-Based Instruments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Toxopeüs and Louis J. Kotzé

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Achieving environmental justice in South Africa is critically important, not only because of historical reasons rooted in the country’s apartheid past, but also to ensure that everyone in the country, especially marginalized and vulnerable sectors of society, are properly protected from disproportional environmental impacts. Another aim of environmental justice in South Africa is to ensure that everyone equally shares in the benefits of the country’s resources. In this article, we interrogate ways through which to achieve environmental justice in South Africa through the use of civil-based instruments (CBIs of environmental governance. The central hypothesis is that CBIs are particularly well-suited to contribute to the achievement of environmental justice since they are essentially instruments which empower civil society to become central stakeholders in environmental governance by fostering active participation in the decisions that may impact on the environment and people’s health and well-being. Through these instruments all of society, particularly disenfranchised people suffering most from environmental injustice, are afforded a platform to pursue their environment-related interests that may be affected by the decisions taken by government and private actors such as polluting companies. For the purpose of the discussion we focus specifically on public participation, access to information and access to justice, all of which are generally accepted as CBIs, including in international law.

  5. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  6. Improved retrieval of cloud base heights from ceilometer using a non-standard instrument method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Zhanqing; Hu, Shuzhen; Chen, Tianmeng; Tao, Fa; Wang, Yuzhao

    2018-04-01

    Cloud-base height (CBH) is a basic cloud parameter but has not been measured accurately, especially under polluted conditions due to the interference of aerosol. Taking advantage of a comprehensive field experiment in northern China in which a variety of advanced cloud probing instruments were operated, different methods of detecting CBH are assessed. The Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) and the Vaisala ceilometer (CL51) provided two types of backscattered profiles. The latter has been employed widely as a standard means of measuring CBH using the manufacturer's operational algorithm to generate standard CBH products (CL51 MAN) whose quality is rigorously assessed here, in comparison with a research algorithm that we developed named value distribution equalization (VDE) algorithm. It was applied to both the profiles of lidar backscattering data from the two instruments. The VDE algorithm is found to produce more accurate estimates of CBH for both instruments and can cope with heavy aerosol loading conditions well. By contrast, CL51 MAN overestimates CBH by 400 m and misses many low level clouds under such conditions. These findings are important given that CL51 has been adopted operationally by many meteorological stations in China.

  7. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  8. Micro-controller based air pressure monitoring instrumentation system using optical fibers as sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, D.; Pegu, D. S.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a micro-controller based instrumentation system to monitor air pressure using optical fiber sensors. The principle of macrobending is used to develop the sensor system. The instrumentation system consists of a laser source, a beam splitter, two multi mode optical fibers, two Light Dependent Resistance (LDR) based timer circuits and a AT89S8252 micro-controller. The beam splitter is used to divide the laser beam into two parts and then these two beams are launched into two multi mode fibers. One of the multi mode fibers is used as the sensor fiber and the other one is used as the reference fiber. The use of the reference fiber is to eliminate the environmental effects while measuring the air pressure magnitude. The laser beams from the sensor and reference fibers are applied to two identical LDR based timer circuits. The LDR based timer circuits are interfaced to a micro-controller through its counter pins. The micro-controller samples the frequencies of the timer circuits using its counter-0 and counter-1 and the counter values are then processed to provide the measure of air pressure magnitude.

  9. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  10. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  11. Conformal-Based Surface Morphing and Multi-Scale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun Lam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two algorithms, based on conformal geometry, for the multi-scale representations of geometric shapes and surface morphing. A multi-scale surface representation aims to describe a 3D shape at different levels of geometric detail, which allows analyzing or editing surfaces at the global or local scales effectively. Surface morphing refers to the process of interpolating between two geometric shapes, which has been widely applied to estimate or analyze deformations in computer graphics, computer vision and medical imaging. In this work, we propose two geometric models for surface morphing and multi-scale representation for 3D surfaces. The basic idea is to represent a 3D surface by its mean curvature function, H, and conformal factor function λ, which uniquely determine the geometry of the surface according to Riemann surface theory. Once we have the (λ, H parameterization of the surface, post-processing of the surface can be done directly on the conformal parameter domain. In particular, the problem of multi-scale representations of shapes can be reduced to the signal filtering on the λ and H parameters. On the other hand, the surface morphing problem can be transformed to an interpolation process of two sets of (λ, H parameters. We test the proposed algorithms on 3D human face data and MRI-derived brain surfaces. Experimental results show that our proposed methods can effectively obtain multi-scale surface representations and give natural surface morphing results.

  12. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelhoven, Thomas; Schlerf, Martin; Segl, Karl; Mallick, Kaniska; Bossung, Christian; Retzlaff, Rebecca; Rock, Gilles; Fischer, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Storch, Tobias; Eisele, Andreas; Weise, Dennis; Hupfer, Werner; Knigge, Thiemo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1-5 days at off-nadir). At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month). To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1) a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2-12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K-0.1 K) and a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 60 m, and (2) a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0-10.25 µm and 10.25-12.5 µm) and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1-3 days) to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  13. A Satellite-Based Imaging Instrumentation Concept for Hyperspectral Thermal Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Udelhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping. The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes. The retrieval of this information requires a TIR imaging system with adequate spatial and spectral resolutions and with day-night following observation capability. Another challenge is the monitoring of temporally high dynamic features like energy fluxes, which require adequate revisit time. The suggested solution is a sensor pointing concept to allow high revisit times for selected target regions (1–5 days at off-nadir. At the same time, global observations in the nadir direction are guaranteed with a lower temporal repeat cycle (>1 month. To account for the demand of a high spatial resolution for complex targets, it is suggested to combine in one optic (1 a hyperspectral TIR system with ~75 bands at 7.2–12.5 µm (instrument NEDT 0.05 K–0.1 K and a ground sampling distance (GSD of 60 m, and (2 a panchromatic high-resolution TIR-imager with two channels (8.0–10.25 µm and 10.25–12.5 µm and a GSD of 20 m. The identified science case requires a good correlation of the instrument orbit with Sentinel-2 (maximum delay of 1–3 days to combine data from the visible and near infrared (VNIR, the shortwave infrared (SWIR and TIR spectral regions and to refine parameter retrieval.

  14. Technical requirements on knowledge base and instrumentation system for decision making in plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Hasegawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    A series of technical surveys and studies are described in this report to examine and identify technical requirements to be posed on knowledge base and instrumentation system as the fundamental in high reliability computational decision making in operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and diagnosis are focused as the important tasks among the operation/maintenance-related tasks. A concrete monitoring and diagnosis system configuration has been proposed consisting of distributed symptom database and of on-demand measurement subsystem. An prototype of the proposed system configuration has been successfully verified. (author)

  15. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  16. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  17. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  18. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  19. Automatic Recognition Method for Optical Measuring Instruments Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Le; LIN Yuchi; HAO Liguo

    2008-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive study of various algorithms, the automatic recognition of traditional ocular optical measuring instruments is realized. Taking a universal tools microscope (UTM) lens view image as an example, a 2-layer automatic recognition model for data reading is established after adopting a series of pre-processing algorithms. This model is an optimal combination of the correlation-based template matching method and a concurrent back propagation (BP) neural network. Multiple complementary feature extraction is used in generating the eigenvectors of the concurrent network. In order to improve fault-tolerance capacity, rotation invariant features based on Zernike moments are extracted from digit characters and a 4-dimensional group of the outline features is also obtained. Moreover, the operating time and reading accuracy can be adjusted dynamically by setting the threshold value. The experimental result indicates that the newly developed algorithm has optimal recognition precision and working speed. The average reading ratio can achieve 97.23%. The recognition method can automatically obtain the results of optical measuring instruments rapidly and stably without modifying their original structure, which meets the application requirements.

  20. Interactive CD based training on NDA instruments for facility operators and international inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Interactive multimedia training is rapidly becoming a popular and highly effective medium for learning. An interactive CD based training module on the Active Well Coincidence counter is being developed for on-site training at nuclear facility, including foreign facilities. The training module incorporates interactive text, graphics and video that demonstrate the operating principles, and the use and set-up of the instrument. The user is in control of the pace of learning and of the directions taken to acquire information based on personal need. By being in control, the user stays highly motivated. A mix of visuals (text and graphics), audio clips (in different languages), and video (with audio) clips also keeps the interest level high. Skill reviews and evaluations can be incorporated into the training to provide feedback to the student. In addition, general background information is provided on gamma and neutron based MC and A measurements. This material serves as a condensed MC and A encyclopedia. By supplying an interactive CD with an NDA instrument, nuclear facilities will have greater assurance operators are properly trained in the set-up and operation of the NDA-equipment

  1. Innovative approach to implementation of FPGA-based NPP instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, Anton; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Sklyar, Volodymir; Siora, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Advantages of application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) technology for implementation of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are outlined. Specific features of FPGA technology in the context of cyber security threats for NPPs I and C systems are analyzed. Description of FPGA-based platform used for implementation of different safety I and C systems for NPPs is presented. Typical architecture of NPPs safety I and C system based on the platform, as well as approach to implementation of I and C systems using FPGA-based platform are discussed. Data on implementation experience of application of the platform for NPP safety I and C systems modernization projects are finalizing the paper. (author)

  2. Innovative Approach to Implementation of FPGA-based NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, Anton; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Sklyar, Volodymir; SIORA Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Advantages of application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) technology for implementation of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are outlined. Specific features of FPGA technology in the context of cyber security threats for NPPs I and C systems are analyzed. Description of FPGA-based platform used for implementation of different safety I and C systems for NPPs is presented. Typical architecture of NPPs safety I and C system based on the platform, as well as approach to implementation of I and C systems using FPGA-based platform are discussed. Data on implementation experience of application of the platform for NPP safety I and C systems modernization projects are finalizing the paper

  3. Innovative Approach to Implementation of FPGA-based NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrashov, Anton; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Sklyar, Volodymir [Centre for Safety Infrastructure-Oriented Research and Analysis, Kharkov (Ukraine); SIORA Alexander [Research and Production Corporation Radiy, Kirovograd (Ukraine)

    2011-08-15

    Advantages of application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) technology for implementation of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are outlined. Specific features of FPGA technology in the context of cyber security threats for NPPs I and C systems are analyzed. Description of FPGA-based platform used for implementation of different safety I and C systems for NPPs is presented. Typical architecture of NPPs safety I and C system based on the platform, as well as approach to implementation of I and C systems using FPGA-based platform are discussed. Data on implementation experience of application of the platform for NPP safety I and C systems modernization projects are finalizing the paper.

  4. A risk-based review of Instrument Air systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMoss, G.; Lofgren, E.; Rothleder, B.; Villeran, M.; Ruger, C.

    1990-01-01

    The broad objective of this analysis was to provide risk-based information to help focus regulatory actions related to Instrument Air (IA) systems at operating nuclear power plants. We first created an extensive data base of summarized and characterized IA-related events that gave a qualitative indication of the nature and severity of these events. Additionally, this data base was used to calculate the frequencies of certain events, which were used in the risk analysis. The risk analysis consisted of reviewing published PRAs and NRC Accident Sequence Precursor reports for IA-initiated accident sequences, IA interactions with frontline systems, and IA-related risk significant events. Sensitivity calculations were performed when possible. Generically, IA was found to contribute less to total risk than many safety systems; however, specific design weaknesses in safety systems, non-safety systems, and the IA system were found to be significant in risk. 22 refs., 13 figs., 24 tabs

  5. Development of FPGA-based safety-related instrumentation and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, N.; Tanaka, A.; Izumi, M.; Tarumi, T.; Sato, T. [Toshiba Corporation, Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Toshiba has developed systems which perform signal processing by field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) for safety-related instrumentation and control systems. FPGA is a device which consists only of defined digital circuit: hardware, which performs defined processing. FPGA-based system solves issues existing both in the conventional systems operated by analog circuits (analog-based system) and the systems operated by central processing units (CPU-based system). The advantages of applying FPGA are to keep the long-life supply of products, improving testability (verification), and to reduce the drift which may occur in analog-based system. Considering application to safety-related systems, nonvolatile and non rewritable FPGA which is impossible to be changed after once manufactured has been adopted in Toshiba FPGA-based system. The systems which Toshiba developed this time are Power range Monitor (PRM) and Trip Module (TM). These systems are compatible with the conventional analog-based systems and the CPU-based systems. Therefore, requested cost for upgrading will be minimized. Toshiba is planning to expand application of FPGA-based technology by adopting this development method to the other safety-related systems from now on. (authors)

  6. Patient-Specific CT-Based Instrumentation versus Conventional Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on Clinical Outcomes and In-Hospital Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kotela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a frequently performed procedure in orthopaedic surgery. Recently, patient-specific instrumentation was introduced to facilitate correct positioning of implants. The aim of this study was to compare the early clinical results of TKA performed with patient-specific CT-based instrumentation and conventional technique. A prospective, randomized controlled trial on 112 patients was performed between January 2011 and December 2011. A group of 112 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group comprised 52 patients who received the Signature CT-based implant positioning system, and the control group consisted of 60 patients with conventional instrumentation. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the KSS scale, WOMAC scale, and VAS scales to assess knee pain severity and patient satisfaction with the surgery. Specified in-hospital data were recorded. Patients were followed up for 12 months. At one year after surgery, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to clinical outcomes and in-hospital data, including operative time, blood loss, hospital length of stay, intraoperative observations, and postoperative complications. Further high-quality investigations of various patient-specific systems and longer follow-up may be helpful in assessing their utility for TKA.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of New Governance Instruments in the Transnational Educational Space: A Shift to Knowledge-Based Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the ongoing development towards a knowledge-based society--associated with globalization, an aging population, new technologies and organizational changes--has led to a more intensive analysis of education and learning throughout life with regard to quantitative, qualitative and financial aspects. In this framework, education…

  8. Development of a PC-based ground support system for a small satellite instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschambault, Robert L.; Gregory, Philip R.; Spenler, Stephen; Whalen, Brian A.

    1993-11-01

    The importance of effective ground support for the remote control and data retrieval of a satellite instrument cannot be understated. Problems with ground support may include the need to base personnel at a ground tracking station for extended periods, and the delay between the instrument observation and the processing of the data by the science team. Flexible solutions to such problems in the case of small satellite systems are provided by using low-cost, powerful personal computers and off-the-shelf software for data acquisition and processing, and by using Internet as a communication pathway to enable scientists to view and manipulate satellite data in real time at any ground location. The personal computer based ground support system is illustrated for the case of the cold plasma analyzer flown on the Freja satellite. Commercial software was used as building blocks for writing the ground support equipment software. Several levels of hardware support, including unit tests and development, functional tests, and integration were provided by portable and desktop personal computers. Satellite stations in Saskatchewan and Sweden were linked to the science team via phone lines and Internet, which provided remote control through a central point. These successful strategies will be used on future small satellite space programs.

  9. Plasmonic-based instrument response function for time-resolved fluorescence: toward proper lifetime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlazak, Radoslaw; Tutaj, Krzysztof; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I.; Luchowski, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.luchowski@umcs.pl [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    In this report, we investigated the so-called plasmonic platforms prepared to target ultra-short fluorescence and accurate instrumental response function in a time-domain spectroscopy and microscopy. The interaction of metallic nanoparticles with nearby fluorophores results in the increase of the dye fluorescence quantum yield, photostability and decrease of the lifetime parameter. The mentioned properties of platforms were applied to achieve a picosecond fluorescence lifetime (21 ps) of erythrosin B, used later as a better choice for deconvolution of fluorescence decays measured with 'color' sensitive photo-detectors. The ultra-short fluorescence standard based on combination of thin layers of silver film, silver colloidal nanoparticles (about 60 nm in diameter), and top layer of erythrosin B embedded in 0.2 % poly(vinyl) alcohol. The response functions were monitored on two photo-detectors; microchannel plate photomultiplier and single photon avalanche photodiode as a Rayleigh scattering and ultra-short fluorescence. We demonstrated that use of the plasmonic base fluorescence standard as an instrumental response function results in the absence of systematic error in lifetime measurements and analysis.

  10. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T. [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire ESYCOM, ESIEE Paris, Cite Descartes, 2 Boulevard Blaise Pascal, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2013-04-08

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  11. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.; Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G.

    2013-01-01

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  12. Surface characterization of graphene based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarek, M.; Holdynski, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Nowakowski, R.; Roguska, A.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Jablonski, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, two kind of samples were used: (i) a monolayer graphene film with a thickness of 0.345 nm deposited by the CVD method on Cu foil, (ii) graphene flakes obtained by modified Hummers method and followed by reduction of graphene oxide. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport in graphene/Cu sample and reduced graphene oxide material, which determines the sampling depth of XPS and AES were evaluated from relative Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) measurements with the Au standard in the energy range 0.5-2 keV. The measured IMFPs were compared with IMFPs resulting from experimental optical data published in the literature for the graphite sample. The EPES IMFP values at 0.5 and 1.5 keV was practically identical to that calculated from optical data for graphite (less than 4% deviation). For energies 1 and 2 keV, the EPES IMFPs for rGO were deviated up to 14% from IMFPs calculated using the optical data by Tanuma et al. [1]. Before EPES measurements all samples were characterized by various techniques like: FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, AES and REELS to visualize the surface morphology/topography and identify the chemical composition.

  13. [Research on fractal tones generating method for tinnitus rehabilitation based on musical instrument digital interface technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; He, Peiyu; Pan, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Tinnitus is a subjective sensation of sound without external stimulation. It has become ubiquitous and has therefore aroused much attention in recent years. According to the survey, ameliorating tinnitus based on special music and reducing pressure have good effects on the treatment of it. Meantime, vicious cycle chains between tinnitus and bad feelings have been broken. However, tinnitus therapy has been restricted by using looping music. Therefore, a method of generating fractal tones based on musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) technology and pink noise has been proposed in this paper. The experimental results showed that the fractal fragments were self-similar, incompletely reduplicate, and no sudden changes in pitches and would have a referential significance for tinnitus therapy.

  14. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  15. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sullivan, James [Pulmonary Laboratories, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV{sub torso} = ΔV{sub thorax} + ΔV{sub abdomen}) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP{sub v} = ΔV{sub thorax}/ΔV{sub torso}) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume

  16. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Mechalakos, James; Wei, Jie; Sullivan, James; Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house MATLAB program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ΔV torso = ΔV thorax + ΔV abdomen ) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BP v = ΔV thorax /ΔV torso ) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another MATLAB program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range −1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI

  17. Feature Surfaces in Symmetric Tensor Fields Based on Eigenvalue Manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jonathan; Yeh, Harry; Wang, Wenping; Zhang, Yue; Laramee, Robert S; Sharma, Ritesh; Schultz, Thomas; Zhang, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional symmetric tensor fields have a wide range of applications in solid and fluid mechanics. Recent advances in the (topological) analysis of 3D symmetric tensor fields focus on degenerate tensors which form curves. In this paper, we introduce a number of feature surfaces, such as neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, into tensor field analysis, based on the notion of eigenvalue manifold. Neutral surfaces are the boundary between linear tensors and planar tensors, and the traceless surfaces are the boundary between tensors of positive traces and those of negative traces. Degenerate curves, neutral surfaces, and traceless surfaces together form a partition of the eigenvalue manifold, which provides a more complete tensor field analysis than degenerate curves alone. We also extract and visualize the isosurfaces of tensor modes, tensor isotropy, and tensor magnitude, which we have found useful for domain applications in fluid and solid mechanics. Extracting neutral and traceless surfaces using the Marching Tetrahedra method can cause the loss of geometric and topological details, which can lead to false physical interpretation. To robustly extract neutral surfaces and traceless surfaces, we develop a polynomial description of them which enables us to borrow techniques from algebraic surface extraction, a topic well-researched by the computer-aided design (CAD) community as well as the algebraic geometry community. In addition, we adapt the surface extraction technique, called A-patches, to improve the speed of finding degenerate curves. Finally, we apply our analysis to data from solid and fluid mechanics as well as scalar field analysis.

  18. Modeling the Acid-Base Properties of Montmorillonite Edge Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Davis, James A; Chiaberge, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bourg, Ian C

    2016-12-20

    The surface reactivity of clay minerals remains challenging to characterize because of a duality of adsorption surfaces and mechanisms that does not exist in the case of simple oxide surfaces: edge surfaces of clay minerals have a variable proton surface charge arising from hydroxyl functional groups, whereas basal surfaces have a permanent negative charge arising from isomorphic substitutions. Hence, the relationship between surface charge and surface potential on edge surfaces cannot be described using the Gouy-Chapman relation, because of a spillover of negative electrostatic potential from the basal surface onto the edge surface. While surface complexation models can be modified to account for these features, a predictive fit of experimental data was not possible until recently, because of uncertainty regarding the densities and intrinsic pK a values of edge functional groups. Here, we reexamine this problem in light of new knowledge on intrinsic pK a values obtained over the past decade using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and we propose a new formalism to describe edge functional groups. Our simulation results yield reasonable predictions of the best available experimental acid-base titration data.

  19. Plasma based Ar+ beam assisted poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladkova, T.G.; Keranov, I.L.; Dineff, P.D.; Youroukov, S.Y.; Avramova, I.A.; Krasteva, N.; Altankov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma based Ar + beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow. XPS analysis was performed to study the changes in the surface chemical composition of the modified samples and the corresponding changes in the surface energy were monitored by contact angle measurements. We found that plasma based Ar + beam transforms the initially hydrophobic PDMS surface into a hydrophilic one mainly due to a raising of the polar component of the surface tension, this effect being most probably due to an enrichment of the modified surface layer with permanent dipoles of a [SiO x ]-based network and elimination of the original methyl groups. The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar + beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or bare surfaces. The cell response seems to be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar + beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting

  20. The Study on Virtual Medical Instrument based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengwei, Li; Limei, Zhang; Xiaoming, Hu

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing performance of computer, the virtual instrument technology has greatly advanced over the years, and then virtual medical instrument technology becomes available. This paper presents the virtual medical instrument, and then as an example, an application of a signal acquisition, processing and analysis system using LabVIEW is also given.

  1. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  2. A neurally inspired musical instrument classification system based upon the sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Michael J; Smith, Leslie S

    2012-06-01

    Physiological evidence suggests that sound onset detection in the auditory system may be performed by specialized neurons as early as the cochlear nucleus. Psychoacoustic evidence shows that the sound onset can be important for the recognition of musical sounds. Here the sound onset is used in isolation to form tone descriptors for a musical instrument classification task. The task involves 2085 isolated musical tones from the McGill dataset across five instrument categories. A neurally inspired tone descriptor is created using a model of the auditory system's response to sound onset. A gammatone filterbank and spiking onset detectors, built from dynamic synapses and leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, create parallel spike trains that emphasize the sound onset. These are coded as a descriptor called the onset fingerprint. Classification uses a time-domain neural network, the echo state network. Reference strategies, based upon mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, evaluated either over the whole tone or only during the sound onset, provide context to the method. Classification success rates for the neurally-inspired method are around 75%. The cepstral methods perform between 73% and 76%. Further testing with tones from the Iowa MIS collection shows that the neurally inspired method is considerably more robust when tested with data from an unrelated dataset.

  3. Fuel cell-based instrumentation for ethanol determination in alcoholic beverages, fermentations, and biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, K W

    1988-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to devise an alternative method for ethanol assay, employing an electrochemical fuel cell sensor. Thus, the early part of this thesis describes the work carried out in the development of a new analytical technique for this purpose. This work resulted in the production of a successful prototype unit which has led to the development of a commercial instrument, vis., the Lion Drinks Alcolmeter (DA-1) available from Lion Laboratories Ltd. The problem of determining the ethanol content of a fermenting liquor at any point during a fermentation process was also broached and a novel technique combining a flow dilution system, dynamic headspace analysis and a fuel cell sensor was developed. This procedure, suitably automated, will enable the ethanolic content of a fermenting beverage to be determined at any stage during a fermentation, the results obtained in this manner being in excellent agreement with those obtained gas chromatographically. Methods of extending the linear working range of a fuel cell-based sampling system are reported in the hope that the encouraging results obtained may initiate further progress in this field. Finally, the sensing system used in this work has also been utilized with an alternative sampling procedure for the determination of ethanol in biological fluids, mainly for clinical and forensic applications. This work has also led to the production of a commercial instrument, viz. the Lion AE-D3 Alcolmeter.

  4. Microcontroller based, ore grade measuring portable instruments for uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ore Face Scanning and Bore Hole Logging are important essential activities which are required to be carried out in any Uranium mining industry. Microcontroller based, portable instruments with built-in powerful embedded code for data acquisition (of Radiation counts) and Ore Grade calculations will become a handy measuring tool for miners. Nucleonix Systems has recently developed and made these two portable instruments available to UCIL, which are under use at Jaduguda and Narvapahar mines. Some of the important features of these systems are compact, light weight, portable, hand held, battery powered. Modes of Data Acquisition: CPS, CPM and ORE GRADE. Detector: Sensitive GM Tube. Choice of Adj. TC (Time Constant) in 'ORE GRADE', acquisition mode. Built-in automatic BG (Background) recording and subtraction provided to indicate net CPS, CPM or ore GRADE in PPM. Can store 1000 readings at users choice. Built-in RS232 serial port facilitates data downloading into PC. This paper focuses on design concepts and technical details for the above two products. (author)

  5. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....

  6. Hilbert-Huang transform based instrumental assessment of intention tremor in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. This paper describes a method to extract upper limb intention tremor from gyroscope data, through the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a technique suitable for the study of nonlinear and non-stationary processes. The aims of the study were to: (i) evaluate the method’s ability to discriminate between healthy controls and MS subjects; (ii) validate the proposed procedure against clinical tremor scores assigned using Fahn’s tremor rating scale (FTRS); and (iii) compare the performance of the HHT-based method with that of linear band-pass filters. Approach. HHT was applied on gyroscope data collected on 20 MS subjects and 13 healthy controls (CO) during finger-to-nose tests (FNTs) instrumented with an inertial sensor placed on the hand. The results were compared to those obtained after traditional linear filtering. The tremor amplitude was quantified with instrumental indexes (TIs) and clinical FTRS ratings. Main results. The TIs computed after HHT-based filtering discriminated between CO and MS subjects with clinically-detected intention tremor (MS_T). In particular, TIs were significantly higher in the final part of the movement (TI2) with respect to the first part (TI1), and, for all components (X, Y, Z), MST showed a TI2 significantly higher than in CO subjects. Moreover, the HHT detected subtle alterations not visible from clinical ratings, as TI2 (Z-component) was significantly increased in MS subjects without clinically-detected tremor (MS_NT). The method’s validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between clinical FTRS scores and TI2 related to X (rs = 0.587, p = 0.006) and Y (rs = 0.682, p < 0.001) components. Contrarily, fewer differences among the groups and no correlation between instrumental and clinical indexes emerged after traditional filtering. Significance. The present results supported the use of the HHT-based procedure for a fully-automated quantitative and objective measure of intention tremor in MS, which can overcome

  7. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-11-15

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  8. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kiran; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-01-01

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  9. Application of an online ion-chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux

  10. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  11. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Applying market-based instruments to environmental policies in China and OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth since the late 1970s has been a remarkable achievement, and is projected to continue. However, this prospect could be compromised by pollution of air, water, and land, the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, and the environmental impacts on public health. Air pollution associated with the use of coal for energy and industrial purposes is a particularly serious challenge in China, with important domestic and transboundary implications. This book presents papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and China's National Environmental Protection Agency on the application of economic instruments to control air pollution in China and OECD countries. It presents the state-of-the-air in this field, based upon contributions from Chinese and OECD country policy makers and experts

  13. Nuclear instrumentation and measurement: a review based on the ANIMMA conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Michel; Vermeeren, Ludo; Lyoussi, Abdallah; Reynard-Carette, Christelle; Lhuillier, Christian; Mégret, Patrice; Deconinck, Frank; Gonçalves, Bruno Soares

    2017-12-01

    The ANIMMA conferences offer a unique opportunity to discover research carried out in all fields of nuclear measurements and instrumentation with applications extending from fundamental physics to fission and fusion reactors, medical imaging, environmental protection and homeland security. After four successful editions of the Conference, it was decided to prepare a review based to a large extent but not exclusively on the papers presented during the first four editions of the conference. This review is organized according to the measurement methodologies: neutronic, photonic, thermal, acoustic and optical measurements, as well as medical imaging and specific challenges linked to data acquisition and electronic hardening. The paper describes the main challenges justifying research in these different areas, and summarizes the recent progress reported. It offers researchers and engineers a way to quickly and efficiently access knowledge in highly specialized areas.

  14. A LabVIEW-Based Virtual Instrument System for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qijun; Wang, Lufei; Zu, Lily

    2011-01-01

    We report the design and operation of a Virtual Instrument (VI) system based on LabVIEW 2009 for laser-induced fluorescence experiments. This system achieves synchronous control of equipment and acquisition of real-time fluorescence data communicating with a single computer via GPIB, USB, RS232, and parallel ports. The reported VI system can also accomplish data display, saving, and analysis, and printing the results. The VI system performs sequences of operations automatically, and this system has been successfully applied to obtain the excitation and dispersion spectra of α-methylnaphthalene. The reported VI system opens up new possibilities for researchers and increases the efficiency and precision of experiments. The design and operation of the VI system are described in detail in this paper, and the advantages that this system can provide are highlighted.

  15. A toolbox for safety instrumented system evaluation based on improved continuous-time Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardana, Awang N. I.; Kurniady, Rahman; Pambudi, Galih; Purnama, Jaka; Suryopratomo, Kutut

    2017-08-01

    Safety instrumented system (SIS) is designed to restore a plant into a safe condition when pre-hazardous event is occur. It has a vital role especially in process industries. A SIS shall be meet with safety requirement specifications. To confirm it, SIS shall be evaluated. Typically, the evaluation is calculated by hand. This paper presents a toolbox for SIS evaluation. It is developed based on improved continuous-time Markov chain. The toolbox supports to detailed approach of evaluation. This paper also illustrates an industrial application of the toolbox to evaluate arch burner safety system of primary reformer. The results of the case study demonstrates that the toolbox can be used to evaluate industrial SIS in detail and to plan the maintenance strategy.

  16. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  17. Microcontroller based instrumentation for the fuel pin preparation facility by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhasini, B.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Srinivas, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The fuel pin preparation facility by Sol-Gel route has been set up at Chemistry Group at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. Sol-Gel, a solution-gelation process involves conversion of solutions of nitrates of uranium-plutonium (at 0 deg C) into gel microspheres. To measure the exact quantities of the above solutions and to ensure their temperatures, a variety of sensors have been used at various stages in the plant. To monitor and acquire the data of process parameters used in the production and for an automated operation of the plant, a PC (master)-microcontroller (slave) based instrumentation has been developed along with acquisition software and a GU interface developed in Visual Basic. (author)

  18. Evaluation of a Kalman filter based power pressurizer instrument failure detection system implemented on a nuclear power plant training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegmiller, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear power plant training simulator for developing and testing modern estimation and control applications for nuclear power plants is demonstrated. A Kalman filter based instrument failure detection technique for a pressurized water reactor pressurizer is implemented on the Department of Energy N Reactor Training Simulator. This real-time failure detection method computes the first two moments (mean and variance) of each element of a normalized filter innovations vector. Failed pressurizer instrumentation can be detected by comparing these moments to the known statistical properties of the steady state, linear Kalman fitler innovations sequence. The capabilities of the detection system are evaluated using simulated plant transients and instrument failures

  19. Development of a field measurement instrument for nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) based on signal transmission through fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenwu; Zhang Chuandong; Liu Yi; Chen Jiuchun; Fan Youwen

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with design principles, development and performance of a field measurement instrument for nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) based on signal transmission through fiber. To determine the minimum band width this instrument needs, we analyze cutoff spectrum of a time domain double exponential signal, employing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and get its inverse transform signal. Then we design the circuit of laser device and the circuit of measuring device according to previous analysis. This instrument meets requirements of related regulations. Its specifications meet requirements of NEMP hazard protection research and can be of great significance to it. (authors)

  20. Smart Cup: A Minimally-Instrumented, Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shih-Chuan; Peng, Jing; Mauk, Michael G; Awasthi, Sita; Song, Jinzhao; Friedman, Harvey; Bau, Haim H; Liu, Changchun

    2016-06-28

    Nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics offer rapid, sensitive, and specific means for detecting and monitoring the progression of infectious diseases. However, this method typically requires extensive sample preparation, expensive instruments, and trained personnel. All of which hinder its use in resource-limited settings, where many infectious diseases are endemic. Here, we report on a simple, inexpensive, minimally-instrumented, smart cup platform for rapid, quantitative molecular diagnostics of pathogens at the point of care. Our smart cup takes advantage of water-triggered, exothermic chemical reaction to supply heat for the nucleic acid-based, isothermal amplification. The amplification temperature is regulated with a phase-change material (PCM). The PCM maintains the amplification reactor at a constant temperature, typically, 60-65°C, when ambient temperatures range from 12 to 35°C. To eliminate the need for an optical detector and minimize cost, we use the smartphone's flashlight to excite the fluorescent dye and the phone camera to record real-time fluorescence emission during the amplification process. The smartphone can concurrently monitor multiple amplification reactors and analyze the recorded data. Our smart cup's utility was demonstrated by amplifying and quantifying herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with LAMP assay in our custom-made microfluidic diagnostic chip. We have consistently detected as few as 100 copies of HSV-2 viral DNA per sample. Our system does not require any lab facilities and is suitable for use at home, in the field, and in the clinic, as well as in resource-poor settings, where access to sophisticated laboratories is impractical, unaffordable, or nonexistent.

  1. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface

  2. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  3. Development and Testing of Screen-Based and Psychometric Instruments for Assessing Resident Performance in an Operating Room Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. McNeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC. Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878 and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886 were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948. Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level.

  4. The Development of an Instrument to Measure the Project Competences of College Students in Online Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to develop a self-report instrument to be used in the assessment of the project competences of college students engaged in online project-based learning. Three scales of the KIPSSE instrument developed for this study, namely, the knowledge integration, project skills, and self-efficacy scales, were based on related theories and the analysis results of three project advisor interviews. Those items of knowledge integration and project skill scales focused on the integration of different disciplines and technological skills separately. Two samples of data were collected from information technology-related courses taught with an online project-based learning strategy over different semesters at a college in southern Taiwan. The validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument were confirmed through item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling of two samples of students' online response sets separately. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the entire instrument was 0.931; for each scale, the alpha ranged from 0.832 to 0.907. There was also a significant correlation ( r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between the KIPSSE instrument results and the students' product evaluation scores. The findings of this study confirmed the validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument. The confirmation process and related implications are also discussed.

  5. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alison Balbag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins’ leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]. These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.

  6. Polarimetry of light scattered by surface roughness and textured films and periodic structures in nanotechnologies: a new challenge in instrumentation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrieu. F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive studies in the literature detail the Mueller matrices properties through decomposition, optical entropy and depolarization formalism. It has been applied for many years in rather different fields. In radar polarimetry, mathematical basis of depolarizing systems, have been first developed. In the visible range optics, standard diattenuation and retardance, decomposition is currently used in turbid organic media. The optical entropy concept, developed by S.R. Cloude, provides a very powerful analysis technique yielding important surface parameters such as depolarization, correlation and roughness. Complementary applications exist in scatterometry, for thin periodic grating films. With high capability polarimeters, such as the next generation of angle resolved polarimeters instruments, Polarimetry opens new fields of investigation for nanotechnologies materials as well as for gratings and photonics structures analysis: a program presently developed through a national consortium ANR08-NANO-020-03. With this instrumentation progress, simulation remains a key point to overpass as a challenge between future instruments. The theories for surfaces spectral power density (PSD and the random coupled wave approximation (RCWA in periodic structures are widely described in the literature. The implementation of some of these codes is described here for surface analysis and lithography scatterometry structures: grating overlay or double patterning.

  7. Developing a PC-based expert system for fault analysis of reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, M.P.; Rathod, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.; Darbhe, M.D.; Joglekar, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an expert system for fault analysis of electronic instruments in the CIRUS nuclear reactor. The system was developed in Prolog on an IBM PC-XT compatible computer. A 'model-based' approach (Button et al, 1986) was adopted combining 'frames' and 'rules' to provide flexible control over the inferencing mechanisms. Frames represent the domain-objects as well as the inter-object relationships. They include 'demons' or 'active values' for triggering actions. Rules, along with frames, are used for fault analysis. The rules can be activated either in a data-driven or a goal-driven manner. The use of frames makes rule management easier. It is felt that developing in-house shell proved advantageous, compared to using commercially available shells. Choosing the model-based approach was efficient compared to a production system architecture. Therefore, the use of hybrid representations for diagnostic applications is advocated. Based on the experience, some general recommendations for developing such systems are presented. The expert system helps novice operators to understand the process of diagnosis and achieve a significant required level of competence. The system may not achieve the required level of proficiency by itself, but it can be used to train operators to become experts. (author). 12 refs

  8. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana Khachidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied. The documents were classified into three main groups (ultrasonography, endoscopy, and X-ray and 13 subgroups using two well-known methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. The results obtained demonstrated that both machine learning methods performed successfully, with a little supremacy of SVM. In the process of classification a “shrink” method, based on features selection, was introduced and applied. At the first stage of classification the results of the “shrink” case were better; however, on the second stage of classification into subclasses 23% of all documents could not be linked to only one definite individual subclass (liver or binary system due to common features characterizing these subclasses. The overall results of the study were successful.

  9. A postprocessing method in the HMC framework for predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shou; Fu, Ping; Zheng, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data is a complicated and challenging hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) problem. When using local approach methods to solve this problem, a preliminary results processing method is usually needed. This paper proposed a novel preliminary results processing method called the nodes interaction method. The nodes interaction method revises the preliminary results and guarantees that the predictions are consistent with the hierarchy constraint. This method exploits the label dependency and considers the hierarchical interaction between nodes when making decisions based on the Bayesian network in its first phase. In the second phase, this method further adjusts the results according to the hierarchy constraint. Implementing the nodes interaction method in the HMC framework also enhances the HMC performance for solving the gene function prediction problem based on the Gene Ontology (GO), the hierarchy of which is a directed acyclic graph that is more difficult to tackle. The experimental results validate the promising performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art methods on eight benchmark yeast data sets annotated by the GO.

  10. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6–12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL’s location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  11. Research on calculation of the IOL tilt and decentration based on surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration) and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6-12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL's location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  12. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  13. Fracture resistance of dental nickel–titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure.

  14. Exploratory and Creative Properties of Physical-Modeling-based Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven

    Digital musical instruments are developed to enable musicians to find new ways of expressing themselves. The development and evaluation of these instruments can be approached from many different perspectives depending on which capabilities one wants the musicians to have. This thesis attempts...... to approach development and evaluation of these instruments with the notion that instruments today are able to facilitate the creative process that is so crucial for creating music. The fundamental question pursued throughout the thesis is how creative work processes of composers of electronic music can...... be supported and even challenged by the instruments they use. What is it that makes one musical instrument more creatively inspiring than another, and how do we evaluate how well it succeeds? In order to present answers to these questions, the thesis focusses on the sound synthesis technique of physical...

  15. Swarm-Aurora: A web-based tool for quickly identifying multi-instrument auroral events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Knudsen, D. J.; Frey, H. U.; Kauristie, K.; Partamies, N.; Jackel, B. J.; Gillies, M.; Holmdahl Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in ground-based auroral imaging systems. These include the continent-wide THEMIS-ASI network, and imagers operated by other programs including GO-Canada, MIRACLE, AGO, OMTI, and more. In the near future, a new Canadian program called TREx will see the deployment of new narrow-band ASIs that will provide multi-wavelength imaging across Western Canada. At the same time, there is an unprecedented fleet of international spacecraft probing geospace at low and high altitudes. We are now in the position to simultaneously observe the magnetospheric drivers of aurora, observe in situ the waves, currents, and particles associated with MI coupling, and the conjugate aurora. Whereas a decade ago, a single magnetic conjunction between one ASI and a low altitude satellite was a relatively rare event, we now have a plethora of triple conjunctions between imagers, low-altitude spacecraft, and near-equatorial magnetospheric probes. But with these riches comes a new level of complexity. It is often difficult to identify the many useful conjunctions for a specific line of inquiry from the multitude of conjunctions where the geospace conditions are often not relevant and/or the imaging is compromised by clouds, moon, or other factors. Swarm-Aurora was designed to facilitate and drive the use of Swarm in situ measurements in auroral science. The project seeks to build a bridge between the Swarm science community, Swarm data, and the complimentary auroral data and community. Swarm-Aurora (http://swarm-aurora.phys.ucalgary.ca) incorporates a web-based tool which provides access to quick-look summary data for a large array of instruments, with Swarm in situ and ground-based ASI data as the primary focus. This web interface allows researchers to quickly and efficiently browse Swarm and ASI data to identify auroral events of interest to them. This allows researchers to be able to easily and quickly identify Swarm overflights of ASIs that

  16. Surface-based prostate registration with biomechanical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wendy J. M.; Hu, Yipeng; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Barratt, Dean; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2013-03-01

    Adding MR-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound by using MRUS registration. A common approach is to use surface-based registration. We hypothesize that biomechanical modeling will better control deformation inside the prostate than a regular surface-based registration method. We developed a novel method by extending a surface-based registration with finite element (FE) simulation to better predict internal deformation of the prostate. For each of six patients, a tetrahedral mesh was constructed from the manual prostate segmentation. Next, the internal prostate deformation was simulated using the derived radial surface displacement as boundary condition. The deformation field within the gland was calculated using the predicted FE node displacements and thin-plate spline interpolation. We tested our method on MR guided MR biopsy imaging data, as landmarks can easily be identified on MR images. For evaluation of the registration accuracy we used 45 anatomical landmarks located in all regions of the prostate. Our results show that the median target registration error of a surface-based registration with biomechanical regularization is 1.88 mm, which is significantly different from 2.61 mm without biomechanical regularization. We can conclude that biomechanical FE modeling has the potential to improve the accuracy of multimodal prostate registration when comparing it to regular surface-based registration.

  17. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frank A; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  18. Bio-Inspired Functional Surfaces Based on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature developed numerous solutions to solve various technical problems related to material surfaces by combining the physico-chemical properties of a material with periodically aligned micro/nanostructures in a sophisticated manner. The utilization of ultra-short pulsed lasers allows mimicking numerous of these features by generating laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS. In this review paper, we describe the physical background of LIPSS generation as well as the physical principles of surface related phenomena like wettability, reflectivity, and friction. Then we introduce several biological examples including e.g., lotus leafs, springtails, dessert beetles, moth eyes, butterfly wings, weevils, sharks, pangolins, and snakes to illustrate how nature solves technical problems, and we give a comprehensive overview of recent achievements related to the utilization of LIPSS to generate superhydrophobic, anti-reflective, colored, and drag resistant surfaces. Finally, we conclude with some future developments and perspectives related to forthcoming applications of LIPSS-based surfaces.

  19. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  20. Surface phase transitions in cu-based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevnenko, S. N.; Chernyshikhin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We have measured surface energy in two-component Cu-based systems in H2 + Ar gas atmosphere. The experiments on solid Cu [Ag] and Cu [Co] solutions show presence of phase transitions on the surfaces. Isotherms of the surface energy have singularities (the minimum in the case of copper solid solutions with silver and the maximum in the case of solid solutions with cobalt). In both cases, the surface phase transitions cause deficiency of surface miscibility: formation of a monolayer (multilayer) (Cu-Ag) or of nanoscale particles (Cu-Co). At the same time, according to the volume phase diagrams, the concentration and temperature of the surface phase transitions correspond to the solid solution within the volume. The method permits determining the rate of diffusional creep in addition to the surface energy. The temperature and concentration dependence of the solid solutions' viscosity coefficient supports the fact of the surface phase transitions and provides insights into the diffusion properties of the transforming surfaces.

  1. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  2. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  3. The Development of Physics Learning Instrument Based on Hypermedia and Its Influence on the Student Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bunga Dara; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Muris

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to produce a learning instrument based on hypermedia which is valid, interesting, practical, and effective as well as to know its influence on the problem based skill of students Mathematical and Science Faculty, Makassar State University. This research is a research and development at (R&D) type. The development procedure…

  4. Prototyping a GNSS-Based Passive Radar for UAVs: An Instrument to Classify the Water Content Feature of Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Troglia Gamba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS broadcast signals for positioning and navigation, which can be also employed for remote sensing applications. Indeed, the satellites of any GNSS can be seen as synchronized sources of electromagnetic radiation, and specific processing of the signals reflected back from the ground can be used to estimate the geophysical properties of the Earth’s surface. Several experiments have successfully demonstrated GNSS-reflectometry (GNSS-R, whereas new applications are continuously emerging and are presently under development, either from static or dynamic platforms. GNSS-R can be implemented at a low cost, primarily if small devices are mounted on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, which today can be equipped with several types of sensors for environmental monitoring. So far, many instruments for GNSS-R have followed the GNSS bistatic radar architecture and consisted of custom GNSS receivers, often requiring a personal computer and bulky systems to store large amounts of data. This paper presents the development of a GNSS-based sensor for UAVs and small manned aircraft, used to classify lands according to their soil water content. The paper provides details on the design of the major hardware and software components, as well as the description of the results obtained through field tests.

  5. A practical tablet-based hearing aid configuration as an exemplar project for students of instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Simeoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the configuration and digital signal processing details of a tablet-based hearing aid transmitting wirelessly to standard earphones, whereby the tablet performs full sound processing rather than solely providing a means of setting adjustment by streaming to conventional digital hearing aids. The presented device confirms the recognized advantages of this tablet-based approach (e.g., in relation to cost, frequency domain processing, amplification range, versatility of functionality, component battery rechargeability, and flags the future wider-spread availability of such hearing solutions within mainstream healthcare. The use of a relatively high sampling frequency was found to be beneficial for device performance, while the use of optional off-the-shelf add-on components (e.g., data acquisition device, high fidelity microphone, compact wireless transmitter/ receiver, wired headphones are also discussed in relation to performance optimization. The easy-to-follow configuration utilized is well suited to student learning/research instrumentation projects within the health and biomedical sciences. In this latter regard, the presented device was pedagogically integrated into a flipped classroom approach for the teaching of bioinstrumentation within an Allied Health Sciences School, with the subsequent establishment of positive student engagement outcomes.

  6. A Practical Tablet-Based Hearing Aid Configuration as an Exemplar Project for Students of Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Ricardo

    2015-06-11

    This paper presents the configuration and digital signal processing details of a tablet-based hearing aid transmitting wirelessly to standard earphones, whereby the tablet performs full sound processing rather than solely providing a means of setting adjustment by streaming to conventional digital hearing aids. The presented device confirms the recognized advantages of this tablet-based approach (e.g., in relation to cost, frequency domain processing, amplification range, versatility of functionality, component battery rechargeability), and flags the future wider-spread availability of such hearing solutions within mainstream healthcare. The use of a relatively high sampling frequency was found to be beneficial for device performance, while the use of optional off-the-shelf add-on components (e.g., data acquisition device, high fidelity microphone, compact wireless transmitter/receiver, wired headphones) are also discussed in relation to performance optimization. The easy-to-follow configuration utilized is well suited to student learning/research instrumentation projects within the health and biomedical sciences. In this latter regard, the presented device was pedagogically integrated into a flipped classroom approach for the teaching of bioinstrumentation within an Allied Health Sciences School, with the subsequent establishment of positive student engagement outcomes.

  7. An instrument to characterize the environment for residents' evidence-based medicine learning and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa; Moseley, James L; Green, Michael L

    2012-02-01

    Many residency programs offer training in evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, these curricula often fail to achieve optimal learning outcomes, perhaps because they neglect various contextual factors in the learning environment. We developed and validated an instrument to characterize the environment for EBM learning and practice in residency programs. An EBM Environment Scale was developed following scale development principles. A survey was administered to residents across six programs in primary care specialties at four medical centers. Internal consistency reliability was analyzed with Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Validity was assessed by comparing predetermined subscales with the survey's internal structure as assessed via factor analysis. Scores were also compared for subgroups based on residency program affiliation and residency characteristics. Out of 262 eligible residents, 124 completed the survey (response rate 47%). The overall mean score was 3.89 (standard deviation=0.56). The initial reliability analysis of the 48-item scale had a high reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.94). Factor analysis and further item analysis resulted in a shorter 36-item scale with a satisfactory reliability coefficient (Cronbach α=.86). Scores were higher for residents with prior EBM training in medical school (4.14 versus 3.62) and in residency (4.25 versus 3.69). If further testing confirms its properties, the EBM Environment Scale may be used to understand the influence of the learning environment on the effectiveness of EBM training. Additionally, it may detect changes in the EBM learning environment in response to programmatic or institutional interventions.

  8. A magnetorheological fluid-based multifunctional haptic device for vehicular instrument controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Kim, Chan-Jung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performances of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based multifunctional haptic device which is applicable to vehicular instrument controls. By combining in-vehicle functions into a single device, the proposed haptic device can transmit various reflection forces for each comfort function to a driver without requiring the driver's visual attention. As a multifunctional haptic device, a MR knob is proposed in this work and then devised to be capable of both rotary and push motions with a single knob. Under consideration of the spatial limitations of vehicle dashboards, design parameters are optimally determined by finite element analysis, and the objective function is to maximize a relative control torque. The proposed haptic device is then manufactured, and in-vehicle comfort functions are constructed in a virtual environment which makes the functions to communicate with the haptic device. Subsequently, a feed-forward controller using torque/force maps is formulated for the force tracking control. Control performances such as reflection force of the haptic device are experimentally evaluated via the torque/force map-based feed-forward controller

  9. Surface versus Edge-Based Determinants of Visual Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Irving; Ju, Ginny

    1988-01-01

    The latency at which objects could be identified by 126 subjects was compared through line drawings (edge-based) or color photography (surface depiction). The line drawing was identified about as quickly as the photograph; primal access to a mental representation of an object can be modeled from an edge-based description. (SLD)

  10. Titanium-based spectrally selective surfaces for solar thermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A D; Holmes, J P

    1983-10-01

    A study of spectrally selective surfaces based on anodic oxide films on titanium is presented. These surfaces have low values of solar absorptance, 0.77, due to the nonideal optical properties of the anodic TiO2 for antireflection of titanium. A simple chemical etching process is described which gives a textured surface with dimensions similar to the wavelengths of solar radiation, leading to spectral selectivity. The performance of this dark-etched surface can be further improved by anodising, and optimum absorbers have been produced with alpha(s) 0.935 and hemispherical emittances (400 K) 0.23. The surface texturing effects a significant improvement in alpha(s) at oblique incidence.

  11. A GPU-based mipmapping method for water surface visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Quan, Wei; Xu, Chao; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Visualization of water surface is a hot topic in computer graphics. In this paper, we presented a fast method to generate wide range of water surface with good image quality both near and far from the viewpoint. This method utilized uniform mesh and Fractal Perlin noise to model water surface. Mipmapping technology was enforced to the surface textures, which adjust the resolution with respect to the distance from the viewpoint and reduce the computing cost. Lighting effect was computed based on shadow mapping technology, Snell's law and Fresnel term. The render pipeline utilizes a CPU-GPU shared memory structure, which improves the rendering efficiency. Experiment results show that our approach visualizes water surface with good image quality at real-time frame rates performance.

  12. Acid-base characteristics of powdered-activated-carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States)); Jensen, J.N.; Matsumoto, M.R. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    Adsorption of heavy metals onto activated carbon has been described using the surface-complex-formation (SCF) model, a chemical equilibrium model. The SCF model requires a knowledge of the amphoteric nature of activated carbon prior to metal adsorption modeling. In the past, a single-diprotic-acid-site model had been employed to describe the amphoteric nature of activated-carbon surfaces. During this study, the amphoteric nature of two powdered activated carbons were investigated, and a three-monoprotic site surface model was found to be a plausible alternative. The single-diprotic-acid-site and two-monoprotic-site models did not describe the acid-base behavior of the two carbons studied adequately. The two-diprotic site was acceptable for only one of the study carbons. The acid-base behavior of activated carbon surfaces seem to be best modeled as a series of weak monoprotic acids.

  13. The Los Alamos accelerator control system data base: A generic instrumentation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalesio, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    Controlling experimental-physics applications requires a control system that can be quickly integrated and easily modified. One aspect of the control system is the interface to the instrumentation. An instrumentation set has been chosen to implement the basic functions needed to monitor and control these applications. A data-driven interface to this instrumentation set provides the required quick integration of the control system. This type of interface is limited by its built-in capabilities. Therefore, these capabilities must provide an adequate range of functions to be of any use. The data-driven interface must support the instrumentation range requird, the events on which to read or control the instrumentation and a method for manipulating the data to calculate terms or close control loops. The database for the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System addresses these requirements. (orig.)

  14. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi; Miura, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  15. Trends in interfacial design for surface plasmon resonance based immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Dhesingh Ravi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)

    2007-12-07

    Immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have become a promising tool in sensor technology for biomedical, food, environmental, industrial and homeland security applications. SPR is a surface sensitive optical technique, suitable for real-time and label-free analysis of biorecognition events at functional transducer surfaces. Fabrication of highly active and robust sensing surfaces is an important part in immunoassays because the quality, quantity, chemistry and topography of the interfacial biomembranes play a major role in immunosensor performance. Eventually, a variety of immobilization methods such as physical adsorption, covalent coupling, Langmuir-Blodgett film, polymer thin film, self-assembly, sol-gel, etc, have been introduced over the years for the immobilization of biomolecules (antibody or antigen) on the transducer surfaces. The selection of an immobilization method for an immunoassay is governed by several factors such as nature and stability of the biomolecules, target analyte, application, detection principle, mode of signal transduction, matrix complexity, etc. This paper provides an overview of the various surface modification methods for SPR based immunosensor fabrication. The preparation, structure and application of different functional interfacial surfaces have been discussed along with a brief introduction to the SPR technology, biomolecules and detection principles. (review article)

  16. Wavelet Packet based Detection of Surface Faults on Compact Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor

    2006-01-01

    based on these measurements. A precise detection of the surface fault is a prerequisite to a correct handling of the faults in order to protect the pick-up of the compact disc player from audible track losses. The actual fault handling which is addressed in other publications can be carried out......In this paper the detection of faults on the surface of a compact disc is addressed. Surface faults like scratches and fingerprints disturb the on-line measurement of the pick-up position relative to the track. This is critical since the pick-up is focused on and tracked at the information track...

  17. Inference-Based Surface Reconstruction of Cluttered Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Biggers, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present an inference-based surface reconstruction algorithm that is capable of identifying objects of interest among a cluttered scene, and reconstructing solid model representations even in the presence of occluded surfaces. Our proposed approach incorporates a predictive modeling framework that uses a set of user-provided models for prior knowledge, and applies this knowledge to the iterative identification and construction process. Our approach uses a local to global construction process guided by rules for fitting high-quality surface patches obtained from these prior models. We demonstrate the application of this algorithm on several example data sets containing heavy clutter and occlusion. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Design of structurally colored surfaces based on scalar diffraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of controlling the color and appearance of surfaces simply by modifying the height profile of the surface on a nanoscale level. The applications for such methods are numerous: new design possibilities for high-end products, color engraving on any highly...... reflective surface, paint-free text and coloration, UV-resistant coloring, etc. In this initial study, the main focus is on finding a systematic way to obtain these results. For now the simulation and optimization is based on a simple scalar diffraction theory model. From the results, several design issues...

  19. Gaussian process based intelligent sampling for measuring nano-structure surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. J.; Ren, M. J.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and engineering that manipulate matters at nano scale, which can be used to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications. As the nanotech product increasingly enters the commercial marketplace, nanometrology becomes a stringent and enabling technology for the manipulation and the quality control of the nanotechnology. However, many measuring instruments, for instance scanning probe microscopy, are limited to relatively small area of hundreds of micrometers with very low efficiency. Therefore some intelligent sampling strategies should be required to improve the scanning efficiency for measuring large area. This paper presents a Gaussian process based intelligent sampling method to address this problem. The method makes use of Gaussian process based Bayesian regression as a mathematical foundation to represent the surface geometry, and the posterior estimation of Gaussian process is computed by combining the prior probability distribution with the maximum likelihood function. Then each sampling point is adaptively selected by determining the position which is the most likely outside of the required tolerance zone among the candidates and then inserted to update the model iteratively. Both simulationson the nominal surface and manufactured surface have been conducted on nano-structure surfaces to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results imply that the proposed method significantly improves the measurement efficiency in measuring large area structured surfaces.

  20. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.

  1. A flameless catalytic combustion-based thermoelectric generator for powering electronic instruments on gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Heng; Qiu, Kuanrong; Gou, Xiaolong; Ou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MPPT is used to improve the feature that TEG output is sensitive to load variation. ► The improved feature makes TEG suitable to power electronic device on gas pipeline. ► Test shows heat transfer uniformity plays an important role in improving TEG output. ► It can get an optimized TEG by uniformly filling a thermal insulation material. - Abstract: This paper presents a flameless catalytic combustion-based thermoelectric power generator that uses commercial thermoelectric modules. The structure of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) is introduced and the power performance is measured based on a designed circuit system. The open circuit voltage of the TEG is about 7.3 V. The maximum power output can reach up to 6.5 W when the load resistance matches the TEG internal resistance. However, the system output is sensitive to load variation. To improve this characteristic, maximum power point tracking technique is used and results in an open circuit voltage of 13.8 V. The improved characteristic makes the TEG system a good charger to keep the lead acid battery fully charged so as to meet the needs of electronic instruments on gas pipelines. In addition, the combustion features have been investigated based on the temperature measurement. Test results show that the uniformity of combustion heat transfer process and the combustion chamber structure play important roles in improving system power output. It can get an optimized TEG system (maximum power output: 8.3 W) by uniformly filling a thermal insulation material (asbestos) to avoid a non-uniform combustion heat transfer process

  2. “Lock-in” effect of emission standard and its impact on the choice of market based instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haoqi, Qian; Libo, Wu; Weiqi, Tang

    2017-01-01

    A country's existing emission standard policy will lead to a “lock in” effect. When the country plans to adopt new market-based instruments to control greenhouse gas emissions, it must consider this effect as it chooses among instruments to avoid larger efficiency loss. In this paper, we find that the “lock in” effect will cause a kink point to occur on the marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve. This change of shape for the MAC curve reminds us to be cautious in choosing market-based instruments when applying Weitzman's rule. We also introduce this concept into a dynamic multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for China and simulate MAC curves for all regions. After applying Weitzman's rule, we propose a timeline for introducing price instruments under different marginal benefit (MB) curve scenarios. - Highlights: • China's existing carbon intensity policy has a “lock-in” effect and leads to a “kink point” on MAC. • A dynamic inter-regional CGE model is developed to simulate the regional kinked MAC curves in China. • A timeline of introducing new market based instrument is proposed by combining different MB scenarios.

  3. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Costa Castanho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments pose an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.

  4. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of miniaturization techniques for consumer electronics has brought forth the relatively new and exciting field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, due to the inherent forces that exist between surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale, scientists and semiconductor manufacturers are still struggling to improve the lifetime and reliability of complex microdevices. Due to the extremely large surface area-to-volume ratio of typical MEMS and microstructured surfaces, dominant interfacial forces exist which can be detrimental to their operational lifetime. In particular, van der Waals, capillary, and electrostatic forces contribute to the permanent adhesion, or stiction , of microfabricated surfaces. This strong adhesion force also contributes to the friction and wear of these silicon-based systems. The scope of this work was to examine the effect of utilizing nanoparticles as the basis for roughening surfaces for the purpose of creating films with anti-adhesive and/or superhydrophobic properties. All of the studies presented in this work are focused around a gas-expanded liquid (GXL) process that promotes the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into conformal thin films. The GXL particle deposition process is finalized by a critical point drying step which is advantageous to the microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor (IC) industries. In fact, preliminary results illustrated that the GXL particle deposition process can easily be integrated into current MEMS microfabrication processes. Thin films of AuNPs deposited onto the surfaces of silicon-based MEMS and tribology test devices were shown to have a dramatic effect on the adhesion of microstructures. In the various investigations, the apparent work of adhesion between surfaces was reduced by 2-4 orders of magnitude. This effect is greatly attributed to the roughening of the typically smooth silicon oxide surfaces which, in turn, dramatically decreases the "real are of

  5. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  6. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  7. Response mechanism for surface acoustic wave gas sensors based on surface-adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Lu, Yanyan

    2014-04-16

    A theoretical model is established to describe the response mechanism of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors based on physical adsorption on the detector surface. Wohljent's method is utilized to describe the relationship of sensor output (frequency shift of SAW oscillator) and the mass loaded on the detector surface. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) formula and its improved form are introduced to depict the adsorption behavior of gas on the detector surface. By combining the two methods, we obtain a theoretical model for the response mechanism of SAW gas sensors. By using a commercial SAW gas chromatography (GC) analyzer, an experiment is performed to measure the frequency shifts caused by different concentration of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The parameters in the model are given by fitting the experimental results and the theoretical curve agrees well with the experimental data.

  8. Satellite-based climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Cremer, Roswitha; Kothe, Steffen; Müller, Richard; Pfeifroth, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Long term monitoring of this part of the earth's energy budget is required to gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, climate data sets of surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for solar energy assessments, for crop modeling, and for the validation of climate and weather models. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving climate data records (CDRs) from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. Within the CM SAF these CDRs are accompanied by operational data at a short time latency to be used for climate monitoring. All data from the CM SAF is freely available via www.cmsaf.eu. Here we present the regional and the global climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF. The regional climate data record SARAH (Surface Solar Radiation Dataset - Heliosat, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/SARAH/V002) is based on observations from the series of Meteosat satellites. SARAH provides 30-min, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo, the solar irradiance (incl. spectral information), the direct solar radiation (horizontal and normal), and the sunshine duration from 1983 to 2015 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05° allowing for detailed regional studies. The global climate data record CLARA (CM SAF Clouds, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLARA_AVHRR/V002) is based on observations from the series of AVHRR satellite instruments. CLARA provides daily- and monthly-averaged global data of the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1982 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.25°. In addition to the solar surface

  9. Attack tree based cyber security analysis of nuclear digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the cyber security, nuclear digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems must be analyzed for security risks because a single security breach due to a cyber attack can cause system failure, which can have catastrophic consequences on the environment and staff of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Attack trees have been widely used to analyze the cyber security of digital systems due to their ability to capture system specific as well as attacker specific details. Therefore, a methodology based on attack trees has been proposed to analyze the cyber security of the systems. The methodology has been applied for the Cyber Security Analysis (CSA) of a Bistable Processor (BP) of a Reactor Protection System (RPS). Threats have been described according to their source. Attack scenarios have been generated using the attack tree and possible counter measures according to the Security Risk Level (SRL) of each scenario have been suggested. Moreover, cyber Security Requirements (SRs) have been elicited, and suitability of the requirements has been checked. (author)

  10. Integrated Instrumentation and Sensor Systems Enabling Condition-Based Maintenance of Aerospace Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work reported herein was to use a systems engineering approach to guide development of integrated instrumentation/sensor systems (IISS incorporating communications, interconnections, and signal acquisition. These require enhanced suitability and effectiveness for diagnostics and health management of aerospace equipment governed by the principles of Condition-based maintenance (CBM. It is concluded that the systems engineering approach to IISS definition provided clear benefits in identifying overall system requirements and an architectural framework for categorizing and evaluating alternative architectures, relative to a bottom up focus on sensor technology blind to system level user needs. CBM IISS imperatives identified include factors such as tolerance of the bulk of aerospace equipment operational environments, low intrusiveness, rapid reconfiguration, and affordable life cycle costs. The functional features identified include interrogation of the variety of sensor types and interfaces common in aerospace equipment applications over multiplexed communication media with flexibility to allow rapid system reconfiguration to adapt to evolving sensor needs. This implies standardized interfaces at the sensor location (preferably to open standards, reduced wire/connector pin count in harnesses (or their elimination through use of wireless communications.

  11. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENT FOR DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana D. BUFAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian manufacturing company. The study shows that the ABC/ABM system helps managers to properly manage indirect costs (by activities and understand the profitability of products, distribution channels and customers. Therefore, it offers a powerful instrument for decision-making. Although ABC is a new system of cost calculation that is absolutely necessary, in most cases the ABC method must be implemented in addition to the traditional costing systems, which are essential for the purposes of management accounting.

  12. Report of the 2. research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research programme on the development of computer-based troubleshooting tools and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The Research coordination meeting reviewed current results on the Development of Computer-Based Troubleshooting Tools and Instruments. Presentations at the meeting were made by the participants, and the project summary reports include: PC based software for troubleshooting microprocessor-based instruments; technical data base software; design and construction of a random pulser for maintenance and quality control of a nuclear counting system; microprocessor-based power conditioner; in-circuit emulator for microprocessor-based nuclear instruments; PC-based analog signal generator for simulated detector signals and arbitrary test waveforms for testing of nuclear instruments; expert system for nuclear instrument troubleshooting; development and application of versatile computer-based measurement and diagnostic tools; and development of a programmable signal generator for troubleshooting of nuclear instrumentation

  13. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Instrumentation for in situ sampling and analysis of compounds of interest to Astrobiology in the lower atmosphere and surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Paul M.; Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert; Kaye, William; Takeuchi, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Instrumentation for exploration of the solar system will require new enabling technology for in situ sample acquisition and analysis of pre-biotic chemistry in extreme planetary environments, such as that encountered at the surface of Titan. The potential use of balloon aero-rovers for Titan places special emphasis on the importance of miniaturization, low power and low usage of consumables. To help meet this need, we are developing a miniature gas chromatograph coupled with a new Mini-Cell ion mobility spectrometer (GC-IMS), and one of us (PMH) has begun development work on a miniaturized cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes for Titan. This instrumentation, and its approach for meeting measurement needs for the analysis of prebiotic chemistry on Titan, will be discussed.

  15. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Violent reinjury risk assessment instrument (VRRAI) for hospital-based violence intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Erik J; Dodington, James; Hunt, Ava; Henderson, Terrell; Nwabuo, Adaobi; Dicker, Rochelle; Juillard, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Violent injury is the second most common cause of death among 15- to 24-year olds in the US. Up to 58% of violently injured youth return to the hospital with a second violent injury. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) have been shown to reduce injury recidivism through intensive case management. However, no validated guidelines for risk assessment strategies in the HVIP setting have been reported. We aimed to use qualitative methods to investigate the key components of risk assessments employed by HVIP case managers and to propose a risk assessment model based on this qualitative analysis. An established academic hospital-affiliated HVIP served as the nexus for this research. Thematic saturation was reached with 11 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups conducted with HVIP case managers and key informants identified through snowball sampling. Interactions were analyzed by a four-member team using Nvivo 10, employing the constant comparison method. Risk factors identified were used to create a set of models presented in two follow-up HVIP case managers and leadership focus groups. Eighteen key themes within seven domains (environment, identity, mental health, behavior, conflict, indicators of lower risk, and case management) and 141 potential risk factors for use in the risk assessment framework were identified. The most salient factors were incorporated into eight models that were presented to the HVIP case managers. A 29-item algorithmic structured professional judgment model was chosen. We identified four tiers of risk factors for violent reinjury that were incorporated into a proposed risk assessment instrument, VRRAI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new informant-based questionnaire for instrumental activities of daily living in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkes, S.A.M.; de Lange-de Klerk, E.S.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Gillissen, F.; Romkes, R.; Knol, D.L.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Scheltens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interference in everyday functioning is part of the diagnostic criteria for dementia. Questionnaires measuring "instrumental activities of daily living" (IADL) are used to measure this interference, but the psychometric quality of these questionnaires is often questioned. In addition,

  19. Polymer-based surface plasmon resonance biochip: construction and experimental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleumar da Silva Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Surface plasmon resonance biosensors are high sensitive analytical instruments that normally employ glass materials at the optical substrate layer. However, the use of polymer-based substrates is increasing in the last years due to favorable features, like: disposability, ease to construction and low-cost design. Review Recently, a polymer-based SPR biochip was proposed by using monochromatic and polychromatic input sources. Its construction and experimental considerations are detailed here. Experimental considerations and results, aspects from performance characteristics (resonance parameters, sensitivity and full width at half maximum – FWHM – calculations are presented for hydrophilic and hydrophobic solutions. It is included also a brief description of the state of the art of polymer-based SPR biosensors.

  20. Investigating the Quality of Project-Based Science and Technology Learning Environments in Elementary School: A Critical Review of Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…

  1. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  2. Universal Quantum Transducers Based on Surface Acoustic Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, M.J.A.; Kessler, E.M.; Giedke, G.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Lukin, M.D.; Cirac, J.I.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a universal, on-chip quantum transducer based on surface acoustic waves in piezoactive materials. Because of the intrinsic piezoelectric (and/or magnetostrictive) properties of the material, our approach provides a universal platform capable of coherently linking a broad array of qubits,

  3. A silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Robert J.; van Loon, Rob V.A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Polman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at low temperatures using silicon nanocrystal doped alumina within a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide geometry. The fabrication method uses established microtechnology processes

  4. Development of a new instrument for the measurement of the milk constituents based on the embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhen; Wu Juan; Su Lijun; Li Zhonggang; Zhao Hong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new way for measuring milk constituents. The new technology utilizes the scattered light to transmitted light ratio of laser light to determine the amount of protein and fat in milk. Fundamental theories of this new technology are discussed in detail and the design blueprint of an embedded system built based on this technology is outlined. Furthermore, the protein concentrations measured by the newly developed instrument are fit well with the authentic results from Dairy Quality Supervision and Inspection Center of the Country, indicating the instrument is feasible and has great potential for the application in dairy industry

  5. Research on the improvement of traditional dial instrument precision based on C8051F020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guiling; Liu, Yi; Lu, Li

    2006-11-01

    Two essential parameters to weigh the quality of a reinforcing steel bar are the value of its bending force and the maximum pull it can withstand, in order to measure them with higher precision, it is significant to describe the changing tendency of force with time and displacement by drawing a real-time curve directly during the process examining the quality of a bar when the pull exerted is variable continuously. Using C8051F020 as the core component, this paper improves traditional dial instruments whose precision can only reach the second level. Adopting a high precision pulling/pressing force sensor, an amplifier, a two-order Butterworth low-pass filter and a 12-bit AD converter which is in the C8051F020, the first level of precision can be obtained. A rotary encoder is used to measure the length increment of the bar during the pulling process, based on an algorithm, a force-displacement (or time) curve which is quite important for operators to control the course of experiment can be displayed on the LCD. Meanwhile, real-time experimental data can be stored in local flash, or uploaded to PC by RS-485 and stored in the center database. A real-time clock is also adopted to mark the time of each experiment that is useful to index the data. The measure system we describe here is characterized by simple structure, high precision and stabilization, and convenience operation, can be used in other actual measure systems by only changing the front sensor, so it is of great value of application and popularization.

  6. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI, relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3 is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. "BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x = P1 × x 2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056, P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164, P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412, R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  7. Development of prototype induced-fission-based Pu accountancy instrument for safeguards applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee; Lee, Seung Kyu; An, Su Jung; Park, Se-Hwan; Ku, Jeong-Hoe; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; LaFleur, Adrienne M; Browne, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Prototype safeguards instrument for nuclear material accountancy (NMA) of uranium/transuranic (U/TRU) products that could be produced in a future advanced PWR fuel processing facility has been developed and characterized. This is a new, hybrid neutron measurement system based on fast neutron energy multiplication (FNEM) and passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) methods. The FNEM method is sensitive to the induced fission rate by fast neutrons, while the PNAR method is sensitive to the induced fission rate by thermal neutrons in the sample to be measured. The induced fission rate is proportional to the total amount of fissile material, especially plutonium (Pu), in the U/TRU product; hence, the Pu amount can be calibrated as a function of the induced fission rate, which can be measured using either the FNEM or PNAR method. In the present study, the prototype system was built using six (3)He tubes, and its performance was evaluated for various detector parameters including high-voltage (HV) plateau, efficiency profiles, dead time, and stability. The system's capability to measure the difference in the average neutron energy for the FNEM signature also was evaluated, using AmLi, PuBe, (252)Cf, as well as four Pu-oxide sources each with a different impurity (Al, F, Mg, and B) and producing (α,n) neutrons with different average energies. Future work will measure the hybrid signature (i.e., FNEM×PNAR) for a Pu source with an external interrogating neutron source after enlarging the cavity size of the prototype system to accommodate a large-size Pu source (~600g Pu). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multifunctional Surface Modification of Nanodiamonds Based on Dopamine Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Wenyan; Wang, Zheyu; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Wang, Risheng

    2018-04-03

    Surface functionalization of nanodiamonds (NDs), which is of great interest in advanced material and therapeutic applications, requires the immobilization of functional species, such as nucleic acids, bioprobes, drugs, and metal nanoparticles, onto NDs' surfaces to form stable nanoconjugates. However, it is still challenging to modify the surface of NDs due to the complexity of their surface chemistry and the low density of each functional group on the surfaces of NDs. In this work, we demonstrate a general applicable surface functionalization approach for the preparation of ND-based core-shell nanoconjugates using dopamine polymerization. By taking advantage of the universal adhesion and versatile reactivity of polydopamine, we have effectively conjugated DNA and silver nanoparticles onto NDs. Moreover, the catalytic activity of ND-supported silver nanoparticle was characterized by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, and the addressability of NDs was tested through DNA hybridization that formed satellite ND-gold nanorod conjugation. This simple and robust method we have presented may significantly improve the capability for attaching various functionalities onto NDs and open up new platforms for applications of NDs.

  9. Fractal Image Coding Based on a Fitting Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A no-search fractal image coding method based on a fitting surface is proposed. In our research, an improved gray-level transform with a fitting surface is introduced. One advantage of this method is that the fitting surface is used for both the range and domain blocks and one set of parameters can be saved. Another advantage is that the fitting surface can approximate the range and domain blocks better than the previous fitting planes; this can result in smaller block matching errors and better decoded image quality. Since the no-search and quadtree techniques are adopted, smaller matching errors also imply less number of blocks matching which results in a faster encoding process. Moreover, by combining all the fitting surfaces, a fitting surface image (FSI is also proposed to speed up the fractal decoding. Experiments show that our proposed method can yield superior performance over the other three methods. Relative to range-averaged image, FSI can provide faster fractal decoding process. Finally, by combining the proposed fractal coding method with JPEG, a hybrid coding method is designed which can provide higher PSNR than JPEG while maintaining the same Bpp.

  10. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Development of performance assessment instrument based contextual learning for measuring students laboratory skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Khotimah, K.; Nurhayati, S.

    2018-04-01

    The assessment of laboratory skill in general hasn’t specific guideline in assessment, while the individual assessment of students during a performance and skill in performing laboratory is still not been observed and measured properly. Alternative assessment that can be used to measure student laboratory skill is use performance assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the performance assessment instrument that the result of research can be used to assess basic skills student laboratory. This research was conducted by the Research and Development. The result of the data analysis performance assessment instruments developed feasible to implement and validation result 62.5 with very good categories for observation sheets laboratory skills and all of the components with the very good category. The procedure is the preliminary stages of research and development stages. Preliminary stages are divided in two, namely the field studies and literature studies. The development stages are divided into several parts, namely 1) development of the type instrument, 2) validation by an expert, 3) a limited scale trial, 4) large-scale trials and 5) implementation of the product. The instrument included in the category of effective because 26 from 29 students have very high laboratory skill and high laboratory skill. The research of performance assessment instrument is standard and can be used to assess basic skill student laboratory.

  12. Measuring quality in community based housing support - the QPC-H instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Rask, Mikael; Brunt, David; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt; Schröder, Agneta

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to test the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the instrument Quality in Psychiatric Care-Housing (QPC-H) and briefly describe the residents' perception of quality of housing support. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of 174 residents from 22 housing support services in nine Swedish municipalities participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the QPC-H consisted of six dimensions and had a factor structure largely corresponding to that found among other instruments in the Quality in Psychiatric Care (QPC) family of instruments. Findings - CFA revealed that the QPC-H consisted of six dimensions and had a factor structure largely corresponding to that found among other instruments in the QPC family of instruments. The internal consistency of the factors was acceptable except in the case of secure and secluded environment, probably due to few numbers of items. With this exception, the QPC-H shows adequate psychometric properties. Social implications - The residents' ratings of quality of housing service were generally high; the highest rating was for secluded environment and the lowest for participation. This dimension would thus seem to indicate an important area for improvement. Originality/value - The QPC-H includes important aspects of residents' assessment of quality of housing service and offers a simple and inexpensive way to evaluate housing support services from the residents' perspective.

  13. A Vehicular Mobile Standard Instrument for Field Verification of Traffic Speed Meters Based on Dual-Antenna Doppler Radar Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Sun, Qiao; Cai, Changqing; Bai, Jie; Fan, Zhe; Zhang, Yue

    2018-04-05

    Traffic speed meters are important legal measuring instruments specially used for traffic speed enforcement and must be tested and verified in the field every year using a vehicular mobile standard speed-measuring instrument to ensure speed-measuring performances. The non-contact optical speed sensor and the GPS speed sensor are the two most common types of standard speed-measuring instruments. The non-contact optical speed sensor requires extremely high installation accuracy, and its speed-measuring error is nonlinear and uncorrectable. The speed-measuring accuracy of the GPS speed sensor is rapidly reduced if the amount of received satellites is insufficient enough, which often occurs in urban high-rise regions, tunnels, and mountainous regions. In this paper, a new standard speed-measuring instrument using a dual-antenna Doppler radar sensor is proposed based on a tradeoff between the installation accuracy requirement and the usage region limitation, which has no specified requirements for its mounting distance and no limitation on usage regions and can automatically compensate for the effect of an inclined installation angle on its speed-measuring accuracy. Theoretical model analysis, simulated speed measurement results, and field experimental results compared with a GPS speed sensor with high accuracy showed that the dual-antenna Doppler radar sensor is effective and reliable as a new standard speed-measuring instrument.

  14. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  15. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  16. Performance of a commercial backscatter instrument adapted for noncontacting areal density measurements on small-diameter surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.B.

    1980-12-01

    Measuring the local areal density of a sensitive explosive deposited on a small-diameter surface requires noncontacting technique and good resolution. The side effects of spacing the sensing platen of an NX-500 Betascope 2.54 mm from the surface of cylinders as small as 13-mm diameter are examined. Resolution in two directions and offset error sensitivity of the system are defined and determined using coatings of simulated explosive. An eddy-current system is described which can be easily added to reduce offset errors caused by fixture misalignment

  17. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  18. Face recognition based on depth maps and surface curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gaile G.

    1991-09-01

    This paper explores the representation of the human face by features based on the curvature of the face surface. Curature captures many features necessary to accurately describe the face, such as the shape of the forehead, jawline, and cheeks, which are not easily detected from standard intensity images. Moreover, the value of curvature at a point on the surface is also viewpoint invariant. Until recently range data of high enough resolution and accuracy to perform useful curvature calculations on the scale of the human face had been unavailable. Although several researchers have worked on the problem of interpreting range data from curved (although usually highly geometrically structured) surfaces, the main approaches have centered on segmentation by signs of mean and Gaussian curvature which have not proved sufficient in themselves for the case of the human face. This paper details the calculation of principal curvature for a particular data set, the calculation of general surface descriptors based on curvature, and the calculation of face specific descriptors based both on curvature features and a priori knowledge about the structure of the face. These face specific descriptors can be incorporated into many different recognition strategies. A system that implements one such strategy, depth template comparison, giving recognition rates between 80% and 90% is described.

  19. Frequency selective surfaces based high performance microstrip antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on performance enhancement of printed antennas using frequency selective surfaces (FSS) technology. The growing demand of stealth technology in strategic areas requires high-performance low-RCS (radar cross section) antennas. Such requirements may be accomplished by incorporating FSS into the antenna structure either in its ground plane or as the superstrate, due to the filter characteristics of FSS structure. In view of this, a novel approach based on FSS technology is presented in this book to enhance the performance of printed antennas including out-of-band structural RCS reduction. In this endeavor, the EM design of microstrip patch antennas (MPA) loaded with FSS-based (i) high impedance surface (HIS) ground plane, and (ii) the superstrates are discussed in detail. The EM analysis of proposed FSS-based antenna structures have been carried out using transmission line analogy, in combination with the reciprocity theorem. Further, various types of novel FSS structures are considered in desi...

  20. Design and operation of dust measuring instrumentation based on the beta-radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1975-01-01

    The theory, instrument design aspects and applications of beta-radiation attenuation for the measurement of the mass concentration of airborne particulates are reviewed. Applicable methods of particle collection, beta sensing configurations, source ( 63 Ni, 14 C, 147 Pr, 85 Kr) and detector design criteria, electronic signal processing, digital control and instrument programming techniques are treated. Advantages, limitations and error sources of beta-attenuation instrumentation are analyzed. Applications to industrial dust measurements, source testing, ambient monitoring, and particle size analysis are the major areas of practical utilization of this technique, and its inherent capability for automated and unattended operation provides compatibility with process control synchronization and alarm, telemetry, and incorporation into pollution monitoring network sensing stations. (orig.) [de

  1. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  2. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway Lamb, I. D.; Colless, J. I.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Pauka, S. J.; Waddy, S. J.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Microsoft Station Q Sydney, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Frechtling, M. K. [Microsoft Station Q Sydney, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Electrical Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  3. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  4. Silica Based Superhydrophobic Nanocoatings for Natural Rubber Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veromee Kalpana Wimalasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica based nonfluorinated superhydrophobic coatings for natural rubber surfaces have been developed. The coating was synthesized using nanosilica dispersion and a polychloroprene type binder as a compatibilizer. This nanocoating of silica was applied on to the surface of finished natural rubber gloves, by spray coating or dipped coating methods. The nanocoating demonstrates a water contact angle of more than 150° and sliding angle of 7°. The morphological features of the coating have been studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to understand the nature of surface functional groups. Both imaging techniques provided evidence for the presence of nanosized particles in the coating. Coated gloves demonstrated comparable mechanical properties and significantly better alcohol resistivity when compared to those of the uncoated gloves.

  5. A density gradient theory based method for surface tension calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The density gradient theory has been becoming a widely used framework for calculating surface tension, within which the same equation of state is used for the interface and bulk phases, because it is a theoretically sound, consistent and computationally affordable approach. Based on the observation...... that the optimal density path from the geometric mean density gradient theory passes the saddle point of the tangent plane distance to the bulk phases, we propose to estimate surface tension with an approximate density path profile that goes through this saddle point. The linear density gradient theory, which...... assumes linearly distributed densities between the two bulk phases, has also been investigated. Numerical problems do not occur with these density path profiles. These two approximation methods together with the full density gradient theory have been used to calculate the surface tension of various...

  6. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M G; Neves, L A; Zafalon, G F D; Valêncio, C; Pinto, A R; Nascimento, M Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  7. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  8. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  9. State-of-the-art report for the instrumentation and control technology based on the nuclear-information technology convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Cheol Kwon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-12-01

    As digitalized the instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, in the past that were implemented in an analog system or circuit for monitoring, control and protection, most of the them is implemented in embedded software based on hardware platform. Digital instrumentation and control system hardware platforms and a digital safety systems have developed in Korea. The fundamental technology of the software part of MMIS (Man-Machine Interface System) has achieved the localization. But in order to secure our global competitiveness, in the -based software, the source of the content areas / It is needed to develop core technologies of the software and contents areas based on the nuclear-IT convergence technology. In this report, the IT technology centered for the characteristics of embedded software applied to nuclear power is described. Also state-of-the-art IT technologies that will converge to nuclear power plants are mentioned

  10. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  11. Benefits of using customized instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: results from an activity-based costing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, Carsten O; Hofer, Pamela; Portegies, Wesley; Ruys, C J M; Fennema, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) associated with the efforts to contain healthcare expenditure by advanced economies necessitates the use of economically effective technologies in TKA. The present analysis based on activity-based costing (ABC) model was carried out to estimate the economic value of patient-matched instrumentation (PMI) compared to standard surgical instrumentation in TKA. The costs of the two approaches, PMI and standard instrumentation in TKA, were determined by the use of ABC which measures the cost of a particular procedure by determining the activities involved and adding the cost of each activity. Improvement in productivity due to increased operating room (OR) turn-around times was determined and potential additional revenue to the hospital by the efficient utilization of gained OR time was estimated. Increased efficiency in the usage of OR and utilization of surgical trays were noted with patient-specific approach. Potential revenues to the hospital were estimated with the use of PMI by efficient utilization of time saved in OR. Additional revenues of 78,240 per year were estimated considering utilization of gained OR time to perform surgeries other than TKA. The analysis suggests that use of PMI in TKA is economically effective when compared to standard instrumentation.

  12. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  13. Protein Analysis Using Real-Time PCR Instrumentation: Incorporation in an Integrated, Inquiry-Based Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Jonathan N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation for real-time PCR is used primarily for amplification and quantitation of nucleic acids. The capability to measure fluorescence while controlling temperature in multiple samples can also be applied to the analysis of proteins. Conformational stability and changes in stability due to ligand binding are easily assessed. Protein…

  14. Application of an ion mobility spectrometer based on virtual instrument technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shihong; Wei Yongbo; Jiang Dazhen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the application of virtual instrument technology on an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). By designing the data acquisition and processing system of IMS on LabVIEW platform, the ability of signal processing and real time measurement in practice has been improved. (authors)

  15. Object-based Dimensionality Reduction in Land Surface Phenology Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Bunker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised classification or clustering of multi-decadal land surface phenology provides a spatio-temporal synopsis of natural and agricultural vegetation response to environmental variability and anthropogenic activities. Notwithstanding the detailed temporal information available in calibrated bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and comparable time series, typical pre-classification workflows average a pixel’s bi-monthly index within the larger multi-decadal time series. While this process is one practical way to reduce the dimensionality of time series with many hundreds of image epochs, it effectively dampens temporal variation from both intra and inter-annual observations related to land surface phenology. Through a novel application of object-based segmentation aimed at spatial (not temporal dimensionality reduction, all 294 image epochs from a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS bi-monthly NDVI time series covering the northern Fertile Crescent were retained (in homogenous landscape units as unsupervised classification inputs. Given the inherent challenges of in situ or manual image interpretation of land surface phenology classes, a cluster validation approach based on transformed divergence enabled comparison between traditional and novel techniques. Improved intra-annual contrast was clearly manifest in rain-fed agriculture and inter-annual trajectories showed increased cluster cohesion, reducing the overall number of classes identified in the Fertile Crescent study area from 24 to 10. Given careful segmentation parameters, this spatial dimensionality reduction technique augments the value of unsupervised learning to generate homogeneous land surface phenology units. By combining recent scalable computational approaches to image segmentation, future work can pursue new global land surface phenology products based on the high temporal resolution signatures of vegetation index time series.

  16. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  17. New instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Constantin, F.; Petcu, M.; Plostinaru, V.D.; Rusu, Al.; Lupu, A.C.; Lupu, F.

    2003-01-01

    Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

  18. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  19. Microprocessor-based simulator of surface ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, A E; Rossi, E; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a simulator of surface electrocardiogram recorded signals (ECG) is presented. The device, based on a microcontroller and commanded by a personal computer, produces an analog signal resembling actual ECGs, not only in time course and voltage levels, but also in source impedance. The simulator is a useful tool for electrocardiograph calibration and monitoring, to incorporate as well in educational tasks and in clinical environments for early detection of faulty behaviour

  20. Surface wave photonic device based on porous silicon multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermain, E.; Lysenko, V.; Benyattou, T.

    2006-01-01

    Porous silicon is widely studied in the field of photonics due to its interesting optical properties. In this work, we present theoretical and first experimental studies of a new kind of porous silicon photonic device based on optical surface wave. A theoretical analysis of the device is presented using plane-wave approximation. The porous silicon multilayered structures are realized using electrochemical etching of p + -type silicon. Morphological and optical characterizations of the realized structures are reported

  1. Surfaced-based investigations plan, Volume 4: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This document represents a detailed summary of design plans for surface-based investigations to be conducted for site characterization of the Yucca Mountain site. These plans are current as of December 1988. The description of surface-based site characterization activities contained in this document is intended to give all interested parties an understanding of the current plans for site characterization of Yucca Mountain. The maps presented in Volume 4 are products of the Geographic Information System (GIS) being used by the Yucca Mountain Project. The ARC/INFO GIS software, developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, was used to digitize and process these SBIP maps. The maps were prepared using existing US Geological Survey (USGS) maps as a planimetric base. Roads and other surface features were interpreted from a variety of sources and entered into the GIS. Sources include the USGS maps, 1976 USGS orthophotoquads and aerial photography, 1986 and 1987 aerial photography, surveyed coordinates of field sites, and a combination of various maps, figures, descriptions and approximate coordinates of proposed locations for future activities

  2. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  3. Modelling Angular Dependencies in Land Surface Temperatures From the SEVIRI Instrument onboard the Geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Pinheiro, AC; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    on vegetation structure and viewing and illumination geometry. Despite this, these effects are not considered in current operational LST products from neither polar-orbiting nor geostationary satellites. In this paper, we simulate the angular dependence that can be expected when estimating LST with the viewing...... geometry of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor across the African continent and compare it to a normalized view geometry. We use the modified geometric projection model that estimates the scene thermal infrared radiance from a surface covered...

  4. Instrumentation For Multiple Radiation Detection Based On Novel Mercurous Halides For Nuclear Planetology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation detectors that sense gamma and neutron radiation are critical to the exploration of planetary surface composition. Among the key technological challenges...

  5. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  6. Nanobiosensors Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biomarker Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoochan Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR is induced by incident light when it interacts with noble metal nanoparticles that have smaller sizes than the wavelength of the incident light. Recently, LSPR-based nanobiosensors were developed as tools for highly sensitive, label-free, and flexible sensing techniques for the detection of biomolecular interactions. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of LSPR-based nanobiosensing techniques and LSPR sensor system for biomolecule sensing. We also discuss the challenges using LSPR nanobiosensors for detection of biomolecules as a biomarker.

  7. Pruning the Money-Tree to Ensure Sustainable Growth: Facilitating Sustainable Development Through Market-Based Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Paterson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s pristine landscapes and natural resources are under significant threat. This is not subject to debate, but what is, is how to implement a regulatory regime to deal effectively with these environmental realities – a challenge complicated by competing socio-economic imperatives; significant capacity and resource constraints and the need to redress past inequalities, efforts to increase access to land and natural resources as well as perceptions that the environment is an elitist concern. Many countries are exploring alternative ways of providing for effective environmental management such as: co-opting civil society participation; creating markets for environmental goods and services; and using market-based instruments (MBI. The latter form the focus of this article as the National Treasury recently released a draft policy paper for discussion titled A Framework for Considering Market-Based Instruments to Support Environmental Fiscal Reform in South Africa 2006 (Draft Policy Paper.

  8. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  9. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  10. Microprocessor- and LSI-based CAMAC RAM controllers in a modular multiparameter instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarda, V.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution deals with the main features and with the hardware modifications of RAM controllers in the dual-port accessed CAMAC memory modules that have been applied in a modular multichannel analyzer instrumentation system. The modules described in this paper are fully compatible with the CAMAC standard EUR 4100 and with the COMPEX draft proposal of the ESONE Study Group, as well. Special attention is paid to the possible application of modern LSI bipolar circuits. (orig.)

  11. Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: a qualitative research instrument based on organisational theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alison S; Hopp, Trine; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Chen, Timothy F; Herborg, Hanne; Williams, Kylie; Aslani, Parisa

    2003-10-01

    The past decade has seen a notable shift in the practice of pharmacy, with a strong focus on the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) by community pharmacists. The benefits of these services have been well documented, yet their uptake appears to be slow. Various strategies have been developed to overcome barriers to the implementation of CPS, with varying degrees of success, and little is known about the sustainability of the practice changes they produce. Furthermore, the strategies developed are often specific to individual programs or services, and their applicability to other CPS has not been explored. There seems to be a need for a flexible change management model for the implementation and dissemination of a range of CPS, but before it can be developed, a better understanding of the change process is required. This paper describes the development of a qualitative research instrument that may be utilised to investigate practice change in community pharmacy. Specific objectives included gaining knowledge about the circumstances surrounding attempts to implement CPS, and understanding relationships that are important to the change process. Organisational theory provided the conceptual framework for development of the qualitative research instrument, within which two theories were used to give insight into the change process: Borum's theory of organisational change, which categorizes change strategies as rational, natural, political or open; and Social Network Theory, which helps identify and explain the relationships between key people involved in the change process. A semi-structured affecting practice change found in the literature that warranted further investigation with the theoretical perspectives of organisational change and social networks. To address the research objectives, the instrument covered four broad themes: roles, experiences, strategies and networks. The qualitative research instrument developed in this study provides a

  12. Mechanisms for adsorption of organic bases on hydrated smectite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, D.A.; Fleming, P.D.

    1999-08-01

    The environmental fate of anthropogenic organic bases introduced to soils and sediments, either deliberately as pesticides or inadvertently as contaminants, depends, to a large extent, on reactions between those compounds and the surfaces of soil mineral and organic constituents. Mechanisms by which organic bases are adsorbed on hydrated smectite surfaces were investigated. Three Ca-saturated reference smectites (Otay, SPV, and Panther Creek) were dispersed in distilled water containing 5 {micro}mol of pyridine or 3-butylpyridine. The pH was adjusted to between 7.5 and 3 using 0.01 M HCl. After a 2-h equilibration, the amounts of pyridine or 3-butylpyridine adsorbed on the clay and the amount of Ca desorbed from the clay were determined. Negligible amounts of pyridine were adsorbed by the Ca-smectites in the neutral systems (pH > 7); however, most of the added pyridine was adsorbed on the smectites in the acidified systems (pH < 5). Equivalent amounts of Ca{sup 2+} were desorbed from the clays, indicating that pyridine was adsorbed as a protonated species by cation exchange. By contrast, 40 to 90% of added 3-butylpyridine was adsorbed on the smectites at neutral pHs, whereas only small amounts of Ca{sup 2+} were desorbed. The results suggest that 3-butylpyridine is initially retained by hydrophobic bonding between the alkyl side chain of the molecule and hydrophobic nanosites located between the charge sites on smectite surfaces. Surface acidity catalyzed protonation 1 to 1.5 pH units above the pK{sub a} of the bases.

  13. Transcultural adaptation into Portuguese of an instrument for pain evaluation based on the biopsychosocial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rocha Peixoto dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Pain is an individual experience influenced by multiple interacting factors. The “biopsychosocial” care model has gained popularity in response to growing research evidence indicating the influence of biological, psychological, and social factors on the pain experience. The implementation of this model is a challenge in the practice of the health professional. Objective: To perform the transcultural adaptation of the SCEBS method into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: The instrument was translated and applied to 50 healthy subjects and 50 participants with non-specific chronic pain in the spine. The process of cross-cultural adaptation included the following steps: transcultural adaptation, content analysis of the scale, pre-test, revision, back-translation review, cross-cultural adaptation, revised text correction and final report. Results: The translated and adapted 51-item Portuguese version of the SCEBS method produced an instrument called SCEBS-BR. In the assessment by the target population, 50 adult users of the Brazilian Unified Health System answered the questionnaire and showed good understanding of the instrument on the verbal rating scale. Conclusion: The SCEBS-BR was proved to be easily understandable, showing good semantic validation regardless of schooling level or age, and can be considered adequate for clinical use.

  14. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  15. Virtual environment assessment for laser-based vision surface profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSoussi, Adnane; Al Alami, Abed ElRahman; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2015-03-01

    Oil and gas businesses have been raising the demand from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to implement a reliable metrology method in assessing surface profiles of welds before and after grinding. This certainly mandates the deviation from the commonly used surface measurement gauges, which are not only operator dependent, but also limited to discrete measurements along the weld. Due to its potential accuracy and speed, the use of laser-based vision surface profiling systems have been progressively rising as part of manufacturing quality control. This effort presents a virtual environment that lends itself for developing and evaluating existing laser vision sensor (LVS) calibration and measurement techniques. A combination of two known calibration techniques is implemented to deliver a calibrated LVS system. System calibration is implemented virtually and experimentally to scan simulated and 3D printed features of known profiles, respectively. Scanned data is inverted and compared with the input profiles to validate the virtual environment capability for LVS surface profiling and preliminary assess the measurement technique for weld profiling applications. Moreover, this effort brings 3D scanning capability a step closer towards robust quality control applications in a manufacturing environment.

  16. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  17. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Loyens, Sofie M M; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-12-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review investigates: (1) the effects of PBL on students' deep and surface approaches to learning, (2) whether and why these effects do differ across (a) the context of the learning environment (single vs. curriculum wide implementation), and (b) study quality. Studies were searched dealing with PBL and students' approaches to learning. Twenty-one studies were included. The results indicate that PBL does enhance deep learning with a small positive average effect size of .11 and a positive effect in eleven of the 21 studies. Four studies show a decrease in deep learning and six studies show no effect. PBL does not seem to have an effect on surface learning as indicated by a very small average effect size (.08) and eleven studies showing no increase in the surface approach. Six studies demonstrate a decrease and four an increase in surface learning. It is concluded that PBL does seem to enhance deep learning and has little effect on surface learning, although more longitudinal research using high quality measurement instruments is needed to support this conclusion with stronger evidence. Differences cannot be explained by the study quality but a curriculum wide implementation of PBL has a more positive impact on the deep approach (effect size .18) compared to an implementation within a single course (effect size of -.05). PBL is assumed to enhance active learning and students' intrinsic motivation, which enhances deep learning. A high perceived workload and assessment that is perceived as not rewarding deep learning are assumed to enhance surface learning.

  18. A telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal motion in patients with respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Evert Pereira; Esteves, Guilherme Pompeu; Dames, Karla Kristine; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Changes in thoracoabdominal motion are highly prevalent in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Home care services that use telemedicine techniques and Internet-based monitoring have the potential to improve the management of these patients. However, there is no detailed description in the literature of a system for Internet-based monitoring of patients with disturbed thoracoabdominal motion. The purpose of this work was to describe the development of a new telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal movement. The instrument directly measures changes in the thorax and abdomen circumferences and transfers data through a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol connection. After the design details are described, the accuracy of the electronic and software processing units of the instrument is evaluated by using electronic signals simulating normal subjects and individuals with thoracoabdominal motion disorders. The results obtained during in vivo studies on normal subjects simulating thoracoabdominal motion disorders showed that this new system is able to detect a reduction in abdominal movement that is associated with abnormal thoracic breathing (p telemedicine scenarios, which can reduce the costs of assistance offered to patients with respiratory diseases.

  19. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  20. A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Buchhorn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI. The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS, and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

  1. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  2. Airborne LIDAR borsight error calibration based on surface coincide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Li, Dong; Qi, Zengying; Qiu, Wen; Tan, Junxiang

    2014-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a system which can directly collect three-dimensional coordinate information of ground point and laser reflection strength information. With the wide application of LIDAR system, users hope to get more accurate results. Boresight error has an important effect on data accuracy and thus, it is thought that eliminating the error is very important. In recent years, many methods have been proposed to eliminate the error. Generally, they can be categorized into tie point method and surface matching method. In this paper, we propose another method called try value method based on surface coincide that is used in actual production by many companies. The method is simple and operable. Further, the efficacy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the data from Zhangye city

  3. Compact terahertz spectrometer based on disordered rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Jiang, Bing; Ge, Jia-cheng; Zhu, Yong-yuan; Li, Xing-ao; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a compact spectrometer based on disordered rough surfaces for operation in the terahertz band is presented. The proposed spectrometer consists of three components, which are used for dispersion, modulation and detection respectively. The disordered rough surfaces, which are acted as the dispersion component, are modulated by the modulation component. Different scattering intensities are captured by the detection component with different extent of modulation. With a calibration measurement process, one can reconstruct the spectra of the probe terahertz beam by solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. A Tikhonov regularization approach has been implemented to improve the accuracy of the spectral reconstruction. The reported broadband, compact, high-resolution terahertz spectrometer is well suited for portable terahertz spectroscopy applications.

  4. Shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Itoh, H.; Masutani, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Maeda, E.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hayashi, N.

    2007-01-01

    We proposed a shape based automated detection of pulmonary nodules with surface feature based false positive (FP) reduction. In the proposed system, the FP existing in internal of vessel bifurcation is removed using extracted surface of vessels and nodules. From the validation with 16 chest CT scans, we find that the proposed CAD system achieves 18.7 FPs/scan at 90% sensitivity, and 7.8 FPs/scan at 80% sensitivity. (orig.)

  5. Preference-based disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for glaucoma: a mixed methods study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, Sergei; Podbielski, Dominik W; Jack, Susan M; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Mitchell, Levine A H; Baltaziak, Monika; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A primary objective of healthcare services is to improve patients' health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Glaucoma, which affects a substantial proportion of the world population, has a significant detrimental impact on HRQoL. Although there are a number of glaucoma-specific questionnaires to measure HRQoL, none is preference-based which prevent them from being used in health economic evaluation. The proposed study is aimed to develop a preference-based instrument that is capable of capturing important effects specific to glaucoma and treatments on HRQoL and is scored based on the patients' preferences. Methods A sequential, exploratory mixed methods design will be used to guide the development and evaluation of the HRQoL instrument. The study consists of several stages to be implemented sequentially: item identification, item selection, validation and valuation. The instrument items will be identified and selected through a literature review and the conduct of a qualitative study. Validation will be conducted to establish psychometric properties of the instrument followed by a valuation exercise to derive utility scores for the health states described. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Trillium Health Partners Research Ethics Board (ID number 753). All personal information will be de-identified with the identification code kept in a secured location including the rest of the study data. Only qualified and study-related personnel will be allowed to access the data. The results of the study will be distributed widely through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and internal meetings. PMID:28186941

  6. Surface acid-base behaviors of Chinese loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaosheng; Liu, Wenxin; Tang, Hongxiao; Qian, Tianwei; Li, Shushen; Li, Zhentang; Wu, Guibin

    2002-08-15

    Acid-base titration was applied to investigate the surface acid-base properties of a Chinese loess sample at different ionic strengths. The acidimetric supernatant was regarded as the system blank of titration to correct the influence of particle dissolution on the estimation of proton consumption. The titration behavior of the system blank could be described by the hydrolysis of Al3+ and Si(OH)4 in aqueous solution as well as the production of hydroxyaluminosilicates. The formation of Al-Si species on homogeneous surface sites by hydrous aluminum and silicic acid, released from solid substrate during the acidic titration, was considered in the model description of the back-titration procedure. A surface reaction model was suggested as follows: >SOHSO(-)+H+, pK(a)(int)=3.48-3.98;>SOH+Al(3+)+H4SiO4SOAl(OSi(OH)3(+)+2H+, pK(SC)=3.48-4.04. Two simple surface complexation models accounted for the interfacial structure, i.e., the constant capacitance model (CCM) and the diffuse layer model (DLM), and gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. Considering the effect of ionic strength on the electrostatic profile at the solid-aqueous interface, the DLM was appropriate at the low concentrations (0.01 and 0.005 mol/L) of background electrolyte (NaNO3 in this study), while the CCM was preferable in the case of high ionic strength (0.1 mol/L).

  7. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2014-09-17

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  8. Testing instrument validity for LATE identification based on inequality moment constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We derive testable implications of instrument validity in just identified treatment effect models with endogeneity and consider several tests. The identifying assumptions of the local average treatment effect allow us to both point identify and bound the mean potential outcomes (i) of the always...... takers under treatment and (ii) of the never takers under non-treatment. The point identified means must lie within their respective bounds, which provides us with four testable inequality moment constraints. Finally, we adapt our testing framework to the identification of distributional features....... A brief simulation study and an application to labor market data are also provided....

  9. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  10. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional

  11. Development of the Quality of Australian Nursing Documentation in Aged Care (QANDAC) instrument to assess paper-based and electronic resident records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Björvell, Catrin; Hailey, David; Yu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    To develop an Australian nursing documentation in aged care (Quality of Australian Nursing Documentation in Aged Care (QANDAC)) instrument to measure the quality of paper-based and electronic resident records. The instrument was based on the nursing process model and on three attributes of documentation quality identified in a systematic review. The development process involved five phases following approaches to designing criterion-referenced measures. The face and content validities and the inter-rater reliability of the instrument were estimated using a focus group approach and consensus model. The instrument contains 34 questions in three sections: completion of nursing history and assessment, description of care process and meeting the requirements of data entry. Estimates of the validity and inter-rater reliability of the instrument gave satisfactory results. The QANDAC instrument may be a useful audit tool for quality improvement and research in aged care documentation. © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. The Project Based Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Credible Instruments or Challenges to the Integrity of the Kyoto Protocol?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi Waldegren, Linn

    2006-03-15

    The project based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol are innovative instruments which allow projects to earn credits for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The credits can in turn be used by countries to reach their emissions targets according to the Kyoto Protocol. The Project based mechanisms are known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Joint Implementation (JI). If the project based mechanisms are to be effective policy instruments they must ensure the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol, and their ability to promote and prove real emission reductions is critical. The environmental credibility of the project based mechanisms will also ensure their ability to promote cost effectiveness. Key concepts in this context are environmental and project additionality, and their role and value for the project based mechanisms are analyzed. Environmental additionality is established by comparing a project's emissions to a baseline. The baseline's credibility is thus vital. The concept of project additionality is somewhat controversial, but is nonetheless of equal importance. The case studies of CDM approved methodologies (AMs) and proposed projects suggest that there are credibility issues that need to be addressed if the project based mechanisms are to promote real emissions reductions.

  13. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the influence of manual and mechanical glide path on the surface of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in moderately curved root canals: An in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dishant; Bashetty, Kusum; Srirekha, A.; Archana, S.; Savitha, B.; Vijay, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual versus mechanical glide path (GP) on the surface changes of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments used during root canal therapy in a moderately curved root canal. Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy controls were selected for the study. Controls were divided randomly into four groups: Group 1: Manual GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 2: Manual GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments, Group 3: Mechanical GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 4: Mechanical GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments. After access opening, GP was prepared and rotary instruments were used according to manufacturer's instructions. All instruments were evaluated for defects under standard error mean before their use and after a single use. The scorings for the files were given at apical and middle third. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used. Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between any of the groups. Irrespective of the GP and rotary files used, more defects were present in the apical third when compared to middle third of the rotary instrument. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was no effect of manual or mechanical GP on surface defects of subsequent rotary file system used. PMID:27994317

  14. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  15. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y A [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I V [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V U [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  16. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  17. Detection of tonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sigge N.; Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design an algorithm for detection of tonic seizures based on surface electromyography signals from the deltoids. A successful algorithm has a future prospect of being implemented in a wearable device as part of an alarm system. This has already been done......, median frequency, zero crossing rate and approximate entropy. These features were used as input in the random forest classifier to decide if a data segment was from a seizure or not. The goal was to develop a generic algorithm for all tonic seizures, but better results were achieved when certain...

  18. Surface decontamination studies using polyvinyl acetate based strippable polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl acetate based strippable polymer has been developed for surface decontamination. Stainless steel, mild steel, polyvinyl chloride and rubber have been selected as candidate materials for the radioactive decontamination studies. The ease of strippability and homogeneity of the polymer coating has been studied using infrared spectrophotometer. Decontamination of used radioactive respirator has been carried out and the peels obtained have been subjected to leaching and incineration studies. The infrared spectrophotometric studies also have been conducted to study the interaction between polyvinyl acetate and ions, like cesium, strontium and cobalt. (author)

  19. The JPSS CrIS Instrument and the Evolution of Space-Based Infrared Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Suwinski, Lawrence; Wells, Steven; Glumb, Anna; Malloy, Rebecca; Colton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper will summarize the development of infrared sounders since the 1970s, describe the technological hurdles that were overcome to provide ever-increasing performance capabilities, and highlight the radiometric performance of the CrIS instrument on JPSS-1 (CrIS-JPSS1). This includes details of the CrIS-JPSS1 measured noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NEdN) performance, radiometric uncertainty performance utilizing a new and improved internal calibration target, short-term and long-term repeatability, spectral uncertainty, and spectral stability. In addition, the full-resolution operating modes for CrIS-JPSS1 will be reviewed, including a discussion of how these modes will be used during on-orbit characterization tests. We will provide a brief update of CrIS-SNPP on-obit performance and the production status of the CrIS instruments for JPSS-2 through JPSS-4. Current technological challenges will also be reviewed, including how ongoing research and development is enabling improvements to future sounders. The expanding usage of infrared sounding data will also be discussed, including demonstration of value via data assimilation, the roles of the public/private sector in communicating the importance of sounding data for long-term observations, and the long road to success from research to operational data products.

  20. The development of special equipment amplitude detection instrument based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Sidan; Chen Ligang; Lan Peng; Wang Huiting; Zhang Liangxu; Wang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Development and industrial application of special equipment plays an important role in the development of nuclear energy process. Equipment development process need to do a lot of tests, amplitude detection is a key test,it can analysis the device's electromechanical and physical properties. In the industrial application, the amplitude detection can effectively reflect the operational status of the current equipment, the equipment can also be a certain degree of fault diagnosis, identify problems in a timely manner. The main development target in this article is amplitude detection of special equipment. This article describes the development of special equipment amplitude detection instrument. The instrument uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as the central processing unit, and uses the DSP + CPLD + high-speed AD technology to build a complete set of high-precision signal acquisition and analysis processing systems, rechargeable lithium battery as the powered device. It can do a online monitoring of special equipment amplitude, speed parameters by acquiring and analysing the tachometer signal in the special equipment, and locally display through the LCD screen. (authors)

  1. Conceptual design of wearpack with physiology detector feature based on wearable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Melani; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Priadythama, Ilham; Susmartini, Susy; Suhardi, Bambang

    2017-11-01

    Every company in Indonesia is responsible for their worker health and safety condition as mentioned in UU No I year 1970. In manufacturing industries, there are many manual tasks dealing with high work load and risk, so that they require excellent concentration and physical condition. There is no ideal way to guarantee worker safety without a real time physiological monitoring. This paper reports our ongoing study in conceptual design development of worker's clothing which is equipped with a wearable instrumentation system. The system is designed to detect and measure body temperature and pulse in real time. Some electrical components such as, LCD (liquid crystal display), LEDs (light emitting diode), batteries, and physiological sensors were assembled. All components are controlled by a wearable on board controller. LEDs is used as alert which can indicate abnormal physical conditions. The LCD was added to provide more detail information. TMP 36 and XD-58C were selected as the physiological sensors. Finally, an Arduino Lilypad was chosen for the controller. This instrumentation system was verified by accurately detected and inform physiological condition of 3 subjects. Further we are going to attach the system to a worker's clothing which was specifically designed to simplify and comfortable usage.

  2. Low-kilovolt coherent electron diffractive imaging instrument based on a single-atom electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Yueh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wei-Tse; Chen, Yi-Sheng; Hwu, En-Te; Chang, Chia-Seng; Hwang, Ing-Shouh, E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wei-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a transmission-type, low-kilovolt coherent electron diffractive imaging instrument was constructed. It comprised a single-atom field emitter, a triple-element electrostatic lens, a sample holder, and a retractable delay line detector to record the diffraction patterns at different positions behind the sample. It was designed to image materials thinner than 3 nm. The authors analyzed the asymmetric triple-element electrostatic lens for focusing the electron beams and achieved a focused beam spot of 87 nm on the sample plane at the electron energy of 2 kV. High-angle coherent diffraction patterns of a suspended graphene sample corresponding to (0.62 Å){sup −1} were recorded. This work demonstrated the potential of coherent diffractive imaging of thin two-dimensional materials, biological molecules, and nano-objects at a voltage between 1 and 10 kV. The ultimate goal of this instrument is to achieve atomic resolution of these materials with high contrast and little radiation damage.

  3. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  4. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  5. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options

  6. Variations in Cell Surfaces of Estrogen Treated Breast Cancer Cells Detected by A Combined Instrument for Far-Field and Near-Field Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of single breast cancer cells (cell line T‐47D to 17β‐estradiol (E2 under different concentrations was studied by using an instrument that allows to combine far‐field light microscopy with high resolution scanning near‐field (AFM/SNOM microscopy on the same cell. Different concentrations of E2 induce clearly different effects as well on cellular shape (in classical bright‐field imaging as on surface topography (atomic force imaging and absorbance (near‐field light transmission imaging. The differences range from a polygonal shape at zero via a roughly spherical shape at physiological up to a spindle‐like shape at un‐physiologically high concentrations. The surface topography of untreated control cells was found to be regular and smooth with small overall height modulations. At physiological E2 concentrations the surfaces became increasingly jagged as detected by an increase in membrane height. After application of the un‐physiological high E2 concentration the cell surface structures appeared to be smoother again with an irregular fine structure. The general behaviour of dose dependent differences was also found in the near‐field light transmission images. In order to quantify the treatment effects, line scans through the normalised topography images were drawn and a rate of co‐localisation between high topography and high transmission areas was calculated. The cell biological aspects of these observations are, so far, not studied in detail but measurements on single cells offer new perspectives to be empirically used in diagnosis and therapy control of breast cancers.

  7. Development of low cost and accurate homemade sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, F. D.; Supardianningsih; Arifin, M.; Abraha, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we developed homemade and computerized sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The developed systems consist of mechanical system instrument, laser power sensor, and user interface. The mechanical system development that uses anti-backlash gear design was successfully able to enhance the angular resolution angle of incidence laser up to 0.01°. In this system, the laser detector acquisition system and stepper motor controller utilizing Arduino Uno which is easy to program, flexible, and low cost, was used. Furthermore, we employed LabView’s user interface as the virtual instrument for facilitating the sample measurement and for transforming the data recording directly into the digital form. The test results using gold-deposited half-cylinder prism showed the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) angle of 41,34°± 0,01° and SPR angle of 44,20°± 0,01°, respectively. The result demonstrated that the developed system managed to reduce the measurement duration and data recording errors caused by human error. Also, the test results also concluded that the system’s measurement is repeatable and accurate.

  8. [A Method to Reconstruct Surface Reflectance Spectrum from Multispectral Image Based on Canopy Radiation Transfer Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-guang; Ma, Ling-ling; Li, Chuan-rong; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Tang, Ling-li

    2015-07-01

    Due to the lack of enough spectral bands for multi-spectral sensor, it is difficult to reconstruct surface retlectance spectrum from finite spectral information acquired by multi-spectral instrument. Here, taking into full account of the heterogeneity of pixel from remote sensing image, a method is proposed to simulate hyperspectral data from multispectral data based on canopy radiation transfer model. This method first assumes the mixed pixels contain two types of land cover, i.e., vegetation and soil. The sensitive parameters of Soil-Leaf-Canopy (SLC) model and a soil ratio factor were retrieved from multi-spectral data based on Look-Up Table (LUT) technology. Then, by combined with a soil ratio factor, all the parameters were input into the SLC model to simulate the surface reflectance spectrum from 400 to 2 400 nm. Taking Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image as reference image, the surface reflectance spectrum was simulated. The simulated reflectance spectrum revealed different feature information of different surface types. To test the performance of this method, the simulated reflectance spectrum was convolved with the Landsat ETM + spectral response curves and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) spectral response curves to obtain the simulated Landsat ETM+ and MODIS image. Finally, the simulated Landsat ETM+ and MODIS images were compared with the observed Landsat ETM+ and MODIS images. The results generally showed high correction coefficients (Landsat: 0.90-0.99, MODIS: 0.74-0.85) between most simulated bands and observed bands and indicated that the simulated reflectance spectrum was well simulated and reliable.

  9. Applying tensor-based morphometry to parametric surfaces can improve MRI-based disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Yuan, Lei; Shi, Jie; Greve, Alexander; Ye, Jieping; Toga, Arthur W; Reiss, Allan L; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Many methods have been proposed for computer-assisted diagnostic classification. Full tensor information and machine learning with 3D maps derived from brain images may help detect subtle differences or classify subjects into different groups. Here we develop a new approach to apply tensor-based morphometry to parametric surface models for diagnostic classification. We use this approach to identify cortical surface features for use in diagnostic classifiers. First, with holomorphic 1-forms, we compute an efficient and accurate conformal mapping from a multiply connected mesh to the so-called slit domain. Next, the surface parameterization approach provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects using a constrained harmonic map. To analyze anatomical differences, we then analyze the full Riemannian surface metric tensors, which retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. As the number of voxels in a 3D image is large, sparse learning is a promising method to select a subset of imaging features and to improve classification accuracy. Focusing on vertices with greatest effect sizes, we train a diagnostic classifier using the surface features selected by an L1-norm based sparse learning method. Stability selection is applied to validate the selected feature sets. We tested the algorithm on MRI-derived cortical surfaces from 42 subjects with genetically confirmed Williams syndrome and 40 age-matched controls, multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave greater effect sizes for detecting group differences relative to other TBM-based statistics including analysis of the Jacobian determinant and the largest eigenvalue of the surface metric. Our method also gave reasonable classification results relative to the Jacobian determinant, the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix and volume features. This analysis pipeline may boost the power of morphometry studies, and may assist with image-based classification. Copyright © 2013

  10. Polynomial fuzzy model-based approach for underactuated surface vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to introduce a new polynomial fuzzy model-based structure for a class of marine systems with non-linear and polynomial dynamics. The suggested technique relies on a polynomial Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy modelling, a polynomial dynamic parallel distributed compensation...... surface vessel (USV). Additionally, in order to overcome the USV control challenges, including the USV un-modelled dynamics, complex nonlinear dynamics, external disturbances and parameter uncertainties, the polynomial fuzzy model representation is adopted. Moreover, the USV-based control structure...... and a sum-of-squares (SOS) decomposition. The new proposed approach is a generalisation of the standard T–S fuzzy models and linear matrix inequality which indicated its effectiveness in decreasing the tracking time and increasing the efficiency of the robust tracking control problem for an underactuated...

  11. Tunable antenna radome based on graphene frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Meijun; Rao, Menglou; Li, Shufang; Deng, Li

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a graphene-based frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed. The proposed FSS exhibits a tunable bandpass filtering characteristic due to the alterable conductivity of the graphene strips which is controlled by chemical potential. Based on the reconfigurable bandpass property of the proposed FSS, a cylindrical antenna radome is designed using the FSS unit cells. A conventional omnidirectional dipole can realize a two-beam directional pattern when it is placed into the proposed antenna radome. Forward and backward endfire radiations of the dipole loaded with the radome is realized by properly adjusting the chemical potential. The proposed antenna radome is extremely promising for beam-scanning in terahertz and mid-infrared plasmonic devices and systems when the gain of a conventional antenna needs to be enhanced.

  12. Topological Superconductivity on the Surface of Fe-Based Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Tang, Peizhe; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2016-07-22

    As one of the simplest systems for realizing Majorana fermions, the topological superconductor plays an important role in both condensed matter physics and quantum computations. Based on ab initio calculations and the analysis of an effective 8-band model with superconducting pairing, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional extended s-wave Fe-based superconductors such as Fe_{1+y}Se_{0.5}Te_{0.5} have a metallic topologically nontrivial band structure, and exhibit a normal-topological-normal superconductivity phase transition on the (001) surface by tuning the bulk carrier doping level. In the topological superconductivity (TSC) phase, a Majorana zero mode is trapped at the end of a magnetic vortex line. We further show that the surface TSC phase only exists up to a certain bulk pairing gap, and there is a normal-topological phase transition driven by the temperature, which has not been discussed before. These results pave an effective way to realize the TSC and Majorana fermions in a large class of superconductors.

  13. From theory based policy evaluation to SMART Policy Design: Lessons learned from 20 ex-post evaluations of energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Harmsen, Robert; Nilsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of an in-depth ex-post analysis of 20 energy efficiency policy instruments applied across different sectors and countries. Within the AID-EE project, we reconstructed and analysed the implementation process of energy efficiency policy instruments with the aim to identify key factors behind successes and failures. The analysis was performed using a uniform methodology called 'theory based policy evaluation'. With this method the whole implementation process is assessed with the aim to identify: (i) the main hurdles in each step of the implementation process, (ii) key success factors for different types of instruments and (iii) the key indicators that need to be monitored to enable a sound evaluation of the energy efficiency instruments. Our analysis shows that: Energy efficiency policies often lack quantitative targets and clear timeframes; Often policy instruments have multiple and/or unclear objectives; The need for monitoring information does often not have priority in the design phase; For most instruments, monitoring information is collected on a regular basis. However, this information is often insufficient to determine the impact on energy saving, cost-effectiveness and target achievement of an instrument; Monitoring and verification of actual energy savings have a relatively low priority for most of the analyzed instruments. There is no such thing as the 'best' policy instrument. However, typical circumstances in which to apply different types of instruments and generic characteristics that determine success or failure can be identified. Based on the assessments and the experience from applying theory based policy evaluation ex-post, we suggest that this should already be used in the policy formulation and design phase of instruments. We conclude that making policy theory an integral and mandated part of the policy process would facilitate more efficient and effective energy efficiency instruments

  14. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  15. A PC-based Flexible Solution for Virtual Instrumentation of a Multi-Purpose Test Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benatzky Christian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to give an overview of a test bed set up for lightweight flexible structures. The purpose of the test bed is to compare different concepts for suppressing structural vibrations. It is demonstrated that such a complex measurement and actuation task can be easily implemented on a single PC using standard software like Matlab/SIMULINK® with a minimum of custom hardware. With the help of this PC standard engineering tasks like measuring, identification of transfer functions, as well as controller design and implementation in soft real-time can be carried out easily (rapid prototyping. The resulting system is flexible and scalable, enabling an engineer to perform all the above mentioned tasks for a given test object within minimum time. Additionally, the utilization of Matlab/SIMULINK® facilitates the realization of a versatile virtual instrumentation system which is easy to use and may also be remote-controlled.

  16. Market based instruments for urban mobility management: the case of parking fees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatti, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The increasing difficulties met by the Italian authorities in facing congestion and environmental pollution caused by urban traffic have obliged all administrative levels to implement measures to tackle the problem in an effective way. At first, from the beginning of the Eighties, interventions have been directed - mainly at the European and national level - to the improvement of environmental and safety performances of the vehicle fleet, in particular the private one. Only later, due to the continuous growth of car ownership and use, that in some cases have more than compensated the progress obtained in engine technology and brought about new emergencies as congestion, excessive land use and casualties, an increasing need came out to carry out measures aiming at controlling and influencing, above all in metropolitan areas, mobility pattern and modal split, independently from progress in the vehicle fleet. This need led first, at the local level, to the introduction of command and control measures (pedestrian areas, traffic bans and circulation with alternate plate number, until the wide implementation of car free areas), mainly in the inner parts of cities, which have progressively shown some of the common drawbacks associated with regulatory instruments: difficult enforcement, increasing number of permissions and exceptions, concentration of policies in small areas, reduced spatial and temporal flexibility. In this framework, a high share of Italian municipalities has introduced since the end of the nineties parking fees to salve (at least potentially) some of the problems considered, so that, in the common view, they have become the most diffused instrument (numerically and spatially) to tackle mobility growth in large urban areas. However, as commonly found in literature, the Italian experience has been characterized by some problematic aspects: both in terms of the real capacity of parking fees to represent adequately external costs associated to mobility (no

  17. Assessing research activity and capacity of community-based organizations: development and pilot testing of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Mitchell, Leif; Tian, Terry; Choudhury, Shonali; Fiellin, David A

    2014-01-01

    Although awareness of the importance of the research capacity of community-based organizations (CBOs) is growing, a uniform framework of the research capacity domains within CBOs has not yet been developed. To develop a framework and instrument (the Community REsearch Activity assessment Tool [CREAT]) for assessing the research activity and capacity of CBOs that incorporates awareness of the different data collection and analysis priorities of CBOs. We conducted a review of existing tools for assessing research capacity to identify key capacity domains. Instrument items were developed through an iterative process with CBO representatives and community researchers. The CREAT was then pilot tested with 30 CBOs. The four primary domains of the CREAT framework include 1) organizational support for research, 2) generalizable experiences, 3) research specific experiences, and 4) funding. Organizations reported a high prevalence of activities in the research-specific experiences domain, including conducting literature reviews (70%), use of research terminology (83%), and primary data collection (100%). Respondents see research findings as important to improve program and service delivery, and to seek funds for new programs and services. Funders, board members, and policymakers are the most important dissemination audiences. The work reported herein advances the field of CBO research capacity by developing a systematic framework for assessing research activity and capacity relevant to the work of CBOs, and by developing and piloting an instrument to assess activity in these domains.

  18. "Fibromyalgia and quality of life: mapping the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire to the preference-based instruments".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A; Iezzi, Angelo; Adsuar, José C; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-05-30

    The revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) is one of the most widely used specific questionnaires in FM studies. However, this questionnaire does not allow calculation of QALYs as it is not a preference-based measure. The aim of this study was to develop mapping algorithm which enable FIQR scores to be transformed into utility scores that can be used in the cost utility analyses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. One hundred and 92 Spanish women with Fibromyalgia were asked to complete four general quality of life questionnaires, i.e. EQ-5D-5 L, 15D, AQoL-8D and SF-12, and one specific disease instrument, the FIQR. A direct mapping approach was adopted to derive mapping algorithms between the FIQR and each of the four multi-attribute utility (MAU) instruments. Health state utility was treated as the dependent variable in the regression analysis, whilst the FIQR score and age were predictors. The mean utility scores ranged from 0.47 (AQoL-8D) to 0.69 (15D). All correlations between the FIQR total score and MAU instruments utility scores were highly significant (p fibromyalgia specific questionnaire.

  19. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  20. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  1. How to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: choosing the right instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of three instruments: a semi-structured interview, a questionnaire and a sorting task. The central question is which instrument is most suitable to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education.

  2. Quantifying the Influence of Near-Surface Water-Energy Budgets on Soil Thermal Properties Using a Network of Coupled Meteorological and Vadose Zone Instrument Arrays in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Gustin, A. R.; Ellett, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather stations that collect reliable, sustained meteorological data sets are becoming more widely distributed because of advances in both instrumentation and data server technology. However, sites collecting soil moisture and soil temperature data remain sparse with even fewer locations where complete meteorological data are collected in conjunction with soil data. Thanks to the advent of sensors that collect continuous in-situ thermal properties data for soils, we have gone a step further and incorporated thermal properties measurements as part of hydrologic instrument arrays in central and northern Indiana. The coupled approach provides insights into the variability of soil thermal conductivity and diffusivity attributable to geologic and climatological controls for various hydrogeologic settings. These data are collected to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) in the glaciated Midwest by establishing publicly available data that can be used to parameterize system design models. A network of six monitoring sites was developed in Indiana. Sensors that determine thermal conductivity and diffusivity using radial differential temperature measurements around a heating wire were installed at 1.2 meters below ground surface— a typical depth for horizontal GSHP systems. Each site also includes standard meteorological sensors for calculating reference evapotranspiration following the methods by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Vadose zone instrumentation includes time domain reflectometry soil-moisture and temperature sensors installed at 0.3-meter depth intervals down to a 1.8-meter depth, in addition to matric potential sensors at 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 meters. Cores collected at 0.3-meter intervals were analyzed in a laboratory for grain size distribution, bulk density, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. Our work includes developing methods for calibrating thermal properties sensors based on

  3. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  4. Detecting Nasal Vowels in Speech Interfaces Based on Surface Electromyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Freitas

    Full Text Available Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI, collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics.

  5. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry; von Glehn, Ingrid; Macdonald, Colin B.; Marz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  8. Damage identification in beams by a response surface based technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teidj S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, identification of damage in uniform homogeneous metallic beams was considered through the propagation of non dispersive elastic torsional waves. The proposed damage detection procedure consisted of the following sequence. Giving a localized torque excitation, having the form of a short half-sine pulse, the first step was calculating the transient solution of the resulting torsional wave. This torque could be generated in practice by means of asymmetric laser irradiation of the beam surface. Then, a localized defect assumed to be characterized by an abrupt reduction of beam section area with a given height and extent was placed at a known location of the beam. Next, the response in terms of transverse section rotation rate was obtained for a point situated afterwards the defect, where the sensor was positioned. This last could utilize in practice the concept of laser vibrometry. A parametric study has been conducted after that by using a full factorial design of experiments table and numerical simulations based on a finite difference characteristic scheme. This has enabled the derivation of a response surface model that was shown to represent adequately the response of the system in terms of the following factors: defect extent and severity. The final step was performing the inverse problem solution in order to identify the defect characteristics by using measurement.

  9. Databases as policy instruments. About extending networks as evidence-based policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoevelaar Herman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article seeks to identify the role of databases in health policy. Access to information and communication technologies has changed traditional relationships between the state and professionals, creating new systems of surveillance and control. As a result, databases may have a profound effect on controlling clinical practice. Methods We conducted three case studies to reconstruct the development and use of databases as policy instruments. Each database was intended to be employed to control the use of one particular pharmaceutical in the Netherlands (growth hormone, antiretroviral drugs for HIV and Taxol, respectively. We studied the archives of the Dutch Health Insurance Board, conducted in-depth interviews with key informants and organized two focus groups, all focused on the use of databases both in policy circles and in clinical practice. Results Our results demonstrate that policy makers hardly used the databases, neither for cost control nor for quality assurance. Further analysis revealed that these databases facilitated self-regulation and quality assurance by (national bodies of professionals, resulting in restrictive prescription behavior amongst physicians. Conclusion The databases fulfill control functions that were formerly located within the policy realm. The databases facilitate collaboration between policy makers and physicians, since they enable quality assurance by professionals. Delegating regulatory authority downwards into a network of physicians who control the use of pharmaceuticals seems to be a good alternative for centralized control on the basis of monitoring data.

  10. Comparison of Instrumentation and Control Parameters Based on Simulation and Experimental Data for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anith Khairunnisa Ghazali; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2015-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) undergoes safe operation for more than 30 years and the only research reactor in Malaysia. The main safety feature of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system design is such that any failure in the electronic, or its associated components, does not lead to an uncontrolled rate of reactivity. There are no best models for RTP simulation was designed for study and research. Therefore, the comparison for I&C parameters are very essential, to design the best RTP model using MATLAB/ Simulink as close as the RTP. The simulation of TRIGA reactor type already develop using desktop reactor simulator such as Personal Computer Transient Analyzer (PCTRAN). The experimental data from RTP and simulation of PCTRAN shows some similarities and differences due to certain limitation. Currently, the structured RTP simulation was designed using MATLAB and Simulink tool that consist of ideal fission chamber, controller, control rod position, height to worth and RTP model. The study on this paper focus on comparison between real data from RTP and simulation result from PCTRAN on I&C parameters such as water level, fuel temperature, bulk temperature, power rated and rod position. The error analysis due to some similarities and differences of I&C parameters shall be obtained and analysed. The result will be used as reference for proposed new structured of RTP model. (author)

  11. Design and Calibration of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy Instrument Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James

    2016-01-01

    This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy instrument to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The instrument is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted instrument into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger instrument. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and calibrated with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to

  12. Surface Acoustic Wave Tag-Based Coherence Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Saldanha, Nancy (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based coherence multiplexing system includes SAW tags each including a SAW transducer, a first SAW reflector positioned a first distance from the SAW transducer and a second SAW reflector positioned a second distance from the SAW transducer. A transceiver including a wireless transmitter has a signal source providing a source signal and circuitry for transmitting interrogation pulses including a first and a second interrogation pulse toward the SAW tags, and a wireless receiver for receiving and processing response signals from the SAW tags. The receiver receives scrambled signals including a convolution of the wideband interrogation pulses with response signals from the SAW tags and includes a computing device which implements an algorithm that correlates the interrogation pulses or the source signal before transmitting against the scrambled signals to generate tag responses for each of the SAW tags.

  13. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien

    2015-10-29

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  14. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Ke, Jr Jian; Kang, Chen Fang; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  15. Prototype of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Ground-Based Instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Iodine Monoxide (IO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, M. E.; Co, D. T.; Hanisco, T. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer: (1) IO participates in depletion episodes of O3 and in the removal of mercury in the Arctic polar spring by enhancing atomic Br mixing ratios. Recent observations and computer simulations suggest that mercury sequestration is closely tied to halogen photochemistry and that gaseous atomic Hg depletion can be enhanced significantly by the presence of small amounts of iodine-containing compounds. (2) IO and higher- order iodine oxides are involved in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments. Studies using smog chamber experiments simulating coastal atmospheric conditions have demonstrated that new particles can form from condensable iodine-containing vapors and that their concentrations over the open ocean are sufficient to influence marine particle formation. (3) IO has also been shown to affect the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere by altering the partitioning of NO2/NO and HO2/HO and by activating chlorine and bromine in sea salt aerosols. In the stratosphere, these same processes can lead to enhanced ozone loss rates. Detailed photochemical models that include iodine photochemistry, however, are hampered by the lack of observational data. The distribution of IO in vertical, horizontal, and temporal coordinates is unknown, so the impact of IO on global photochemistry cannot be predicted. The resolution of these important scientific issues requires an in situ IO instrument. A fully functional nanosecond Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser system and a prototype IO ground-based instrument have been built in our lab. With the current setup, the laser system was situated 10 m from the field station, and the laser light was coupled via an optical fiber. With the use of highly efficient fluorescence detection optics and photon counting techniques, sensitivities of better than 0.1 ppt in 1 s for IO was achieved in the

  16. Validation of an instrument to assess evidence-based practice knowledge, attitudes, access, and confidence in the dental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, William D; Rugh, John D; Hatch, John P; Stark, Debra L; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R

    2011-02-01

    This article reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) in the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: 1) understanding of EBP concepts, 2) attitudes about EBP, 3) evidence-accessing methods, and 4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument-the Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE)-has four scales, with a total of thirty-five items: EBP knowledge (ten items), EBP attitudes (ten), accessing evidence (nine), and confidence (six). Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees), and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses of second-year dental students, dental residents, and dental faculty members using Cronbach coefficient alpha, a statistical measure of reliability. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for the three groups. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre- and post-training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the full KACE was completed twice by a class of freshman dental students seventeen days apart, and the knowledge scale was completed twice by sixteen faculty members fourteen days apart. Item-to-scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence, and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents, and faculty members consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students

  17. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  18. Assessing and Mapping of Road Surface Roughness based on GPS and Accelerometer Sensors on Bicycle-Mounted Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Wan, Mi; Shi, Jiafeng

    2018-01-01

    The surface roughness of roads is an essential road characteristic. Due to the employed carrying platforms (which are often cars), existing measuring methods can only be used for motorable roads. Until now, there has been no effective method for measuring the surface roughness of un-motorable roads, such as pedestrian and bicycle lanes. This hinders many applications related to pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. In recognizing these research gaps, this paper proposes a method for measuring the surface roughness of pedestrian and bicycle lanes based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer sensors on bicycle-mounted smartphones. We focus on the International Roughness Index (IRI), as it is the most widely used index for measuring road surface roughness. Specifically, we analyzed a computing model of road surface roughness, derived its parameters with GPS and accelerometers on bicycle-mounted smartphones, and proposed an algorithm to recognize potholes/humps on roads. As a proof of concept, we implemented the proposed method in a mobile application. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the proposed method. The results of the experiments show that the IRI values measured by the proposed method were strongly and positively correlated with those measured by professional instruments. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm was able to recognize the potholes/humps that the bicycle passed. The proposed method is useful for measuring the surface roughness of roads that are not accessible for professional instruments, such as pedestrian and cycle lanes. This work enables us to further study the feasibility of crowdsourcing road surface roughness with bicycle-mounted smartphones. PMID:29562731

  19. Comparison of cloud optical depth and cloud mask applying BRDF model-based background surface reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. W.; Yeom, J. M.; Woo, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Over the thin cloud region, satellite can simultaneously detect the reflectance from thin clouds and land surface. Since the mixed reflectance is not the exact cloud information, the background surface reflectance should be eliminated to accurately distinguish thin cloud such as cirrus. In the previous research, Kim et al (2017) was developed the cloud masking algorithm using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is one of significant instruments for Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS). Although GOCI has 8 spectral channels including visible and near infra-red spectral ranges, the cloud masking has quantitatively reasonable result when comparing with MODIS cloud mask (Collection 6 MYD35). Especially, we noticed that this cloud masking algorithm is more specialized in thin cloud detections through the validation with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data. Because this cloud masking method was concentrated on eliminating background surface effects from the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Applying the difference between TOA reflectance and the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model-based background surface reflectance, cloud areas both thick cloud and thin cloud can be discriminated without infra-red channels which were mostly used for detecting clouds. Moreover, when the cloud mask result was utilized as the input data when simulating BRDF model and the optimized BRDF model-based surface reflectance was used for the optimized cloud masking, the probability of detection (POD) has higher value than POD of the original cloud mask. In this study, we examine the correlation between cloud optical depth (COD) and its cloud mask result. Cloud optical depths mostly depend on the cloud thickness, the characteristic of contents, and the size of cloud contents. COD ranges from less than 0.1 for thin clouds to over 1000 for the huge cumulus due to scattering by droplets. With

  20. A photogrammetry-based system for 3D surface reconstruction of prosthetics and orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-kun; Gao, Fan; Wang, Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative close range digital photogrammetry (CRDP) system using the commercial digital SLR cameras to measure and reconstruct the 3D surface of prosthetics and orthotics. This paper describes the instrumentation, techniques and preliminary results of the proposed system. The technique works by taking pictures of the object from multiple view angles. The series of pictures were post-processed via feature point extraction, point match and 3D surface reconstruction. In comparison with the traditional method such as laser scanning, the major advantages of our instrument include the lower cost, compact and easy-to-use hardware, satisfactory measurement accuracy, and significantly less measurement time. Besides its potential applications in prosthetics and orthotics surface measurement, the simple setup and its ease of use will make it suitable for various 3D surface reconstructions.