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Sample records for surface access module

  1. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  2. Use of substructure-specific carbohydrate binding modules to track changes in cellulose accessibility and surface morphology during the amorphogenesis step of enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourlay Keith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose amorphogenesis, described as the non-hydrolytic “opening up” or disruption of a cellulosic substrate, is becoming increasingly recognized as one of the key steps in the enzymatic deconstruction of cellulosic biomass when used as a feedstock for fuels and chemicals production. Although this process is thought to play a major role in facilitating hydrolysis, the lack of quantitative techniques capable of accurately describing the molecular-level changes occurring in the substrate during amorphogenesis has hindered our understanding of this process. Results In this work, techniques for measuring changes in cellulose accessibility are reviewed and a new quantitative assay method is described. Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs with specific affinities for crystalline (CBM2a or amorphous (CBM44 cellulose were used to track specific changes in the surface morphology of cotton fibres during amorphogenesis. The extents of phosphoric acid-induced and Swollenin-induced changes to cellulose accessibility were successfully quantified using this technique. Conclusions The adsorption of substructure-specific CBMs can be used to accurately quantify the extent of changes to cellulose accessibility induced by non-hydrolytic disruptive proteins. The technique provided a quick, accurate and quantitative measure of the accessibility of cellulosic substrates. Expanding the range of CBMs used for adsorption studies to include those specific for such compounds as xylan or mannan should also allow for the accurate quantitative tracking of the accessibility of these and other polymers within the lignocellulosic biomass matrix.

  3. High Dimensional Modulation and MIMO Techniques for Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Othman, Maisara

    Exploration of advanced modulation formats and multiplexing techniques for next generation optical access networks are of interest as promising solutions for delivering multiple services to end-users. This thesis addresses this from two different angles: high dimensionality carrierless...... the capacity per wavelength of the femto-cell network. Bit rate up to 1.59 Gbps with fiber-wireless transmission over 1 m air distance is demonstrated. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of high dimensionality CAP in increasing the number of dimensions and their potentially......) optical access network. 2 X 2 MIMO RoF employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with 5.6 GHz RoF signaling over all-vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) WDM passive optical networks (PONs). We have employed polarization division multiplexing (PDM) to further increase...

  4. Surface modulation of dental hard tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantbirojn, Daranee

    Tooth surfaces play a central role in the equilibrium of dental hard tissues, in which contrasting processes lead to loss or deposition of materials. The central interest of this Thesis was the modulation of tooth surfaces to control such equilibrium. Four specific studies were carried out to investigate different classes of surface modulating agents. These are: (1) Ionic modulation of the enamel surface to enhance stain removal . Dental stain is the most apparent form of tooth surface deposit. The nature of extrinsic stain in terms of spatial chemical composition was studied by using electron probe microanalysis. An ionic surface modulating agent, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), was evaluated. Image analysis methodologies were developed and the ability of STPP in stain removal was proved. (2) Thin film modulation with substantive polymeric coating and the effect on in vitro enamel de/re-mineralization . A novel polymeric coating that formed a thin film on the tooth surface was investigated for its inhibitory effect on artificial enamel caries, without interfering with the remineralization process. The preventive effect was distinct, but the mineral redeposition was questionable. (3) Thick film modulation with fluoride containing sealants and the effect on in vitro enamel and root caries development. Fluoride incorporated into resin material is an example of combining different classes of surface modulating agents to achieve an optimal outcome. A proper combination, such as in resin modified glass ionomer, showed in vitro caries inhibitory effect beyond the material boundary in both enamel and dentin. (4) Thick film modulation with dental adhesives and the determination of adhesion to dentin. Dentin adhesives modulate intracoronal tooth surfaces by enhancing adhesion to restorative materials. Conventional nominal bond tests were inadequate to determine the performance of current high strength adhesives. It was shown that interfacial fracture toughness test was more

  5. Binary Modulation Formats in Optical Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tejkal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the binary modulation formats and their application in passive optical networks have been discussed. Passive optical networks are characterized by dividing the optical signal between several end users by using passive splitters, which added a significant attenuation to the network. The performance of the selected modulation formats, depending on the transmitter power in order to verify that there is no signal distortion, has been examined in our simulations. A minimal error rate of the system for each modulation format has been also examined. Finding a suitable modulation, which would allow extension of the distance and splitting ration in current passive optical networks, has been the main aim.

  6. Airport Surface Access and Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martin-Domingo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport Surface Access faces two main opposite issues: (1 cars, being the main transport mode, contribute to the increasing level of congestion and pollution of cities; and (2 simultaneously, parking fees are one important source of airports commercial revenue, creating a dilemma for airports when facing the problem. Following the recent trend of air passengers travelling with Smartphone (78% in 2013, the purpose of this paper is to monitor the adoption of mobile Applications (Apps by airports and to analyze if the information and functions provided in those Apps can help to overcome the above two issues. Design/methodology/approach: 31 iPhone App of some of the largest European airports were evaluated in the lab using the evaluation model of Destinations Mobile Applications (Scolari and Fernández-Cavia 2014 adapted for for the Airport Surface Access on Airport Apps Findings and Originality/value: The Apps evaluated provided a very limited functionality to help passengers to plan and book their trips to/from the airports on public transports and gave high priority to parking information and services. Originality/value: Although Airport Surface Access has been a widely researched, the originality of this paper is the analysis of airport mobile Apps as a potential tool for airports to deal with the surface airport access problems.Access, Airports, Mobile Internet, Commercial Revenues

  7. Modulation of chromatin access during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    Cellular development requires reprogramming of the genome to modulate the gene program of the undifferentiated cell and allow expression of the gene program unique to differentiated cells. A number of key transcription factors involved in this reprogramming of preadipocytes to adipocytes have been...

  8. Creation of an online multimedia radiology module access to Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo, J.P.; Vega, J.M.; Perez, R.

    1996-01-01

    Using freely distributed programs, we have created a radiology data server in the world wide web (WWW) system, which includes among its services a radiological teaching module developed entirely in Spanish. This server is linked to Internet, the extensive worldwide computer network, to which WWW subscribers have access. The data is presented in hypertext and hypermedia format. (Author) 9 refs

  9. Genome accessibility is widely preserved and locally modulated during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Morrissey, Christapher S; Udugama, Maheshi; Frank, Christopher L; Keller, Cheryl A; Baek, Songjoon; Giardine, Belinda; Crawford, Gregory E; Sung, Myong-Hee; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2015-02-01

    Mitosis entails global alterations to chromosome structure and nuclear architecture, concomitant with transient silencing of transcription. How cells transmit transcriptional states through mitosis remains incompletely understood. While many nuclear factors dissociate from mitotic chromosomes, the observation that certain nuclear factors and chromatin features remain associated with individual loci during mitosis originated the hypothesis that such mitotically retained molecular signatures could provide transcriptional memory through mitosis. To understand the role of chromatin structure in mitotic memory, we performed the first genome-wide comparison of DNase I sensitivity of chromatin in mitosis and interphase, using a murine erythroblast model. Despite chromosome condensation during mitosis visible by microscopy, the landscape of chromatin accessibility at the macromolecular level is largely unaltered. However, mitotic chromatin accessibility is locally dynamic, with individual loci maintaining none, some, or all of their interphase accessibility. Mitotic reduction in accessibility occurs primarily within narrow, highly DNase hypersensitive sites that frequently coincide with transcription factor binding sites, whereas broader domains of moderate accessibility tend to be more stable. In mitosis, proximal promoters generally maintain their accessibility more strongly, whereas distal regulatory elements tend to lose accessibility. Large domains of DNA hypomethylation mark a subset of promoters that retain accessibility during mitosis and across many cell types in interphase. Erythroid transcription factor GATA1 exerts site-specific changes in interphase accessibility that are most pronounced at distal regulatory elements, but has little influence on mitotic accessibility. We conclude that features of open chromatin are remarkably stable through mitosis, but are modulated at the level of individual genes and regulatory elements. © 2015 Hsiung et al.; Published by

  10. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying...

  11. Light induced modulation instability of surfaces under intense illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2013-12-17

    We show that a flat surface of a polymer in rubber state illuminated with intense electromagnetic radiation is unstable with respect to periodic modulation. Initial periodic perturbation is amplified due to periodic thermal expansion of the material heated by radiation. Periodic heating is due to focusing-defocusing effects caused by the initial surface modulation. The surface modulation has a period longer than the excitation wavelength and does not require coherent light source. Therefore, it is not related to the well-known laser induced periodic structures on polymer surfaces but may contribute to their formation and to other phenomena of light-matter interaction.

  12. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  13. Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.

    2006-01-01

    We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....

  14. Skein modules of links in cylinders over surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lieberum

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the Conway skein module  (M of ordered based links in a 3-manifold M. This module gives rise to  (M-valued invariants of usual links in M. We determine a basis of the ℤ[z]-module  (Σ×[0,1]/Tor ( (Σ×[0,1], where Σ is the real projective plane or a surface with boundary. For cylinders over the Möbius strip or the projective plane, we derive special properties of the Conway skein module, among them a refinement of a theorem of Hartley and Kawauchi about the Conway polynomial of strongly positive amphicheiral knots in S3. In addition, we determine the Homfly and Kauffman skein modules of Σ×[0,1] where Σ is an oriented surface with boundary.

  15. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: surface patches and charge modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  16. Prediction of Protein Structure Using Surface Accessibility Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlmüller, Christoph; Göbl, Christoph; Madl, Tobias

    2016-09-19

    An approach to the de novo structure prediction of proteins is described that relies on surface accessibility data from NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancements by a soluble paramagnetic compound (sPRE). This method exploits the distance-to-surface information encoded in the sPRE data in the chemical shift-based CS-Rosetta de novo structure prediction framework to generate reliable structural models. For several proteins, it is demonstrated that surface accessibility data is an excellent measure of the correct protein fold in the early stages of the computational folding algorithm and significantly improves accuracy and convergence of the standard Rosetta structure prediction approach. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Performance analysis of adaptive modulation for cognitive radios with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yunfei

    2011-06-01

    The performance of adaptive modulation for cognitive radio with opportunistic access is analyzed by considering the effects of spectrum sensing and primary user traffic for Nakagami-m fading channels. Both the adaptive continuous rate scheme and the adaptive discrete rate scheme are considered. Numerical results show that spectrum sensing and primary user traffic cause considerable degradation to the bit error rate performance of adaptive modulation in a cognitive radio system with opportunistic access to the licensed channel. They also show that primary user traffic does not affect the link spectral efficiency performance of adaptive modulation, while the spectrum sensing degrades the link spectral efficiency performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Surface plasmon polariton modulator with optimized active layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A multilayered waveguide, which supports surface plasmon polaritons, is considered as an absorption modulator. The waveguide core consists of a silicon nitride layer and ultrathin layer with the varied carrier density embedded between two silver plates, which also serve as electrodes. Under apply...

  19. Solvent accessible surface area (ASA) of simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuchsen, E.; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Westh, P.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane-solvent interface has been investigated through calculations of the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) for simulated membranes of DPPC and POPE. For DPPC at 52 degreesC we found an ASA of 126 +/- 8 Angstrom(2) per lipid molecule, equivalent to twice the projected lateral area......, even the most exposed parts of the PC head-group show average ASAs of less than half of its maximal or 'fully hydrated' value. The average ASA of a simulated POPE membrane was 96 +/- 7 Angstrom(2) per lipid. The smaller value than for DPPC reflects much lower ASA of the ammonium ion, which is partially...... compensated by increased exposure of the ethylene and phosphate moieties. The ASA of the polar moieties Of (PO4, NH3 and COO) constitutes 65% of the total accessible area for POPE, making this interface more polar than that of DPPC. It is suggested that ASA information can be valuable in attempts...

  20. Tendamistat surface accessibility to the TEMPOL paramagnetic probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarselli, Maria; Bernini, Andrea; Segoni, Claudia [Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare and Centro per lo Studio Strutturale di Sistemi Biomolecolari (Italy); Molinari, Henriette [Universita di Verona, Istituto Policattedra (Italy); Esposito, Gennaro [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche (Italy); Lesk, Arthur M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Haematology (United Kingdom); Laschi, Franco [Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Temussi, Pierandrea [Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Niccolai, Neri [Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare and Centro per lo Studio Strutturale di Sistemi Biomolecolari (Italy)

    1999-10-15

    TEMPOL, the soluble spin-label 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl, has been used to determine the surface characteristics of tendamistat, a small protein with a well-characterised structure both in solution and in the crystal. A good correlation has been found between predicted regions of exposed protein surface and the intensity attenuations induced by the probe on 2D NMR TOCSY cross peaks of tendamistat in the paramagnetic water solution. All the high paramagnetic effects have been interpreted in terms of more efficient competition of TEMPOL with water molecules at some surface positions. The active site of tendamistat coincides with the largest surface patch accessible to the probe. A strong hydration of protein N and C termini can also be suggested by this structural approach, as these locations exhibit reduced paramagnetic perturbations. Provided that the solution structure is known, the use of this paramagnetic probe seems to be well suited to delineate the dynamic behaviour of the protein surface and, more generally, to gain relevant information about the molecular presentation processes.

  1. Models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Many biopolymers such as proteins, DNA, and RNA have been studied because they have important biomedical roles and may be good targets for therapeutic action in treating diseases. This report describes how plastic models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers were made. Computer files containing sets of triangles were calculated, then used on a stereolithography machine to make the models. Small (2 in.) models were made to test whether the computer calculations were done correctly. Also, files of the type (.stl) required by any ISO 9001 rapid prototyping machine were written onto a CD-ROM for distribution to American companies.

  2. Trellis Tone Modulation Multiple-Access for Peer Discovery in D2D Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwoo Lim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new non-orthogonal multiple-access scheme, trellis tone modulation multiple-access (TTMMA, is proposed for peer discovery of distributed device-to-device (D2D communication. The range and capacity of discovery are important performance metrics in peer discovery. The proposed trellis tone modulation uses single-tone transmission and achieves a long discovery range due to its low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. The TTMMA also exploits non-orthogonal resource assignment to increase the discovery capacity. For the multi-user detection of superposed multiple-access signals, a message-passing algorithm with supplementary schemes are proposed. With TTMMA and its message-passing demodulation, approximately 1.5 times the number of devices are discovered compared to the conventional frequency division multiple-access (FDMA-based discovery.

  3. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  4. Cell response to hydroxyapatite surface topography modulated by sintering temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealy, Jacob; O'Kelly, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Increased mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) activity on hydroxyapatite (HA) bone tissue engineering scaffolds will improve their viability in diffusion-based in vivo environments and is therefore highly desirable. This work focused on modulating the sintered HA surface topography with a view to increasing cell activity; this was achieved by varying the sintering temperature of the HA substrates. Cells were cultured on the substrates for periods of up to 19 days and displayed a huge variation in viability. MSC metabolic activity was measured using a resazurin sodium salt assay and revealed that surfaces sintered from 1250 to 1350°C significantly outperformed their lower temperature counterparts from day one (p ≤ 0.05). Surfaces sintered at 1300°C induced 57% more cell activity than the control at day 16. No significant activity was observed on surfaces sintered below 1200°C. It is suggested that this is due to the granular morphology produced at these temperatures providing insufficient contact area for cell attachment. In addition, we propose the average surface wavelength as a more quantitative surface descriptor than those readily found in the literature. The wavelengths of the substrates presented here were highly correlated with cell activity (R(2)  = 0.9019); with a wavelength of 2.675 µm on the 1300°C surface inducing the highest cell response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-04

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  6. Particle separation by phase modulated surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gergely; Andrade, Marco A B; Reboud, Julien; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Cooper, Jonathan M; Riehle, Mathis O; Bernassau, Anne L

    2017-09-01

    High efficiency isolation of cells or particles from a heterogeneous mixture is a critical processing step in lab-on-a-chip devices. Acoustic techniques offer contactless and label-free manipulation, preserve viability of biological cells, and provide versatility as the applied electrical signal can be adapted to various scenarios. Conventional acoustic separation methods use time-of-flight and achieve separation up to distances of quarter wavelength with limited separation power due to slow gradients in the force. The method proposed here allows separation by half of the wavelength and can be extended by repeating the modulation pattern and can ensure maximum force acting on the particles. In this work, we propose an optimised phase modulation scheme for particle separation in a surface acoustic wave microfluidic device. An expression for the acoustic radiation force arising from the interaction between acoustic waves in the fluid was derived. We demonstrated, for the first time, that the expression of the acoustic radiation force differs in surface acoustic wave and bulk devices, due to the presence of a geometric scaling factor. Two phase modulation schemes are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical findings were experimentally validated for different mixtures of polystyrene particles confirming that the method offers high selectivity. A Monte-Carlo simulation enabled us to assess performance in real situations, including the effects of particle size variation and non-uniform acoustic field on sorting efficiency and purity, validating the ability to separate particles with high purity and high resolution.

  7. Comparison of vision through surface modulated and spatial light modulated multifocal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Maria; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Radhakrishnan, Aiswaryah; Benedi-Garcia, Clara; LaVilla, Edward Anthony; Schwiegerling, Jim; Marcos, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Spatial-light-modulators (SLM) are increasingly used as active elements in adaptive optics (AO) systems to simulate optical corrections, in particular multifocal presbyopic corrections. In this study, we compared vision with lathe-manufactured multi-zone (2-4) multifocal, angularly and radially, segmented surfaces and through the same corrections simulated with a SLM in a custom-developed two-active-element AO visual simulator. We found that perceived visual quality measured through real manufactured surfaces and SLM-simulated phase maps corresponded highly. Optical simulations predicted differences in perceived visual quality across different designs at Far distance, but showed some discrepancies at intermediate and near.

  8. Polarization division multiple access with polarization modulation for LOS wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we discuss a potential multiple access and modulation scheme based on polarized states (PS of electromagnetic (EM waves for line-of-sight (LOS communications. The proposed scheme is theoretic different from the existing polar modulation for EDGE and WCDMA systems. We propose the detailed bit representation (modulation and multiple access scheme using PS. Because of the inflexibility of polarization information in the time and frequency domains, as well as independence of frequency and space, the polarization information can be used independently for wireless communications, i.e., another independent resource domain that can be utilized. Due to the independence between the PS and the specific features of signals (such as waveform, bandwidth and data rate, the discussed polarization division multiple access (PDMA and polarization modulation (PM are expected to improve the spectrum utilization effectively. It is proved that the polarization filtering technique can be adopted in the PDMA-PM wireless communications to separate the multiuser signals and demodulate the bit information representing by PS for desired user. Some theoretical analysis is done to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and the simulation results are made to evaluate the performance of the suggested system.

  9. Titanium surface hydrophilicity modulates the human macrophage inflammatory cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarsi, Mohammed A; Hamlet, Stephen M; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Increased titanium surface hydrophilicity has been shown to accelerate dental implant osseointegration. Macrophages are important in the early inflammatory response to surgical implant placement and influence the subsequent healing response. This study investigated the modulatory effect of a hydrophilic titanium surface on the inflammatory cytokine expression profile in a human macrophage cell line (THP-1). Genes for 84 cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors were analyzed following exposure to (1) polished (SMO), (2) micro-rough sand blasted, acid etched (SLA), and (3) hydrophilic-modified SLA (modSLA) titanium surfaces for 1 and 3 days. By day 3, the SLA surface elicited a pro-inflammatory response compared to the SMO surface with statistically significant up-regulation of 16 genes [Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Interleukin (IL)-1β, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-1, 2, 3, 4, 18, 19, and 20, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, 5, 8 and 12, Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR)-7, Lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), and Leukotriene B4 receptor (LTB4R)]. This effect was countered by the modSLA surface, which down-regulated the expression of 10 genes (TNF, IL-1α and β, CCL-1, 3, 19 and 20, CXCL-1 and 8, and IL-1 receptor type 1), while two were up-regulated (osteopontin and CCR5) compared to the SLA surface. These cytokine gene expression changes were confirmed by decreased levels of corresponding protein secretion in response to modSLA compared to SLA. These results show that a hydrophilic titanium surface can modulate human macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and protein secretion. An attenuated pro-inflammatory response may be an important molecular mechanism for faster and/or improved wound healing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  10. Technical Training: New Course on Microsoft Access 2003 - ECDL Module 5

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new course on Microsoft Access 2003, designed for people using Access to work with databases. The course programme will include the description of the objects of an Access database, and how to work with Access, creating and using queries, tables, forms and reports. After this course, participants will be at the level of the ECDL Certificate, Database Module 5. Optionally, it will be possible to stand the ECDL examination at the CERN Training Centre. The first scheduled session of this two-day course on Microsoft Access 2003 will take place on March 15-16, 2005. The number of participants to each session is limited to 12. The course will be in English, with an English-French bilingual instructor. The course fee is 400.- CHF per person, scaling down in case of a class of more than 4 participants. The cost of the optional ECDL certification, that will take place at a subsequent date, is 112.- CHF for ...

  11. Technical Training: New Course on Microsoft Access 2003 - ECDL Module 5

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! The CERN Technical Training programme is now proposing a new course on Microsoft Access 2003, designed for people using Access to work with databases. The course programme will include the description of the objects of an Access database, and how to work with Access, creating and using queries, tables, forms and reports. After this course, participants will be at the level of the ECDL Certificate, Database Module 5. Optionally, it will be possible to stand the ECDL examination at the CERN Training Centre. The first scheduled session of this two-day course on Microsoft Access 2003 will take place on March 15-16, 2005. The number of participants to each session is limited to 12. The course will be in English, with an English-French bilingual instructor. The course fee is 400.- CHF per person, scaling down in case of a class of more than 4 participants. The cost of the optional ECDL certification, that will take place at a subsequent date, is 112.- CHF for t...

  12. Micropatterned Azopolymer Surfaces Modulate Cell Mechanics and Cytoskeleton Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Ventre, Maurizio; Cavalli, Silvia; Radmacher, Manfred; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-30

    Physical and chemical characteristics of materials are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular, cell elasticity is a fundamental parameter that reflects the state of a cell. Surface topography finely modulates cell fate and function via adhesion mediated signaling and cytoskeleton generated forces. However, how topographies alter cell mechanics is still unclear. In this work we have analyzed the mechanical properties of peripheral and nuclear regions of NIH-3T3 cells on azopolymer substrates with different topographic patterns. Micrometer scale patterns in the form of parallel ridges or square lattices of surface elevations were encoded on light responsive azopolymer films by means of contactless optical methods. Cell mechanics was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells and consequently the cell cytoskeleton were oriented along the linear patterns affecting cytoskeletal structures, e.g., formation of actin stress fibers. Our data demonstrate that topographic substrate patterns are recognized by cells and mechanical information is transferred by the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, cytoskeleton generated forces deform the nucleus, changing its morphology that appears to be related to different mechanical properties in the nuclear region.

  13. Performance evaluation of multilevel modulation formats using partial response for capacity upgrade in access network with limited electronic bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We present a successful experimental evaluation of 4 level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (4-PAM) and Duobinary modulation. An experimental performance evaluation is presented for Duobinary 4 PAM and other modulation formats. All modulation formants used, may be considered to be implemented in future...... Passive Optical Network (PON) class access networks with limited electrical bandwidth. We compared NRZ, Duobinary, 4-PAM and Duobinary 4-PAM operating at 9 Gbaud over 20 km single mode fiber. The results provides an insight and guidelines on the utilization of these advanced modulation formats....

  14. Surface charge modulated aptasensor in a single glass conical nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Sheng-Lin; Cao, Shuo-Hui; Zheng, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Jin-Lei; Li, Yao-Qun

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we have proposed a label-free nanopore-based biosensing strategy for protein detection by performing the DNA-protein interaction inside a single glass conical nanopore. A lysozyme binding aptamer (LBA) was used to functionalize the walls of glass nanopore via siloxane chemistry and negatively charged recognition sites were thus generated. The covalent modification procedures and their recognition towards lysozyme of the single conical nanopore were characterized via ionic current passing through the nanopore membrane, which was measured by recording the current-voltage (I-V) curves in 1mM KCl electrolyte at pH=7.4. With the occurring of recognition event, the negatively charged wall was partially neutralized by the positively charged lysozyme molecules, leading to a sensitive change of the surface charge-dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Our results not only demonstrate excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards the target protein, but also suggest a route to extend this nanopore-based sensing strategy to the biosensing platform designs of a wide range of proteins based on a charge modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical Training: New Course on Microsoft Access 2003 - ECDL Module 5

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Technical Training programme offers a new course on Microsoft Access 2003, designed for people using Access to work with databases. The course programme will include the description of the objects of a database, and how to create and use queries, tables, forms and reports. After this course, participants will be at the level of the ECDL Certificate, Database Module 5. Optionally, it will be possible to stand the ECDL examination at the CERN Training Centre. The next scheduled session of this course will take place on May 11-12, 2005. The number of participants to each session is limited to 12. The course will be in English, with an English-French bilingual instructor. The course fee is 400.- CHF per person, scaling down in case of a class of more than 4 participants. The cost of the optional ECDL certification, that will take place at a subsequent date, is 112.- CHF for the skills card (valid for the seven ECDL modules), and 25.- for each online test. The possibility of obtaining the ECDL certificat...

  16. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on our proposed innovations and accomplished work in Phase I, we will focus on developing the new MAC protocol and hybrid routing protocol for lunar surface...

  17. Plasmon Modulation Spectroscopy of Noble Metals to Reveal the Distribution of the Fermi Surface Electrons in the Conduction Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Takagi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To directly access the dynamics of electron distribution near the Fermi-surface after plasmon excitation, pump-probe spectroscopy was performed by pumping plasmons on noble-metal films and probing the interband transition. Spectral change in the interband transitions is sensitive to the electron distribution near the Fermi-surface, because it involves the d valence-band to the conduction band transitions and should reflect the k-space distribution dynamics of electrons. For the continuous-wave pump and probe experiment, the plasmon modulation spectra are found to differ from both the current modulation and temperature difference spectra, possibly reflecting signatures of the plasmon wave function. For the femtosecond-pulse pump and probe experiment, the transient spectra agree well with the known spectra upon the excitation of the respective electrons resulting from plasmon relaxation, probably because the lifetime of plasmons is shorter than the pulse duration.

  18. The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF protein BAF60 mediates seedling growth control by modulating DNA accessibility

    KAUST Repository

    Jégu, Teddy

    2017-06-15

    Plant adaptive responses to changing environments involve complex molecular interplays between intrinsic and external signals. Whilst much is known on the signaling components mediating diurnal, light, and temperature controls on plant development, their influence on chromatin-based transcriptional controls remains poorly explored.In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.These results unveil a short path between a chromatin remodeler and a signaling component to fine-tune plant morphogenesis in response to environmental conditions.

  19. English for Specific Purposes (ESP Modules in the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC for Success in the Global Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Knight

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available University students must prepare themselves to be successful members of the global workforce, and this paper introduces one way for a self-access center to support such preparation by students outside of the formal classroom environment. In this paper, it is proposed that the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS provide ESP (English for specific purposes modules intended to prepare students for their future careers. Within these self-study modules, the following should be recognized and incorporated: 1. The principles of ESP 2. Elements of outcome-based education 3. The relationship between leadership, learning, and teachingIn describing such ESP modules, this paper also proposes the development of self-access materials that could be made available to facilitate the independent study.

  20. Modulation effect of hydrogen and fluorine decoration on the surface work function of BN sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principles calculations within the framework of density-functional theory, we studied the modulation effect of hydrogen/fluorine chemical decoration on the surface work function of BN sheets. We found that the difference in the work function (ΔWBN between two surfaces of the chair structure varies with the different decoration. Geometric distortion and chemical effects cause opposite modulation effects, and the chemical effect plays a leading role by inducing charge redistribution in the system.

  1. Nanoscale crystallinity modulates cell proliferation on plasma sprayed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alan M. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Paxton, Jennifer Z.; Hung, Yi-Pei; Hadley, Martin J.; Bowen, James; Williams, Richard L. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M., E-mail: l.m.grover@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings have been applied to the surface of metallic prostheses to mediate hard and soft tissue attachment for more than 40 years. Most coatings are formed of high purity hydroxyapatite, and coating methods are often designed to produce highly crystalline surfaces. It is likely however, that coatings of lower crystallinity can facilitate more rapid tissue attachment since the surface will exhibit a higher specific surface area and will be considerably more reactive than a comparable highly crystalline surface. Here we test this hypothesis by growing a population of MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells on the surface of two types of hip prosthesis with similar composition, but with differing crystallinity. The surfaces with lower crystallinity facilitated more rapid cell attachment and increased proliferation rate, despite having a less heterogeneous surface topography. This work highlights that the influence of the crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale is dominant over macro-scale topography for cell adhesion and growth. Furthermore, crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity. These findings could facilitate designing novel coated calcium phosphate surfaces that more rapidly bond tissue following implantation. - Highlights: • Crystallinity of HA at the nano-scale was dominant over macro-scale topography. • Lower crystallinity caused rapid cell attachment and proliferation rate. • Crystallinity could be easily adjusted by without compromising coating purity.

  2. A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service

  3. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rabovsky

    Full Text Available It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS. Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS.

  4. Modulating Protein Adsorption on Oxygen Plasma Modified Polysiloxane Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletta, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper we report the study on the adsorption behaviour of three model globular proteins, Human Serum Albumin, Lactoferrin and Egg Chicken Lysozyme onto both unmodified surfaces of a silicon-based polymer and the corresponding plasma treated surfaces. In particular, thin films of hydrophobic polysiloxane (about 90 degree of static water contact angle, WCA) were converted by oxygen plasma treatment at reduced pressure into very hydrophilic phases of SiOx (WCA less than 5 degree). The kinetics of protein adsorption processes were investigated by QCM-D technique, while the chemical structure and topography of the protein adlayer have been studied by Angular resolved-XPS and AFM respectively. It turned out that Albumin and Lysozyme exhibited the opposite preferential adsorption respectively onto the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, while Lactoferrin did not exhibit significant differences. The observed protein behaviour are discussed both in terms of surface-dependent parameters, including surface free energy and chemical structure, and in terms of protein-dependent parameters, including charge as well as the average molecular orientation in the adlayers. Finally, some examples of differential adsorption behaviour of the investigated proteins are reported onto nanopatterned polysiloxane surfaces consisting of hydrophobic nanopores surrounded by hydrophilic (plasma-treated) matrix and the reverse

  5. Electrohydrodynamics of binary electrolytes driven by modulated surface potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Belmon, L.

    2005-01-01

    We study the electrohydrodynamics of the Debye screening layer that arises in an aqueous binary solution near a planar insulating wall when applying a spatially modulated ac voltage. Combining this with first order perturbation theory we establish the governing equations for the full nonequilibrium...... problem and obtain analytic solutions in the bulk for the pressure and velocity fields of the electrolyte and for the electric potential. We find good agreement between the numerics of the full problem and the analytics of the linear theory. Our work provides the theoretical foundations of circuit models...

  6. Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures 2 -fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk

  7. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Sea of Japan from 19930101 to 19930630 (NODC Accession 9300173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature data in this accession was collected in Sea of Japan. Data in this accession was collected over a six month period from thermistor. The...

  8. A metro-access integrated network with all-optical virtual private network function using DPSK/ASK modulation format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai

    2008-11-01

    All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.

  9. Surface topography of immunoglobulin molecules. I. Accessibility of aromatic chromophores of rabbit IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białkowska, H; Morawiecki, A

    1978-01-01

    Non-ionic detergent, Tween-20, was used in solvent perturbation studies of accessibility of aromatic amino acid residues in rabbit IgG molecules. It has been found that surface aromatic residues are localized in cervices inaccessible to perturbant molecules larger than ca. 10 A in diameter.

  10. Constructing a two bands optical code-division multiple-access network of bipolar optical access codecs using Walsh-coded liquid crystal modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ta; Huang, Jen-Fa; Chih, Ping-En

    2014-08-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrated the two bands optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network over bipolar Walsh-coded liquid-crystal modulators (LCMs) and driven by green light and red light lasers. Achieving system performance depends on the construction of a decoder that implements a true bipolar correlation using only unipolar signals and intensity detection for each band. We took advantage of the phase delay characteristics of LCMs to construct a prototype optical coder/decoder (codec). Matched and unmatched Walsh signature codes were evaluated to detect correlations among multiuser data in the access network. By using LCMs, a red and green laser light source was spectrally encoded and the summed light dots were complementary decoded. Favorable contrast on auto- and cross-correlations indicates that binary information symbols can be properly recovered using a balanced photodetector.

  11. Face proprioception does not modulate access to visual awareness of emotional faces in a continuous flash suppression paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Sebastian; Osimo, Sofia A; Suran, Tiziano; Goldstein, Ariel; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2017-05-01

    An important question in neuroscience is which multisensory information, presented outside of awareness, can influence the nature and speed of conscious access to our percepts. Recently, proprioceptive feedback of the hand was reported to lead to faster awareness of congruent hand images in a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm. Moreover, a vast literature suggests that spontaneous facial mimicry can improve emotion recognition, even without awareness of the stimulus face. However, integration of visual and proprioceptive information about the face to date has not been tested with CFS. The modulation of visual awareness of emotional faces by facial proprioception was investigated across three separate experiments. Face proprioception was induced with voluntary facial expressions or with spontaneous facial mimicry. Frequentist statistical analyses were complemented with Bayesian statistics. No evidence of multisensory integration was found, suggesting that proprioception does not modulate access to visual awareness of emotional faces in a CFS paradigm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of the Casimir force by laser pulses: Influence of oxide films on the silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Bukina, M. N.; Churkin, Yu. V.; Yurova, V. A.

    2010-10-01

    The possibility of modulating the Casimir force that acts in an air medium between a gold sphere and a silicon plate irradiated by laser pulses has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the oxide film that is formed on the silicon surface in air hardly affects the possibility of modulating the Casimir force when the distances between interacting bodies are of the order of 100 nm. With an increase in the distance, the modulation depth decreases; however, this region is of less practical interest, because the Casimir forces become too weak.

  13. Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...

  14. 3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quadruple multi-wavelength conversion for access network scalability based on cross-phase modulation in an SOA-MZI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Swedan, Abdulhameed Almabrok

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of new services and data exchange applications has increased the demand for bandwidth among individuals and commercial business users at the access area. Thus, vendors of optical access networks should achieve a high-capacity system. This study demonstrates the performance of an integrated configuration of one to four multi-wavelength conversions at 10 Gb/s based on cross-phase modulation using semiconductor optical amplifier integrated with Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Opti System simulation tool is used to simulate and demonstrate one to four wavelength conversions using one modulated wavelength and four probes of continuous wave sources. The wavelength converter processes are confirmed through investigation of the input and output characteristics, optical signal-to-noise ratio, conversion efficiency, and extinction ratio of new modulated channels after separation by demultiplexing. The outcomes of the proposed system using single channel indicate that the capacity can increase from 10 Gb/s to 50 Gb/s with a maximum number of access points increasing from 64 to 320 (each point with 156.25 Mb/s bandwidth). The splitting ratio of 1:16 provides each client with 625 Mb/s for the total number of 80 users. The Q-factor and bit error rate curves are investigated to confirm and validate the modified scheme and prove the system performance of the full topology of 25 km with 1/64 splitter. The outcomes are within the acceptable range to provide the system scalability.

  16. High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Han; Tu, Charng-Gan; Yao, Yu-Feng; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Su, Chia-Ying; Chen, Hao-Tsung; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung

    2017-02-01

    Besides lighting, LEDs can be used for indoor data transmission. Therefore, a large modulation bandwidth becomes an important target in the development of visible LED. In this regard, enhancing the radiative recombination rate of carriers in the quantum wells of an LED is a useful method since the modulation bandwidth of an LED is related to the carrier decay rate besides the device RC time constant To increase the carrier decay rate in an LED without sacrificing its output power, the technique of surface plasmon (SP) coupling in an LED is useful. In this paper, the increases of modulation bandwidth by reducing mesa size, decreasing active layer thickness, and inducing SP coupling in blue- and green-emitting LEDs are illustrated. The results are demonstrated by comparing three different LED surface structures, including bare p-type surface, GaZnO current spreading layer, and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for inducing SP coupling. In a single-quantum-well, blue-emitting LED with a circular mesa of 10 microns in radius, SP coupling results in a modulation bandwidth of 528.8 MHz, which is believed to be the record-high level. A smaller RC time constant can lead to a higher modulation bandwidth. However, when the RC time constant is smaller than 0.2 ns, its effect on modulation bandwidth saturates. The dependencies of modulation bandwidth on injected current density and carrier decay time confirm that the modulation bandwidth is essentially inversely proportional to a time constant, which is inversely proportional to the square-root of carrier decay rate and injected current density.

  17. Terahertz modulation based on surface plasmon resonance by self-gated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenhai; Yang, Dongxiao; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the extraordinary optical transmission through a terahertz metamaterial composed of metallic ring aperture arrays. The physical mechanism of different transmission peaks is elucidated to be magnetic polaritons or propagation surface plasmons with the help of surface current and electromagnetic field distributions at respective resonance frequencies. Then, we propose a high performance terahertz modulator based on the unique PSP resonance and combined with the metallic ring aperture arrays and a self-gated parallel-plate graphene capacitor. Because, to date, few researches have exhibited gate-controlled graphene modulation in terahertz region with low insertion losses, high modulation depth and low control voltage at room temperature. Here, we propose a 96% amplitude modulation with 0.7 dB insertion losses and ∼5.5 V gate voltage. Besides, we further study the absorption spectra of the modulator. When the transmission of modulator is very low, a 91% absorption can be achieved for avoiding damaging the source devices.

  18. Maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over non-isolated surface singularities and matrix problems

    CERN Document Server

    Burban, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this article the authors develop a new method to deal with maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over non-isolated surface singularities. In particular, they give a negative answer on an old question of Schreyer about surface singularities with only countably many indecomposable maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules. Next, the authors prove that the degenerate cusp singularities have tame Cohen-Macaulay representation type. The authors' approach is illustrated on the case of \\mathbb{k} x,y,z/(xyz) as well as several other rings. This study of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over non-isolated singularities leads to a new class of problems of linear algebra, which the authors call representations of decorated bunches of chains. They prove that these matrix problems have tame representation type and describe the underlying canonical forms.

  19. Enhancement of the Modulation Bandwidth for surface Plasmon coupled LEDs for Visible Light Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiehui; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The modulation bandwidth of surface plasmon coupled GaN-based LEDs is increased by ~1.2 times to 434.5 MHz compared with normal LED by applying Ag nanoparticles. These findings will help for the industrialization of VLC system....

  20. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Padula

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  2. Arrays of surface-normal electroabsorption modulators for the generation and signal processing of microwave photonics signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Junique, Stéphane; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an array of 16 surface-normal electroabsorption modulators operating at 1550nm is presented. The modulator array is dedicated to the generation and processing of microwave photonics signals, targeting a modulation bandwidth in excess of 5GHz. The hybrid integration of the

  3. Accent modulates access to word meaning: Evidence for a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Davis, Matthew H; Gaskell, M Gareth; Farrar, Lauren; Adler, Sarah; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-11-01

    Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect. Critically, neutral-accent speech items, created by morphing British- and American-accented recordings, were interpreted in a similar way to accented words when embedded in a context of accented words (Experiment 2). This finding indicates that listeners do not use accent to guide meaning retrieval on a word-by-word basis; instead they use accent information to determine the dialectic identity of a speaker and then use their experience of that dialect to guide meaning access for all words spoken by that person. These results motivate a speaker-model account of spoken word recognition in which comprehenders determine key characteristics of their interlocutor and use this knowledge to guide word meaning access. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infrared beam-steering using acoustically modulated surface plasmons over a graphene monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Paiyen

    2014-09-01

    We model and design a graphene-based infrared beamformer based on the concept of leaky-wave (fast traveling wave) antennas. The excitation of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) over a \\'one-atom-thick\\' graphene monolayer is typically associated with intrinsically \\'slow light\\'. By modulating the graphene with elastic vibrations based on flexural waves, a dynamic diffraction grating can be formed on the graphene surface, converting propagating SPPs into fast surface waves, able to radiate directive infrared beams into the background medium. This scheme allows fast on-off switching of infrared emission and dynamic tuning of its radiation pattern, beam angle and frequency of operation, by simply varying the acoustic frequency that controls the effective grating period. We envision that this graphene beamformer may be integrated into reconfigurable transmitter/receiver modules, switches and detectors for THz and infrared wireless communication, sensing, imaging and actuation systems.

  5. Interacting with the biomolecular solvent accessible surface via a haptic feedback device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Steven

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the 1950s computer based renderings of molecules have been produced to aid researchers in their understanding of biomolecular structure and function. A major consideration for any molecular graphics software is the ability to visualise the three dimensional structure of the molecule. Traditionally, this was accomplished via stereoscopic pairs of images and later realised with three dimensional display technologies. Using a haptic feedback device in combination with molecular graphics has the potential to enhance three dimensional visualisation. Although haptic feedback devices have been used to feel the interaction forces during molecular docking they have not been used explicitly as an aid to visualisation. Results A haptic rendering application for biomolecular visualisation has been developed that allows the user to gain three-dimensional awareness of the shape of a biomolecule. By using a water molecule as the probe, modelled as an oxygen atom having hard-sphere interactions with the biomolecule, the process of exploration has the further benefit of being able to determine regions on the molecular surface that are accessible to the solvent. This gives insight into how awkward it is for a water molecule to gain access to or escape from channels and cavities, indicating possible entropic bottlenecks. In the case of liver alcohol dehydrogenase bound to the inhibitor SAD, it was found that there is a channel just wide enough for a single water molecule to pass through. Placing the probe coincident with crystallographic water molecules suggests that they are sometimes located within small pockets that provide a sterically stable environment irrespective of hydrogen bonding considerations. Conclusion By using the software, named HaptiMol ISAS (available from http://www.haptimol.co.uk, one can explore the accessible surface of biomolecules using a three-dimensional input device to gain insights into the shape and water

  6. Photonic Mach-Zehnder modulators driven by surface acoustic waves in AlGaAs technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Poveda, A.; Gargallo, B.; Artundo, I.; Doménech, J. D.; Muñoz, P.; Hey, R.; Biermann, K.; Tahraoui, A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.; de Lima, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, photonic devices driven by surface acoustic waves and operating in the GHz frequency range are presented. The devices were designed and fabricated in (Al,Ga)As technology. In contrast to previously realized modulators, where part of the light transmission is lost due to destructive interference, in the present devices light only switches paths, avoiding losses. One of the devices presents two output channels with 180°-dephasing synchronization. Odd multiples of the fundamental driving frequency are enabled by adjusting the applied acoustic power. A second and more complex photonic integrated device, based on the acoustic modulation of tunable Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, is also proposed.

  7. Spectral-Modulation Characteristics of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas'kovskaya, M. I.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Zibrov, S. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Velichanskii, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    The requirements imposed on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in a number of metrological problems in which optical pumping of alkali atoms is used are considered. For lasers produced by different manufacturers, these requirements are compared with the experimentally observed spectral characteristics at a constant pump current and in the microwave modulation mode. It is shown that a comparatively small number of lasers in the microwave modulation mode make it possible to obtain the spectrum required for atomic clocks based on the coherent population-trapping effect.

  8. Influence of convection at outer ceramic surfaces on the characterization of thermoelectric modules by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Pitarch, Braulio; García-Cañadas, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a useful method for the characterization of thermoelectric (TE) modules. It can determine with high accuracy the module's dimensionless figure of merit (zT) as well as the average TE properties of the module's thermoelements. Interpretation of impedance results requires the use of a theoretical model (equivalent circuit), which provides the desired device parameters after a fitting is performed to the experimental results. Here, we extend the currently available equivalent circuit, only valid for adiabatic conditions, to account for the effect of convection at the outer surface of the module ceramic plates, which is the part of the device where convection is more prominent. This is performed by solving the heat equation in the frequency domain including convection heat losses. As a result, a new element (convection resistance) appears in the developed equivalent circuit, which starts to influence at mid-low frequencies, causing a decrease of the typically observed semicircle in the impedance spectrum. If this effect is not taken into account, an underestimation of the zT occurs when measurements are performed under room conditions. The theoretical model is validated by experimental measurements performed in a commercial module with and without vacuum. Interestingly, the use of the new equivalent circuit allows the determination of the convection heat transfer coefficient (h), if the module's Seebeck coefficient is known, and an impedance measurement in vacuum is performed, opening up the possibility to develop TE modules as h sensors. On the other hand, if h is known, all the properties of the module (zT, ohmic (internal) resistance, average Seebeck coefficient and average thermal conductivity of the thermoelements and thermal conductivity of the ceramics) can be obtained from one impedance measurement in vacuum and another measurement under room conditions.

  9. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao

    2014-05-01

    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  10. Generation of easily accessible human kidney tubules on two-dimensional surfaces in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huishi; Lau, Samantha Fong-Ting; Heng, Ber Fong; Teo, Pei Yun; Alahakoon, P K D Thilini; Ni, Ming; Tasnim, Farah; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

    2011-06-01

    The generation of tissue-like structures in vitro is of major interest for various fields of research including in vitro toxicology, regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Usually 3D matrices are used to engineer tissue-like structures in vitro, and for the generation of kidney tubules, 3D gels are employed. Kidney tubules embedded within 3D gels are difficult to access for manipulations and imaging. Here we show how large and functional human kidney tubules can be generated in vitro on 2D surfaces, without the use of 3D matrices. The mechanism used by human primary renal proximal tubule cells for tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces appears to be distinct from the mechanism employed in 3D gels, and tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces involves interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The process is induced by transforming growth factor-β(1), and enhanced by a 3D substrate architecture. However, after triggering the process, the formation of renal tubules occurs with remarkable independence from the substrate architecture. Human proximal tubules generated on 2D surfaces typically have a length of several millimetres, and are easily accessible for manipulations and imaging, which makes them attractive for basic research and in vitro nephrotoxicology. The experimental system described also allows for in vitro studies on how primary human kidney cells regenerate renal structures after organ disruption. The finding that human kidney cells organize tissue-like structures independently from the substrate architecture has important consequences for kidney tissue engineering, and it will be important, for instance, to inhibit the process of tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces in bioartificial kidneys. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Conscious Access to Suppressed Threatening Information Is Modulated by Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that emotional information processing can be modulated by what is being held in working memory (WM). Here, we showed that such content-based WM effects can occur even when the emotional information is suppressed from conscious awareness. Using the delayed-match-to-sample paradigm in conjunction with continuous flash suppression, we found that suppressed threatening (fearful and angry) faces emerged from suppression faster when they matched the emotional valence of WM contents than when they did not. This effect cannot be explained by perceptual priming, as it disappeared when the faces were only passively viewed and not held in WM. Crucially, such an effect is highly specific to threatening faces but not to happy or neutral faces. Our findings together suggest that WM can modulate nonconscious emotion processing, which highlights the functional association between nonconsciously triggered emotional processes and conscious emotion representation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spartaru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-12-03

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 order of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  13. A combination of transformation optics and surface impedance modulation to design compact retrodirective reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, H.; Loison, R.; Gillard, R.; Harmouch, A.; Jrad, A.

    2018-02-01

    This study proposes a new approach to flatten retrodirective corner reflectors. The proposed method enables compact reflectors via Transformation Optics (TO) combined with Surface Impedance Modulation (SIM). This combination permits to relax the constraints on the anisotropic material resulting from the TO. Phase gradient approach is generalized to be used within anisotropic media and is implemented with SIM. Different reflector setups are designed, simulated and compared for fop = 8GHz using ANSYS® HFSS® in order to validate the use of such a combination.

  14. Class-Wide Access to a Commercial Step 1 Question Bank During Preclinical Organ-Based Modules: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, James H; Pepin, Mark E; Van Wagoner, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    The authors examined the usefulness of a commercially available Step 1 question bank as a formative academic support tool throughout organ-based modules in an integrated preclinical medical curriculum. The authors also determined the extent to which correlation between question bank utilization and academic metrics varied with Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. In 2015, a cohort of 185 first-year medical students at University of Alabama School of Medicine were provided with 18-month full access to a commercially available Step 1 question bank of over 2,100 items throughout organ-based modules, although there were no requirements for use. Data on student use of the question bank were collected via an online administrative portal. Relationships between question bank utilization and academic outcomes including exams, module grades, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 were determined using multiple linear regression. MCAT scores and number of items attempted in the question bank significantly predicted all academic measures, with question bank utilization as the stronger predictor. The association between question bank utilization and academic outcome was stronger for individuals with lower MCAT scores. The findings elucidate a novel academic support mechanism that, for some programs, may help bridge the gap between holistic and mission-based admissions practices and a residency match process that places a premium on USMLE exam scores. Distributed formative use of USMLE Step 1 practice questions may be of value as an academic support tool that benefits all students, but particularly those entering with lower MCAT scores.

  15. Non-Contact Surface Roughness Measurement by Implementation of a Spatial Light Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Laura; Salazar Bloise, Félix; Lu, Min; Koch, Alexander W

    2017-03-15

    The surface structure, especially the roughness, has a significant influence on numerous parameters, such as friction and wear, and therefore estimates the quality of technical systems. In the last decades, a broad variety of surface roughness measurement methods were developed. A destructive measurement procedure or the lack of feasibility of online monitoring are the crucial drawbacks of most of these methods. This article proposes a new non-contact method for measuring the surface roughness that is straightforward to implement and easy to extend to online monitoring processes. The key element is a liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulator, integrated in an interferometric setup. By varying the imprinted phase of the modulator, a correlation between the imprinted phase and the fringe visibility of an interferogram is measured, and the surface roughness can be derived. This paper presents the theoretical approach of the method and first simulation and experimental results for a set of surface roughnesses. The experimental results are compared with values obtained by an atomic force microscope and a stylus profiler.

  16. "Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Honza, Rene; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.

  17. RCT: Module 2.10, Access Control and Work Area Setup, Course 8776

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course presents information on radiological work permits (RWPs), various types of postings used in radiological areas, radiological area setups, access controls, and releases of material from radiological areas. All of these are fundamental duties of RCTs. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  18. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  19. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  20. How modification of accessible lysines to phenylalanine modulates the structural and functional properties of horseradish peroxidase: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Navapour

    Full Text Available Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP is one of the most studied peroxidases and a great number of chemical modifications and genetic manipulations have been carried out on its surface accessible residues to improve its stability and catalytic efficiency necessary for biotechnological applications. Most of the stabilized derivatives of HRP reported to date have involved chemical or genetic modifications of three surface-exposed lysines (K174, K232 and K241. In this computational study, we altered these lysines to phenylalanine residues to model those chemical modifications or genetic manipulations in which these positively charged lysines are converted to aromatic hydrophobic residues. Simulation results implied that upon these substitutions, the protein structure becomes less flexible. Stability gains are likely to be achieved due to the increased number of stable hydrogen bonds, improved heme-protein interactions and more integrated proximal Ca2+ binding pocket. We also found a new persistent hydrogen bond between the protein moiety (F174 and the heme prosthetic group as well as two stitching hydrogen bonds between the connecting loops GH and F'F″ in mutated HRP. However, detailed analysis of functionally related structural properties and dynamical features suggests reduced reactivity of the enzyme toward its substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that substitutions narrow the bottle neck entry of peroxide substrate access channel and reduce the surface accessibility of the distal histidine (H42 and heme prosthetic group to the peroxide and aromatic substrates, respectively. Results also demonstrated that the area and volume of the aromatic-substrate binding pocket are significantly decreased upon modifications. Moreover, the hydrophobic patch functioning as a binding site or trap for reducing aromatic substrates is shrunk in mutated enzyme. Together, the results of this simulation study could provide possible structural clues to explain

  1. Nano hydroxyapatite-blasted titanium surface affects pre-osteoblast morphology by modulating critical intracellular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Fábio; Ferreira, Marcel R; Fontes, Giselle N; da Costa Fernandes, Célio Jr; Andia, Denise C; Cruz, Nilson C; da Silva, Rodrigo A; Zambuzzi, Willian F

    2017-08-01

    Although, intracellular signaling pathways are proposed to predict the quality of cell-surface relationship, this study addressed pre-osteoblast behavior in response to nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-blasted titanium (Ti) surface by exploring critical intracellular pathways and pre-osteoblast morphological change. Physicochemical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and wettability considering water contact angle of three differently texturized Ti surfaces: Machined (Mac), Dual acid-etching (DAE), and nano hydroxyapatite-blasted (nHA). The results revealed critical differences in surface topography, impacting the water contact angle and later the osteoblast performance. In order to evaluate the effect of those topographical characteristics on biological responses, we have seeded pre-osteoblast cells on the Ti discs for up to 4 h and subjected the cultures to biological analysis. First, we have observed pre-osteoblasts morphological changes resulting from the interaction with the Ti texturized surfaces whereas the cells cultured on nHA presented a more advanced spreading process when compared with the cells cultured on the other surfaces. These results argued us for analyzing the molecular machinery and thus, we have shown that nHA promoted a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio, suggesting an interesting anti-apoptotic effect, maybe explained by the fact that HA is a natural element present in bone composition. Thereafter, we investigated the potential effect of those surfaces on promoting pre-osteoblast adhesion and survival signaling by performing crystal violet and immunoblotting approaches, respectively. Our results showed that nHA promoted a higher pre-osteoblast adhesion supported by up-modulating FAK and Src activations, both signaling transducers involved during eukaryotic cell adhesion. Also, we have shown Ras-Erk stimulation by the all evaluated surfaces. Finally, we showed that all Ti-texturing surfaces were able to promote osteoblast differentiation

  2. Converged Wireless and Wireline Access System Based on Optical Phase Modulation for Both Radio-Over-Fiber and Baseband Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko

    2008-01-01

    -to-zero differential quaternary phase-shift keyed signal and a 5.25-GHz RoF carrying 1.25 Gb/s, enables the use of identical optical receiver structures. The experimental results show that both receivers achieve error-free operation after 80-km standard single-mode fiber transmission. The proposed scheme has potential......We propose and experimentally investigate a scheme for transmitting a phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) signal along an existing fiber infrastructure without degradation of the existing baseband signal. Optical phase encoding of both signals, namely a baseband 21.4-Gb/s nonreturn...... applications for converged wireless and wireline optical access networks....

  3. Numerical thermal analysis and optimization of multi-chip LED module using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Hong Yu; Ye, Huai Yu; Chen, Xian Ping; Qian, Cheng; Fan, Xue Jun; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer performance of the multi-chip (MC) LED module is investigated numerically by using a general analytical solution. The configuration of the module is optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) combined with a response surface methodology. The space between chips, the

  4. Chlorophyll modulation of sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    Remotely sensed chlorophyll pigment concentrations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) are used to estimate biological heating rate and investigate the biological modulation of the sea surface temperature (SST) in a bulk mixed layer model...

  5. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  6. Effect of nanofluids on the performance of a miniature plate heat exchanger with modulated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzali, M.N.; Kanaris, A.G.; Antoniadis, K.D.; Mouza, A.A.; Paras, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of the use of a nanofluid in a miniature plate heat exchanger (PHE) with modulated surface has been studied both experimentally and numerically. First, the thermophysical properties (i.e., thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, density and surface tension) of a typical nanofluid (CuO in water, 4% v/v) were systematically measured. The effect of surface modulation on heat transfer augmentation and friction losses was then investigated by simulating the existing miniature PHE as well as a notional similar PHE with flat plate using a CFD code. Finally, the effect of the nanofluid on the PHE performance was studied and compared to that of a conventional cooling fluid (i.e., water). The results suggest that, for a given heat duty, the nanofluid volumetric flow rate required is lower than that of water causing lower pressure drop. As a result, smaller equipment and less pumping power are required. In conclusion, the use of the nanofluids seems to be a promising solution towards designing efficient heat exchanging systems, especially when the total volume of the equipment is the main issue. The only drawbacks so far are the high price and the possible instability of the nanoparticle suspensions.

  7. Altering protein surface charge with chemical modification modulates protein–gold nanoparticle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, Jennifer A.; Bryant, Erika L.; Kadali, Shyam B.; Wong, Michael S.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Calabretta, Michelle K.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can interact with a wide range of molecules including proteins. Whereas significant attention has focused on modifying the nanoparticle surface to regulate protein–AuNP assembly or influence the formation of the protein “corona,” modification of the protein surface as a mechanism to modulate protein–AuNP interaction has been less explored. Here, we examine this possibility utilizing three small globular proteins—lysozyme with high isoelectric point (pI) and established interactions with AuNP; α-lactalbumin with similar tertiary fold to lysozyme but low pI; and myoglobin with a different globular fold and an intermediate pI. We first chemically modified these proteins to alter their charged surface functionalities, and thereby shift protein pI, and then applied multiple methods to assess protein–AuNP assembly. At pH values lower than the anticipated pI of the modified protein, AuNP exposure elicits changes in the optical absorbance of the protein–NP solutions and other properties due to aggregate formation. Above the expected pI, however, protein–AuNP interaction is minimal, and both components remain isolated, presumably because both species are negatively charged. These data demonstrate that protein modification provides a powerful tool for modulating whether nanoparticle–protein interactions result in material aggregation. The results also underscore that naturally occurring protein modifications found in vivo may be critical in defining nanoparticle–protein corona compositions.

  8. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian

    2016-09-26

    The surface effects of ZnO-based resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) were investigated using various electrodes. Pt electrodes were found to have better performance in terms of the device\\'s switching functionality. A thermodynamic model of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy for the chemisorption process, resulting in a better resistive switching performance. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of electrode-dependent switching behaviors and can serve as design guidelines for future ReRAM devices.

  9. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards' and Shrake and Rupley's approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality.

  10. Data on the role of accessible surface area on osmolytes-induced protein stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data related to the research article “Testing the dependence of stabilizing effect of osmolytes on the fractional increase in the accessible surface area on thermal and chemical denaturations of proteins” [1]. Heat- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl-induced denaturation of three disulfide free proteins (bovine cytochrome c (b-cyt-c, myoglobin (Mb and barstar in the presence of different concentrations of methylamines (sarcosine, glycine-betaine (GB and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO was monitored by [ϴ]222, the mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm at pH 7.0. Methylamines belong to a class of osmolytes known to protect proteins from deleterious effect of urea. This paper includes comprehensive thermodynamic data obtained from the heat- and GdmCl-induced denaturations of barstar, b-cyt-c and Mb.

  11. Small Molecules Modulate Chromatin Accessibility to Promote NEUROG2-Mediated Fibroblast-to-Neuron Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek K. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pro-neural transcription factors and small molecules can induce the reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional neurons; however, the immediate-early molecular events that catalyze this conversion have not been well defined. We previously demonstrated that neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2, forskolin (F, and dorsomorphin (D can reprogram fibroblasts into functional neurons with high efficiency. Here, we used this model to define the genetic and epigenetic events that initiate an acquisition of neuronal identity. We demonstrate that NEUROG2 is a pioneer factor, FD enhances chromatin accessibility and H3K27 acetylation, and synergistic transcription activated by these factors is essential to successful reprogramming. CREB1 promotes neuron survival and acts with NEUROG2 to upregulate SOX4, which co-activates NEUROD1 and NEUROD4. In addition, SOX4 targets SWI/SNF subunits and SOX4 knockdown results in extensive loss of open chromatin and abolishes reprogramming. Applying these insights, adult human glioblastoma cell and skin fibroblast reprogramming can be improved using SOX4 or chromatin-modifying chemicals.

  12. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser vapor sensor using swelling polymer reflection modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgård; Dohn, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Vapor detection using a low-refractive index polymer for reflection modulation of the top mirror in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is demonstrated. The VCSEL sensor concept presents a simple method to detect the response of a sensor polymer in the presence of volatile organic co...... compounds. We model the physics as a change in the top mirror loss caused by swelling of the polymer upon absorbing the target volatile organic compound. Further we show how acetone vapors at 82 000 ppm concentration can change the polymer coated VCSEL output power by 20 mu W....

  13. Effects of geometric modulation and surface potential heterogeneity on electrokinetic flow and solute transport in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Subrata; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2018-04-01

    A numerical investigation is performed on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a surface-modulated microchannel to induce enhanced solute mixing. The channel wall is modulated by placing surface-mounted obstacles of trigonometric shape along which the surface potential is considered to be different from the surface potential of the homogeneous part of the wall. The characteristics of the electrokinetic flow are governed by the Laplace equation for the distribution of external electric potential; the Poisson equation for the distribution of induced electric potential; the Nernst-Planck equations for the distribution of ions; and the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow simultaneously. These nonlinear coupled set of governing equations are solved numerically by a control volume method over the staggered system. The influence of the geometric modulation of the surface, surface potential heterogeneity and the bulk ionic concentration on the EOF is analyzed. Vortical flow develops near a surface modulation, and it becomes stronger when the surface potential of the modulated region is in opposite sign to the surface potential of the homogeneous part of the channel walls. Vortical flow also depends on the Debye length when the Debye length is in the order of the channel height. Pressure drop along the channel length is higher for a ribbed wall channel compared to the grooved wall case. The pressure drop decreases with the increase in the amplitude for a grooved channel, but increases for a ribbed channel. The mixing index is quantified through the standard deviation of the solute distribution. Our results show that mixing index is higher for the ribbed channel compared to the grooved channel with heterogeneous surface potential. The increase in potential heterogeneity in the modulated region also increases the mixing index in both grooved and ribbed channels. However, the mixing performance, which is the ratio of the mixing index to pressure drop, reduces with the rise in

  14. Titanium surfaces with nanotopography modulate cytokine production in cultured human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Morandini, Ana Carolina Faria; Ramos-Junior, Erivan Schnaider; Jimbo, Ryo; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Marcantonio, Elcio; Wennerberg, Ann; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2012-10-01

    Implant topography is an important factor that influences many cell types. To understand the role of topography in the inflammatory events, we evaluated the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by the release pattern of cytokines. HGFs were cultured on Ti discs for 24 and 48 h. Four different surface treatments were used: machining method (turned), blasting followed by an acid-etching method (BAE), oxidative nanopatterning (ON) method, and an association of blasting followed by an acid-etching plus oxidative nanopatterning (BAE+ON) method. Extracellular levels of IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), IL-4, and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were observed in all surfaces after 24 h which decreased after 48 h. BAE, ON, and BAE+ON surfaces showed a reduction in IL-6 levels compared with the turned after 48 h (p < 0.05). On one hand, IL-8 production was lower in BAE+ON in comparison to the turned surface (p < 0.05). On the other hand, IL-4 showed increased levels with 48 h, which were significantly different between turned, BAE, and ON surfaces, but not with BAE+ON. Additionally, TGF-β and IL-10 production were not detected. This study indicates that nanotopography might be important in the modulation of the inflammatory response in cultured HGFs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Binary Pseudo-Random Gratings and Arrays for Calibration of Modulation Transfer Functions of Surface Profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik D.; Cambie, Rossana; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Stover, John C.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-09-11

    A technique for precise measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF), suitable for characterization of a broad class of surface profilometers, is investigated in detail. The technique suggested in [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)]is based on use of binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays as standard MTF test surfaces. Unlike most conventional test surfaces, BPR gratings and arrays possess white-noise-like inherent power spectral densities (PSD), allowing the direct determination of the one- and two-dimensional MTF, respectively, with a sensitivity uniform over the entire spatial frequency range of a profiler. In the cited work, a one dimensional realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, a high-confidence of the MTF calibration technique is demonstrated via cross comparison measurements of a number of two dimensional BPR arrays using two different interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. We also present the results of application of the experimentally determined MTF correction to the measurement taken with the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope of the surface roughness of a super-polished test mirror. In this particular case, without accounting for the instrumental MTF, the surface rms roughness over half of the instrumental spatial frequency bandwidth would be underestimated by a factor of approximately 1.4.

  16. Absorptivity modulation on wavy molten steel surfaces: The influence of laser wavelength and angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2012-10-01

    The modulation of the angle-dependent Fresnel absorptivity across wavy molten steel surfaces during laser materials processing, like drilling, cutting, or welding, has been calculated. The absorptivity is strongly altered by the grazing angle of incidence of the laser beam on the processing front. Owing to its specific Brewster-peak characteristics, the 10.64 μm wavelength CO2-laser shows an opposite trend with respect to roughness and angle-of-incidence compared to lasers in the wavelength range of 532-1070 nm. Plateaus or rings of Brewster-peak absorptivity can lead to hot spots on a wavy surface, often in close proximity to cold spots caused by shadow domains.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance image sensor module of spin-coated silver film with polymer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung-Han; Lee, Dong Hun; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Prism modules of 20 nm-, 40 nm-, and 60 nm-thick spin-coated silver films both without and with an upper 100 nm-thick spin-coated polymer layer were fabricated for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) image sensor applications. The prism modules were applied to an SPR image sensor system. The coefficients of determination (R2s) for the 20 nm-, 40 nm- and 60 nm-thick silver films without the polymer layer were 0.9231, 0.9901, and 0.9889, respectively, and with the polymer layer 0.9228, 0.9951, and 0.9880, respectively when standard ethanol solutions with 0.1% intervals in the range of 20.0% to 20.5% were applied. The upper polymer layer has no effect on the R2. The prism modules of the 40-nm-thick spin-coated silver films had the highest R2 value of approximately 0.99. The durability of the 40 nm-thick spin-coated silver film with the 100 nm-thick polymer layer is much better than that without the upper low-loss polymer layer. The developed SPR image sensor module of the 40 nm-thick spin-coated silver film with the upper 100 nm-thick low-loss polymer film is expected to be a very cost-effective and robust solution because the films are formed at low temperatures in a short period of time without requiring a vacuum system and are very durable.

  18. Double modulation pyrometry: A radiometric method to measure surface temperatures of directly irradiated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamias, Dimitrios; Alxneit, Ivo; Wokaun, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The design, implementation, calibration, and assessment of double modulation pyrometry to measure surface temperatures of radiatively heated samples in our 1 kW imaging furnace is presented. The method requires that the intensity of the external radiation can be modulated. This was achieved by a rotating blade mounted parallel to the optical axis of the imaging furnace. Double modulation pyrometry independently measures the external radiation reflected by the sample as well as the sum of thermal and reflected radiation and extracts the thermal emission as the difference of these signals. Thus a two-step calibration is required: First, the relative gains of the measured signals are equalized and then a temperature calibration is performed. For the latter, we transfer the calibration from a calibrated solar blind pyrometer that operates at a different wavelength. We demonstrate that the worst case systematic error associated with this procedure is about 300 K but becomes negligible if a reasonable estimate of the sample's emissivity is used. An analysis of the influence of the uncertainties in the calibration coefficients reveals that one (out of the five) coefficient contributes almost 50% to the final temperature error. On a low emission sample like platinum, the lower detection limit is around 1700 K and the accuracy typically about 20 K. Note that these moderate specifications are specific for the use of double modulation pyrometry at the imaging furnace. It is mainly caused by the difficulty to achieve and maintain good overlap of the hot zone with a diameter of about 3 mm Full Width at Half Height and the measurement spot both of which are of similar size.

  19. Non-isothermal electro-osmotic flow in a microchannel with charge-modulated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Oscar; Sanchez, Salvador; Mendez, Federico

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present an theoretical analysis of a nonisothermal electro-osmotic flow of a Newtonian fluid over charge-modulated surfaces in a microchannel. Here, the heating in the microchannel is due to the Joule effect caused by the imposition of an external electric field. The study is conducted through the use of perturbation techniques and is validated by means of numerical simulations. We consider that both, viscosity and electrical conductivity of the fluid are temperature-dependent; therefore, in order to determine the heat transfer process and the corresponding effects on the flow field, the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and electric potential have to be solved in a coupled manner. The principal obtained results evidence that the flow patterns are perturbed in a noticeable manner in comparison with the isothernal case. Our results may be used for increasing microfluidics mixing by conjugating thermal effects with the use of charge-modulated surfaces. This work has been supported by the research grants no. 220900 of Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) and 20150919 of SIP-IPN at Mexico. F. Méndez acknowledges also the economical support of PAPIIT-UNAM under contract number IN112215.

  20. New Module to Simulate Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions in Small-Scale Alluvial Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, L.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow depletion can occur when groundwater pumping wells lower water table elevations adjacent to a nearby stream. Being able to accurately model the severity of this process is of critical importance in semi-arid regions where groundwater-surface water interactions affect water rights and the sustainability of water resource practices. The finite-difference flow model MODFLOW is currently the standard for estimating groundwater-surface water interactions in many regions in the western United States. However, certain limitations of the model persist when highly-resolved spatial scales are used to represent the stream-aquifer system, e.g. when the size of computational grid cells is much less than the river width. In this study, an external module is developed and linked with MODFLOW that (1) allows for multiple computational grid cells over the width of the river; (2) computes streamflow and stream stage along the length of the river using the one-dimensional (1D) steady (over a stress period) shallow water equations, which allows for more accurate stream stages when normal flow cannot be assumed or a rating curve is not available; and (3) incorporates a process for computing streamflow loss when an unsaturated zone develops under the streambed. Use of the module not only provides highly-resolved estimates of streamflow depletion, but also of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The new module is applied to the stream-aquifer alluvial system along the South Platte River south of Denver, Colorado, with results tested against field-measured groundwater levels, streamflow, and streamflow depletion.

  1. A surface plasmon resonance interferometer based on spatial phase modulation for protein array detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinglong; Ding, Xiang; Liu, Fangfang; Wei, Xing; Wang, Dingxin

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of kinds of proteins exist in a single cell. Proteomics research aims to characterize these proteins and simultaneously analyse modifications and interactions on a large scale. Here we present a label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging interferometer based on spatial phase modulation, which can be useful in this field. It consists of a light source, a SPR sensing unit, a special phase modulator, a photoelectric conversion unit and a computer. Collimated light is projected into a prism and reflected at the gold-glass interface. The p- and s-polarized components of the reflected light pass through a one-dimensional beam expander and a Wollaston prism, and form an interference pattern on a CCD. Interference images are acquired and transferred to the computer for data processing. Protein interaction on the gold surface leads to a local refractive index change and results in interference fringe phase shift. By calculating the phase shift, interaction information can be obtained. It is demonstrated that this technique can detect different concentrations of NaCl solutions, and the phase change generated by a 0.9% NaCl solution is about 10°. In protein-protein interaction experiments, a model system of rabbit IgG and goat-anti-rabbit IgG is tested. The maximum phase change is up to 12°. The phase resolution of the system is 0.2°, equivalent to the refractive index resolution of 3 × 10-5 RIU, and this value can be improved to 2 × 10-6 RIU just by increasing the gold thickness of the sensing chip. It is concluded that the sensitivity of the interferometer is enough to achieve larger capacity than that detected by the present protein micro-array products. These results suggest that the SPR interferometer based on spatial phase modulation provides a potential facility to meet the requirements in proteomics research.

  2. Laboratory evaluations of elmex inter X toothbrushes for interproximal access efficacy and posterior tooth surface cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankell, S L; Shi, X; Emling, R C

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory methods have been developed to evaluate the ability of toothbrush bristles to remove artificial plaque deposits at interproximal sites (Interproximal Access Efficacy; IAE) and on distal tooth surfaces (Posterior Tooth Surface Cleaning; PTSC). In the testing performed for this study, six toothbrushes were evaluated. These were: elmex inter X Sensitive; elmex inter X Sensitive Short Head; elmex inter X medium; elmex inter X Medium Short Head; Oral-B Cross Action 40 medium; and the ADA reference standard toothbrush. Six toothbrushes of each design were tested four times under wet brushing conditions in all assays. In the IAE studies, toothbrushing was conducted using a vertical or horizontal brushing motion, simulated anterior or posterior teeth, and a brushing weight of 250 g. The bristles were placed at a 90 degree angle to the tooth surface, and brushing was performed for 15 seconds at two strokes per second with 50 mm strokes. IAE was recorded as the maximum width of simulated plaque deposit removed. For the PTSC evaluations, a horizontal brushing motion was used on posterior tooth shapes, with a 250 g brushing pressure for ten seconds. PTSC was determined as the maximum measurement of artificial plaque deposit removed from the mid-facial area to the maximum post-distal area of the most posterior simulated tooth shape. All data were assessed with ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey test. In the individual IAE tests, with vertical or horizontal brushing on anterior and posterior simulated teeth, and on overall IAE mean values, the four elmex inter X toothbrushes were significantly higher (p PTSC values for all toothbrushes were significantly higher (p PTSC. All elmex inter X brushes were statistically significantly higher (p PTSC compared to the PTSC mean values of the other elmex inter X products tested.

  3. Controlling Gel Structure to Modulate Cell Adhesion and Spreading on the Surface of Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huizhen; Gao, Meng; Ren, Ying; Lou, Ruyun; Xie, Hongguo; Yu, Weiting; Liu, Xiudong; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-08-03

    The surface properties of implanted materials or devices play critical roles in modulating cell behavior. However, the surface properties usually affect cell behaviors synergetically so that it is still difficult to separately investigate the influence of a single property on cell behavior in practical applications. In this study, alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules with a dense or loose gel structure were fabricated to understand the effect of gel structure on cell behavior. Cells preferentially adhered and spread on the loose gel structure microcapsules rather than on the dense ones. The two types of microcapsules exhibited nearly identical surface positive charges, roughness, stiffness, and hydrophilicity; thus, the result suggested that the gel structure was the principal factor affecting cell behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the overall percentage of positively charged amino groups was similar on both microcapsules. The different gel structures led to different states and distributions of the positively charged amino groups of chitosan, so we conclude that the loose gel structure facilitated greater cell adhesion and spreading mainly because more protonated amino groups remained unbound and exposed on the surface of these microcapsules.

  4. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  5. Surface dose measurement with Gafchromic EBT3 film for intensity modulated radiotherapy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Ugur; Kesen, Nazmiye Donmez; Koksal, Canan; Okutan, Murat; Demir, Bayram; Becerir, Hatice Bilge

    2017-09-01

    Accurate dose measurement in the buildup region is extremely difficult. Studies have reported that treatment planning systems (TPS) cannot calculate surface dose accurately. The aim of the study was to compare the film measurements and TPS calculations for surface dose in head and neck cancer treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). IMRT plans were generated for 5 head and neck cancer patients by using Varian Eclipse TPS. Quality assurance (QA) plans of these IMRT plans were created on rando phantoms for surface dose measurements. EBT3 films were cut in size of 2.5 x 2.5 cm2 and placed on the left side, right side and the center of larynx and then the films were irradiated with 6 MV photon beams. The measured doses were compared with TPS. The results of TPS calculations were found to be lower compared to the EBT3 film measurements at all selected points. The lack of surface dose calculation in TPS should be considered while evaluating the radiotherapy plans.

  6. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access and Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for Flexible Multi-User Provisioning in 5G Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose Antonio; Puerta Ramírez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a combined non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and multiband carrierless amplitude phase modulation (multiCAP) scheme is proposed for capacity enhancement of and flexible resource provisioning in 5G mobile networks. The proposed scheme is experimentally evaluated over a W-band mi...

  7. Surface Accessibility with Spatial Analysis During Fire Extinguishing Procedures: Example on the Island of Vis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruno Lepoglavec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The existing public and forest transport infrastructure (truck forest roads are permanent objects used when passing through forests. They also serve as a firefighter belt and provide direct access to firefighting vehicles, or are used as the starting point where firefighting teams extinguish fires or move toward remote fires. The paper identifies the existing fire road network (including public roads, forest roads, non-classified roads and fire roads for access of firefighting vehicles during fire extinguishing interventions. Material and Methods: An analysis of the intervention rate was conducted on a dispersive sample (35 positions from two volunteer fire associations (VFA on the island of Vis. Also, an analysis of the surface availability to fire vehicles concerning the time of departure from the fire station was conducted, as well as the comparison with the Standard time of intervention defined by the regulations on fire department organization in the Republic of Croatia. Results: For each simulated fire location for intervention of two existing volunteer fire associations: VFA Komiža and VFA Vis, results show that for a few fire locations, despite a smaller distance from the VFA Komiža, a quicker intervention is possible from the VFA Vis (locations 4, 5 and 14, and vice versa (locations 21, 22 and 25. With the use of a New Service Area, tool intervention times regarding different areas were calculated. Intervention times were divided into intervals: 25 min. The last two categories of area are beyond reach for firefighters within the Standard time of intervention (15 min and together they comprise to 27.88% of the total research area. Conclusions: The results of Closest Facility tool indicate that for the simulated fire position the best/fastest route is not always the shortest one, because of a significant effect of the structural elements of each road, the state of the road and the longitudinal slope of the road

  8. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  9. An accessible micro-capillary electrophoresis device using surface-tension-driven flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Swomitra K; Warrick, Jay; Gorski, Jack; Beebe, David J

    2009-05-01

    We present a rapidly fabricated micro-capillary electrophoresis chip that utilizes surface-tension-driven flow for sample injection and extraction of DNA. Surface-tension-driven flow (i.e. passive pumping) [G. M. Walker et al., Lab. Chip. 2002, 2, 131-134] injects a fixed volume of sample that can be predicted mathematically. Passive pumping eliminates the need for tubing, valves, syringe pumps, and other equipment typically needed for interfacing with microelectrophoresis chips. This method requires a standard micropipette to load samples before separation, and remove the resulting bands after analysis. The device was made using liquid phase photopolymerization to rapidly fabricate the chip without the need of special equipment typically associated with the construction of microelectrophoresis chips (e.g. cleanroom) [A. K. Agarwal et al., J. Micromech. Microeng. 2006, 16, 332-340; S. K. Mohanty et al., Electrophoresis 2006, 27, 3772-3778]. Batch fabrication time for the device presented here was 1.5 h including channel coating time to suppress electroosmotic flow. Devices were constructed out of poly-isobornyl acrylate and glass. A standard microscope with a UV source was used for sample detection. Separations were demonstrated using Promega BenchTop 100 bp ladder in hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and oligonucleotides of 91 and 118 bp were used to characterize sample injection and extraction of DNA bands. The end result was an inexpensive micro-capillary electrophoresis device that uses tools (e.g. micropipette, electrophoretic power supplies, and microscopes) already present in most labs for sample manipulation and detection, making it more accessible for potential end users.

  10. Accessible surface area of proteins from purely sequence information and the importance of global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    We present a new approach for predicting the accessible surface area of proteins. The novelty of this approach lies in not using residue mutation profiles generated by multiple sequence alignments as descriptive inputs. Rather, sequential window information and the global monomer and dimer compositions of the chain are used. We find that much of the lost accuracy due to the elimination of evolutionary information is recouped by the use of global features. Furthermore, this new predictor produces similar results for proteins with or without sequence homologs deposited in the Protein Data Bank, and hence shows generalizability. Finally, these predictions are obtained in a small fraction (1/1000) of the time required to run mutation profile based prediction. All these factors indicate the possible usability of this work in de-novo protein structure prediction and in de-novo protein design using iterative searches. Funded in part by the financial support of the National Institutes of Health through Grants R01GM072014 and R01GM073095, and the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF MCB 1071785.

  11. Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, D; McKinney, R; Harry, G M

    2007-04-01

    Gravitational-wave observatories such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) use suspended optics in a Michelson interferometer configuration to measure strains in space between 10 Hz and 3 kHz. One potential noise source in this frequency range is the buildup and motion of surface charge on the optics, which can generate fluctuating electric fields, interfere with position control, and reduce reflectance by attracting dust to the optical surface. We have developed a capacitive probe to measure the magnitude and relaxation time of surface charge deposited on smaller test optics in high vacuum ( approximately 10(-5) Torr). Our device modulates capacitance with a tuning-fork optical chopper between probe and sample, chosen for vacuum compatibility and minimal cost. We have found that the probe has a resolution of (3.5+/-0.5)x10(5) e(-)cm(2) in air, on the order of charging levels that could contribute noise to Advanced LIGO, and sufficient for measuring relaxation times on test optics.

  12. Modulation of Coiled-Coil Dimer Stability through Surface Residues while Preserving Pairing Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnak, Igor; Gradišar, Helena; Ljubetič, Ajasja; Merljak, Estera; Jerala, Roman

    2017-06-21

    The coiled-coil dimer is a widespread protein structural motif and, due to its designability, represents an attractive building block for assembling modular nanostructures. The specificity of coiled-coil dimer pairing is mainly based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between residues at positions a, d, e, and g of the heptad repeat. Binding affinity, on the other hand, can also be affected by surface residues that face away from the dimerization interface. Here we show how design of the local helical propensity of interacting peptides can be used to tune the stabilities of coiled-coil dimers over a wide range. By designing intramolecular charge pairs, regions of high local helical propensity can be engineered to form trigger sequences, and dimer stability is adjusted without changing the peptide length or any of the directly interacting residues. This general principle is demonstrated by a change in thermal stability by more than 30 °C as a result of only two mutations outside the binding interface. The same approach was successfully used to modulate the stabilities in an orthogonal set of coiled-coils without affecting their binding preferences. The stability effects of local helical propensity and peptide charge are well described by a simple linear model, which should help improve current coiled-coil stability prediction algorithms. Our findings enable tuning the stabilities of coiled-coil-based building modules match a diverse range of applications in synthetic biology and nanomaterials.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection using surface plasmon resonance modulated by telecommunication wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Yan-Yu; Lu, Shao-Hsi; Tsai, I-Fang; Lu, Yen-Ta; Ho, Hsin-Tsung

    2013-12-27

    A surface plasmon resonance sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is developed using repeatable telecommunication wavelength modulation based on optical fiber communications laser wavelength and stability. MTB DNA concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL were successfully demonstrated to have the same spectral half-width in the dip for optimum coupling. The sensitivity was shown to be -0.087 dB/(μg/mL) at all applied telecommunication wavelengths and the highest sensitivity achieved was 115 ng/mL without thiolated DNA immobilization onto a gold plate, which is better than the sensor limit of 400 ng/mL possible with commercial biosensor equipment.

  14. Ultrahigh nanoparticle stability against salt, pH, and solvent with retained surface accessibility via depletion stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Servos, Mark R; Liu, Juewen

    2012-06-20

    For many applications, it is desirable to stabilize colloids over a wide range of buffer conditions while still retaining surface accessibility for adsorption and reaction. Commonly used charge or steric stabilization cannot achieve this goal since the former is sensitive to salt and the latter blocks the particle surface. We use depletion stabilization in the presence of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) to stabilize a diverse range of nanomaterials, including gold nanoparticles (from 10 to 100 nm), graphene oxide, quantum dots, silica nanoparticles, and liposomes in the presence of Mg(2+) (>1.6 M), heavy metal ions, extreme pH (pH 1-13), organic solvents, and adsorbed nucleosides and drugs. At the same time, the particle surface remains accessible for adsorption of both small molecules and macromolecules. Based on this study, high loading of thiolated DNA was achieved in one step with just 2% PEG 20,000 in 2 h.

  15. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  16. Behavior of the potential-induced degradation of photovoltaic modules fabricated using flat mono-crystalline silicon cells with different surface orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seira; Masuda, Atsushi; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the dependence of the potential-induced degradation (PID) of flat, p-type mono-crystalline silicon solar cell modules on the surface orientation of solar cells. The investigated modules were fabricated from p-type mono-crystalline silicon cells with a (100) or (111) surface orientation using a module laminator. PID tests were performed by applying a voltage of -1000 V to shorted module interconnector ribbons with respect to an Al plate placed on the cover glass of the modules at 85 °C. A decrease in the parallel resistance of the (100)-oriented cell modules is more significant than that of the (111)-oriented cell modules. Hence, the performance of the (100)-oriented-cell modules drastically deteriorates, compared with that of the (111)-oriented-cell modules. This implies that (111)-oriented cells offer a higher PID resistance.

  17. Charge modification of the endothelial surface layer modulates the permeability barrier of isolated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; VanBavel, Ed; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that modulation of the effective charge density of the endothelial surface layer ( ESL) results in altered arterial barrier properties to transport of anionic solutes. Rat mesenteric small arteries ( diameter similar to 190 mu m) were isolated, cannulated, perfused, and superfused

  18. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Auxiliary Files (NODC Accession 0044983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Auxiliary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  19. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Orbital Information (NODC Accession 0044985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 orbital information, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...

  20. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Ancillary Files (NODC Accession 0044982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Ancillary data files, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data...

  1. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Telemetry (NODC Accession 0044986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the data descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Telemetry data, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...

  2. Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

    2012-09-19

    The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

  3. Controlling DNA Translocation Speed through Solid-State Nanopores by Surface Charge Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Amit

    2013-03-01

    The Nanopore method is an emerging technique, which extends gel-electrophoresis to the single-molecule level and allows the analysis of DNAs, RNAs and DNA-protein complexes. The strength of the technique stems from two fundamental facts: First, nanopores due to their nanoscale size can be used to uncoil biopolymers, such as DNA or RNA and slide them in a single file manner that allows scanning their properties. Consequently, the method can be used to probe short as well as extremely long biopolymers, such as genomic DNA with high efficiency. Second, electrostatic focusing of charged biopolymers into the nanopore overcomes thermally driven diffusion, thus facilitating an extremely efficient end-threading (or capture) of DNA. Thus, nanopores can be used to detect minute DNA copy numbers, circumventing costly molecular amplification such as Polymerase Chain Reaction. A critical factor, which determines the ability of nanopore to distinguish fine properties within biopolymers, such as the location of bound small-molecules, proteins, or even the nucleic acid's sequence, is the speed at which molecules are translocated through the pore. When the translocation speed is too high the electrical noise masks the desired signal, thus limiting the utility of the method. Here I will discuss new experimental results showing that modulating the surface charge inside the pore can effectively reduce the translocation speed through solid-state nanopores fabricated in thin silicon nitride membranes. I will present a simple physical model to account for these results.

  4. Enabling practical surface acoustic wave nebulizer drug delivery via amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Anushi; Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie Y; Coppel, Ross; Friend, James R

    2014-06-07

    A practical, commercially viable microfluidic device relies upon the miniaturization and integration of all its components--including pumps, circuitry, and power supply--onto a chip-based platform. Surface acoustic waves (SAW) have become popular in microfluidic manipulation, in solving the problems of microfluidic manipulation, but practical applications employing SAW still require more power than available via a battery. Introducing amplitude modulation at 0.5-40 kHz in SAW nebulization, which requires the highest energy input levels of all known SAW microfluidic processes, halves the power required to 1.5 W even while including the power in the sidebands, suitable for small lithium ion batteries, and maintains the nebulization rate, size, and size distributions vital to drug inhalation therapeutics. This simple yet effective means to enable an integrated SAW microfluidics device for nebulization exploits the relatively slow hydrodynamics and is furthermore shown to deliver shear-sensitive biomolecules--plasmid DNA and antibodies as exemplars of future pulmonary gene and vaccination therapies--undamaged in the nebulized mist. Altogether, the approach demonstrates a means to offer truly micro-scale microfluidics devices in a handheld, battery powered SAW nebulization device.

  5. Detection of the Defect on the Metal Surface Using the Modulated Microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, G. T.; Jung, S. H.; Song, K. Y.; Kim, J. O.

    1999-01-01

    The defects on the metal surface, such as the ended circular pressed hole, the penetrated circular drilled hole, and the linear hollow lanes have been investigated by means of the microwave. In this experiment, frequency was set at 9.2GHz with 3kHz modulation, and the methods of reflection, transmission, fixed carrier frequency, and mod-demodulated technique have been used for investigating defects. The magnitudes of the microwave signals have been changed at the ended circular pressed hole and the penetrated circular drilled hole. The defect sizes that were estimated from the reflected microwave signals had the dimensions enlarged by twice the original size of the penetrated circular drilled hole and 2.5 times the original size of the ended circular pressed hole. The magnitudes of the reflected microwave signals from the linear hollow lane have increased with expansion of the width of the notch. In the linear hollow lane with the depth of 2.4mm, the reflected microwave signals versus the defect widths had a maximum value at the defect width of 50mm, and in the linear hollow lanes with the depths of 1.2mm and 0.45mm, the reflected microwave signals versus the defects widths had the maximum values each at the defect depths of 55mm

  6. Pre-Rationalized Parametric Designing of Roof Shells Formed by Repetitive Modules of Catalan Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop an original, methodical, and practical approach to the early stages of parametric design of roof shells formed by repetitive modules of Catalan surfaces. It is presented on the example of designing the roof shells compound of four concrete elements. The designing process proposed by us consists in linking geometric shaping of roofs’ models with their structural analysis and optimization. Contrary to other methods, which use optimization process in order to find free roof forms, we apply it in order to explore and improve design alternatives. It is realized with the application of designing tools working in Rhinoceros 3D software. The flexible scripts elaborated by us, in order to achieve roofs’ models of regular and symmetrical shapes, are converted into simulation models to perform structural analysis. It is mainly focused on how the roof shells perform dependently on their geometric characteristics. The simulation enables one to evaluate various roof shells’ shapes, as well as to select an optimal design solution. The proposed approach to the conceptual design process may drive the designing to achieve geometric and structural forms which not only follow the design intentions but also target better results.

  7. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-21

    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  8. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from 19940301 to 19940331 (NCEI Accession 9400060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) data for March 1994 was provided by Kunio Sakurai of Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan. SST were collected from ships in El...

  9. NODC Standard Product: Atlas of surface marine data 1994 (9 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0101474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A set of 9 CD-ROMs were produced to accompany the analog publication Atlas of Surface Marine Data, 1994. Each CD-ROM contains monthly mean objectively analyzed...

  10. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT, www.socat.info) is a synthesis activity by the international marine carbon research community and has more than 100 contributors...

  11. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Auxiliary Files, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  12. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Orbital Information, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122598)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  13. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Ancillary Files, 2015- (NCEI Accession 0122596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  14. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Telemetry, 2015- (NODC Accession 0122599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  15. Single Qubit Manipulation in a Microfabricated Surface Electrode Ion Trap (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    electrode ion trap with field compensation using a modulated Raman effect D T C Allcock, J A Sherman, D N Stacey et al. Spatially uniform single-qubit gate...in thermal states of motion G Kirchmair, J Benhelm, F Zähringer et al. Normal modes of trapped ions in the presence of anharmonic trap potentials J P...Qloaded = 280) [35]. New Journal of Physics 15 (2013) 093018 (http://www.njp.org/) 5 2.1 GHz Zeeman = 1.4 MHz/G 36 9. 5 nm HF = 12.6 GHz 171Yb+ 2P 1

  16. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Advanced Modulation Formats and Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    transmission link with real-time demodulation. Furthermore, advanced modulation formats are considered in this thesis to expand the state-of-the-art in high-speed short-range data transmission system based on VCSELs. First, directly modulation of a VCSEL with a 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal...... at 50 Gb/s is achieved. This is the highest data rate ever transmitted with a single VCSEL at the time of this thesis work. The capacity of this system is increased to 100 Gb/s by using polarization multiplexing emulation and forward error correction techniques. Compared to a non return-to-zero on-off...

  17. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne; Pestka, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal immunoregulatory role in the Th1, Th2, and Th3 cell balance and are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, DC may be targets for modulation by gut microbes, including ingested probiotics. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that species......-driving capacities of the gut DC to be modulated according to composition of gut microflora, including ingested probiotics....

  18. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yu; Wang Yuxia; Chen Lei [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan Qianhong, E-mail: qhwan@tju.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 {mu}g/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 {mu}g/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  19. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Yuxia; Chen Lei; Wan Qianhong

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  20. Reconfigurable Digital Coherent Receiver for Metro-Access Networks Supporting Mixed Modulation Formats and Bit-rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Arlunno, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    A single, reconfigurable, digital coherent receiver is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for converged wireless and optical fiber transport. The capacity of reconstructing the full transmitted optical field allows for the demodulation of mixed modulation formats and bit-rates. We performed...

  1. Efficacy of a New Ocular Surface Modulator in Restoring Epithelial Changes in an In Vitro Model of Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabino, Stefano; De Servi, Barbara; Aragona, Salvatore; Manenti, Demetrio; Meloni, Marisa

    2017-03-01

    So far tear substitutes have demonstrated a limited role in restoring ocular surface damage in dry eye syndrome (DES). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a new ocular surface modulator in an in vitro model of human corneal epithelium (HCE) damaged by severe osmotic stress mirroring the features of dry eye conditions. A reconstructed HCE model challenged by the introduction of sorbitol in the culture medium for 16 h was used to induce an inflammatory pathway and to impair the tight junctions integrity determining a severe modification of the superficial layer ultrastructure. At the end of the overnight stress period in the treated HCE series, 30 μl of the ocular surface modulator (T-LysYal, Sildeha, Switzerland) and of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the control HCE series were applied for 24 h. The following parameters were quantified: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), immunofluorescence analysis of integrin β1 (ITG-β1), mRNA expression of Cyclin D-1 (CCND1), and ITG-β1. In the positive control after the osmotic stress the HCE surface damage was visible at the ultrastructural level with loss of cell-cell interconnections, intercellular matrix destruction, and TEER reduction. After 24 h of treatment with T-LysYal, HCE showed a significant improvement of the ultrastructural morphological organization and increased expression of ITG-β1 at the tissue level when compared to positive and control series. A significant increase of mRNA expression for ITG-β1 and CCND1 was shown in the HA-treated cells compared to T-LysYal. TEER measurement showed a significant reduction in all groups after 16 h without modifications after the treatment period. This study has shown the possibility of a new class of agents denominated ocular surface modulators to restore corneal cells damaged by dry eye conditions. Further in vivo studies are certainly necessary to confirm these results.

  2. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  3. Underway pCO2 Measurements in Surface Waters and the Atmosphere During the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer 2016 Expeditions (NCEI Accession 0166630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0166630 includes Surface underway data collected from R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer in the South Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Oceans from...

  4. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  5. Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Febriyani F R; Rothuizen, Tonia C; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Rotmans, Joris I; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2014-09-19

    Despite various studies to minimize host reaction following a biomaterial implantation, an appealing strategy in regenerative medicine is to actively use such an immune response to trigger and control tissue regeneration. We have developed an in vitro model to modulate the host response by tuning biomaterials' surface properties through surface modifications techniques as a new strategy for tissue regeneration applications. Results showed tunable surface topography, roughness, wettability, and chemistry by varying treatment type and exposure, allowing for the first time to correlate the effect of these surface properties on cell attachment, morphology, strength and proliferation, as well as proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6) and antiinflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1, IL-10) secreted in medium, and protein expression of collagen and elastin. Surface microstructuring, derived from chloroform partial etching, increased surface roughness and oxygen content. This resulted in enhanced cell adhesion, strength and proliferation as well as a balance of soluble factors for optimum collagen and elastin synthesis for tissue regeneration. By linking surface parameters to cell activity, we could determine the fate of the regenerated tissue to create successful soft tissue-engineered replacement.

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for an LHC access shaft

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of 33 prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for the PX15 access shaft. Following a market survey carried out among 39 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2714/ST/LHC) was sent on 22 May 2000 to seven firms and one consortium consisting of four firms in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from four firms and one consortium in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium JOINT VENTURE CCC (CH-DE-AT), the lowest bidder after realignment, for the supply and installation of prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for the PX15 access shaft for a total amount of 988 915 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE-89%; CH-6%; AT-5%.

  7. Accessing the quantum palette: quantum-dot spectral conversion towards the BIPV application of thin-film micro-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Kartopu, G.; Rugen-Hankey, S. L.; Clayton, A. J.; Barrioz, V.; Irvine, S. J. C.

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) incorporation of thin-film photovoltaics, commercially available quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited, as part of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite film, on a cadmium telluride (CdTe) micro-module. This resulted in an increase in photocurrent generation through the luminescent down-shifting (LDS) process. The optical properties of these films were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy. The impact of the film on the micro-module was studied through current-voltage (I-V) and external quantum efficiency measurements. Further layers were added to the initial single-layer LDS film, however no additional improvement to the micro-module were observed. Additionally, a range of emission wavelengths have been explored. The majority of these films, when tested on a CdTe device, were shown to improve the photocurrent generation whilst also visually displaying the vivid colour palette provided by quantum confined materials. The future feasibility of using QD based LDS films for large scale BIPV-based power generation has also been discussed.

  8. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yuxia; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  9. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  10. The Importance of Non-accessible Crosslinks and Solvent Accessible Surface Distance in Modeling Proteins with Restraints From Crosslinking Mass Spectrometry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Joshua Matthew Allen; Schwab, Jannik; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Crosslinking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) is becoming an increasingly popular technique for modeling protein monomers and complexes. The distance restraints garnered from these experiments can be used alone or as part of an integrative modeling approach, incorporating data from many sources. However, modeling practices are varied and the difference in their usefulness is not clear. Here, we develop a new scoring procedure for models based on crosslink data—Matched and Nonaccessible Crosslink score (MNXL). We compare its performance with that of other commonly-used scoring functions (Number of Violations and Sum of Violation Distances) on a benchmark of 14 protein domains, each with 300 corresponding models (at various levels of quality) and associated, previously published, experimental crosslinks (XLdb). The distances between crosslinked lysines are calculated either as Euclidean distances or Solvent Accessible Surface Distances (SASD) using a newly-developed method (Jwalk). MNXL takes into account whether a crosslink is nonaccessible, i.e. an experimentally observed crosslink has no corresponding SASD in a model due to buried lysines. This metric alone is shown to have a significant impact on modeling performance and is a concept that is not considered at present if only Euclidean distances are used. Additionally, a comparison between modeling with SASD or Euclidean distance shows that SASD is superior, even when factoring out the effect of the nonaccessible crosslinks. Our benchmarking also shows that MNXL outperforms the other tested scoring functions in terms of precision and correlation to Cα-RMSD from the crystal structure. We finally test the MNXL at different levels of crosslink recovery (i.e. the percentage of crosslinks experimentally observed out of all theoretical ones) and set a target recovery of ∼20% after which the performance plateaus. PMID:27150526

  11. Variable Delay With Directly-Modulated R-SOA and Optical Filters for Adaptive Antenna Radio-Fiber Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Presi, Marco; Chiuchiarelli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    We present an all-optical adaptive-antenna radio over fiber transport system that uses proven, commercially-available components to effectively deliver standard-compliant optical signaling to adaptive multiantenna arrays for current and emerging radio technology implementations. The system is based...... on a directly-modulated reflective emiconductor amplifier (R-SOA) and exploits the interplay between transmission-line dispersion and tunable optical filtering to achieve flexible true time delay, with $2pi$ beam steering at the different antennas. The system was characterized, then successfully tested with two...

  12. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  13. In silico study of rotavirus VP7 surface accessible conserved regions for antiviral drug/vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnil Ghosh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rotaviral diarrhoea kills about half a million children annually in developing countries and accounts for one third of diarrhea related hospitalizations. Drugs and vaccines against the rotavirus are handicapped, as in all viral diseases, by the rapid mutational changes that take place in the DNA and protein sequences rendering most of these ineffective. As of now only two vaccines are licensed and approved by the WHO (World Health Organization, but display reduced efficiencies in the underdeveloped countries where the disease is more prevalent. We approached this issue by trying to identify regions of surface exposed conserved segments on the surface glycoproteins of the virion, which may then be targeted by specific peptide vaccines. We had developed a bioinformatics protocol for these kinds of problems with reference to the influenza neuraminidase protein, which we have refined and expanded to analyze the rotavirus issue. RESULTS: Our analysis of 433 VP7 (Viral Protein 7 from rotavirus surface protein sequences across 17 subtypes encompassing mammalian hosts using a 20D Graphical Representation and Numerical Characterization method, identified four possible highly conserved peptide segments. Solvent accessibility prediction servers were used to identify that these are predominantly surface situated. These regions analyzed through selected epitope prediction servers for their epitopic properties towards possible T-cell and B-cell activation showed good results as epitopic candidates (only dry lab confirmation. CONCLUSIONS: The main reasons for the development of alternative vaccine strategies for the rotavirus are the failure of current vaccines and high production costs that inhibit their application in developing countries. We expect that it would be possible to use the protein surface exposed regions identified in our study as targets for peptide vaccines and drug designs for stable immunity against divergent strains of the

  14. Detection of biochemical reactions by a surface plasmon resonance senor based on polarization interferometry and angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoxu; Chong, Xinyuan; Ma, Suihua; Li, Yao; He, Yonghong; Guo, Jihua

    2009-08-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bio-sensing system has been developed. The system is based on polarization interferometry and angel modulation. In this paper, we apply it in the biological detection. We use the DNA fragment of Escherichia coli (Bacterial 16S rDNA universal primer) as bioprobe and . The process that analyte attach with the bioprobe, and coli DNA as analyte, get a resolution about 2.7× 10-6RI and 0.18nM/L in coli DNA detection.

  15. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  16. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika; Walters, Deron; Cleveland, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)

  17. Binary pseudo-random gratings and arrays for calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers: recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Soldate, Paul; Anderson, Erik H.; Cambie, Rossana; Marchesini, Stefano; McKinney, Wanye R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitry L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-07-07

    The major problem of measurement of a power spectral density (PSD) distribution of the surface heights with surface profilometers arises due to the unknown Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the instruments. The MTF tends to distort the PSD at higher spatial frequencies. It has been suggested [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47 (7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] that the instrumental MTF of a surface profiler can be precisely measured using standard test surfaces based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) patterns. In the cited work, a one dimensional (1D) realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, we present recent achievements made in fabricating and using two-dimensional (2D) BPR arrays that allow for a direct 2D calibration of the instrumental MTF. The 2D BPRAs were used as standard test surfaces for 2D MTF calibration of the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope with all available objectives. The effects of fabrication imperfections on the efficiency of calibration are also discussed.

  18. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  19. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Mitternacht

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards’ and Shrake and Rupley’s approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality.

  20. The Effect of Nano-ZnO Surface Wettability on Modulating Protein Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qian; Ding, Yadan; Shao, Hong; Cong, Tie; Yang, Xiaoguang; Hong, Xia

    2017-07-01

    Although surface wettability plays a major role in regulating protein adsorption and nanostructured ZnO has shown great potential in various biomedical fields, few reports have examined the influence of nano-ZnO surface wettability on protein adsorption. Herein, we explored the adsorption behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the superhydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic nano-ZnO surfaces. The adsorption amount of BSA increased with increase of hydrophilicity because of increased adsorption sites on the hydrophilic surface. The protein adsorption was proved to occur along with the desorption and conformational changes by well-fitted kinetic adsorption curves with the Spreading Particle Model and Fourier transformation infrared spectral analysis. The rates of BSA adsorption and desorption increased with hydrophobicity of the ZnO surfaces, which was considered to be related with the energy barrier created by water bound to the ZnO surfaces via hydrogen bonding. The rate of conformational change varied in a complex way, which might be influenced by the surface wettability of ZnO and some other factors. The present work may open up a new avenue to design nano-bio interfacial materials for advanced biological study and clinical applications.

  1. Sliding motion modulates stiffness and friction coefficient at the surface of tissue engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, S; Loparic, M; Peter, R; Stolz, M; Aebi, U; Alini, M

    2012-04-01

    Functional cartilage tissue engineering aims to generate grafts with a functional surface, similar to that of authentic cartilage. Bioreactors that stimulate cell-scaffold constructs by simulating natural joint movements hold great potential to generate cartilage with adequate surface properties. In this study two methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied to obtain information about the quality of engineered graft surfaces. For better understanding of the molecule-function relationships, AFM was complemented with immunohistochemistry. Bovine chondrocytes were seeded into polyurethane scaffolds and subjected to dynamic compression, applied by a ceramic ball, for 1h daily [loading group 1 (LG1)]. In loading group 2 (LG2), the ball additionally oscillated over the scaffold, generating sliding surface motion. After 3 weeks, the surfaces of the engineered constructs were analyzed by friction force and indentation-type AFM (IT-AFM). Results were complemented and compared to immunohistochemical analyses. The loading type significantly influenced the mechanical and histological outcomes. Constructs of LG2 exhibited lowest friction coefficient and highest micro- and nanostiffness. Collagen type II and aggrecan staining were readily observed in all constructs and appeared to reach deeper areas in loaded (LG1, LG2) compared to unloaded scaffolds. Lubricin was specifically detected at the top surface of LG2. This study proposes a quantitative AFM-based functional analysis at the micrometer- and nanometer scale to evaluate the quality of cartilage surfaces. Mechanical testing (load-bearing) combined with friction analysis (gliding) can provide important information. Notably, sliding-type biomechanical stimuli may favor (re-)generation and maintenance of functional articular surfaces and support the development of mechanically competent engineered cartilage. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Relaxation dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced temperature modulation on the surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levy, Yoann; Derrien, Thibault; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Gurevich, E.L.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 374, Jun (2016), s. 157-164 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LIPSS * modulated temperature relaxation * two-temperature model * nano-melting Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  3. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  4. Signal acquisition module design for multi-channel surface magnetic resonance sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Chen, Wuqiang; Du, Wenyuan; Zhao, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To obtain a precise 2D/3D image of fissure or karst water, multi-channel magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) systems using edge-to-edge or overlapping receiving coils are needed. Thus, acquiring a nano-volt signal for a small amount of the aquifer and suppressing the mutual coupling between adjacent coils are two important issues for the design of the signal acquisition module in the system. In the present study, we propose to use a passive low pass filter, consisted of a resistance (R) and capacitance (C), to inhibit the mutual coupling effects of the coils. Four low-noise operational amplifiers LT1028, OPA124, AD745, and OP27 were compared with respect to achieving the lowest system noise. As a result, 3 pieces of LT1028 were chosen and connected in parallel to serve as preamplifier, with a sensitivity of 1.4 nV/√Hz at 2 kHz. Experimental results are presented for 2D MRS groundwater investigations conducted in the suburb of Changchun, China. The inversion result is consistent with the result of drilling log, suggesting that the signal acquisition module is well developed.

  5. Profiling of Accessible Chromatin Regions across Multiple Plant Species and Cell Types Reveals Common Gene Regulatory Principles and New Control Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Kelsey A; Bajic, Marko; Kajala, Kaisa; Reynoso, Mauricio; Pauluzzi, Germain; West, Donnelly A; Zumstein, Kristina; Woodhouse, Margaret; Bubb, Kerry; Dorrity, Michael W; Queitsch, Christine; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Sinha, Neelima; Brady, Siobhan M; Deal, Roger B

    2018-01-01

    The transcriptional regulatory structure of plant genomes remains poorly defined relative to animals. It is unclear how many cis -regulatory elements exist, where these elements lie relative to promoters, and how these features are conserved across plant species. We employed the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-seq) in four plant species ( Arabidopsis thaliana , Medicago truncatula , Solanum lycopersicum , and Oryza sativa ) to delineate open chromatin regions and transcription factor (TF) binding sites across each genome. Despite 10-fold variation in intergenic space among species, the majority of open chromatin regions lie within 3 kb upstream of a transcription start site in all species. We find a common set of four TFs that appear to regulate conserved gene sets in the root tips of all four species, suggesting that TF-gene networks are generally conserved. Comparative ATAC-seq profiling of Arabidopsis root hair and non-hair cell types revealed extensive similarity as well as many cell-type-specific differences. Analyzing TF binding sites in differentially accessible regions identified a MYB-driven regulatory module unique to the hair cell, which appears to control both cell fate regulators and abiotic stress responses. Our analyses revealed common regulatory principles among species and shed light on the mechanisms producing cell-type-specific transcriptomes during development. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. ACCESS MARS: Study of the viability of Mars Caves as an alternative to surface-based habitation solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Laufer, Ren; Zavaleta, Jhony; Davila, Alfonso; Gallardo, Beatriz; Antonakopoulos, Konstantinos; de Carufel, Guy

    This paper summarizes a team project report that was produced during the Summer Space Program of the International Space University, held at NASA-Ames Research Center (CA, USA), by 56 students from 15 countries. Chair of the team project was René Laufer. Facilitators were Alfonso Dévila and Jhonny Zavaleta, and teacher associate supporting the team was a Beatriz Gallardo. Currently proposed Mars missions have identified a number of challenges such as high levels of radiation, harsh climate and limited launch windows. Recently discovered lava tubes on Mars present potential solutions to some of these issues, but raise a variety of intriguing new challenges. These encompass not only technological and engineering considerations, but also legal, ethical and societal issues such as planetary protection and crew safety. This paper assesses the feasibility of overcoming such challenges through the exploitation of Mars caves. Cave suitability is considered with respect to size, type, location and their potential to mitigate hazards. They are also assessed with respect to their potential for scientific work adhering to astrobiology guidelines and the search for extra-terrestrial life. This report compares surface and subsurface habitat options. Engineering challenges arising from the use of caves are addressed along with proposals for alternate architecture solutions. Different types of habitat are described and evaluated. The implications of sub-surface operations on thermal control, communications and power systems are investigated, and recommendations given. Crew selection, training methods and life support system solutions are also addressed. A Mission architecture analysis from the same Team Project is given in another paper from the same authors, at COSPAR 2010 B02 Technical Session. The ACCESS Mars Team concludes that using lava tubes as human habitats is not merely a viable habitat solution for a Mars expedition, but also potentially more beneficial than proposed

  7. Surface-Bound Ligands Modulate Chemoselectivity and Activity of a Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Khanh B.

    2015-04-03

    "Naked" metal nanoparticles (NPs) are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable in solution. Ligands, surfactants, or polymers, which adsorb at a particle\\'s surface, can be used to stabilize NPs; however, such a mode of stabilization is undesirable for catalytic applications because the adsorbates block the surface active sites. The catalytic activity and the stability of NPs are usually inversely correlated. Here, we describe an example of a bimetallic (PtFe) NP catalyst stabilized by carboxylate surface ligands that bind preferentially to one of the metals (Fe). NPs stabilized by fluorous ligands were found to be remarkably competent in catalyzing the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde; NPs stabilized by hydrocarbon ligands were significantly less active. The chain length of the fluorous ligands played a key role in determining the chemoselectivity of the FePt NP catalysts. (Chemical Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  8. Tailoring hydrogel surface properties to modulate cellular response to shear loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Christoph; Schrobback, Karsten; Levett, Peter A; Lutton, Cameron; Sah, Robert L; Klein, Travis J

    2017-04-01

    Biological tissues at articulating surfaces, such as articular cartilage, typically have remarkable low-friction properties that limit tissue shear during movement. However, these frictional properties change with trauma, aging, and disease, resulting in an altered mechanical state within the tissues. Yet, it remains unclear how these surface changes affect the behaviour of embedded cells when the tissue is mechanically loaded. Here, we developed a cytocompatible, bilayered hydrogel system that permits control of surface frictional properties without affecting other bulk physicochemical characteristics such as compressive modulus, mass swelling ratio, and water content. This hydrogel system was applied to investigate the effect of variations in surface friction on the biological response of human articular chondrocytes to shear loading. Shear strain in these hydrogels during dynamic shear loading was significantly higher in high-friction hydrogels than in low-friction hydrogels. Chondrogenesis was promoted following dynamic shear stimulation in chondrocyte-encapsulated low-friction hydrogel constructs, whereas matrix synthesis was impaired in high-friction constructs, which instead exhibited increased catabolism. Our findings demonstrate that the surface friction of tissue-engineered cartilage may act as a potent regulator of cellular homeostasis by governing the magnitude of shear deformation during mechanical loading, suggesting a similar relationship may also exist for native articular cartilage. Excessive mechanical loading is believed to be a major risk factor inducing pathogenesis of articular cartilage and other load-bearing tissues. Yet, the mechanisms leading to increased transmission of mechanical stimuli to cells embedded in the tissue remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that the tribological properties of loadbearing tissues regulate cellular behaviour by governing the magnitude of mechanical deformation arising from physiological tissue

  9. ΔF508-CFTR Modulator Screen Based on Cell Surface Targeting of a Chimeric Nucleotide Binding Domain 1 Reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Roldan, Ariel; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Haggie, Peter M; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, Alan S

    2018-03-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is deletion of phenylalanine at residue 508 (∆F508). The ∆F508 mutation impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) and interfacial interactions of NBD1 and the membrane spanning domains. Here, we report a domain-targeted screen to identify ∆F508-CFTR modulators that act on NBD1. A biochemical screen for ΔF508-NBD1 cell surface expression was done in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing a chimeric reporter consisting of ΔF508-NBD1, the CD4 transmembrane domain, and an extracellular horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reporter. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, the screen was robust with a Z' factor of 0.7. The screening of ~20,000 synthetic small molecules allowed the identification of compounds from four chemical classes that increased ∆F508-NBD1 cell surface expression by up to 4-fold; for comparison, a 12-fold increased cell surface expression was found for a wild-type NBD1 chimera. While the compounds were inactive as correctors of full-length ΔF508-CFTR, several carboxamide-benzothiophenes had potentiator activity with low micromolar EC 50 . Interestingly, the potentiators did not activate G551D or wild-type CFTR. Our results provide a proof of concept for a cell-based NBD1 domain screen to identify ∆F508-CFTR modulators that target the NBD1 domain.

  10. RNA-Eluting Surfaces for the Modulation of Gene Expression as A Novel Stent Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Koenig

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently, a new era of drug-eluting stents is continuing to improve late adverse effects such as thrombosis after coronary stent implantation in atherosclerotic vessels. The application of gene expression–modulating stents releasing specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs or messenger RNAs (mRNAs to the vascular wall might have the potential to improve the regeneration of the vessel wall and to inhibit adverse effects as a new promising therapeutic strategy. Different poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA resomers for their ability as an siRNA delivery carrier against intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 with a depot effect were tested. Biodegradability, hemocompatibility, and high cell viability were found in all PLGAs. We generated PLGA coatings with incorporated siRNA that were able to transfect EA.hy926 and human vascular endothelial cells. Transfected EA.hy926 showed significant siICAM-1 knockdown. Furthermore, co-transfection of siRNA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP mRNA led to the expression of eGFP as well as to the siRNA transfection. Using our PLGA and siRNA multilayers, we reached high transfection efficiencies in EA.hy926 cells until day six and long-lasting transfection until day 20. Our results indicate that siRNA and mRNA nanoparticles incorporated in PLGA films have the potential for the modulation of gene expression after stent implantation to achieve accelerated regeneration of endothelial cells and to reduce the risk of restenosis.

  11. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated in st...

  12. Muscle fatigue and contraction intensity modulates the complexity of surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; Cluff, Tyler; Potvin, Jim R

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical techniques offer a powerful approach for the investigation of physiological time series. Multiscale entropy analyses have shown that pathological and aging systems are less complex than healthy systems and this finding has been attributed to degraded physiological control processes. A similar phenomenon may arise during fatiguing muscle contractions where surface electromyography signals undergo temporal and spectral changes that arise from the impaired regulation of muscle force production. Here we examine the affect of fatigue and contraction intensity on the short and long-term complexity of biceps brachii surface electromyography. To investigate, we used an isometric muscle fatigue protocol (parsed into three windows) and three contraction intensities (% of maximal elbow joint moment: 40%, 70% and 100%). We found that fatigue reduced the short-term complexity of biceps brachii activity during the last third of the fatiguing contraction. We also found that the complexity of surface electromyography is dependent on contraction intensity. Our results show that multiscale entropy is sensitive to muscle fatigue and contraction intensity and we argue it is imperative that both factors be considered when evaluating the complexity of surface electromyography signals. Our data contribute to a converging body of evidence showing that multiscale entropy can quantify subtle information content in physiological time series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of photovoltaic module soiling on glass surface resistance and potential-induced degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60°C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 orders of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when ...

  14. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  15. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne; Pestka, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    in the capacity to induce IL-12 and TNF-a production in the DC. Similar but less pronounced differences were observed among lactobacilli in the induction of IL-6 and IL-10. Although all strains up-regulated surface MHC class II and B7-2 (CD86), which is indicative of DC maturation, those lactobacilli...

  16. Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atta, Ali; Fawzy, Yasser H.A. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) (Egypt); Bek, Alpan, E-mail: bek@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara (Turkey); Abdel-Hamid, Hassan M. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, Applied Medical Sciences Faculty, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); El-Oker, Mohamed M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar{sup +}) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 10{sup 18} to 2 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C–C and C–F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux.

  17. Salivary pellicles equalise surfaces' charges and modulate the virulence of Candida albicans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Wilson, Melanie; Lewis, Michael; Williams, David; Senna, Plínio Mendes; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; da Silva, Wander José

    2016-06-01

    Numerous environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of Candida biofilms and an understanding of these is necessary for appropriate clinical management. To investigate the role of material type, pellicle and stage of biofilm development on the viability, bioactivity, virulence and structure of C. albicans biofilms. The surface roughness (SR) and surface free energy (SFE) of acrylic and titanium discs was measured. Pellicles of saliva, or saliva supplemented with plasma, were formed on acrylic and titanium discs. Candida albicans biofilms were then generated for 1.5 h, 24h, 48 h and 72 h. The cell viability in biofilms was analysed by culture, whilst DNA concentration and the expression of Candida virulence genes (ALS1, ALS3 and HWP1) were evaluated using qPCR. Biofilm metabolic activity was determined using XTT reduction assay, and biofilm structure analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Whilst the SR of acrylic and titanium did not significantly differ, the saliva with plasma pellicle increased significantly the total SFE of both surface. The number of viable microorganisms and DNA concentration increased with biofilm development, not differing within materials and pellicles. Biofilms developed on saliva with plasma pellicle surfaces had significantly higher activity after 24h and this was accompanied with higher expression of virulence genes at all periods. Induction of C. albicans virulence occurs with the presence of plasma proteins in pellicles, throughout biofilm growth. To mitigate such effects, reduction of increased plasmatic exudate, related to chronic inflammatory response, could aid the management of candidal biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Ozone production using a power modulated surface dielectric barrier discharge in dry synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 743-754 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ozone * surface DBD * synthetic air * nitrogen oxides * production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7p1j46381150510/fulltext. pdf

  19. Influence of Power Modulation on Ozone Production Using an AC Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2010), s. 607-617 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ozone * Surface DBD * Oxygen * Production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Disc harge Physics Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/28539775w5243513/

  20. Surfaces wettability and morphology modulation in a fluorene derivative self-assembly system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xinhua, E-mail: caoxhchem@163.com; Gao, Aiping; Zhao, Na; Yuan, Fangyuan; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Ruru

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The different structures could be obtained in this self-assembly system. • A water-drop could freely roll on the xerogel film with the sliding angle of 15.0. • The superhydrophobic surface can be obtained via supramolecular self-assembly. - Abstract: A new organogelator based on fluorene derivative (gelator 1) was designed and synthesized. Organogels could be obtained via the self-assembly of the derivative in acetone, toluene, ethyl acetate, hexane, DMSO and petroleum ether. The self-assembly process was thoroughly characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis, FT-IR and the contact angle. Surfaces with different morphologies and wetting properties were formed via the self-assembly of gelator 1 in the six different solvents. Interestingly, a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 150° was obtained from organogel 1 in DMSO and exhibited the lotus-effect. The sliding angle necessary for a water droplet to move on the glass was only 15°. Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces were attributed as the main driving forces for gel formation.

  1. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents.

  2. Ionizing radiation modulates the surface expression of human leukocyte antigen-G in a human melanoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelin, S.; Gallegos, C.E.; Dubner, D. [Radiopathology Laboratory, Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Favier, B.; Carosella, E.D. [CEA, I2BM, Hopital Saint-Louis, IUH, Service de Recherches en Hemato-Immunologie, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule involved in fetus protection from the maternal immune system, transplant tolerance, and viral and tumoral immune escape. Tumor-specific HLA-G expression has been described for a wide variety of malignancies, including melanomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ionizing radiation (IR) could modulate the surface expression of HLA-G1 in a human melanoma cell line that expresses endogenously membrane-bound HLA-G1. For this purpose, cells were exposed to increasing doses of {gamma}-irradiation (0-20 Gy) and HLA-G1 levels at the plasma membrane were analyzed at different times postirradiation by flow cytometry. HLA-G total expression and the presence of the soluble form of HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) in the culture medium of irradiated cells were also evaluated. IR was capable of down regulating cell surface and total HLA-G levels, with a concomitant increase of sHLA-G1 in the medium. These results could indicate that {gamma}-irradiation decreases HLA-G1 surface levels by enhancing the proteolytic cleavage of this molecule. (authors)

  3. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, P; Knoll, A J; Wang, H; Oehrlein, G S; Kondeti, V S S K; Bruggeman, P J

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O 2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H 2 O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O 2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O 2 and H 2 O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O 2 /H 2 O plasma. (letter)

  4. Modulating the Partitioning of Microparticles in a Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Dextran (DEX Aqueous Biphasic System by Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kyu Byun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs or aqueous biphasic systems are useful for biological separation/preparation and cell micropatterning. Specifically, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs are not harmful to cells or biomaterials; therefore, they have been used to partition and isolate these materials from others. In this study, we suggest chemically modifying the surface of target materials (micro/nanoparticles, for example with polymers, such as polyethylene glycol and dextran, which are the same polymer solutes as those in the ATPS. As a simple model, we chemically coated polyethylene glycol or dextran to the surface of polystyrene magnetic particles and observed selective partitioning of the surface modified particles to the phase in which the same polymer solutes are dominant. This approach follows the principle “like dissolves like” and can be expanded to other aqueous biphasic or multiphasic systems while consuming fewer chemicals than the conventional modulation of hydrophobicities of solute polymers to control partitioning in aqueous biphasic or multiphasic systems.

  5. New superjuction LDMOS with surface and bulk electric field modulation by buffered step doping and multi floating buried layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Duan, Baoxing; Yuan, Song; Shi, Tongtong; Yang, Yintang

    2017-11-01

    A new superjunction lateral double diffused MOSFET with surface and bulk electric field modulation (SBEFM SJ-LDMOS) by applying of multiple floating buried layers and buffered step doping is proposed in this paper. The Multiple N-type floating buried layers are embedded in P-substrate, to reduce the amount of field crowding at N+/N-buffer/P-substrate junction by spreading the vertical depletion layer, which effectively improves the bulk electric field distribution in SJ-LDMOS, and the N+/N-buffer/P-substrate junction and the auxiliary MFB layers/substrate junctions jointly sustain a high vertical breakdown voltage (BV). In addition, based on the buffered step doping layer under the SJ layer, a uniform lateral electric field at the drift region surface of the device is obtained. Therefore, the bulk and surface electric field are both optimized simultaneously in SBEFM SJ-LDMOS. Simulated results show that compared with the conventional Buffered SJ-LDMOS and BSD SJ-LDMOS, the proposed SBEFM SJ-LDMOS improves BV by 131.7% and 80.4%, respectively, at the same drift region length and with low specific ON-resistance (RON,sp). SBEFM SJ-LDMOS exhibits excellent performance with the power figure-of-merit (FOM=BV2/RON,sp) of 13.07 MW/cm2.

  6. Thin concentrator photovoltaic module with micro-solar cells which are mounted by self-align method using surface tension of melted solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Terauchi, Masaharu; Aya, Youichirou; Kanayama, Shutetsu; Nishitani, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Takase, Michihiko

    2017-09-01

    We are developing a thin and lightweight CPV module using small size lens system made from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a short focal length and micro-solar cells to decrease the transporting and the installing costs of CPV systems. In order to achieve high conversion efficiency in CPV modules using micro-solar cells, the micro-solar cells need to be mounted accurately to the irradiated region of the concentrated sunlight. In this study, we have successfully developed self-align method thanks to the surface tension of the melted solder even utilizing commercially available surface-mounting technology (SMT). Solar cells were self-aligned to the specified positions of the circuit board by this self-align method with accuracy within ±10 µm. We actually fabricated CPV modules using this self-align method and demonstrated high conversion efficiency of our CPV module.

  7. Nematic ordering in a cell with modulated surface anchoring: effects of flexoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, G; Skacej, G; Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Zumer, S

    1999-07-01

    We have analyzed molecular ordering in a nematic sample sandwiched between two parallel substrates, characterized by a periodically varying anchoring easy axis. If the periodicity lambda is smaller than the Debye screening length l(D) and the nematic material possesses flexoelectric properties, it is necessary to take into account also the electrostatic and flexoelectric contributions in the thermodynamical potential when the actual director field is determined. In this framework, for small deviations from the homeotropic alignment we have derived analytical expressions for the tilt angle (theta) and the electrical potential. To establish a connection with experimentally observable quantities, we have related the theta profile to the average and investigated its behavior for different values of lambda, the flexoelectric coefficient, and the anchoring strength w. Our results indicate that in a nematic with pronounced flexoelectric properties for small enough lambda, a kind of subsurface deformation appears, which substantially decreases . Therefore, effects of flexoelectricity cannot be neglected in treating nematic cells with modulated anchoring which allows bistable ordering.

  8. Nematic ordering in a cell with modulated surface anchoring: Effects of flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, G.; Skačej, G.; Alexe-Ionescu, A. L.; Žumer, S.

    1999-07-01

    We have analyzed molecular ordering in a nematic sample sandwiched between two parallel substrates, characterized by a periodically varying anchoring easy axis. If the periodicity λ is smaller than the Debye screening length lD and the nematic material possesses flexoelectric properties, it is necessary to take into account also the electrostatic and flexoelectric contributions in the thermodynamical potential when the actual director field is determined. In this framework, for small deviations from the homeotropic alignment we have derived analytical expressions for the tilt angle (θ) and the electrical potential. To establish a connection with experimentally observable quantities, we have related the θ profile to the average and investigated its behavior for different values of λ, the flexoelectric coefficient, and the anchoring strength w. Our results indicate that in a nematic with pronounced flexoelectric properties for small enough λ, a kind of subsurface deformation appears, which substantially decreases . Therefore, effects of flexoelectricity cannot be neglected in treating nematic cells with modulated anchoring which allows bistable ordering.

  9. Correlation between processing conditions of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and modulated surface photovoltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X. Z.; Dittrich, Th.; Fengler, S.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2013-04-01

    Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) layers deposited from multi-component nanoparticle inks were characterized by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy to investigate the effect of annealing conditions. The SPV signals increased strongly with decreasing sulfur content. Band gaps were obtained in terms of SPV onset energy. A diffusion length of above 1 μm was estimated for photo-generated electrons at x = 0.28. The band gap increased with increasing x showing an anomaly in the range of 0.5 < x < 1. The results suggested that an excess of selenium is required for the formation of a photo-active phase reliable for efficient Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4-based solar cells.

  10. Nanomechanics and sodium permeability of endothelial surface layer modulated by hawthorn extract WS 1442.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Peters

    Full Text Available The endothelial glycocalyx (eGC plays a pivotal role in the physiology of the vasculature. By binding plasma proteins, the eGC forms the endothelial surface layer (ESL which acts as an interface between bloodstream and endothelial cell surface. The functions of the eGC include mechanosensing of blood flow induced shear stress and thus flow dependent vasodilation. There are indications that levels of plasma sodium concentrations in the upper range of normal and beyond impair flow dependent regulation of blood pressure and may therefore increase the risk for hypertension. Substances, therefore, that prevent sodium induced endothelial dysfunction may be attractive for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. By means of combined atomic force-epifluorescence microscopy we studied the impact of the hawthorn (Crataegus spp. extract WS 1442, a herbal therapeutic with unknown mechanism of action, on the mechanics of the ESL of ex vivo murine aortae. Furthermore, we measured the impact of WS 1442 on the sodium permeability of endothelial EA.hy 926 cell monolayer. The data show that (i the ESL contributes by about 11% to the total endothelial barrier resistance for sodium and (ii WS 1442 strengthens the ESL resistance for sodium up to about 45%. This mechanism may explain some of the vasoprotective actions of this herbal therapeutic.

  11. Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles Behavior in Vivo Modulated by Surface Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shuaidong; Chen, Shizhu; Gong, Ningqiang; Liu, Juan; Li, Xianlei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2017-01-18

    Ultrasmall nanoparticles provide us with essential alternatives for designing more efficient nanocarriers for drug delivery. However, the fast clearance of ultrasmall nanoparticles limits their application to some extent. One of the most frequently used compound to slow the clearance of nanocarriers and nanodrugs is PEG, which is also approved by FDA. Nonetheless, few reports explored the effect of the PEGylation of ultrasmall nanoparticles on their behavior in vivo. Herein, we investigated the impact of different PEG grafting level of 2 nm core sized gold nanoparticles on their biological behavior in tumor-bearing mice. The results indicate that partial (∼50%) surface PEGylation could prolong the blood circulation and increase the tumor accumulation of ultrasmall nanoparticles to a maximum extent, which guide us to build more profitable small-sized nanocarriers for drug delivery.

  12. Printing transferable components using microstructured elastomeric surfaces with pressure modulated reversible adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Etienne; Rogers, John A.; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew

    2016-08-09

    In a method of printing a transferable component, a stamp including an elastomeric post having three-dimensional relief features protruding from a surface thereof is pressed against a component on a donor substrate with a first pressure that is sufficient to mechanically deform the relief features and a region of the post between the relief features to contact the component over a first contact area. The stamp is retracted from the donor substrate such that the component is adhered to the stamp. The stamp including the component adhered thereto is pressed against a receiving substrate with a second pressure that is less than the first pressure to contact the component over a second contact area that is smaller than the first contact area. The stamp is then retracted from the receiving substrate to delaminate the component from the stamp and print the component onto the receiving substrate. Related apparatus and stamps are also discussed.

  13. Large eddies modulating flux convergence and divergence in a disturbed unstable atmospheric surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongming; Liu, Heping; Russell, Eric S.; Huang, Jianping; Foken, Thomas; Oncley, Steven P.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of large eddies on turbulence structures and flux transport were studied using data collected over a flat cotton field during the Energy Balance Experiment 2000 in the San Joaquin Valley of California in August 2000. Flux convergence (FC; larger fluxes at 8.7 m than 2.7 m) and divergence (FD) in latent heat flux (LE) were observed in a disturbed, unstable atmospheric surface layer, and their magnitudes largely departed from the prediction of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. From our wavelet analysis, it was identified that large eddies affected turbulence structures, scalar distribution, and flux transport differently at 8.7 m and 2.7 m under the FC and FD conditions. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, time series data were decomposed into large eddies and small-scale background turbulence, the time-domain characteristics of large eddies were examined, and the flux contribution by large eddies was also determined quantitatively. The results suggest that large eddies over the frequency range of 0.002 Hz < f < 0.02 Hz (predominantly 300-400 m) enhanced the vertical velocity spectra more significantly at 8.7 m than 2.7 m, leading to an increased magnitude of the cospectra and thus LE at 8.7 m. In the FD case, however, these large eddies were not present and even suppressed in the vertical velocity spectra at 8.7 m. Consequently, the cospectra divergence over the low-frequency ranges primarily caused the LE divergence. This work implies that large eddies may either improve or degrade the surface energy balance closure by increasing or decreasing turbulent fluxes, respectively.

  14. In situ targeting TEM8 via immune response and polypeptide recognition by wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Jie; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in real-time and in situ monitoring of living cell activities in life science and medicine. This paper reports a whole cell sensing protocol over the interface of Au film coupled in a wavelength-modulated surface plasmon resonance (WMSPR) biosensor. With dual parabolic mirrors integrated in the sensor, the compact and miniaturized instrument shows satisfactory refractive index sensitivity (2220 nm/RIU) and a high resolution of resonance wavelength shift of 0.3 nm to liquid samples. The affinity interactions between the biomarker of human tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and antibody (Ab) or specific polypeptide (PEP) were firstly introduced to WMSPR biosensor analysis. Both the interaction events of Ab-cell and PEP-cell over the Au film interface can be recognized by the sensor and the balance time of interactions is about 20 min. The concentration range of Ab for quantitative monitoring of the TEM8 expression on human colon carcinoma SW620 cells was investigated. The present low-cost and time-saving method provides a time resolution of binding specificity between Ab/PEP and TEM8 for real-time analysis of antigen on living tumor cell surface. PMID:26822761

  15. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griese Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1 is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds various bacteria and is thought to participate in innate pulmonary host defense. We hypothesized that pulmonary DMBT1 could contribute to respiratory distress syndrome in neonates by modulating surfactant function. Methods DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA. Results Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation. Conclusion Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.

  16. Cell-surface galactosyltransferase acts as a modulator of rat and human acinar cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys-Beher, M G; Zelles, T; Maeda, N; Purushotham, K R; Cassisi, N; Schneyer, C A

    1990-06-01

    Several physiological parameters were examined for inducing acinar cell proliferation and corresponding increased expression of beta 1-4 galactosyltransferase. In this study, dietary changes causing acinar cell proliferation included the following: the introduction of animals to a liquid diet (causing gland atrophy) followed by re-introduction of solid chow, gustatory stimulation provided by the introduction of 0.5% citric acid to animal drinking water, and removal of the submandibular gland with subsequent reliance on the parotid gland for saliva protein and fluid. Alterations in growth factor levels were produced by injecting animals with a chronic (three-day) regimen of either nerve growth factor (NGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). In all cases of acinar cell proliferation in vivo, generated by the above treatments, cell-surface galactosyltransferase was detected along with the unique expression of a 4.5-kb proliferation-associated mRNA. Parotid gland proliferation could be blocked in all cases by the injection of the galactosyltransferase specific modifier protein, alpha-lactalbumin. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, blocked proliferation in all cases except EGF treatment. EGF-induced proliferation could, however, be prevented if the animals were treated with monoclonal antibody to EGF receptor or with the galactosyltransferase modifier alpha-lactalbumin. As a comparison, human parotid tissue samples obtained from neoplastic pleomorphic adenomas, muco-epidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a bulimia patient were analyzed for galactosyltransferase expression by Northern blot of mRNA and plasma membrane isolation. Elevated levels of galactosyltransferase were found in all neoplastic tissue preparations as well as in the bulimia sample. Amylase synthesis was reduced in samples compared with surrounding normal tissue from the same patient. In vitro cell culturing of pleomorphic adenoma cells in the presence of

  17. Surface coating-modulated toxic responses to silver nanoparticles in Wolffia globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Li, Penghui; Lou, Jie; Zhang, Hongwu

    2017-08-01

    With the omnipresence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in our daily consumer products, their release has raised serious concerns. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract the toxicity of nanoparticles are largely unknown. This study investigated the exposure of aquatic Wolffia globosa to ATP-nAg (AgNPs coated with adenosine triphosphate), cit-nAg (AgNPs coated with citrate), and Ag + . Hill reaction activity was basically lost in W. globosa treated with 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag + , while the activity was still maintained at 38.7%-38.9% of the respective controls at 10mg/L cit-nAg. The reduction of amounts of chlorophyll and soluble protein were shown in response to the Ag stresses. This was accompanied by the accumulation of sugar in W. globosa treated with cit-nAg. By contrast, the depletion of sugar was recorded after 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag + treatments. The superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were significantly increased after exposure to 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag + , which did not occurred in W. globosa treated with cit-nAg. The ratio between NADPH/NADP + was higher after cit-nAg and Ag + stresses than the respective controls. The accumulation of Ag was found to increase in a concentration-dependent manner. Ag + and ATP-nAg inhibited the uptake of P and K, and promoted the uptake of Fe and Cu. In contrast, cit-nAg only promoted the uptake of Cu. Our results implied that surface coating induced different physiological responses of W. globosa to AgNPs. Based on above results, we speculated that after exposure to cit-nAg, citrate possibly could serve as the substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and accumulated sugar may promote pentose phosphate pathways. For ATP-nAg treatments, ATP would act as an exogenous energy source of plant metabolisms. Our findings demonstrate that surface coating regulates the physiological responses of plants to AgNPs through distinct mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Modulation of Candida albicans virulence by bacterial biofilms on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Wilson, Melanie; Lewis, Michael; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; da Silva, Wander José; Williams, David W

    2016-01-01

    Whilst Candida albicans occurs in peri-implant biofilms, its role in peri-implantitis remains unclear. This study therefore examined the virulence of C. albicans in mixed-species biofilms on titanium surfaces. Biofilms of C. albicans (Ca), C. albicans with streptococci (Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mutans) (Ca-Ss-Sm) and those incorporating Porphyromonas gingivalis (Ca-Pg and Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg) were developed. Expression of C. albicans genes associated with adhesion (ALS1, ALS3, HWP1) and hydrolytic enzymes (SAP2, SAP4, SAP6, PLD1) was measured and hyphal production by C. albicans quantified. Compared with Ca biofilms, significant (pbiofilms containing streptococci (Ca-Ss-Sm). In Ca-Pg biofilms, down-regulation of HWP1 and SAP4 expression, with reduced hyphal production occurred. Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg biofilms had increased hyphal proportions and up-regulation of ALS3, SAP2 and SAP6. In conclusion, C. albicans expressed virulence factors in biofilms that could contribute to peri-implantitis, but this was dependent on associated bacterial species.

  19. Mammalian gastrointestinal tract parameters modulating the integrity, surface properties, and absorption of food-relevant nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, Susann; Carlander, David; Fasano, Alessio; Momcilovic, Dragan; Scimeca, Joseph A; Waldman, W James; Gombau, Lourdes; Tsytsikova, Lyubov; Canady, Richard; Pereira, Dora I A; Lefebvre, David E

    2015-01-01

    Many natural chemicals in food are in the nanometer size range, and the selective uptake of nutrients with nanoscale dimensions by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a normal physiological process. Novel engineered nanomaterials (NMs) can bring various benefits to food, e.g., enhancing nutrition. Assessing potential risks requires an understanding of the stability of these entities in the GI lumen, and an understanding of whether or not they can be absorbed and thus become systemically available. Data are emerging on the mammalian in vivo absorption of engineered NMs composed of chemicals with a range of properties, including metal, mineral, biochemical macromolecules, and lipid-based entities. In vitro and in silico fluid incubation data has also provided some evidence of changes in particle stability, aggregation, and surface properties following interaction with luminal factors present in the GI tract. The variables include physical forces, osmotic concentration, pH, digestive enzymes, other food, and endogenous biochemicals, and commensal microbes. Further research is required to fill remaining data gaps on the effects of these parameters on NM integrity, physicochemical properties, and GI absorption. Knowledge of the most influential luminal parameters will be essential when developing models of the GI tract to quantify the percent absorption of food-relevant engineered NMs for risk assessment. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Lipid compositions modulate fluidity and stability of bilayers: characterization by surface pressure and sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhuguang; Fu, Li; Leblanc, Roger M; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2013-12-03

    Cell membranes are crucial to many biological processes. Because of their complexity, however, lipid bilayers are often used as model systems. Lipid structures influence the physical properties of bilayers, but their interplay, especially in multiple-component lipid bilayers, has not been fully explored. Here, we used the Langmuir-Blodgett method to make mono- and bilayers of 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG), and 1-hexadecanoyl-2-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS) as well as their 1:1 binary mixtures. We studied the fluidity, stability, and rigidity of these structures using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy combined with analyses of surface pressure-area isotherms, compression modulus, and stability. Our results show that single-component bilayers, both saturated and unsaturated, may not be ideal membrane mimics because of their low fluidity and/or stability. However, the binary saturated and unsaturated DPPG/POPG and DPPG/POPS systems show not only high stability and fluidity but also high resistance to changes in surface pressure, especially in the range of 25-35 mN/m, the range typical of cell membranes. Because the ratio of saturated to unsaturated lipids is highly regulated in cells, our results underline the possibility of modulating biological properties using lipid compositions. Also, our use of flat optical windows as solid substrates in SFG experiments should make the SFG method more compatible with other techniques, enabling more comprehensive future surface characterizations of bilayers.

  1. Examining how land surface effects modulate rainfall in the eastern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, D.; Cohen, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Amazon, it is important to apportion rainfall by storm type. In the eastern Amazon (approximately from Belém to Santarém) rainfall associated with large instability lines produces nearly half of the total, and this is complemented by that produced by rainfall from local convective systems. Our recent observational studies in the indicate that the relative importance of the nocturnal squall lines is exaggerated if one relies solely on data from the climate stations along the Amazon River channel. River breezes inhibit convective rainfall near the main channel, but in some areas river proximity effects lead to enhanced nocturnal rainfall of squall origin. Moreover, enhanced rainfall to the north of the Amazon main channel could be the result of orographic uplift. In this study we complement a limited climatological study of instability lines with two mesoscale model (Brazilian version of RAMS, B-RAMS) case studies to examine the effects of topography and river proximity on rain producing mechanisms in the eastern Amazon Basin. Two numerical experiments were done to examine the relative importance of these two rain-producing mechanisms in the region. In each, three nested grids were used. Results from the prototype simulation for the propagating squall line were compared with GOES images, NCEP reanalyses, and data from the LBA-ECO surface station network near Santarém (approximately 55°W). In this case we also examined the role of topography on squall line development by performing a sensitivity test of the case study squall development with and without topography. The locally-dominated convection study was based on a case of slack easterlies during cold frontal penetration into the western Amazon region.

  2. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  3. Differential down-modulation of HLA-G and HLA-A2 or -A3 cell surface expression following human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzato, Nathalie; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Le Bouteiller, Philippe; Lenfant, Françoise

    2004-06-01

    During pregnancy, the non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I HLA-G molecule is specifically expressed in trophoblast cells at the materno-fetal interface and may exert a local control of the immune response against viral infections. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, which is the major cause of congenital defects, encodes multiple glycoproteins (US2, US3, US6, US10 and US11) that interrupt the MHC class I pathway of antigen presentation. The effect of some of these unique short (US) proteins on HLA-G expression has been previously studied, but little is known about the modulation of HLA-G cell surface expression during the course of HCMV infection which ensures expression of all of these US proteins. Using flow cytometry analysis, HLA-G cell surface expression was evaluated in HCMV-infected U373-HLA-G transfectant cells and compared with the modulation of the endogenous classical HLA-A2 molecules. The results indicated that HCMV infection down-modulated HLA-G cell surface expression, but later after infection and to a lesser extent than HLA-A2. Using various HLA-G/HLA-A2 chimeras, we showed that the unique structure of HLA-G cytoplasmic tail was partly involved in the resistance of HLA-G to viral down-modulation. Such limited down-modulation of HLA-G may have functional consequences in term of innate immunity against congenital HCMV infection.

  4. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5 Seasonal and Annual Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a set of sea surface temperature climatologies for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  5. Modulation of physiological hemostasis by irrigation solution: comparison of various irrigation solutions using a mouse brain surface bleeding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaka; Doi, Kazuhisa; Harada, Daisuke; Kamikawa, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    Intraoperative bleeding often obscures the surgical field and may cause neurological damage. The irrigation fluids used during surgery might affect physiological hemostasis because they modulate the extracellular fluid composition of the bleeding area directly. The authors therefore investigated the influence of irrigation fluid on hemostasis in a mouse brain surface bleeding model. The cerebral cortices of ddY strain mice were exposed under irrigation with normal saline, lactated Ringer (LR) solution, or artificial CSF (ACF-95). To investigate the influence of electrolytes, calcium, potassium, or both were also added to the saline. After 10 minutes of irrigation at 100 ml/hour, sequential photographs of the surgical area were taken with a microscope, and the number of bleeding points was counted visually. Irrigation and counting were performed in a masked manner. There were significantly more bleeding points after irrigation with normal saline than with ACF-95; LR solution had a similar effect on physiological hemostasis as ACF-95. Saline augmented with calcium or potassium and calcium was superior to normal saline in terms of hemostasis. The authors demonstrated that the irrigation fluid used in neurosurgery affects bleeding at the surgical site. To avoid surgical site bleeding, ACF-95 and LR solution should be used as irrigation fluids instead of normal saline. The calcium and potassium content of irrigation solutions seems to be important in hemostasis.

  6. Modulation of resistive switching characteristics for individual BaTiO3 microfiber by surface oxygen vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Different from traditional thin-film BaTiO3 (BTO) RRAM device with planar structure, individual microfiber-shaped RRAM device, showing promising application potentials in the micro-sized non-volatile memory system, has not been investigated so far to demonstrate resistive switching behavior. In this work, individual sol-gel BTO microfiber has been formed using the draw-bench method, followed by annealing in different atmospheres of air and argon, respectively. The resistive switching characteristics of the individual BTO microfiber have been investigated by employing double-probe SEM measurement system, which shows great convenience to test local electrical properties by modulating the contact sites between the W probes and the BTO microfiber. For the sample annealed in air, the average resistive ON/OFF ratio is as high as 108, enhanced about four orders in comparison with the counterpart that annealed in Argon. For the sample annealed in argon ambience, the weakened resistive ON/OFF ratio can be attributed to the increased presence of oxygen vacancies in the surface of BTO fibers, and the underlying electrical conduction mechanisms are also discussed.

  7. Photoinduced charge dissociation and transport at P3HT/ITO interfaces: studied by modulated surface spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn; Supasai, Thidarat; Dittrich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Results of a temperature dependence study of photoinduced charge separation across P3HT nanocrystals at P3HT/ITO interfaces have been investigated by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in a fixed capacitor arrangement. The SPV measurements were correlated with the crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals were varied systematically by progressive heating/cooling cycles identical for SPV and GIXRD measurements. Photovoltage signals, indication of photoinduced charge dissociation in space, at the P3HT/ITO interface were collected, and electrons were separated across the first monolayer of P3HT nanocrystals at the P3HT/ITO interface due to band bending. The activation energies for quenching of the in-phase and phase-shifted by 90 SPV signals were 0.7 and 0.6 eV, respectively. Thermal activation of the formation of P3HT nanocrystals was of the same order as the enthalpy of fusion of ideal crystals from regioregular P3HT. A schematic drawing of photoinduced charge separation at the P3HT/ITO is proposed. (orig.)

  8. Photoinduced charge dissociation and transport at P3HT/ITO interfaces: studied by modulated surface spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn [King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Institute of Heterogeneous Materials, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Supasai, Thidarat [Kasetsart University, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Dittrich, Thomas [Institute of Heterogeneous Materials, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Results of a temperature dependence study of photoinduced charge separation across P3HT nanocrystals at P3HT/ITO interfaces have been investigated by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in a fixed capacitor arrangement. The SPV measurements were correlated with the crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals were varied systematically by progressive heating/cooling cycles identical for SPV and GIXRD measurements. Photovoltage signals, indication of photoinduced charge dissociation in space, at the P3HT/ITO interface were collected, and electrons were separated across the first monolayer of P3HT nanocrystals at the P3HT/ITO interface due to band bending. The activation energies for quenching of the in-phase and phase-shifted by 90 SPV signals were 0.7 and 0.6 eV, respectively. Thermal activation of the formation of P3HT nanocrystals was of the same order as the enthalpy of fusion of ideal crystals from regioregular P3HT. A schematic drawing of photoinduced charge separation at the P3HT/ITO is proposed. (orig.)

  9. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-03-14

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)]. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  10. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: Expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-07-26

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 172-82 (2010]. Here we report on a significant expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  11. Phase modulation and structural effects in a D-shaped all-solid photonic crystal fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhixin; Hao, Xin; Shao, Yonghong; Chen, Yuzhi; Li, Xuejin; Fan, Ping

    2014-06-16

    We numerically investigate a D-shaped fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor based on all-solid photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with finite element method. In the side-polished PCF sensor, field leakage is guided to penetrate through the gap between the rods, causing a pronounced phase modulation in the deep polishing case. Taking advantage of these amplified phase shifts, a high-performance fiber sensor design is proposed. The significant enhancements arising from this new sensor design should lift the performance of the fiber SPR sensor into the range capable of detecting a wide range of biochemical interactions, which makes it especially attractive for many in vivo and in situ bioanalysis applications. Several parameters which influence the field leakage, such as the polishing position, the pitch of the PCF, and the rod diameter, are inspected to evaluate their impacts. Furthermore, we develop a mathematical model to describe the effects of varying the structural parameters of a D-shaped PCF sensor on the evanescent field and the sensor performance.

  12. Modulating Effects of Mesoscale Oceanic Eddies on Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones Over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanhong; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Cheng, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanic eddies on the temporal and spatial characteristics of sea surface temperature (SST) response to tropical cyclones is investigated in this study based on composite analysis of cyclone-eddy interactions over the western North Pacific. The occurrence times of maximum cooling, recovery time, and spatial patterns of SST response are specially evaluated. The influence of cold-core eddies (CCEs) renders the mean occurrence time of maximum SST cooling to become about half a day longer than that in eddy-free condition, while warm-core eddies (WCEs) have little effect on this facet. The recovery time of SST cooling also takes longer in presence of CCEs, being overall more pronounced for stronger or slower tropical cyclones. The effect of WCEs on the recovery time is again not significant. The modulation of maximum SST decrease by WCEs for category 2-5 storms is found to be remarkable in the subtropical region but not evident in the tropical region, while the role of CCEs is remarkable in both regions. The CCEs are observed to change the spatial characteristics of SST response, with enhanced SST decrease initially at the right side of storm track. During the recovery period the strengthened SST cooling by CCEs propagates leftward gradually, with a feature similar as both the westward-propagating eddies and the recovery of cold wake. These results underscore the importance of resolving mesoscale oceanic eddies in coupled numerical models to improve the prediction of storm-induced SST response.

  13. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays (Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)) has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)). Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  14. Carbon dioxide, temperature, and salinity collected from surface underway survey from May 1986 to April 1989 (NODC Accession 9400164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains chemical and physical profile data containing measuremnts of depth, salinity and temperature collected between May 1986 and April 1989. Data...

  15. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System (NRTAVS) QA Reports (NODC Accession 0044984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System Quality Reports, which are served through the NOAA/NESDIS...

  16. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans. (NCEI Accession 0157795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Total Alkalinity fields were estimated from five regional TA relationships presented in Lee et al. 2006, using monthly mean sea surface temperature and...

  17. Surface/Interface Carrier-Transport Modulation for Constructing Photon-Alternative Ultraviolet Detectors Based on Self-Bending-Assembled ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Zhou, Lianqun; Tang, Yuguo; Li, Lin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yang, Hongbo; Ma, Hanbin; Nathan, Arokia; Zhao, Dongxu

    2017-09-13

    Surface/interface charge-carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport modulation are especially important in the construction of photodetectors with high efficiency in the field of nanoscience. In the paper, a kind of ultraviolet (UV) detector is designed based on ZnO nanostructures considering photon-trapping, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR), piezophototronic effects, interface carrier-trapping/transport control, and collection. Through carefully optimized surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, a designed device with detectivity as high as 1.69 × 10 16 /1.71 × 10 16 cm·Hz 1/2 /W irradiating with 380 nm photons under ultralow bias of 0.2 V is realized by alternating nanoparticle/nanowire active layers, respectively, and the designed UV photodetectors show fast and slow recovery processes of 0.27 and 4.52 ms, respectively, which well-satisfy practical needs. Further, it is observed that UV photodetection could be performed within an alternative response by varying correlated key parameters, through efficient surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, spectrally resolved photoresponse of the detector revealing controlled detection in the UV region based on the ZnO nanomaterial, photodetection allowed or limited by varying the active layers, irradiation distance from one of the electrodes, standing states, or electric field. The detailed carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport processes are well illustrated to explain charge-carrier dynamics contributing to the photoresponse behavior.

  18. The MELiSSA GreenMOSS Study: Preliminary Design Considerations for a Greenhouse Module on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobascio, Cesare; Paille, Christel; Lamantea, Matteo Maria; Boscheri, Giorgio; Rossetti, Vittorio

    Extended human presence on an extraterrestrial planetary surface will be made possible by the development of life support systems affordable in the long term. The key elements to support the goal will be the maximization of closure of air and water cycles, as well as the development of cost-effective and reliable hardware, including a careful strategic effort toward reduction of spare parts and consumables. Regenerative life support systems likely represent the final step toward long term sustainability of a space crew, allowing in situ food production and regeneration of organic waste. Referring to the MELiSSA loop, a key element for food production is the Higher Plant Compartment. The paper focuses on the preliminary design of a Greenhouse at the lunar South Pole, as performed within the “Greenhouse Module for Space System” (GreenMOSS) study, under a contract from the European Space Agency. The greenhouse is in support to a relatively small crew for provision of an energetic food complement. Resources necessary for the greenhouse such as water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are assumed available, as required. The relevant mass and energy balances for incoming resources should be part of future studies, and should help integrate this element with the interfacing MELISSA compartments. Net oxygen production and harvested crop biomass from the greenhouse system will be quantified. This work presents the results of the two major trade-offs performed as part of this study: artificial vs natural illumination and monocrop vs multicrop solutions. Comparisons among possible design solutions were driven by the ALiSSE metric as far as practicable within this preliminary stage, considering mass and power parameters. Finally, the paper presents the mission duration threshold for determining the convenience of the designed solution with respect to other resources provision strategies

  19. Halite as a Methane Sequestration Host: A Possible Explanation for Periodic Methane Release on Mars, and a Surface-accessible Source of Ancient Martian Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Steele, Andrew; Hynek, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the hypothesis that halite may play a role in methane sequestration on the martian surface. In terrestrial examples, halite deposits sequester large volumes of methane and chloromethane. Also, examples of chloromethane-bearing, approximately 4.5 Ga old halite from the Monahans meteorite show that this system is very stable unless the halite is damaged. On Mars, methane may be generated from carbonaceous material trapped in ancient halite deposits and sequestered. The methane may be released by damaging its halite host; either by aqueous alteration, aeolian abrasion, heating, or impact shock. Such a scenario may help to explain the appearance of short-lived releases of methane on the martian surface. The methane may be of either biogenic or abiogenic origin. If this scenario plays a significant role on Mars, then martian halite deposits may contain samples of organic compounds dating to the ancient desiccation of the planet, accessible at the surface for future sample return missions.

  20. Dependence of optical phase modulation on anchoring strength of dielectric shield wall surfaces in small liquid crystal pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrated that the uniform phase modulation in a pixel can be realized by optimizing the anchoring strength on the walls and the wall width in the dielectric shield wall structure, which is the needed pixel structure for realizing a 1-µm-pitch optical phase modulator. The anchoring force degrades the uniformity of the phase modulation in ON-state pixels, but it also keeps liquid crystals from rotating against the leakage of an electric field. We clarified that the optimal wall width and anchoring strength are 250 nm and less than 10‑4 J/m2, respectively.

  1. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  2. Sea surface temperature data from a world wide distribution from 01 January 1971 to 31 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature data were collected in a world wide distribution from January 1, 1971 to December 31, 2000. Data were submitted by Japan Meteorological...

  3. Documentation for The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) data archived at NCEI (NCEI Accession 0123222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) is an international open group for SST data producers, users, and scientists. It brings together...

  4. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-03

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  5. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-01

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  6. The CEOS-Land Surface Imaging Constellation Portal for GEOSS: A resource for land surface imaging system information and data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Gallo, Kevin P.; Bailey, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites is an international group that coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth, and provides the space component of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The CEOS Virtual Constellations concept was implemented in an effort to engage and coordinate disparate Earth observing programs of CEOS member agencies and ultimately facilitate their contribution in supplying the space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements of the GEOSS. The CEOS initially established Study Teams for four prototype constellations that included precipitation, land surface imaging, ocean surface topography, and atmospheric composition. The basic mission of the Land Surface Imaging (LSI) Constellation [1] is to promote the efficient, effective, and comprehensive collection, distribution, and application of space-acquired image data of the global land surface, especially to meet societal needs of the global population, such as those addressed by the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of agriculture, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy, health, water, and weather. The LSI Constellation Portal is the result of an effort to address important goals within the LSI Constellation mission and provide resources to assist in planning for future space missions that might further contribute to meeting those goals.

  7. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  8. Some aspects of hydrogen plasma treatment of anti-modulation doped near surface GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumai, Yu.A.; Gobsch, G.; Goldhahn, R.; Stein, N.; Golombek, A.; Nakov, V.; Cheng, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The MBE grown anti-modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs structures with near surface single quantum wells were exposed to a DC hydrogen plasma (∼400 eV) and investigated using PL, PLE and PR spectroscopy at 5 K. Strong acceptor related free to bound transition (FB) dominates for quantum well related PL but excitonic features are still observed in PLE spectra. After hydrogen plasma treatment the PL intensity of FB transition from quantum well was strongly increased for above AlGaAs band gap excitation and was unchanged for below AlGaAs one. These results are consistent with atomic hydrogen passivation of deep defects in AlGaAs barriers. At the same time radiative excitonic recombination was quenched by hydrogenation. PLE and PR spectra indicate on a strong increase of electric field in subsurface region of the structure after hydrogenation. The increase of electric field in anti-modulation doped structure after hydrogen plasma treatment is supposed to be due to passivation by atomic hydrogen of surface states that leads to unpinning of Fermi level from mid gap to carbon acceptor level position in GaAs cap layer. It causes the further band bending and surface electric field increase that strongly suppress excitonic recombination in near surface quantum wells

  9. Investigation Into Accessible Surface Vinyl Concentrations of Nonstoichiometric PDMS Microspheres from Hydrosilylation Reactions and Their Further Crosslinking Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    titration method, which is based on efficiently and covalently bonding mono-functional hydride to vinyl, is employed to determine surface vinyl concentration. The titration method exhibits good reproducibility in detection, thereby underlining its potential applicability as a general titration method...

  10. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  11. In-line monitoring technique with visible light from 1.3 microm-band SHG module for optical access systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tadanaga, Osamu; Sakurai, Naoya; Kimura, Hideaki; Hadama, Hisaya; Asobe, Masaki

    2010-02-01

    We propose an in-line monitoring technique that uses 650 nm visible light for performing maintenance work on Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network quickly without the need for measuring skills or external devices. This technique is characterized by visible light (650 nm) generated by an SHG module from the 1.3 microm-band line signal. We fabricate a 1.3 microm-band quasi phase matched LiNbO(3) (QPM-LN) module, and the measure the 650 nm second harmonic (SH) power to test the proposed short-pulse modulation method. The results confirm the feasibility of the short-pulse modulation method with different peak factors (PFs) (1.0-7.3). We also examine the effect of short-pulse modulation on system performance at the optical receiver by measuring the bit error rate (BER) of received data (1.25 Gb/s). The BER is basically unaffected by the PF (1.0-5.5). This means that the proposed technique has little influence on data reception as regards PF (1.0-5.5).

  12. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Oregon Pump Station by City of Oregon and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-20 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130547 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  13. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from MTU1 Buoy by Michigan Technological University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123646 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in 2008 (NODC Accession 0109930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109930 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North...

  15. Salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using not applicable and other instruments from unknown platforms in various oceans and seas World-Wide from 1965-01-01 to 1994-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157055 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Bay of Biscay, Indian...

  16. Underway measurements of surface partial pressure of CO2 during the R/V Roger Revelle Cruise in the Indian Ocean on CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Section I06S_2008 (Feb. 5 - March 14, 2008). (NCEI Accession 0163185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163185 includes chemical, meteorological, optical, physical and surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE CLIVAR Cruise in the Indian Ocean...

  17. Accessing developmental information of fossil hominin teeth using new synchrotron microtomography-based visualization techniques of dental surfaces and interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cabec, Adeline; Tang, Nancy; Tafforeau, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of dental long-period growth lines (Retzius lines in enamel and Andresen lines in dentine) and matching of stress patterns (internal accentuated lines and hypoplasias) are used in determining crown formation time and age at death in juvenile fossil hominins. They yield the chronology employed for inferences of life history. Synchrotron virtual histology has been demonstrated as a non-destructive alternative to conventional invasive approaches. Nevertheless, fossil teeth are sometimes poorly preserved or physically inaccessible, preventing observation of the external expression of incremental lines (perikymata and periradicular bands). Here we present a new approach combining synchrotron virtual histology and high quality three-dimensional rendering of dental surfaces and internal interfaces. We illustrate this approach with seventeen permanent fossil hominin teeth. The outer enamel surface and enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) were segmented by capturing the phase contrast fringes at the structural interfaces. Three-dimensional models were rendered with Phong's algorithm, and a combination of directional colored lights to enhance surface topography and the pattern of subtle variations in tissue density. The process reveals perikymata and linear enamel hypoplasias on the entire crown surface, including unerupted teeth. Using this method, highly detailed stress patterns at the EDJ allow precise matching of teeth within an individual's dentition when virtual histology is not sufficient. We highlight that taphonomical altered enamel can in particular cases yield artificial subdivisions of perikymata when imaged using X-ray microtomography with insufficient resolution. This may complicate assessments of developmental time, although this can be circumvented by a careful analysis of external and internal structures in parallel. We further present new crown formation times for two unerupted canines from South African Australopiths, which were found to form over

  18. Accessing developmental information of fossil hominin teeth using new synchrotron microtomography-based visualization techniques of dental surfaces and interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Le Cabec

    Full Text Available Quantification of dental long-period growth lines (Retzius lines in enamel and Andresen lines in dentine and matching of stress patterns (internal accentuated lines and hypoplasias are used in determining crown formation time and age at death in juvenile fossil hominins. They yield the chronology employed for inferences of life history. Synchrotron virtual histology has been demonstrated as a non-destructive alternative to conventional invasive approaches. Nevertheless, fossil teeth are sometimes poorly preserved or physically inaccessible, preventing observation of the external expression of incremental lines (perikymata and periradicular bands. Here we present a new approach combining synchrotron virtual histology and high quality three-dimensional rendering of dental surfaces and internal interfaces. We illustrate this approach with seventeen permanent fossil hominin teeth. The outer enamel surface and enamel-dentine junction (EDJ were segmented by capturing the phase contrast fringes at the structural interfaces. Three-dimensional models were rendered with Phong's algorithm, and a combination of directional colored lights to enhance surface topography and the pattern of subtle variations in tissue density. The process reveals perikymata and linear enamel hypoplasias on the entire crown surface, including unerupted teeth. Using this method, highly detailed stress patterns at the EDJ allow precise matching of teeth within an individual's dentition when virtual histology is not sufficient. We highlight that taphonomical altered enamel can in particular cases yield artificial subdivisions of perikymata when imaged using X-ray microtomography with insufficient resolution. This may complicate assessments of developmental time, although this can be circumvented by a careful analysis of external and internal structures in parallel. We further present new crown formation times for two unerupted canines from South African Australopiths, which were

  19. Accessing the application of in situ cosmogenic 14C to surface exposure dating of amorphous SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesta, J. M.; Goehring, B. M.; Ward, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    We assess the feasibility and utility of in situ cosmogenic 14C as a geochronometer for landforms composed of amorphous SiO2 through the comparison of 14C surface exposure ages to independently determined eruption ages on Obsidian Dome, California. Landforms composed of amorphous SiO2 phases are difficult to date by conventional cosmogenic nuclide methods due to several complications that may arise (e.g., inability to remove meteoric contamination). The onset of an increased understanding of production rates and analytical measurement of in situ 14C in SiO2 provides an opportunity to address this limitation. Obsidian Dome is a 600-year-old phreatomagmatic dome of the Mono-Inyo Craters located in Inyo County, California, and consists of vesicular pumice, obsidian, and rhyolite. Exposure ages from eight obsidian and banded pumice and obsidian surface samples range from 3947 ± 678 to 914 ± 134 years, all significantly older than the accepted radiocarbon age of 650-550 years. δ13C values for the samples range between +2.65‰ and +1.34‰ and show a negative correlation with CO2 yield. The `too old' exposure ages coupled with this negative correlation between δ13C and CO2 yield suggests the incorporation of an atmospheric component of 14C. Measurement of 14C concentrations in shielded, subsurface samples will assist in isolating the atmospheric 14C component and aid in correcting the surface exposure ages.

  20. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Expression by Osteoblasts is Modulated by Implant Surface Roughness and Prostaglandin E2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, MaCasey M

    2006-01-01

    .... Relatively little is known about the cellular receptors for prostaglandins, EP receptors, especially with regard to osteoblast response to implant surface roughness and early events preceding osseointegration...

  2. Investigation of the surface potential of TiO2 (110) by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Lili; Li, Yan Jun; Kamijyo, Takeshi; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-16

    We investigate the surface potential distribution on a TiO 2 (110)-1 × 1 surface by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and atom-dependent bias-distance spectroscopic mapping. The experimental results demonstrate that the local contact potential difference increases on twofold-coordinated oxygen sites, and decreases on OH defects and fivefold-coordinated Ti sites. We propose a qualitative model to explain the origin of the surface potential of TiO 2 (110). We qualitatively calculate the surface potential induced by chemical potential and permanent surface dipole. The calculated results agree with our experimental ones. Therefore, we suggest that the surface potential of TiO 2 (110) is dominated not only by the permanent surface dipole between the tip apex atom and surface, but also by the dipoles induced by the chemical interaction between the tip and sample. The KPFM technique demonstrate the possibility of investigation of the charge transfer phenomenon on TiO 2 surface under gas conditions. It is useful for the elucidation of the mechanism of the catalytic reactions.

  3. High-frequency background modulation fringe patterns based on a fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model for 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinran; Kofman, Jonathan

    2017-07-10

    A new fringe projection method for surface-shape measurement was developed using four high-frequency phase-shifted background modulation fringe patterns. The pattern frequency is determined using a new fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model that allows only two corresponding-point candidates in the measurement volume. The correct corresponding point is selected with high reliability using a binary pattern computed from intensity background encoded in the fringe patterns. Equations of geometry-constraint parameters permit parameter calculation prior to measurement, thus reducing measurement computational cost. Experiments demonstrated the ability of the method to perform 3D shape measurement for a surface with geometric discontinuity, and for spatially isolated objects.

  4. Graphene assisted effective hole-extraction on In2O3:H/CH3NH3PbI3 interface: Studied by modulated surface spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth Kumar, Sri Hari Bharath; Muydinov, Ruslan; Kol'tsova, Tat‘yana; Erfurt, Darja; Steigert, Alexander; Tolochko, Oleg; Szyszka, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Charge separation in CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) films deposited on a hydrogen doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) photoelectrode was investigated by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in a fixed capacitor arrangement. It was found that In2O3:H reproducibly extracts photogenerated-holes from MAPbI3 films. The oxygen-plasma treatment of the In2O3:H surface is suggested to be a reason for this phenomenon. Introducing graphene interlayer increased charge separation nearly 6 times as compared to that on the In2O3:H/MAPbI3 interface. Furthermore, it is confirmed by SPV spectroscopy that the defects of the MAPbI3 interface are passivated by graphene.

  5. M13 bacteriophage display framework that allows sortase-mediated modification of surface-accessible phage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Gaelen T; Cragnolini, Juan J; Popp, Maximilian W; Allen, Mark A; Dougan, Stephanie K; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L; Belcher, Angela M; Guimaraes, Carla P

    2012-07-18

    We exploit bacterial sortases to attach a variety of moieties to the capsid proteins of M13 bacteriophage. We show that pIII, pIX, and pVIII can be functionalized with entities ranging from small molecules (e.g., fluorophores, biotin) to correctly folded proteins (e.g., GFP, antibodies, streptavidin) in a site-specific manner, and with yields that surpass those of any reported using phage display technology. A case in point is modification of pVIII. While a phage vector limits the size of the insert into pVIII to a few amino acids, a phagemid system limits the number of copies actually displayed at the surface of M13. Using sortase-based reactions, a 100-fold increase in the efficiency of display of GFP onto pVIII is achieved. Taking advantage of orthogonal sortases, we can simultaneously target two distinct capsid proteins in the same phage particle and maintain excellent specificity of labeling. As demonstrated in this work, this is a simple and effective method for creating a variety of structures, thus expanding the use of M13 for materials science applications and as a biological tool.

  6. Guided access cavity preparation using cone-beam computed tomography and optical surface scans - an ex vivo study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, J; Buchgreitz, M; Mortensen, D

    2016-01-01

    into dentine. The distance was measured between the centres of the performed drill path and the apical target by two examiners. A maximum distance of 0.7 mm was defined based on the radius of the bur (0.6 mm) and the radius of a root canal just visible on a radiograph (0.1 mm). The t-test was used...... for evaluation, and intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility was expressed by intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The mean distance between the drill path and the target was significantly lower than 0.7 mm, and null hypothesis H0 : μ = 0.7 was rejected (CI 95%: 0.31;0.49, P .... An apical canal preparation was created to simulate remnants of an apical root canal that acted as the target for a drill path. The test blocks were surface scanned, and merged with a CBCT scan, and a guide rail was made. A pathway for the bur was created through a metal sleeve within the guide rail...

  7. Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Expression by Osteoblasts is Modulated by Implant Surface Roughness and Prostaglandin E2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    the surface of a load- carrying implant" ( Branemark et al. 1977). The current American Academy of Periodontology definition (2001) describes...inhabit and produce bone very close to its surface, allowing for the necessary proximity for integration of dental implants ( Branemark et al. 1969). The...component of titanium’s biocompatibility and suitability as a restorative metal ( Branemark et al. 1977). In titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V), it

  8. Modulation of ATP/ADP concentration at the endothelial surface by shear stress: effect of flow recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Won; Ferrara, Katherine W; Barakat, Abdul I

    2007-04-01

    The extracellular presence of the adenine nucleotides ATP and ADP induces calcium mobilization in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). ATP/ADP concentration at the EC surface is determined by a balance of convective-diffusive transport to and from the EC surface, hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases at the cell surface, and flow-induced ATP release from ECs. Our previous numerical simulations in a parallel plate geometry had demonstrated that flow-induced ATP release has a profound effect on nucleotide concentration at the EC surface. In the present study, we have extended the modeling to probe the impact of flow separation and recirculation downstream of a backward facing step (BFS) on ATP/ADP concentration at the EC surface. The results show that for both steady and pulsatile flow over a wide range of wall shear stresses, the ATP+ADP concentration at the EC surface is considerably lower within the flow recirculation region than in areas of undisturbed flow outside the recirculation zone. Pulsatile flow also leads to sharp temporal gradients in nucleotide concentration. If confirmed experimentally, the present findings suggest that disturbed and undisturbed flow may affect EC calcium mobilization differently. Such differences might, in turn, contribute to the observed endothelial dysfunction in regions of disturbed flow.

  9. Modulation of Protein Fouling and Interfacial Properties at Carbon Surfaces via Immobilization of Glycans Using Aryldiazonium Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Federico; Angione, M. Daniela; Behan, James A.; Cullen, Ronan J.; Duff, Thomas; Vasconcelos, Joana M.; Scanlan, Eoin M.; Colavita, Paula E.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon materials and nanomaterials are of great interest for biological applications such as implantable devices and nanoparticle vectors, however, to realize their potential it is critical to control formation and composition of the protein corona in biological media. In this work, protein adsorption studies were carried out at carbon surfaces functionalized with aryldiazonium layers bearing mono- and di-saccharide glycosides. Surface IR reflectance absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance were used to study adsorption of albumin, lysozyme and fibrinogen. Protein adsorption was found to decrease by 30–90% with respect to bare carbon surfaces; notably, enhanced rejection was observed in the case of the tested di-saccharide vs. simple mono-saccharides for near-physiological protein concentration values. ζ-potential measurements revealed that aryldiazonium chemistry results in the immobilization of phenylglycosides without a change in surface charge density, which is known to be important for protein adsorption. Multisolvent contact angle measurements were used to calculate surface free energy and acid-base polar components of bare and modified surfaces based on the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good model: results indicate that protein resistance in these phenylglycoside layers correlates positively with wetting behavior and Lewis basicity. PMID:27108562

  10. Nonstructural Protein 4 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Modulates Cell Surface Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Expression by Downregulating β2-Microglobulin Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Liu, Ke; Wei, Jianchao; Li, Yuming; Li, Beibei; Shao, Donghua; Wu, Zhuanchang; Shi, Yuanyuan; Tong, Guangzhi; Qiu, Yafeng; Ma, Zhiyong

    2017-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, which has important impacts on the pig industry. PRRSV infection results in disruption of the swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) antigen presentation pathway. In this study, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection inhibited transcription of the β2-microglobulin (β2M) gene ( B2M ) and reduced cellular levels of β2M, which forms a heterotrimeric complex with the SLA-I heavy chain and a variable peptide and plays a critical role in SLA-I antigen presentation. HP-PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (Nsp4) was involved in the downregulation of β2M expression. Exogenous expression of Nsp4 downregulated β2M expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and reduced SLA-I expression on the cell surface. Nsp4 bound to the porcine B2M promoter and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter were identified as essential for the interaction between Nsp4 and B2M These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway and provide new insights into the functions of HP-PRRSV Nsp4. IMPORTANCE PRRSV modulates the host response by disrupting the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway. We show that HP-PRRSV downregulates SLA-I expression on the cell surface via transcriptional inhibition of B2M expression by viral Nsp4. The interaction between domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter is essential for inhibiting B2M transcription. These observations reveal a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate SLA-I antigen presentation and provide new insights into the functions of viral Nsp4. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-05-17 to 2012-10-26 (NODC Accession 0083197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083197 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 1994-11-04 to 2012-08-31 (NODC Accession 0083189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083189 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea,...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-14 to 2006-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108159 includes Surface underway data collected from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24 (NODC Accession 0117500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117500 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24. These data...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and others from 2005-01-07 to 2005-12-03 (NODC Accession 0081037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081037 includes chemical, physical and surface underway data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30 (NODC Accession 0100218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100218 includes Surface underway data collected from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30. These data include Partial...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2010-05-07 to 2013-06-25 (NODC Accession 0109901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109901 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank...

  18. A combinatorial variation in surface chemistry and pore size of three-dimensional porous poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yingdi; Tan, Ke; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zhaoyangye@ecust.edu.cn; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-02-01

    Biomaterial properties play significant roles in controlling cellular behaviors. The objective of the present study was to investigate how pore size and surface chemistry of three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds regulate the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro in combination. First, on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films, the hydrolytic treatment was found to stimulate the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of human MSCs (hMSCs) in comparison with pristine films, while the aminolysis showed mixed effects. Then, 3D porous PCL scaffolds with varying pore sizes (100–200 μm, 200–300 μm and 300–450 μm) were fabricated and subjected to either hydrolysis or aminolysis. It was found that a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis in 3D scaffolds was the most favorable condition for growth of hMSCs. Importantly, while a pore size of 200–300 μm with hydrolysis for 1 h supported the best osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, the chondrogenic differentiation was greatest in scaffolds with a pore size of 300–450 μm and treated with aminolysis for 1 h. Taken together, these results suggest that surface chemistry and pore size of 3D porous scaffolds may potentially have a synergistic impact on the behaviors of MSCs. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of poly(ε-caprolactone) films actively modulates MSC behaviors. • Varying surface chemistry and pore size in combination is enabled in 3D scaffolds. • Surface chemistry and pore size potentially dictate MSC fates in synergy.

  19. Potential energy surface and binding energy in the presence of an external electric field: modulation of anion-π interactions for graphene-based receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek

    2014-02-14

    Measuring the binding energy or scanning the potential energy surface (PES) of the charged molecular systems in the presence of an external electric field (EEF) requires a careful evaluation of the origin-dependency of the energy of the system and references. Scanning the PES for charged or purely ionic systems for obtaining the intrinsic energy barriers needs careful analysis of the electric work applied on ions by the EEF. The binding energy in the presence of an EEF is different from that in the absence of an electric field as the binding energy is an anisotropic characteristic which depends on the orientation of molecules with respect to the EEF. In this contribution we discuss various aspects of the PES and the concept of binding energy in the presence of an EEF. In addition, we demonstrate that the anion-π bonding properties can be modulated by applying a uniform EEF, which has a more pronounced effect on the larger, more polarizable π-systems. An analogous behavior is presumed for cation-π systems. We predict that understanding the phenomenon introduced in the present account has enormous potential, for example, for separating charged species on the surface of polarizable two-dimensional materials such as graphene or the surface of carbon nanotubes, in desalination of water.

  20. Electric-field-modulated exchange coupling within and between magnetic clusters on metal surfaces: Mn dimers on Cu(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez-Reyes, L; Pastor, G M; Stepanyuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of external electric fields (EFs) on the magnetic state and substrate-mediated magnetic coupling between Mn dimers on Cu(1 1 1) have been studied using a first-principles theoretical method. The calculations show that a change in the ground-state magnetic order, from antiferromagnetic (AF) to ferromagnetic (FM), can be induced within an isolated Mn 2 on Cu(1 1 1) by applying a moderately strong EF of about 1 V Å −1 . The magnetic exchange coupling between pairs of dimers displays Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida-like oscillations as a function of the interdimer distance, which depend significantly on the magnetic order within the dimers (FM or AF) and on their relative orientation on the surface. Moreover, it is observed that applying EFs allows modulation of the exchange coupling within and between the clusters as a function of the intercluster distance. At short distances, AF order within the dimers is favoured even in the presence of EFs, while for large distances the EF can induce a FM order. EFs pointing outwards and inwards with respect to the surface favour parallel and antiparallel magnetic alignment between the dimers, resspectively. The dependence of the substrate-mediated interaction on the magnetic state of Mn 2 is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the differences in the scattering of spin-polarized surface electrons. (paper)

  1. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO 3 layers and organic layers of C 60 , SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C 60 and MgPc:C 60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO 3 /organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO 3 . The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (E HL ) of C 60 , SubPc, and MgPc and the effective E HL of SubPc:C 60 and MgPc:C 60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔE L ) or HOMO (ΔE H ) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C 60 , respectively, and to −0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C 60 , respectively. Exponential tails below E HL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states

  2. Documentation of the dynamic parameter, water-use, stream and lake flow routing, and two summary output modules and updates to surface-depression storage simulation and initial conditions specification options with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2017-10-05

    This report documents seven enhancements to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic simulation code: two time-series input options, two new output options, and three updates of existing capabilities. The enhancements are (1) new dynamic parameter module, (2) new water-use module, (3) new Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) summary output module, (4) new basin variables summary output module, (5) new stream and lake flow routing module, (6) update to surface-depression storage and flow simulation, and (7) update to the initial-conditions specification. This report relies heavily upon U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chapter B7, which documents PRMS version 4 (PRMS-IV). A brief description of PRMS is included in this report.

  3. Defect study of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 thin film absorbers using photoluminescence and modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Levcenko, Sergiu; Dittrich, Thomas; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Kretzschmar, Steffen; Unold, Thomas; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Defect states in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 thin films with x = 0.28, 0.36, and 1 were studied by combining photoluminescence (PL) and modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. A single broad band emission in the PL spectra was observed and can be related to quasi-donor-acceptor pair transitions. The analysis of the temperature dependent quenching of the PL band (x = 0.28, 0.36, and 1) and SPV (x = 0.28) signals resulted in activation energies below 150 meV for PL and about 90 and 300 meV for SPV. Possible intrinsic point defects that might be associated with these observed activation energies are discussed.

  4. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, G. M. T. [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Hosea, T. J. C., E-mail: j.hosea@surrey.ac.uk [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J. [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität Munchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.

  5. HIV Aspartic Peptidase Inhibitors Modulate Surface Molecules and Enzyme Activities Involved with Physiopathological Events in Fonsecaea pedrosoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanila F. Palmeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have shown anti-F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi conidial cells, including surface molecules and secreted enzymes, both of which are directly involved in the disease development. In all the experiments, conidia were treated with indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir (100 μM for 24 h, and then fungal cells were used to evaluate the effects of HIV-PIs on different virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi. In comparison to untreated controls, exposure of F. pedrosoi cells to HIV-PIs caused (i reduction on the conidial granularity; (ii irreversible surface ultrastructural alterations, such as shedding of electron dense and amorphous material from the cell wall, undulations/invaginations of the plasma membrane with and withdrawal of this membrane from the cell wall; (iii a decrease in both mannose-rich glycoconjugates and melanin molecules and an increase in glucosylceramides on the conidial surface; (iv inhibition of ergosterol and lanosterol production; (v reduction in the secretion of aspartic peptidase, esterase and phospholipase; (vi significant reduction in the viability of non-pigmented conidia compared to pigmented ones. In summary, HIV-PIs are efficient drugs with an ability to block crucial biological processes of F. pedrosoi and can be seriously considered as potential compounds for the development of new chromoblastomycosis chemotherapeutics.

  6. Regulating Immunogenicity and Tolerogenicity of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells through Modulation of Cell Surface Glycosylation by Dexamethasone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lynch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cellular therapies and dendritic cell vaccines show promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, the prolongation of graft survival in transplantation, and in educating the immune system to fight cancers. Cell surface glycosylation plays a crucial role in the cell–cell interaction, uptake of antigens, migration, and homing of DCs. Glycosylation is known to change with environment and the functional state of DCs. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs are commonly generated using corticosteroids including dexamethasone, however, to date, little is known on how corticosteroid treatment alters glycosylation and what functional consequences this may have. Here, we present a comprehensive profile of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, examining their cell surface glycosylation profile before and after Dexa treatment as resolved by both lectin microarrays and lectin-coupled flow cytometry. We further examine the functional consequences of altering cell surface glycosylation on immunogenicity and tolerogenicity of DCs. Dexa treatment of rat DCs leads to profoundly reduced expression of markers of immunogenicity (MHC I/II, CD80, CD86 and pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6, IL-12p40, inducible nitric oxide synthase indicating a tolerogenic phenotype. Moreover, by comprehensive lectin microarray profiling and flow cytometry analysis, we show that sialic acid (Sia is significantly upregulated on tDCs after Dexa treatment, and that this may play a vital role in the therapeutic attributes of these cells. Interestingly, removal of Sia by neuraminidase treatment increases the immunogenicity of immature DCs and also leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while tDCs are moderately protected from this increase in immunogenicity. These findings may have important implications in strategies aimed at increasing tolerogenicity where it is advantageous to reduce immune activation over prolonged periods. These findings are also relevant in

  7. Modulated solar pressure-based surface shape control of paraboloid space reflectors with an off-axis Sun-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiafu; McInnes, Colin R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers utilizing solar radiation pressure (SRP) to actively control the surface shape of a reflector consisting of a rigid hoop and slack membrane with embedded reflectivity control devices. The full nonlinear static partial differential governing equations for a reflector with negligible elastic deformations are established for the circumferential, radial and transverse directions respectively, in which the SRP force with ideal/non-perfect models, the centripetal force caused by the rotation of the reflector and the internal stresses are considered. The inverse problem is then formulated by assuming that the required surface shape is known, and then the governing algebraic-differential equations used to determine the required surface reflectivity, together with the internal stresses where are presented accordingly. The validity of the approach is verified by comparing the results in this paper with corresponding published results as benchmarks. The feasible regions of the angular velocity and Sun angle for a paraboloidal reflector with an invariant radius and focal length (case 1), and the achievable focal lengths with a specific angular velocity and Sun angle (case 2) are presented for two SRP models respectively, both by considering the constraints on the reflectivity and internal stresses. It is then found that the feasible region is toward a larger angular velocity and Sun angle when using the non-perfect SRP model, compared with the ideal one in case 1. The angular velocity of the spinning reflector should be within a certain range to make the required reflectivity profiles within a practical range, i.e., [0, 0.88], as indicated from prior NASA solar sail studies. In case 2, it is found that the smallest achievable focal length of the reflector with the non-perfect SRP model is smaller than that with the ideal SRP model. It is also found that the stress level is extremely low for all cases considered and that the typical real material strength

  8. Implementation of a symmetric surface-electrode ion trap with field compensation using a modulated Raman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allcock, D T C; Sherman, J A; Stacey, D N; Burrell, A H; Curtis, M J; Imreh, G; Linke, N M; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new electrode design for a surface-electrode Paul trap, which allows rotation of the normal modes out of the trap plane, and a technique for micromotion compensation in all directions using a two-photon process, which avoids the need for an ultraviolet laser directed to the trap plane. The fabrication and characterization of the trap are described, as well as its implementation for the trapping and cooling of single Ca + ions. We also propose a repumping scheme that increases ion fluorescence and simplifies heating rate measurements obtained by time-resolved ion fluorescence during Doppler cooling.

  9. Implementation of a symmetric surface-electrode ion trap with field compensation using a modulated Raman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcock, D. T. C.; Sherman, J. A.; Stacey, D. N.; Burrell, A. H.; Curtis, M. J.; Imreh, G.; Linke, N. M.; Szwer, D. J.; Webster, S. C.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.

    2010-05-01

    We describe a new electrode design for a surface-electrode Paul trap, which allows rotation of the normal modes out of the trap plane, and a technique for micromotion compensation in all directions using a two-photon process, which avoids the need for an ultraviolet laser directed to the trap plane. The fabrication and characterization of the trap are described, as well as its implementation for the trapping and cooling of single Ca+ ions. We also propose a repumping scheme that increases ion fluorescence and simplifies heating rate measurements obtained by time-resolved ion fluorescence during Doppler cooling.

  10. Modulating the bacterial surface with small RNAs: a new twist on PhoP/Q-mediated lipopolysaccharide modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Kallipolitis, Birgitte; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Summary In recent years, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as important regulatory components in bacterial stress responses and in bacterial virulence. Many of these are conserved in related species and act on target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. They are tightly controlled...... of bacterial surface properties by regulating lipopolysaccharide modification. The small RNA is expressed as part of the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system that plays a major role in virulence of pathogenic species. This work expands the list of global regulators known to control small RNA expression...

  11. The Staphylococcus aureus Global Regulator MgrA Modulates Clumping and Virulence by Controlling Surface Protein Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A Crosby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes devastating infections in a wide range of locations within the body. One of the defining characteristics of S. aureus is its ability to form clumps in the presence of soluble fibrinogen, which likely has a protective benefit and facilitates adhesion to host tissue. We have previously shown that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls clumping, in part by repressing production of the large surface protein Ebh. In this work we show that ArlRS does not directly regulate Ebh, but instead ArlRS activates expression of the global regulator MgrA. Strains lacking mgrA fail to clump in the presence of fibrinogen, and clumping can be restored to an arlRS mutant by overexpressing either arlRS or mgrA, indicating that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory pathway. We used RNA-seq to show that MgrA represses ebh, as well as seven cell wall-associated proteins (SraP, Spa, FnbB, SasG, SasC, FmtB, and SdrD. EMSA analysis showed that MgrA directly represses expression of ebh and sraP. Clumping can be restored to an mgrA mutant by deleting the genes for Ebh, SraP and SasG, suggesting that increased expression of these proteins blocks clumping by steric hindrance. We show that mgrA mutants are less virulent in a rabbit model of endocarditis, and virulence can be partially restored by deleting the genes for the surface proteins ebh, sraP, and sasG. While mgrA mutants are unable to clump, they are known to have enhanced biofilm capacity. We demonstrate that this increase in biofilm formation is partially due to up-regulation of SasG, a surface protein known to promote intercellular interactions. These results confirm that ArlRS and MgrA constitute a regulatory cascade, and that they control expression of a number of genes important for virulence, including those for eight large surface proteins.

  12. Broadband Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.

  13. Modulation of immunogenicity of poly(sarcosine) displayed on various nanoparticle surfaces due to different physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol Joo; Hara, Eri; Watabe, Naoki; Hara, Isao; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2017-12-01

    Poly(sarcosine) displayed on polymeric micelle is reported to trigger a T cell-independent type2 reaction with B1a cells in the mice to produce IgM and IgG3 antibodies. In addition to polymeric micelle, three kinds of vesicles displaying poly(sarcosine) on surface were prepared here to evaluate the amounts and avidities of IgM and IgG3, which were produced in mice, to correlate them with physical properties of the molecular assemblies. The largest amount of IgM was produced after twice administrations of a polymeric micelle of 35 nm diameter (G1). On the other hand, the production amount of IgG3 became the largest after twice administrations of G3 (vesicle of 229 nm diameter) or G4 (vesicle of 85 nm diameter). The augmented avidity of IgG3 after the twice administrations compared with that at the single administration was the highest with G3. These differences in immune responses are discussed in terms of surface density of poly(sarcosine) chains, nanoparticle size, hydrophobic component of poly(L-lactic acid) or (Leu- or Val-Aib) n , and membrane elasticity of the nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis of hollow silica nanosphere with high accessible surface area and their hybridization with carbon matrix for drastic enhancement of electrochemical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Yamahana, Haruki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad [World Premier International (WPI) Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science - NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Luitel, Hom Nath; Zhao, Wenwen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yusuke [World Premier International (WPI) Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science - NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Watari, Takanori; Noguchi, Hideyuki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Hollow silica nanosphere with large void space and high surface area is synthesized. • Carbon was doped into silica layer through glucose solution and resulting carbon/silica composite drastically enhanced electrochemical property. • Combination of core–shell–corona micelle template and doping method could be a new platform for developing functional materials. - Abstract: Hollow silica nanospheres with high accessible surface area have been synthesized by using core–shell–corona polymeric micelle of poly (styrene-b-2-vinyle pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS45k-PVP26k-PEO82k) as a template. The size of the template polymeric micelle depends on the pH of the solution, i.e. ≈100 nm at pH 7 whereas ≈300 nm at pH 4. The enlarged size of the micelle is possibly due to the protonation of the PVP block, which also serves as reaction sites for silica precursor. The size of the obtained silica nanosphere measured with transmission electron microscope (TEM) is around ≈70 nm and shell thickness is ≈20 nm. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data confirms that the polymer template is completely removed during calcination. Conductive carbon is doped into the silica nanosphere through glucose solution followed by hydrothermal treatment and pyrolysis. It is found that the electrochemical performance and stability of the silica nanosphere is dramatically enhanced after carbon doping. The combined strategy of the core–shell–corona micelle as template and carbon doping could represent a new platform for the researchers to develop functional nanomaterials.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Surface and Upper-Air Observations on the Forecast Skill of the ACCESS Numerical Weather Prediction Model over Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Soldatenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology’s in situ observations (land and sea surface observations, upper air observations by radiosondes, pilot balloons, wind profilers, and aircraft observations on the short-term forecast skill provided by the ACCESS (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator global numerical weather prediction (NWP system is evaluated using an adjoint-based method. This technique makes use of the adjoint perturbation forecast model utilized within the 4D-Var assimilation system, and is able to calculate the individual impact of each assimilated observation in a cycling NWP system. The results obtained show that synoptic observations account for about 60% of the 24-h forecast error reduction, with the remainder accounted for by aircraft (12.8%, radiosondes (10.5%, wind profilers (3.9%, pilot balloons (2.8%, buoys (1.7% and ships (1.2%. In contrast, the largest impact per observation is from buoys and aircraft. Overall, all observation types have a positive impact on the 24-h forecast skill. Such results help to support the decision-making process regarding the evolution of the observing network, particularly at the national level. Consequently, this 4D-Var-based approach has great potential as a tool to assist the design and running of an efficient and effective observing network.

  16. Synthesis of hollow silica nanosphere with high accessible surface area and their hybridization with carbon matrix for drastic enhancement of electrochemical property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Yamahana, Haruki; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Luitel, Hom Nath; Zhao, Wenwen; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Watari, Takanori; Noguchi, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2014-09-01

    Hollow silica nanospheres with high accessible surface area have been synthesized by using core-shell-corona polymeric micelle of poly (styrene-b-2-vinyle pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS45k-PVP26k-PEO82k) as a template. The size of the template polymeric micelle depends on the pH of the solution, i.e. ≈100 nm at pH 7 whereas ≈300 nm at pH 4. The enlarged size of the micelle is possibly due to the protonation of the PVP block, which also serves as reaction sites for silica precursor. The size of the obtained silica nanosphere measured with transmission electron microscope (TEM) is around ≈70 nm and shell thickness is ≈20 nm. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data confirms that the polymer template is completely removed during calcination. Conductive carbon is doped into the silica nanosphere through glucose solution followed by hydrothermal treatment and pyrolysis. It is found that the electrochemical performance and stability of the silica nanosphere is dramatically enhanced after carbon doping. The combined strategy of the core-shell-corona micelle as template and carbon doping could represent a new platform for the researchers to develop functional nanomaterials.

  17. Antiphase Fermi-surface modulations accompanying displacement excitation in a parent compound of iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kozo; Suzuki, Hakuto; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Someya, Takashi; Ogawa, Yu; Okada, Masaru; Fujisawa, Masami; Kanai, Teruto; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Itatani, Jiro; Nakajima, Masamichi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Shin, Shik

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the transient electronic structure of BaFe2As2 , a parent compound of iron-based superconductors, by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In order to probe the entire Brillouin zone, we utilize extreme ultraviolet photons and observe photoemission intensity oscillation with the frequency of the A1 g phonon which is antiphase between the zone-centered hole Fermi surfaces (FSs) and zone-cornered electron FSs. We attribute the antiphase behavior to the warping in one of the zone-centered hole FSs accompanying the displacement of the pnictogen height and find that this displacement is the same direction as that induced by substitution of P for As, where superconductivity is induced by a structural modification without carrier doping in this system.

  18. Modulating the pH-activity profile of cellulase A from Cellulomonas fimi by replacement of surface residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Darrell W; Clarke, Anthony J

    2011-05-01

    One industrial process for the production of cellulosic ethanol and or value-added products involves exposing the cellulose content of plant materials by steam explosion in the presence of strong acid, followed by its neutralization and subsequent digestion with a cocktail of cellulolytic enzymes. These enzymes typically have activity optima at slightly acidic or neutral pH and so generating enzymes that are more active and tolerant in more acidic conditions would help to reduce associated costs. Here, we describe the engineering of cellulase A from Cellulomonas fimi as a model to replace residues that were identified as potentially influencing the pH-activity profile of the enzyme based on sequence alignments and analysis of the known three-dimensional structures of other CAZy family 6 glycoside hydrolases with the aim to lower its pH optimum. Twelve specific residues and a sequence of eight were identified and a total of 30 mutant enzymes were generated. In addition to being replaced with natural amino acids, some of the identified residues were substituted with cysteine and subsequently oxidized to cysteinesulfinate. Of the four single amino acid replacements that produced enhancements of activity at acidic pH, three involved the removal of charged groups from the surface of the enzyme. The generation of double mutations provided mixed results but the combination of Glu407 → Ala and Tyr321 → Phe replacements had an additive effect on the enhancement, reaching a total activity that was 162% of the wild-type level. This study thus illustrated the utility of altering the surface charge properties of the family 6 glycoside hydrolases to enhance activity at low pH and thereby an avenue for further protein engineering.

  19. Modulation of surface structure and catalytic properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles by thermal and microwave synthesis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jian [College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Lan; Liu, Jie; Yang, Lu; Zou, Ling; Xiang, Junyu; Dong, Shiwu [School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Xiaochao, E-mail: xcyang@tmmu.edu.cn [School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation have more reactive hot spots than that synthesized by convective heating. • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation exhibited higher SOD activity than that synthesized by convective heating. • The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating could better protect cells from oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been intensively explored for biomedical applications in recent few years due to the versatile enzyme mimetic activities of the nanoparticles. However, the control of CNPs quality through the optimization of synthesis conditions remains largely unexplored as most of the previous studies only focus on utilizing the catalytic activities of the nanoparticles. In the present study, CNPs with size about 5 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method using traditional convective heating and recently developed microwave irradiation as heating source. The quality of CNPs synthesized by the two heating manner was evaluated. The CNPs synthesized by convective heating were slightly smaller than that synthesized by microwave irradiation heating. The cores of the CNPs synthesized by the two heating manner have similar crystal structure. While the surface subtle structures of the CNPs synthesized by two heating manner were different. The CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation have more surface reactive hot spot than that synthesized by convective heating as the nanoparticles responded more actively to the redox environment variation. This difference resulted in the higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity of CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating than that of the convective heating. Preliminary experiments indicated that the CNPs synthesized by microwave irradiation heating could better protect cells from oxidative stress due to the higher SOD mimetic activity of the nanoparticles.

  20. Microfibrillated cellulose and borax as mechanical, O₂-barrier, and surface-modulating agents of pullulan biocomposite coatings on BOPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Carlo A; Campanella, Gaetano; Türe, Hasan; Olsson, Richard T; Farris, Stefano

    2016-06-05

    Multifunctional composite coatings on bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films were obtained using borax and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) added to the main pullulan coating polymer. Spectroscopy analyses suggested that a first type of interaction occurred via hydrogen bonding between the C6OH group of pullulan and the hydroxyl groups of boric acid, while monodiol and didiol complexation represented a second mechanism. The deposition of the coatings yielded an increase in the elastic modulus of the entire plastic substrate (from ∼2GPa of the neat BOPP to ∼3.1GPa of the P/B+/MFC-coated BOPP). The addition of MFC yielded a decrease of both static and kinetic coefficients of friction of approximately 22% and 25%, respectively, as compared to the neat BOPP. All composite coatings dramatically increased the oxygen barrier performance of BOPP, especially under dry conditions. The deposition of the high hydrophilic coatings allowed to obtain highly wettable surfaces (water contact angle of ∼18°). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  2. Construction of a novel selection system for endoglucanases exhibiting carbohydrate-binding modules optimized for biomass using yeast cell-surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jungu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-10-23

    To permit direct cellulose degradation and ethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (Δsed1) codisplaying 3 cellulases (Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II [EG], T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II [CBH], and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I [BG]) was constructed by yeast cell-surface engineering. The EG used in this study consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. A comparison with family 1 CBMs revealed conserved amino acid residues and flexible amino acid residues. The flexible amino acid residues were at positions 18, 23, 26, and 27, through which the degrading activity for various cellulose structures in each biomass may have been optimized. To select the optimal combination of CBMs of EGs, a yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM was constructed. The mixture consisted of yeasts codisplaying EG with mutated CBMs, in which 4 flexible residues were comprehensively mutated, CBH, and BG. The yeast mixture was inoculated in selection medium with newspaper as the sole carbon source. The surviving yeast consisted of RTSH yeast (the mutant sequence of CBM: N18R, S23T, S26S, and T27H) and wild-type yeast (CBM was the original) in a ratio of 1:46. The mixture (1 RTSH yeast and 46 wild-type yeasts) had a fermentation activity that was 1.5-fold higher than that of wild-type yeast alone in the early phase of saccharification and fermentation, which indicates that the yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM could be used to select the optimal combination of CBMs suitable for the cellulose of each biomass.

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using PAR Sensor and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and others in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 1994-01-28 to 2004-07-02 (NODC Accession 0109923)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109923 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER,...

  4. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  5. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  6. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates trophoblast folate uptake by modulating the cell surface expression of FR-α and the RFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-08-26

    Folate deficiency in fetal life is strongly associated with structural malformations and linked to intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, limited availability of methyl donors, such as folate, during pregnancy may result in abnormal gene methylation patterns and contribute to developmental programming. The fetus is dependent on placental transfer of folate, however the molecular mechanisms regulating placental folate transport are unknown. We used cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate folate transport by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal folate uptake. Folate uptake stimulated by insulin + IGF-1 was mediated by mTORC2 but did not involve mTORC1. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of FR-α and RFC transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. Inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 had no effect on folate transport. In conclusion, we report for the first time that mTORC1/C2 are positive regulators of cellular folate uptake by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. We propose that regulation of placental folate transport by mTOR signaling provide a direct link between placental function, gene methylation and fetal programming.

  7. Stretched membrane heliostats: design and structural analysis of reflectance module and support of a heliostats of 9 m. diaform and 60 m''3 of reflectance surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figarola Torres, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    After having designed and built at CIEMAT a first prototype of a Btretched membrane heliostats of 3 m. diameter, the design and the structural analysis of the different components included in the reflectance module and support of another heliostats, this one of 9 m. diameter and 60 m2. of reflectance surface, are shown In this report. This last heliostats will be mounted on a pedestal and its driving device at the Solar Platform of Almeria. In order to optimize design and performance, the structural analysis of its basic components has been analyzed with the finite elements program ANSYS. The following elements have been subject to analysis: the membrane and their ring supports, stretching system and the structural support. A similar scheme to the one applied to the previous prototype has been used on the focus control system. That includes a linear transducer, a variable frequency and a fan. Finally it has to be pointed out that substantial improvements have been achieved with respect to the first prototype concerning design and cost. (Author) 5 refs

  8. 4 km AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 Global Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Monthly and Yearly Averages, 1985-2009 (NODC Accession 0077816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a set of monthly and yearly global day-night sea surface temperature averages, derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  9. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  10. Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean (NCEI accession 01645680) (NCEI Accession 0164568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climatological mean monthly distributions of pH in the total H+ scale, total CO2 concentration (TCO2), and the degree of CaCO3 saturation for the global surface...

  11. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  12. Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0130694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Navigation, surface current, sea surface temperature, wind, and atmospheric pressure data collected by the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race...

  13. Rapid detection and semi-quantification of IgG-accessible Staphylococcus aureus surface-associated antigens using a multiplex competitive Luminex assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansenova Manaskova, S.; Bikker, F.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; van Belkum, A.; van Wamel, W.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The surface characterization of Staphylococcus aureus is currently labor intensive and time consuming. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the rapid yet comprehensive characterization of S. aureus cell-surface-associated proteins and carbohydrates, based on a competitive Luminex assay. In

  14. Accessible Geoscience - Digital Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian

    2017-04-01

    Accessible Geoscience is a developing field of pedagogic research aimed at widening participation in Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) subjects. These subjects are often less commonly associated with disabilities, ethnic minorities, low income socio-economic groups and females. While advancements and improvements have been made in the inclusivity of these subject areas in recent years, access and participation of disabled students remains low. While universities are legally obligated to provide reasonable adjustments to ensure accessibility, the assumed incompatibility of GEES subjects and disability often deters students from applying to study these courses at a university level. Instead of making reasonable adjustments if and when they are needed, universities should be aiming to develop teaching materials, spaces and opportunities which are accessible to all, which in turn will allow all groups to participate in the GEES subjects. With this in mind, the Swansea Geography Department wish to enhance the accessibility of our undergraduate degree by developing digital field work opportunities. In the first instance, we intend to digitise three afternoon excursions which are run as part of a 1st year undergraduate module. Each of the field trips will be digitized into English- and Welsh-medium formats. In addition, each field trip will be digitized into British Sign Language (BSL) to allow for accessibility for D/deaf and hard of hearing students. Subtitles will also be made available in each version. While the main focus of this work is to provide accessible fieldwork opportunities for students with disabilities, this work also has additional benefits. Students within the Geography Department will be able to revisit the field trips, to revise and complete associated coursework. The use of digitized field work should not replace opportunities for real field work, but its use by the full cohort of students will begin to "normalize" accessible field

  15. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  16. Historical underway surface temperature data collected aboard the ship Skelton Castle on a voyage from England to India, 28 February 1800 to 3 June 1800 (NODC Accession 0095925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway surface air temperature and sea water temperature were collected aboard the Skelton Castle while in route from England to Bombay India as part of the East...

  17. Quality Assurance statistics for AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 L3-Collated (L3C) sea surface temperature in global and selected regions (NODC Accession 0111871)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These quality monitoring data for Pathfinder Version 5.2 (PFV5.2) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are based on the concept of a Rich Inventory developed by the...

  18. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  19. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from AIRCRAFT From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19761209 to 19761211 (NCEI Accession 7700021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is Sea Surface Temperature data collected by United States coast guard (USCG), Groton, CT, US. Data was collected between December 9-11, 1976 over the NW...

  20. Hourly surface currents measured by high frequency Wellen radars off western Oahu, Hawaii, from September 2002 to May 2003 (NODC Accession 0013113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A pair of High Frequency Wellen radars (WERA) shore-based at southwest Oahu (Ko'Olina) and northwest Oahu (Kaena), Hawaii measured surface currents over a nine-month...

  1. Hourly surface currents measured by High Frequency (HF) Wellen radars (WERA) off western Oahu, Hawaii, from September 2002 to May 2003 (NODC Accession 0013113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A pair of High Frequency Wellen radars (WERA) shore-based at southwest Oahu (Ko'Olina) and northwest Oahu (Kaena), Hawaii measured surface currents over a nine-month...

  2. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Surface Meteorological Data from Kiritimati Island, January-March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0161526)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains surface meteorological data from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, collected 25 January to 28 March 2016. These data have been corrected for known...

  3. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS From World-Wide Distribution from 18700101 to 19781231 (NODC Accession 8800040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each file contains data on Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly analyses on a 1-degree square for each calender month of the period January 1870 through December 1894 (25...

  4. Coastal Geostationary Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Products from NOAA GOES and Japanese MTSAT-1R satellites, coastal United States, 2000 - present (NCEI Accession 0108128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA's Office of Satellite and Data Distribution (OSDPD) generates geostationary sea surface temperature (SST) products. These products are derived from NOAA's...

  5. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-3: Near Real-Time Altimetry Validation System (NRTAVS) QA Reports, 2015 - (NCEI Accession 0122600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Jason-3 is the fourth mission in U.S.-European series of satellite missions that measure the height of the ocean surface. Scheduled to launch in 2015, the mission...

  6. 75 FR 14467 - In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same, Including Memory Modules; Notice of... semiconductors and products containing same, including memory modules, by reason of infringement of certain... importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors or products containing the same, including...

  7. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using automated Multi-parameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) for autonomous measurement of pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-02-13 to 2006-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0157411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157411 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  9. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  10. Checklist "Open Access Policies": Analysis of the Open Access Policies of Public Universities in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This checklist provides an overview of the Open Access policies implemented at Austrian universities and extramural research institutions. Furthermore, the polices adopted at nine public universities are analyzed and the respective text modules are categorized thematically. The second part of the checklist presents measures for the promotion of Open Access following the implementation of an Open Access policy.

  11. Definition and display of steric, hydrophobic, and hydrogen-bonding properties of ligand binding sites in proteins using Lee and Richards accessible surface: validation of a high-resolution graphical tool for drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacek, R S; McMartin, C

    1992-05-15

    The accessible surface, described by Lee and Richards (the L&R surface: J. Mol. Biol. 1971, 55, 379), has remarkably useful properties for displaying ligand-protein interactions. The surface is placed one van der Waals radius plus one probe radius away from the protein atoms. The ligands are displayed in skeletal form. With a suitable probe radius, those parts of the ligand in good van der Waals contact with the protein binding site are found superimposed on the L&R surface. Display of the surface using parallel contours therefore provides a very powerful guide for interactive drug design because only ligand atoms lying on or close to the surface are in low-energy contact. The ability of the surface to accurately display steric complementarity between ligands and proteins was optimized using data from small molecule crystal structures. The possibility of displaying the chemical specificity of the binding site was also investigated. The surface can be colored to give precise information about chemical specificity. Electrostatic potential, electrostatic gradient, and distance to hydrogen-bonding groups were tested as methods of displaying chemical specificity. The ability of these methods to describe the complementarity actually observed in the interior of proteins was compared. High-resolution crystal data for ribonuclease and trypsin was used. The environment surrounding extended peptide chains in the protein was treated as a virtual binding site. The peptide chain served as a virtual ligand. This large sample of experimental data was used to measure the correlation between type of ligand atom and the calculated property of the nearest binding site surface. The best correlation was obtained using hydrogen-bonding properties of the binding site. Using this parameter the surface could be divided into three separate zones representing the hydrophobic, hydrogen-bond-acceptor, and hydrogen-bond-donor properties of the binding site. The percentage of hydrophobic ligand

  12. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  13. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  14. Global Ocean Surface Water Partial Pressure of CO2 Database: Measurements Performed During 1957-2016 (LDEO Database Version 2016) (NCEI Accession 0160492)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Approximately 10.8 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2016 have been processed to make a uniform data file in this...

  15. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  16. An approach to multiobjective optimization of rotational therapy. II. Pareto optimal surfaces and linear combinations of modulated blocked arcs for a prostate geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Montero, Juan; Fenwick, John D

    2010-06-01

    comprising two regions: One where the dose to the target is close to prescription and trade-offs can be made between doses to the organs at risk and (small) changes in target dose, and one where very substantial rectal sparing is achieved at the cost of large target underdosage. Plans computed following the approach using a conformal arc and four blocked arcs generally lie close to the Pareto front, although distances of some plans from high gradient regions of the Pareto front can be greater. Only around 12% of plans lie a relative Euclidean distance of 0.15 or greater from the Pareto front. Using the alternative distance measure of Craft ["Calculating and controlling the error of discrete representations of Pareto surfaces in convex multi-criteria optimization," Phys. Medica (to be published)], around 2/5 of plans lie more than 0.05 from the front. Computation of blocked arcs is quite fast, the algorithms requiring 35%-80% of the running time per iteration needed for conventional inverse plan computation. The geometry-based arc approach to multicriteria optimization of rotational therapy allows solutions to be obtained that lie close to the Pareto front. Both the image-reconstruction type and gradient-descent algorithms produce similar modulated arcs, the latter one perhaps being preferred because it is more easily implementable in standard treatment planning systems. Moderate unblocking provides a good way of dealing with OARs which abut the PTV. Optimization of geometry-based arcs is faster than usual inverse optimization of treatment plans, making this approach more rapid than an inverse-based Pareto front reconstruction.

  17. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  18. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station bgsusd2, Sandusky Bay 2, by Bowling Green State University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2017-06-10 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0163831)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163831 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  19. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Gibraltar Island Station by Ohio State University; Stone Laboratory and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-05-26 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130545 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  20. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Avon Lake Pump Station by Avon Lake Regional Water and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-28 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130546 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  1. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Little Cedar Point by University of Toledo and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-07-03 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0155545)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155545 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  2. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station 45165, Monroe, MI, by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-08-07 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123661)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123661 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-11-10 to 2014-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0157296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157296 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-11-10 to...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and others from 2010-01-31 to 2010-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0157388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157388 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel, North...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-02 to 2015-02-01 (NCEI Accession 0157372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157372 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and others from 2011-06-17 to 2012-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0157242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157242 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Kara Sea,...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-09 to 2010-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157325 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and others from 2015-05-19 to 2015-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0160491)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160491 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Bay of Biscay, English...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and others from 2012-01-08 to 2012-10-06 (NCEI Accession 0157350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157350 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POLARSTERN in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, English...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1968-11-16 to 2007-12-31 (NODC Accession 0101726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0101726 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1968-11-16 to 2013-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0160918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160918 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, navigational and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1968-11-16 to 2011-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157631 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, navigational and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2014-03-18 to 2014-10-09 (NCEI Accession 0163193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163193 includes chemical, physical and surface underway data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2014-03-18 to 2014-10-09. These...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0157444)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157444 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2013-03-15 to 2013-12-22. These...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and salinity collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2012-04-25 to 2013-01-03 (NCEI Accession 0157472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157472 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from ARMORIQUE in the English Channel from 2012-04-25 to 2013-01-03. These...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station redbaypoint by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-04-28 (NODC Accession 0118778)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118778 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2007-07-24 to 2007-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0157457)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157457 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2007-07-24 to...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0157449)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157449 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea and others from 2015-04-13 to 2015-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0144534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144534 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Sea -...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-06-06 to 1996-06-19 (NCEI Accession 0157375)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157375 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1996-06-06 to...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2009-04-10 to 2009-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108084 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-05-25 to 2005-07-02 (NODC Accession 0108081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108081 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific...

  3. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station tolomatoriver by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118780 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Oneida Lake Weather Station (ESF7) by State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-07 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0123659)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123659 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bali Sea and others from 2016-02-08 to 2016-09-22 (NCEI Accession 0160548)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160548 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Bali Sea,...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Arabian Sea, Bering Sea and others from 1955-01-01 to 1974-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157456)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157456 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Arabian Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the XUE LONG in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 2007-11-12 to 2008-04-12 (NODC Accession 0108235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108235 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from XUE LONG in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea, East China Sea...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Hakuho Maru in the Bali Sea, Bismarck Sea and others from 1968-11-16 to 1988-03-23 (NODC Accession 0080981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080981 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Bali Sea, Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POSEIDON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-05-31 to 2015-04-07 (NCEI Accession 0157471)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157471 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from POSEIDON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-05-31 to...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea and others from 1991-01-05 to 1993-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0157100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157100 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea, Gulf of...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2014-05-05 to 2014-08-30 (NCEI Accession 0144350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144350 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2013-08-06 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0144346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144346 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea and Northwest Passage from 2013-08-06 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2015-07-14 to 2015-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144530 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2012-08-01 to 2012-10-24 (NCEI Accession 0144338)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144338 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-02-15 to 2001-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157250 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-07 to 2016-05-30 (NCEI Accession 0160554)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160554 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MN COLIBRI in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2016-01-29 to 2016-07-27 (NCEI Accession 0160551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160551 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Cap San Lorenzo in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HUDSON, KNORR and others in the Alboran Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1977-11-07 to 1990-04-16 (NODC Accession 9400165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 9400165 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from HUDSON, KNORR, NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE, MELVILLE,...

  19. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Ottawa County Pump Station by Ottawa County Regional Water Treatment Plant and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-06-28 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130587 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1957-10-21 to 1963-08-15 (NCEI Accession 0157734)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157734 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea,...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2016-01-02 to 2017-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157264 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-01-02 to 2008-02-17 (NCEI Accession 0157284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157284 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Davis Strait, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2014-06-07 to 2014-07-17 (NCEI Accession 0157403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157403 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Davis Strait, Inner Sea - West...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-10-24 to 2006-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0157244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157244 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, thermosalinographs and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-03-11 to 2009-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0157275)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157275 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Middle Bay Light, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-01-01 to 2017-05-03 (NCEI Accession 0163754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163754 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station apachepier by Long Bay Hypoxia Monitoring Consortium (LBHMC) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-07-09 (NODC Accession 0118794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accession 0118794 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention (CF)...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-12-20 to 2012-02-09 (NCEI Accession 0157419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157419 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea and others from 2012-04-18 to 2013-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0157393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157393 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic (or...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea and others from 2011-07-26 to 2011-12-28 (NCEI Accession 0157414)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157414 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic (or...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from SKOGAFOSS and Skogafoss in the Labrador Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2015-01-17 to 2016-01-28 (NCEI Accession 0157399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157399 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SKOGAFOSS and Skogafoss in the Labrador Sea, North...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown cruise RB1205 in North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-09-02 to 2012-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0162170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162170 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown Cruise RB1205 in the North...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown cruises RB1301 and RB1302 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-01-08 to 2013-03-04 (NCEI Accession 0162200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162200 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown Cruises RB1301 and RB1302 in...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea and others from 2010-03-02 to 2011-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0157298)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157298 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic (or...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea and others from 2013-02-07 to 2013-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0157381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157381 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from BARCELONA EXPRESS in the Alboran Sea, Balearic (or...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2012-07-21 to 2012-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0157303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157303 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Coastal Waters of...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-04-30 to 2013-12-07 (NODC Accession 0117689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117689 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the SKOGAFOSS in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Greenland Sea and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2004-02-17 to 2005-01-06 (NODC Accession 0112930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112930 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SKOGAFOSS in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Greenland...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Philippine Sea from 2016-05-19 to 2016-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0157249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157249 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Philippine Sea from 2016-05-19 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Allure Of The Seas in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2016-04-10 to 2017-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0163188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163188 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from Allure Of The Seas in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-04 to 1994-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115157 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2003-02-06 to 2003-11-21 (NODC Accession 0081017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081017 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TAISEI MARU in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 1993-01-25 to 1998-03-07 (NODC Accession 0080992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080992 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TAISEI MARU in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, Inland Sea...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and others from 2012-11-15 to 2013-08-16 (NODC Accession 0115256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115256 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-07 to 2010-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0144353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144353 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-07 to 2010-09-30. These data include...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from WELLINGTON MARU in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1988-11-04 to 1988-11-13 (NODC Accession 0080993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080993 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from WELLINGTON MARU in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean,...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2004-02-12 to 2004-12-22 (NODC Accession 0081018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081018 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-05-27 to 2011-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0144345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144345 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2006-12-31 to 2007-12-01 (NODC Accession 0081035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081035 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-06 to 2010-09-17 (NODC Accession 0115170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115170 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-18 to 2013-10-02 (NODC Accession 0117699)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117699 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and...

  14. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station frp2 by Carolinas Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction System (Caro-COOPS) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118736)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118736 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  15. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station dkkf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118750)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118750 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station bdvf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118737)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118737 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station nfb by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-01-29 (NODC Accession 0118790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118790 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  18. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Cedar Point, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-04-03 to 2017-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0163213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163213 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  19. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station pkyf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118761 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  20. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station cherrygrove by Long Bay Hypoxia Monitoring Consortium (LBHMC) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-07-09 (NODC Accession 0118795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accession 0118795 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention (CF)...

  1. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from 45171, Granite Island Buoy, by Northern Michigan University and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2015-07-09 to 2017-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0130588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130588 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  2. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from UMD Coastal Buoy by University of Minnesota - Duluth and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123648)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123648 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  3. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station wrbf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118766 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  4. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station trrf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118764 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  5. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Station 45028, Western Lake Superior, by University of Minnesota - Duluth and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123649 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station poncedeleonsouth by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118775)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118775 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station tas by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-01-22 (NODC Accession 0118792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118792 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station bingslanding by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118735)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118735 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station shp by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-01-29 (NODC Accession 0118791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118791 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station gbtf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118752 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  11. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station racypoint by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-07 to 2016-04-28 (NODC Accession 0118777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118777 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  12. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station mukf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118760 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  13. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station tcvf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118763 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  14. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station lrkf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118759 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  15. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station ilm2 by Coastal Ocean Research and Monitoring Program (CORMP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-04-11 (NODC Accession 0118738)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118738 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from U-GLOS Station 45026, Near Cook Nuclear Plant, by LimnoTech and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123647 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station portorange by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-07 to 2016-04-29 (NODC Accession 0118776)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118776 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  18. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station canf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118747)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118747 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  19. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station sun2 by Carolinas Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction System (Caro-COOPS) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118741)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118741 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  20. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station bcp by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2015-01-29 (NODC Accession 0118786)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118786 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  1. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station A01: South of Gloucester, MA, by University of Maine and assembled by the Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (NERACOOS) in the Gulf of Maine from 2001-07-10 to 2002-03-08 (NCEI Accession 0163363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163363 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  2. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from U-GLOS Station 004, Little Traverse Bay, by University of Michigan and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123643 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2008-02-02 to 2008-11-16 (NODC Accession 0081043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081043 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from SKOGAFOSS and Skogafoss in the Labrador Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2014-03-17 to 2015-01-14 (NCEI Accession 0157406)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157406 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SKOGAFOSS and Skogafoss in the Labrador Sea, North...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to 2006-09-11 (NODC Accession 0117493)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117493 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-03-07 to 2007-10-25 (NODC Accession 0081042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081042 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1983-01-19 to 1989-02-06 (NODC Accession 0080988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080988 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2016-02-20 to 2016-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0160572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160572 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2012-01-05 to 2013-01-08 (NCEI Accession 0157307)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157307 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CAPE HATTERAS in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-01-05 to 2006-05-27 (NODC Accession 0051983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0051983 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CAPE HATTERAS in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2015-01-05 to 2015-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157326 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2012-01-16 to 2012-12-07 (NCEI Accession 0144347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144347 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), Inland Sea (Seto...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2009-01-03 to 2010-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0157349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157349 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, North...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Kaiyo in the Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 1994-01-06 to 1999-11-21 (NODC Accession 0080984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080984 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Kaiyo in the Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea (Sulawesi Sea and...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from S. A. AGULHAS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-01-26 to 2011-01-10 (NODC Accession 0081024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081024 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from S. A. AGULHAS in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2013-01-13 to 2013-12-07 (NODC Accession 0117696)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117696 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2008-04-03 to 2008-11-20 (NODC Accession 0117697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117697 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2006-06-27 to 2006-12-09 (NCEI Accession 0144357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144357 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea,...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATSUSHIMA in the Inland Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1987-01-24 to 1991-03-10 (NODC Accession 0080987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080987 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATSUSHIMA in the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai), North Pacific...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from SOGEN MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 1991-10-08 to 1991-12-31 (NODC Accession 0080991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080991 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOGEN MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2001-11-06 to 2013-04-25 (NODC Accession 0081041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081041 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from OOCL Tianjin in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, East China Sea and others from 2008-09-19 to 2010-02-21 (NODC Accession 0081039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081039 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from OOCL Tianjin in the Channel Islands National Marine...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Gulf of California and North Pacific Ocean from 2006-08-06 to 2006-12-07 (NODC Accession 0084176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0084176 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Gulf of California...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2015-02-23 to 2016-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157224 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Celebrity Equinox in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2010-01-06 to 2010-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0157308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157308 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from S.A. AGULHAS II in the Gulf of Guinea, Indian Ocean and others from 2014-12-05 to 2016-02-10 (NCEI Accession 0160549)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160549 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from S.A. AGULHAS II in the Gulf of Guinea, Indian Ocean,...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Coastal Waters of Louisiana and others from 2016-01-04 to 2016-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0157454)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157454 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from F.G. Walton Smith in the Coastal Waters of Florida,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-01-13 to 2006-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0157345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157345 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-27 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0108232)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108232 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2016-01-02 to 2016-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0160569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160569 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from...

  11. DELTA CARBON-14 collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea and others from 1751-01-01 to 2004-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157105 includes Surface underway and chemical data collected from unknown platforms in the Arabian Sea, Bali Sea, Makassar Strait, North Pacific...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship McARTHUR II in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-06-05 to 2007-07-26 (NODC Accession 0109934)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109934 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship McARTHUR II in the Coastal Waters of SE...

  14. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station lmdf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118757)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118757 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1996-01-01 to 2004-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157733)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157733 includes Surface underway and chemical data collected from unknown platforms in the world-wide oceans from 1996-01-01 to 2004-12-31. These...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea and others from 2014-03-29 to 2015-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0157293)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157293 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Bay of Fundy, Caribbean Sea,...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-03-31 to 2013-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0157260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157260 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea and North...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2015-01-04 to 2015-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0157291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157291 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and others from 2012-03-17 to 2012-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0157280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157280 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-05-29 to 2011-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0115715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115715 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-02-11 to 2013-11-24 (NCEI Accession 0164749)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164749 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-03-01 to 2015-04-07 (NCEI Accession 0157380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157380 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Irish Sea and St. George's...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-22 to 2014-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157359 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-11 to 2007-11-05 (NODC Accession 0115226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115226 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  5. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station melbourne by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FLDEP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-04-29 (NODC Accession 0118773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118773 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station c12 by University of South Florida (USF) Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (USF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-11 (NODC Accession 0118787)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118787 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Perdido Pass, AL by Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory (DISL) and assembled by Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) in the Coastal waters of Alabama and Gulf of Mexico from 2011-11-07 to 2017-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0163767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163767 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from COLUMBUS WAIKATO in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-03-03 to 2006-01-15 (NODC Accession 0080979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080979 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from COLUMBUS WAIKATO in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from CAP VICTOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2006-05-23 to 2006-09-03 (NODC Accession 0080969)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080969 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CAP VICTOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2012-05-08 to 2012-08-12 (NCEI Accession 0157334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157334 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf...

  11. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station fortmyers by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118739 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  12. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station shellpoint by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118784)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118784 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  13. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station lobo by Florida Atlantic University (FAU) Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory (LOBO) (FAU) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-21 to 2014-11-04 (NODC Accession 0118768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118768 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  14. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station tarponbay by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118785 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  15. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station gulfofmexico by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118782)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118782 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station redfishpass by Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation River, Estuary and Coastal Observing Network (SCCF) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118783 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2011-06-27 to 2011-08-31 (NODC Accession 0115710)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115710 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada in the Coastal Waters of SE...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1991-07-27 to 1997-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0157239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157239 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea, English Channel, North Atlantic...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-02-08 to 2004-01-03 (NODC Accession 0081032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081032 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from EXPLORER OF THE SEAS in the Caribbean Sea,...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the SKOGAFOSS in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2003-11-20 to 2003-12-21 (NODC Accession 0112929)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112929 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SKOGAFOSS in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2014-03-09 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0160489)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160489 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Arabian...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2012-01-01 to 2012-12-31 (NODC Accession 0059946)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0059946 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea,...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1983-01-19 to 1989-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0157286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157286 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean,...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea and others from 1999-01-14 to 1999-12-02 (NODC Accession 0081013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081013 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea, Bay of Bengal,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Natalie Schulte in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-10-01 to 2012-06-21 (NODC Accession 0108233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108233 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Natalie Schulte in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean,...

  6. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station ilm3 by Coastal Ocean Research and Monitoring Program (CORMP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-02-01 (NODC Accession 0118742)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accession 0118742 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention (CF)...

  7. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station RECON Michigan, Muskegon, by Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-23 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123651)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123651 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  8. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station ATW20 by University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123639)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123639 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station lbrf1 by Everglades National Park (ENP) and assembled by Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA) in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-13 to 2016-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118755)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118755 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from AEGAEO in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea from 2006-02-08 to 2006-02-13 (NODC Accession 0084543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0084543 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AEGAEO in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea from...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-08-19 to 2012-09-10 (NODC Accession 0117712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117712 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-08-19 to...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-28 to 2011-07-13 (NODC Accession 0117690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117690 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-28 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2012-02-20 to 2012-09-16 (NODC Accession 0115714)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115714 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada in the Coastal Waters of SE...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-11-09 to 1995-12-01 (NODC Accession 0112941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112941 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2013-02-10 to 2013-03-09 (NODC Accession 0116410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116410 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from TANGAROA in the Arafura Sea, Coral Sea and others from 2014-02-03 to 2014-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157248)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157248 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the Arafura Sea, Coral Sea, South Pacific...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-05-08 to 2013-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0157373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157373 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-08-03 to 2013-08-21 (NCEI Accession 0157420)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157420 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-08-03 to...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-13 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157385 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to 2012-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157309 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to...