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Sample records for supratentorial white matter

  1. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

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    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  2. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I.; Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Paus, S.; Wagner, J.; Malter, M.P.; Pruess, H.; Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J.; Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F.; Ufer, F.; Bien, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  3. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, H; Rauer, S; Mader, I; Paus, S; Wagner, J; Malter, M P; Prüss, H; Lewerenz, J; Kassubek, J; Hegen, H; Auer, M; Deisenhammer, F; Ufer, F; Bien, C G; Baumgartner, A

    2015-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE.

  4. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

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    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  5. Hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy involving deep supratentorial regions: does only blood pressure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 42-year-old female patient who presented with high arterial blood pressure of 245/150 mmHg and hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy that involved the brainstem and extensive supratentorial deep gray and white matter. The lesions were nearly completely resolved several days after stabilization of the arterial blood pressure. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging findings and high apparent diffusion coefficient values suggested that the main pathomechanism was vasogenic edema owing to severe hypertension. On the basis of a literature review, the absolute value of blood pressure or whether the patient can control his/her blood pressure seems not to be associated with the degree of the lesions evident on magnetic resonance imaging. It remains to be determined if the acceleration rate and the duration of elevated arterial blood pressure might play a key role in the development of the hypertensive encephalopathy pattern.

  6. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

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    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  7. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  8. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  9. White matter cysts in patients with tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Dosda, R.; Menor, F.; Arana, E.; Poyatos, C.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of cysts in the white matter of the central nervous system of patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an uncommon finding that has been reported only recently in neuroimaging studies. This article assesses the prevalence of these lesions in a large series of patients studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their relationship to other epidemiological and imaging findings. MRI studies were performed in 46 patients (23 males and 23 females) with a mean age of 12.7 years, and the results were examined retrospectively in the search for cortical tubers, subependymal nodules and white matter nodules, lines and cysts. Nine patients (19.6%) presented cysts in white matter. Seven had only one cyst and the remaining two patients each had two. Multiple regression analysis relating the presence of the cysts with other neuroimaging findings in these patients revealed a statistically significant relationship only with white matter nodules (odds ratio: 7.5; p=0.006). White matter cysts are small, supratentorial lesions of deep location. There is a statistically relationship between the presence of these cysts and that of nodular lesions in the white matter. This finding supports the theory that the cyst originate from white matter nodules. (Author) 17 refs

  10. Progressive white-matter disease with primary cerebellar involvement: a separate entity?

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    Yalcinkaya, C. [Division of Child Neurology, Department of Neurology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Arslanoglu, I. [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Paediatrics, Goeztepe Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Islak, C. [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Aydin, A. [Division of Metabolic Disease, Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Boltshauser, E. [Division of Paediatric Neurology, University Children' s Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Although its metabolic basis has not yet been clarified, we report a progressive white-matter disease in a Turkish girl, starting in the cerebellum and spreading to supratentorial white matter. The onset was at the age of 2.5 years with diabetes insipidus, followed by ataxia and pyramidal signs resulting in loss of walking. Aqueduct stenosis was first recognised at the age of 8 years. To our knowledge, this MRI and clinical pattern does not correspond to a recognised, well-defined white-matter disease and may indicate a separate entity. (orig.)

  11. Progressive white-matter disease with primary cerebellar involvement: a separate entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcinkaya, C.; Arslanoglu, I.; Islak, C.; Aydin, A.; Boltshauser, E.

    2002-01-01

    Although its metabolic basis has not yet been clarified, we report a progressive white-matter disease in a Turkish girl, starting in the cerebellum and spreading to supratentorial white matter. The onset was at the age of 2.5 years with diabetes insipidus, followed by ataxia and pyramidal signs resulting in loss of walking. Aqueduct stenosis was first recognised at the age of 8 years. To our knowledge, this MRI and clinical pattern does not correspond to a recognised, well-defined white-matter disease and may indicate a separate entity. (orig.)

  12. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  13. Supratentorial CNS malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Clinical suspicion of a developmental anomaly of the central nervous system (CNS) is a frequent indication for performing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the brain. Classification systems for malformation of the CNS are constantly revised according to newer scientific research. Developmental abnormalities can be classified in two main types. The first category consists of disorders of organogenesis in which genetic defects or any ischemic, metabolic, toxic or infectious insult to the developing brain can cause malformation. These malformations result from abnormal neuronal and glial proliferation and from anomalies of neuronal migration and or cortical organization. They are divided into supra- and infratentorial and may involve grey or white matter or both. The second category of congenital brain abnormalities is disorders of histogenesis which result from abnormal cell differentiation with a relatively normal brain appearance. Supratentorial CNS malformations could be divided into anomalies in telencephalic commissure, holoprosencephalies and malformations in cortical development. There are three main telencephalic commissures: the anterior commissure, the hippocampal commissure and the corpus callosum. Their morphology (hypoplasia, hyperplasia, agenesis, dysgenesis, even atrophy) reflects the development of the brain. Their agenesis, complete or partial, is one of the most commonly observed features in the malformations of the brain and is a part of many syndromes. Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are heterogeneous group of disease which result from disruption of 3 main stages of cortical development. The common clinical presentation is refractory epilepsy and or developmental delay. The most common MCD are heterotopias, focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, pachygyria and lizencephaly. The exact knowledge of the brain anatomy and embryology is mandatory to provide a better apprehension of the

  14. Aging of cerebral white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Yuguo; Zhu, Wen; Leak, Rehana K; Wei, Zhishuo; Wang, Jianyi; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly. In addition, aged WM becomes more susceptible to neurological disorders, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional alterations of WM in natural aging and speculate on the underlying mechanisms. We also discuss how age-related WM changes influence the progression of various brain disorders, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, TBI, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Although the physiology of WM is still poorly understood relative to gray matter, WM is a rational therapeutic target for a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetization transfer changes of grey and white matter in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambasco, N.; Mancini, M.L.; Paciaroni, M.; Gallai, V.; Pelliccioli, G.P.; Chiarini, P.; Leone, F.; Montanari, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Since the attempt to evidence structural brain damage in Parkinson's disease (PD) by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually disappointing, we have investigated whether the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) can reflect changes in grey and white matter of PD patients. MTR was quantified in 44 regions of interest (ROIs) in both grey and white matter of 11 non-demented PD patients, ranging from 2 to 4 on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale, and eight age-matched healthy subjects. MTR differences between patients and controls were found in the supratentorial white matter and in the brainstem. In particular, lower MTR values were found in the paraventricular white matter of PD patients (p < 0.05) while no differences were observed in corpus callosum, frontal, parietal, occipital lobes or centrum semiovalis. Lower MTR values were found in substantia nigra (p < 0.001), red nucleus (p < 0.05) and pons (p < 0.05) of the patient group. No differences were discovered in basal ganglia and thalamus. These findings suggest that MTR measurements in the paraventricular white matter and brainstem may help to recognize a marker for probable PD. (orig.)

  16. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. White matter cysts in patients with tuberous sclerosis; Quistes de sustancia blanca en pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti-Bonmati, L; Dosda, R [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Servicio de Resonancia Magnetica ATQ-Quiron. Valencia (Spain); Menor, F [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain); Arana, E [Hospital Casa de La Salud. Valencia (Spain); Poyatos, C [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The presence of cysts in the white matter of the central nervous system of patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an uncommon finding that has been reported only recently in neuroimaging studies. This article assesses the prevalence of these lesions in a large series of patients studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their relationship to other epidemiological and imaging findings. MRI studies were performed in 46 patients (23 males and 23 females) with a mean age of 12.7 years, and the results were examined retrospectively in the search for cortical tubers, subependymal nodules and white matter nodules, lines and cysts. Nine patients (19.6%) presented cysts in white matter. Seven had only one cyst and the remaining two patients each had two. Multiple regression analysis relating the presence of the cysts with other neuroimaging findings in these patients revealed a statistically significant relationship only with white matter nodules (odds ratio: 7.5; p=0.006). White matter cysts are small, supratentorial lesions of deep location. There is a statistically relationship between the presence of these cysts and that of nodular lesions in the white matter. This finding supports the theory that the cyst originate from white matter nodules. (Author) 17 refs.

  18. White matter disease of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, G.E.; Fernandez, R.E.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Lee, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The white matter disorders that are discussed in this chapter are subdivided into those disorders within which there is breakdown of normal myelin, termed myelinoclastic, and those diseases involving either formation or maintenance of abnormal myeline, termed dysmyelinating. CT is a well-established technique for studying white matter disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique which has shown greater sensitivity to white matter abnormalities. However, because of the rarity of may white matter diseases coupled with limited availability of MR facilities, the MRI experience in evaluating these patients is not extensive yet. Some patients may not be suitable for MRI because of the longer period of patient immobility that is required to avoid motion artifacts

  19. On Describing Human White Matter Anatomy: The White Matter Query Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist’s expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The d...

  20. Spaceflight Effect on White Matter Structural Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica K.; Kopplemans, Vincent; Paternack, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports of elevated brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) counts and volume in postflight astronaut MRIs suggest that further examination of spaceflight's impact on the microstructure of brain white matter is warranted. To this end, retrospective longitudinal diffusion-weighted MRI scans obtained from 15 astronauts were evaluated. In light of the recent reports of microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and gray matter atrophy seen in astronauts, we applied a technique to estimate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics corrected for free water contamination. This approach enabled the analysis of white matter tissue-specific alterations that are unrelated to fluid shifts, occurring from before spaceflight to after landing. After spaceflight, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in an area encompassing the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Increased radial diffusivity (RD) and decreased axial diffusivity (AD) were also detected within overlapping regions. In addition, FA values in the corticospinal tract decreased and RD measures in the precentral gyrus white matter increased from before to after flight. The results show disrupted structural connectivity of white matter in tracts involved in visuospatial processing, vestibular function, and movement control as a result of spaceflight. The findings may help us understand the structural underpinnings of the extensive spaceflight-induced sensorimotor remodeling. Prospective longitudinal assessment of the white matter integrity in astronauts is needed to characterize the evolution of white matter microstructural changes associated with spaceflight, their behavioral consequences, and the time course of recovery. Supported by a grant from the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, NASA NCC 9-58.

  1. Prodominant hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy with supratentorial involvement: Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Park, Sung Tae; Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae; Cha, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brainstem and cerebellar edema are uncommon in association with typical supratentorial changes. We experienced three cases of atypical hypertensive encephalopathy involving brainstem and cerebellum as well as cerebral white matter, which showed characteristic alternating linear bright and low signals in the pons, the so-called 'stripe sign'. We report these cases here with a brief literature review.

  2. Leukoencephalopathy With Vanishing White Matter: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugiani, M.; Boor, I.; Powers, J.M.; Scheper, G.C.; van der Knaap, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Vanishing white matter (VWM) is one of the most prevalent inherited childhood leukoencephalopathies, but this may affect people ofall ages, including neonates and adults. It is a progressive disorder clinically dominated by cerebellar ataxia and in which minor stress conditions, such as fever or

  3. Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugiani, Marianna; Boor, Ilja; Powers, James M.; Scheper, Gert C.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2010-01-01

    Vanishing white matter (VWM) is one of the most prevalent inherited childhood leukoencephalopathies, but this may affect people of all ages, including neonates and adults. It is a progressive disorder clinically dominated by cerebellar ataxia and in which minor stress conditions, such as fever or

  4. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer; Schoepf, Veronika; Burke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  5. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Michael [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  6. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, R.; Schmidt, H.; Haybaeck, J.; Loitfelder, M.; Weis, S.; Cavalieri, M.; Seiler, S.; Enzinger, C.; Ropele, S.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Pantoni, L.; Scheltens, P.; Fazekas, F.; Jellinger, K.

    2011-01-01

    White matter changes occur endemically in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly persons. MRI appearance and histopathological correlates of white matter changes are heterogeneous. Smooth periventricular hyperintensities, including caps around the ventricular horns,

  7. Longitudinal changes in microstructural white matter metrics in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D. Mayo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The current results indicate that sensitivity to white matter microstructure is a promising avenue for AD biomarker research. Additional longitudinal studies on both white and grey matter are warranted to further evaluate potential clinical utility.

  8. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Kessler, H.; Falkai, P.; Retz, W.; Roesler, M.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [de

  9. Anisotropic diffusion within human white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenevert, T.L.; Brunberg, J.A.; Pipe, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements performed to assess the impact of fiber orientation on the apparent diffusion coefficient of human white matter in vivo. Orthogonal section selection pulses and strong motion sensitization gradient pulses were used for localized diffusion measurement along an anteroposteriorly oriented 1 x 1 cm tissue column in the left cerebral hemisphere. This region was selected since white matter fiber orientations are reasonably well defined. Independent acquisitions with motion sensitivity along anteroposterior and right-left directions allowed study of diffusion anisotropy. Motion artifacts were minimized by magnitude summation after one-dimensional Fourier transform of frequency-encoded echoes; consequently, cardiac gating was not required. Five normal volunteers were studied on a 1.5-T clinical MR system

  10. White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0302 TITLE: White Matter Glial Pathology in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Pathology in Autism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0302 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory A. Ordway, Ph.D...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Methods used to directly study the autism brain include brain

  11. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  12. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  13. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. White Matter Pathways and Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Metoki, Athanasia; Alm, Kylie H; Olson, Ingrid R

    2018-04-20

    There is a growing consensus that social cognition and behavior emerge from interactions across distributed regions of the "social brain". Researchers have traditionally focused their attention on functional response properties of these gray matter networks and neglected the vital role of white matter connections in establishing such networks and their functions. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of prior research on structural connectivity in social neuroscience and highlight the importance of this literature in clarifying brain mechanisms of social cognition. We pay particular attention to three key social processes: face processing, embodied cognition, and theory of mind, and their respective underlying neural networks. To fully identify and characterize the anatomical architecture of these networks, we further implement probabilistic tractography on a large sample of diffusion-weighted imaging data. The combination of an in-depth literature review and the empirical investigation gives us an unprecedented, well-defined landscape of white matter pathways underlying major social brain networks. Finally, we discuss current problems in the field, outline suggestions for best practice in diffusion-imaging data collection and analysis, and offer new directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. White matter connectivity and Internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Sang Won; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    Internet use and on-line game play stimulate corticostriatal-limbic circuitry in both healthy subjects and subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that increased fractional anisotropy (FA) with decreased radial diffusivity (RD) would be observed in IGD subjects, compared with healthy control subjects, and that these white matter indices would be associated with clinical variables including duration of illness and executive function. We screened 181 male patients in order to recruit a large number (n = 58) of IGD subjects without psychiatric co-morbidity as well as 26 male healthy comparison subjects. Multiple diffusion-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics was applied to compare group differences in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics between IGD and healthy comparison subjects. IGD subjects had increased FA values within forceps minor, right anterior thalamic radiation, right corticospinal tract, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right cingulum to hippocampus and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) as well as parallel decreases in RD value within forceps minor, right anterior thalamic radiation and IFOF relative to healthy control subjects. In addition, the duration of illness in IGD subjects was positively correlated with the FA values (integrity of white matter fibers) and negatively correlated with RD scores (diffusivity of axonal density) of whole brain white matter. In IGD subjects without psychiatric co-morbidity, our DTI results suggest that increased myelination (increased FA and decreased RD values) in right-sided frontal fiber tracts may be the result of extended game play. PMID:25899390

  16. Age-Related White Matter Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yun Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter changes (WMC are considered manifestation of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and are related to age and vascular risk factors. Most recent studies have shown that WMC are associated with a host of poor outcomes, including cognitive impairment, dementia, urinary incontinence, gait disturbances, depression, and increased risk of stroke and death. Although the clinical relevance of WMC has been extensively studied, to date, only very few clinical trials have evaluated potential symptomatic or preventive treatments for WMC. In this paper, we reviewed the current understanding in the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical importance, chemical biomarkers, and treatments of age-related WMC.

  17. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... sizes for clinical trials with pure WML progression vs combined WML progression-cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Those 394 participants of the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS) study with magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and 3-year follow-up were analyzed. WML progression rating...

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain tumours at 3 T: A potential tool for assessing White matter tract invasion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.J.; Burnet, N.G.; Donovan, T.; Green, H.A.L.; Pena, A.; Antoun, N.M.; Pickard, J.D.; Carpenter, T.A.; Gillard, J.H. E-mail: jhg21@cam.ac.uk

    2003-06-01

    AIM: To determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of brain tumours can demonstrate abnormalities distal to hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and possibly relate these to tumour grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial tumours, both gliomas (high and low grade) and metastases, were imaged at 3 T using T2-weighted and DTI sequences. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn within the tumour, in white matter at various distances from the tumour and in areas of abnormality on DTI that appeared normal on T2-weighted images. The relative anisotropy index (RAI)--a measure of white matter organization, was calculated for these ROI. RESULTS: The abnormality on DTI was larger than that seen on T2-weighted images in 10/13 patients (77%) with high-grade gliomas. New abnormalities were seen in the contralateral white matter in 4/13 (30%) of these cases. In these high-grade tumours the RAI in areas of white matter disruption with normal appearance on T2-weighted images was reduced (0.19{+-}0.04). Even excluding patients with previous radiotherapy this difference remains significant. In all non high-grade tumours (WHO grade II gliomas and metastases) the tumour extent on DTI was identical to the abnormalities shown on T2-weighted imaging and RAI measurements were not reduced (0.3{+-}0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Subtle white matter disruption can be identified using DTI in patients with high-grade gliomas. Such disruption is not identified in association with metastases or low-grade gliomas despite these tumours producing significant mass effect and oedema. We suggest the changes in DTI may be due to tumour infiltration and that the DTI may provide a useful method of detecting occult white matter invasion by gliomas.

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain tumours at 3 T: A potential tool for assessing White matter tract invasion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.J.; Burnet, N.G.; Donovan, T.; Green, H.A.L.; Pena, A.; Antoun, N.M.; Pickard, J.D.; Carpenter, T.A.; Gillard, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of brain tumours can demonstrate abnormalities distal to hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and possibly relate these to tumour grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial tumours, both gliomas (high and low grade) and metastases, were imaged at 3 T using T2-weighted and DTI sequences. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn within the tumour, in white matter at various distances from the tumour and in areas of abnormality on DTI that appeared normal on T2-weighted images. The relative anisotropy index (RAI)--a measure of white matter organization, was calculated for these ROI. RESULTS: The abnormality on DTI was larger than that seen on T2-weighted images in 10/13 patients (77%) with high-grade gliomas. New abnormalities were seen in the contralateral white matter in 4/13 (30%) of these cases. In these high-grade tumours the RAI in areas of white matter disruption with normal appearance on T2-weighted images was reduced (0.19±0.04). Even excluding patients with previous radiotherapy this difference remains significant. In all non high-grade tumours (WHO grade II gliomas and metastases) the tumour extent on DTI was identical to the abnormalities shown on T2-weighted imaging and RAI measurements were not reduced (0.3±0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Subtle white matter disruption can be identified using DTI in patients with high-grade gliomas. Such disruption is not identified in association with metastases or low-grade gliomas despite these tumours producing significant mass effect and oedema. We suggest the changes in DTI may be due to tumour infiltration and that the DTI may provide a useful method of detecting occult white matter invasion by gliomas

  20. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  1. [Research on brain white matter network in cerebral palsy infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong

    2017-10-01

    Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency. Furthermore, we also found that white matter network hub regions were located in the left cuneus, precuneus, and left posterior cingulate gyrus. However, some abnormal nodes existed in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes of cerebral palsy infants. These results indicated that the white matter networks for cerebral palsy infants were disrupted, which was consistent with previous studies about the abnormal brain white matter areas. This work could help us further study the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy infants.

  2. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  3. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is ba...

  4. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  5. White matter volume changes in people who develop psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterfang, Mark; McGuire, Philip K; Yung, Alison R; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Wood, Stephen J; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Brewer, Warrick; Soulsby, Bridget; Desmond, Patricia; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2008-09-01

    Grey matter changes have been described in individuals who are pre- and peri-psychotic, but it is unclear if these changes are accompanied by changes in white matter structures. To determine whether changes in white matter occur prior to and with the transition to psychosis in individuals who are pre-psychotic who had previously demonstrated grey matter reductions in frontotemporal regions. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine regional white matter volume in 75 people with prodromal symptoms. A subset of the original group (n=21) were rescanned at 12-18 months to determine white matter volume changes. Participants were retrospectively categorised according to whether they had or had not developed psychosis at follow-up. Comparison of the baseline MRI data from these two subgroups revealed that individuals who later developed psychosis had larger volumes of white matter in the frontal lobe, particularly in the left hemisphere. Longitudinal comparison of data in individuals who developed psychosis revealed a reduction in white matter volume in the region of the left fronto-occipital fasciculus. Participants who had not developed psychosis showed no reductions in white matter volume but increases in a region subjacent to the right inferior parietal lobule. The reduction in volume of white matter near the left fronto-occipital fasciculus may reflect a change in this tract in association with the onset of frank psychosis.

  6. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. White matter hyperintensities and changes in white matter integrity in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liya; Mao, Hui; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Holder, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the relationship between WMHs and white matter changes in AD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the sensitivity of each DTI index in distinguishing AD with WMHs. Forty-four subjects with WMHs were included. Subjects were classified into three groups based on the Scheltens rating scale: 15 AD patients with mild WMHs, 12 AD patients with severe WMHs, and 17 controls with mild WMHs. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (D R ), and axial diffusivity (D A ) were analyzed using the region of interest and tract-based spatial statistics methods. Sensitivity and specificity of DTI indices in distinguishing AD groups from the controls were evaluated. AD patients with mild WMHs exhibited differences from control subjects in most DTI indices in the medial temporal and frontal areas; however, differences in DTI indices from AD patients with mild WMHs and AD patients with severe WMHs were found in the parietal and occipital areas. FA and D R were more sensitive measurements than MD and D A in differentiating AD patients from controls, while MD was a more sensitive measurement in distinguishing AD patients with severe WMHs from those with mild WMHs. WMHs may contribute to the white matter changes in AD brains, specifically in temporal and frontal areas. Changes in parietal and occipital lobes may be related to the severity of WMHs. D R may serve as an imaging marker of myelin deficits associated with AD. (orig.)

  8. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2012-01-01

    in a periventricular region close to the ventricles and a subcortical zone further away. In this work we present a novel automated method for local white matter lesion volume quantification in magnetic resonance images. The method segments and measures the white matter lesion volume in 43 regions defined...

  9. Astrocytes are central in the pathomechanisms of vanishing white matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooves, Stephanie; Bugiani, Marianna; Postma, Nienke L.; Polder, Emiel; Land, Niels; Horan, Stephen T.; van Deijk, Anne-Lieke F.; van de Kreeke, Aleid; Jacobs, Gerbren; Vuong, Caroline; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten; Wortel, Joke; Loos, Maarten; Wisse, Lisanne E.; Scheper, Gert C.; Abbink, Truus E. M.; Heine, Vivi M.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2016-01-01

    Vanishing white matter (VWM) is a fatal leukodystrophy that is caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Disease onset and severity are codetermined by genotype. White matter astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are almost exclusively affected;

  10. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  11. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  12. Socioeconomic status, white matter, and executive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i.e., a mediating relationship). Alternatively, SES may differentially shape brain-behavior relations such that the relation of white matter structure to EF may differ as a function of SES (i.e., a moderating relationship). In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, we examined socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigated relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks. Socioeconomic status was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume in multiple white matter tracts. Additionally, family income moderated the relation between white matter structure and cognitive flexibility. Specifically, across multiple tracts of interest, lower FA or lower volume was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility among children from lower income families. In contrast, children from higher income families showed preserved cognitive flexibility in the face of low white matter FA or volume. SES factors did not mediate or moderate links between white matter and either working memory or inhibitory control. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the socioeconomic contexts in which children develop not only shape cognitive functioning and its underlying neurobiology, but may also shape the relations between brain and behavior.

  13. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  14. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  15. Medial frontal white and gray matter contributions to general intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Ohtani

    Full Text Available The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC are part of a wider neural network that plays an important role in general intelligence and executive function. We used structural brain imaging to quantify magnetic resonance gray matter volume and diffusion tensor white matter integrity of the mOFC-rACC network in 26 healthy participants who also completed neuropsychological tests of intellectual abilities and executive function. Stochastic tractography, the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging method for examining white matter connections between adjacent gray matter regions, was employed to assess the integrity of mOFC-rACC pathways. Fractional anisotropy (FA, which reflects the integrity of white matter connections, was calculated. Results indicated that higher intelligence correlated with greater gray matter volumes for both mOFC and rACC, as well as with increased FA for left posterior mOFC-rACC connectivity. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DTI-derived FA of left posterior mOFC-rACC uniquely accounted for 29%-34% of the variance in IQ, in comparison to 11%-16% uniquely explained by gray matter volume of the left rACC. Together, left rACC gray matter volume and white matter connectivity between left posterior mOFC and rACC accounted for up to 50% of the variance in general intelligence. This study is to our knowledge the first to examine white matter connectivity between OFC and ACC, two gray matter regions of interests that are very close in physical proximity, and underscores the important independent contributions of variations in rACC gray matter volume and mOFC-rACC white matter connectivity to individual differences in general intelligence.

  16. MR imaging of white-matter diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Mathews, K.; Wiese, J.; Kao, S.; Schreiber, A.; Farner, R.; Smith, W.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging has become a valuable tool in the investigation of central nervous system abnormalities in children. This exhibit displays the MR imaging patterns in 30 children with diseases involving the white matter. Clinical, CT, and pathologic findings will be presented for comparison. The white matter disease entities studies include acquired white matter diseases, metabolic diseases, and phycomatoses. Specific examples include acute dissemination encephalomyelitis, anoxic encephalopathy, disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, demyelinating adrenoleukodystrophy, Krabbe disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher disease, neurofibromatosis, and Sturge-Weber syndrome

  17. Menopausal Hot Flashes and White Matter Hyperintensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Derby, Carol A.; Sejdić, Ervin; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes are the classic menopausal symptom. Emerging data links hot flashes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet how hot flashes are related to brain health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between hot flashes - measured via physiologic monitor and self-report - and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) among midlife women. Methods Twenty midlife women ages 40-60 without clinical CVD, with their uterus and both ovaries, and not taking hormone therapy were recruited. Women underwent 24 hours of ambulatory physiologic and diary hot flash monitoring to quantify hot flashes; magnetic resonance imaging to assess WMH burden; 72 hours of actigraphy and questionnaires to quantify sleep; and a blood draw, questionnaires, and physical measures to quantify demographics and CVD risk factors. Test of a priori hypotheses regarding relations between physiologically-monitored and self-reported wake and sleep hot flashes and WMH were conducted in linear regression models. Results More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH, controlling for age, race, and body mass index [beta(standard error)=.0002 (.0001), p=.03]. Findings persisted controlling for sleep characteristics and additional CVD risk factors. No relations were observed for self-reported hot flashes. Conclusions More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH burden among midlife women free of clinical CVD. Results suggest that relations between hot flashes and CVD risk observed in the periphery may extend to the brain. Future work should consider the unique role of sleep hot flashes in brain health. PMID:26057822

  18. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  19. Genetic disorders affecting white matter in the pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Maja; Biancheri, Roberta; Rossi, Andrea; Filocamo, Mirella; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2004-08-15

    Pediatric white matter disorders can be distinguished into well-defined leukoencephalopathies, and undefined leukoencephalopathies. The first category may be subdivided into: (a) hypomyelinating disorders; (b) dysmyelinating disorders; (c) leukodystrophies; (d) disorders related to cystic degeneration of myelin; and (e) disorders secondary to axonal damage. The second category, representing up to 50% of leukoencephalopathies in childhood, requires a multidisciplinar approach in order to define novel homogeneous subgroups of patients, possibly representing "new genetic disorders" (such as megalencephalic leukoencepahlopathy with subcortical cysts and vanishing white matter disease that have recently been identified). In the majority of cases, pediatric white matter disorders are inherited diseases. An integrated description of the clinical, neuroimaging and pathophysiological features is crucial for categorizing myelin disorders and better understanding their genetic basis. A review of the genetic disorders affecting white matter in the pediatric age, including some novel entities, is provided. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy : white matter abnormalities and cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, H.M.H.; Vaessen, M.J.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Debeij-van Hall, M.H.J.A.; Louw, de A.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Vles, J.S.H.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Backes, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Its etiology remains unknown. With diffusion tensor imaging, we have studied cerebral white matter properties and associations with cognitive functioning in children with FLE and healthy controls.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  2. MR imaging of metabolic white matter diseases: Therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Allen, R.

    1987-01-01

    In metabolic diseases affecting the brain, MR imaging abnormalities include white-matter signal aberrations suggesting myelination delay, dysmyelination and demyelination, pathologic iron storage, and finally, loss of substance usually in a nonspecific pattern. The authors suggest that MR imaging may have therapeutic implications: (1) classic galactosemia - white-matter signal aberration became normal after dietary therapy; (2) phenylketonuria - age- and sex-matched treated and nontreated adolescents showed marked differences in brain volume, with the treated patient's volume nearly normal; (3) maple syrup urine disease - gross white-matter signal aberration became nearly normal after dietary therapy; and (4) hyperglycinemia - relentless progression of white-matter signal aberration and loss of brain substance despite therapy. These data suggest that brain MR imaging may provide a therapeutic index in certain metabolic diseases

  3. MR imaging of white matter lesions in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.L.; Longo, F.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy reports have shown white-matter abnormalities from infection of the brain by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors observed abnormal signal on T2-weighted images in the white matter of approximately one third of all AIDS patients. Of 50 patients with white-matter lesions, approximately two thirds had no clinical or biopsy evidence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, PML, or lymphoma. Several patients were shown at autopsy to have isolated evidence of HIV encephalitis. The authors conclude that white-matter lesions are common in AIDS and are frequently caused by infection with HIV. Some MR findings may be helpful in characterizing these lesions, but the various etiologies are often indistinguishable

  4. Structural white matter abnormalities in patients with idiopathic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; de Vries, Paulien M.; Vincent, Diana J.; Rorden, Chris; Morgan, Paul S.; Hurd, Mark W.; Besenski, Nada; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Hinson, Vanessa K.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether structural white matter abnormalities, in the form of disruption of axonal coherence and integrity as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), constitute an underlying pathological mechanism of idiopathic dystonia (ID), independent of genotype status. We studied seven

  5. Genetics Home Reference: leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Torres C, Pröschel C. EIF2B5 mutations compromise GFAP+ astrocyte generation in vanishing white matter leukodystrophy. Nat Med. ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  6. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2006-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA th...

  7. Diminished white matter integrity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that changes in regional white matter integrity, in terms of a decrease in FA, are present not only in NPSLE patients, but also in non-NPSLE patients, though to a lesser degree. We also demonstrate that the way statistical maps are corrected for multiple comparisons has a profound influence on whether alterations in white matter integrity in non-NPSLE patients are deemed significant.

  8. Mapping White Matter Microstructure in the One Month Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D C; Planalp, E M; Wooten, W; Adluru, N; Kecskemeti, S R; Frye, C; Schmidt, C K; Schmidt, N L; Styner, M A; Goldsmith, H H; Davidson, R J; Alexander, A L

    2017-08-29

    White matter microstructure, essential for efficient and coordinated transmission of neural communications, undergoes pronounced development during the first years of life, while deviations to this neurodevelopmental trajectory likely result in alterations of brain connectivity relevant to behavior. Hence, systematic evaluation of white matter microstructure in the normative brain is critical for a neuroscientific approach to both typical and atypical early behavioral development. However, few studies have examined the infant brain in detail, particularly in infants under 3 months of age. Here, we utilize quantitative techniques of diffusion tensor imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging to investigate neonatal white matter microstructure in 104 infants. An optimized multiple b-value diffusion protocol was developed to allow for successful acquisition during non-sedated sleep. Associations between white matter microstructure measures and gestation corrected age, regional asymmetries, infant sex, as well as newborn growth measures were assessed. Results highlight changes of white matter microstructure during the earliest periods of development and demonstrate differential timing of developing regions and regional asymmetries. Our results contribute to a growing body of research investigating the neurobiological changes associated with neurodevelopment and suggest that characteristics of white matter microstructure are already underway in the weeks immediately following birth.

  9. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  10. In vivo evidence of cerebellar atrophy and cerebral white matter loss in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fennema-Notestine, C; Archibald, S.L.; Jacobsen, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    and education. Primary analyses defined six subcortical regions, the gray and white matter of primary cortical lobes and cerebellum, and abnormal signal in the cerebral white matter. RESULTS: As expected, basal ganglia and cerebral cortical gray matter volumes were significantly smaller in HD. The HD group also...... demonstrated significant cerebral white matter loss and an increase in the amount of abnormal signal in the white matter; occipital white matter appeared more affected than other cerebral white matter regions. Cortical gray and white matter measures were significantly related to caudate volume. Cerebellar gray...

  11. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  12. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm/sup 2/) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author).

  13. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  14. Abnormalities in white matter microstructure associated with chronic ketamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Roberts, R; Curran, H Valerie; Friston, Karl J; Morgan, Celia J A

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been found to induce schizophrenia-type symptoms in humans and is a potent and fast-acting antidepressant. It is also a relatively widespread drug of abuse, particularly in China and the UK. Acute administration has been well characterized, but the effect of extended periods of ketamine use-on brain structure in humans-remains poorly understood. We measured indices of white matter microstructural integrity and connectivity in the brain of 16 ketamine users and 16 poly-drug-using controls, and we used probabilistic tractography to quantify changes in corticosubcortical connectivity associated with ketamine use. We found a reduction in the axial diffusivity profile of white matter in a right hemisphere network of white matter regions in ketamine users compared with controls. Within the ketamine-user group, we found a significant positive association between the connectivity profile between the caudate nucleus and the lateral prefrontal cortex and dissociative experiences. These findings suggest that chronic ketamine use may be associated with widespread disruption of white matter integrity, and white matter pathways between subcortical and prefrontal cortical areas may in part predict individual differences in dissociative experiences due to ketamine use.

  15. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2007-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA than control subjects. Group differences remained significant when right and left frontal Trace and FA were analyzed. Groups did not differ significantly in posterior Trace or FA. Kleptomania may be associated with decreased white matter microstructural integrity in inferior frontal brain regions. PMID:16956753

  16. Scalable Brain Network Construction on White Matter Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Moo K; Adluru, Nagesh; Dalton, Kim M; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J

    2011-02-12

    DTI offers a unique opportunity to characterize the structural connectivity of the human brain non-invasively by tracing white matter fiber tracts. Whole brain tractography studies routinely generate up to half million tracts per brain, which serves as edges in an extremely large 3D graph with up to half million edges. Currently there is no agreed-upon method for constructing the brain structural network graphs out of large number of white matter tracts. In this paper, we present a scalable iterative framework called the ε-neighbor method for building a network graph and apply it to testing abnormal connectivity in autism.

  17. Differential diagnosis of the epileptogenic supratentorial brain tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Khalilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six out of 79 pediatric patients with supratentorial brain tumors were noted to have symptomatic epilepsy. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET, diffuse astrocytomas (DA, and gangliogliomas (GG were the most epileptogenic tumors. Seizures were new-onset in all our noted cases of DNET and in 4 patients with GG and the only clinical tumor sign in 6 of 8 cases of DNET. The neuroimaging features of the MRI pattern of DNET, DA, and GG were an iso/hypointense signal on Tl-weighted magnetic resonance images and a signal, the intensity of which varied from heterogeneous to cerebrospinal fluid, on T2-weighted FLAIR images. Cases of DNET and GG displayed no mass effect or perifocal edema, a trend towards location in the temporoinsular regions, and a frequent concurrence with local gray-white matter differentiation disorders and atrophy. The FLAIR images clearly showed the so-called foam-like (multicystic structure with pericystic changes. No significant change in the dimensions of the identified DNET and GG was observed during the follow up period. In low-grade DA, tumor growth was reduced and it is difficult to differentiate minimal perifocal edema from tumor-like tissue. The sensitivity of these tumors to contrast enhancement is ambiguous. Along with DNET (that was epileptogenic in 100% of cases, DA (91,7% and GG (80% were the most common epileptogenic brain tumors.

  18. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia V. Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii tractography-based analysis, and using (iii whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores, and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be

  19. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE MATTER CONNECTIVITY BASED ON THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY AND THE VOLUMETRIC WHITE MATTER PARCELLATIONS BASED ON DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Hyekyoung; Chung, Moo K.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Avants, Brian B.; Gee, James C.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating white matter connectivity using a novel computational framework that does not use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) but only uses T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed method relies on correlating Jacobian determinants across different voxels based on the tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework. In this paper, we show agreement between the TBM-based white matter connectivity and the DTI-based white matter atlas. As an application, altered white ...

  20. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  1. White matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering: Lessons from tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Civier, Oren; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter. We compare the diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways. We complement the analysis with an overview of the methodology and a roadmap of the pathways implicated in PDS according to the existing literature. We report differences in the microstructural properties of the anterior callosum, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right cingulum in people who stutter compared with fluent controls. Persistent developmental stuttering is consistently associated with differences in bilateral distributed networks. We review evidence showing that PDS involves differences in bilateral dorsal fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal pathways, in callosal pathways, in several motor pathways and in basal ganglia connections. This entails an important role for long range white matter pathways in this disorder. Using a wide-lens analysis, we demonstrate differences in additional, right hemispheric pathways, which go beyond the replicable findings in the literature. This suggests that the affected circuits may extend beyond the known language and motor pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial characteristics of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. White (Tonya); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); B.C. Ho (Beng ); D.S. Manoach (Dara); A. Caprihan (Arvind); S.C. Schulz (S. Charles); N.C. Andreasen; R.L. Gollub (Randy); V.D. Calhoun (Vince); V. Magnotta

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere is considerable evidence implicating brain white matter (WM) abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; however, the spatial localization of WM abnormalities reported in the existing studies is heterogeneous. Thus, the goal of this study was to quantify the spatial

  3. White Matter Volume Predicts Language Development in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Caitlin K; Asaro, Lisa A; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Kussman, Barry D; Rivkin, Michael J; Bellinger, David C; Warfield, Simon K; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W; Soul, Janet S

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether brain volume is reduced at 1 year of age and whether these volumes are associated with neurodevelopment in biventricular congenital heart disease (CHD) repaired in infancy. Infants with biventricular CHD (n = 48) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental testing with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories at 1 year of age. A multitemplate based probabilistic segmentation algorithm was applied to volumetric MRI data. We compared volumes with those of 13 healthy control infants of comparable ages. In the group with CHD, we measured Spearman correlations between neurodevelopmental outcomes and the residuals from linear regression of the volumes on corrected chronological age at MRI and sex. Compared with controls, infants with CHD had reductions of 54 mL in total brain (P = .009), 40 mL in cerebral white matter (P Development-II scores but did correlate positively with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory language development. Infants with biventricular CHD show total brain volume reductions at 1 year of age, driven by differences in cerebral white matter. White matter volume correlates with language development, but not broader developmental indices. These findings suggest that abnormalities in white matter development detected months after corrective heart surgery may contribute to language impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00006183. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Visualizing White Matter Structure of the Brain using Dijkstra's Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Zinterhof, P; Loncaric, S; Uhl, A; Carini, A

    2009-01-01

    An undirected weighted graph may be constructed from diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data. Every node represents a voxel and the edge weights between nodes represent the white matter connectivity between neighboring voxels. In this paper we propose and test a new method for calculating

  5. White Matter Damage and Cognitive Impairment after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria; Greenwood, Richard; Powell, Jane Hilary; Leech, Robert; Hawkins, Peter Charlie; Bonnelle, Valerie; Patel, Maneesh Chandrakant; Counsell, Serena Jane; Sharp, David James

    2011-01-01

    White matter disruption is an important determinant of cognitive impairment after brain injury, but conventional neuroimaging underestimates its extent. In contrast, diffusion tensor imaging provides a validated and sensitive way of identifying the impact of axonal injury. The relationship between cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury…

  6. Bilirubin and its oxidation products damage brain white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakovic, Katarina; Ai, Jinglu; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Tariq, Asma; Sabri, Mohammed; Alarfaj, Abdullah K; Vasdev, Punarjot; Macdonald, Robert Loch

    2014-01-01

    Brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs in cortex and white matter and may be mediated by blood breakdown products, including hemoglobin and heme. Effects of blood breakdown products, bilirubin and bilirubin oxidation products, have not been widely investigated in adult brain. Here, we first determined the effect of bilirubin and its oxidation products on the structure and function of white matter in vitro using brain slices. Subsequently, we determined whether these compounds have an effect on the structure and function of white matter in vivo. In all, 0.5 mmol/L bilirubin treatment significantly damaged both the function and the structure of myelinated axons but not the unmyelinated axons in brain slices. Toxicity of bilirubin in vitro was prevented by dimethyl sulfoxide. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) may be responsible for the toxicity of bilirubin. In in vivo experiments, unmyelinated axons were found more susceptible to damage from bilirubin injection. These results suggest that unmyelinated axons may have a major role in white-matter damage in vivo. Since bilirubin and BOXes appear in a delayed manner after ICH, preventing their toxic effects may be worth investigating therapeutically. Dimethyl sulfoxide or its structurally related derivatives may have a potential therapeutic value at antagonizing axonal damage after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:25160671

  7. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD...

  9. Paradoxical embolisation and cerebral white matter lesions in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; McCollum, C.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE), patent foramen ovale (PFO) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on cerebral MRI in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). SCE were identified by transcranial Doppler of the middle

  10. White matter tract integrity in treatment-resistant gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Derbyshire, Katherine; Daws, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder recently re-classified within the DSM-5 under the category of ‘substance-related and addictive disorders’. Aims: To compare white matter integrity in patients with gambling disorder with healthy controls; to explore...

  11. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi T. Ngo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children’s performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Keywords: White matter, Memory development, Episodic memory, Diffusion weighted imaging

  12. White matter hyperintensities and working memory : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Barbera; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scheltens, Philip; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Oosterman, J

    2008-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly observed in elderly people and may have the most profound effect on executive functions, including working memory. Surprisingly, the Digit Span backward, a frequently employed working memory task, reveals no association with WMH. In the present study,

  13. Early and extensive spinal white matter involvement in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Shotaro; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Yonekawa, Tomomi; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hiwatashi, Akio; Matsushita, Takuya; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Yamasaki, Ryo; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Iwaki, Toru; Murai, Hiroyuki; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Studies of longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) have focused on gray matter, where the relevant antigen, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is abundant. Because spinal white matter pathology in NMO is not well characterized, we aimed to clarify spinal white matter pathology of LESCLs in NMO. We analyzed 50 spinal cord lesions from eleven autopsied NMO/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) cases. We also evaluated LESCLs with three or fewer spinal cord attacks by 3-tesla MRI in 15 AQP4 antibody-positive NMO/NMOSD patients and in 15 AQP4 antibody-negative multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Pathological analysis revealed seven cases of AQP4 loss and four predominantly demyelinating cases. Forty-four lesions from AQP4 loss cases involved significantly more frequently posterior columns (PC) and lateral columns (LC) than anterior columns (AC) (59.1%, 63.6%, and 34.1%, respectively). The posterior horn (PH), central portion (CP), and anterior horn (AH) were similarly affected (38.6%, 36.4% and 31.8%, respectively). Isolated perivascular inflammatory lesions with selective loss of astrocyte endfoot proteins, AQP4 and connexin 43, were present only in white matter and were more frequent in PC and LC than in AC (22.7%, 29.5% and 2.3%, P corr  = 0.020, and P corr  = 0.004, respectively). MRI indicated LESCLs more frequently affected PC and LC than AC in anti-AQP4 antibody-seropositive NMO/NMOSD (86.7%, 60.0% and 20.0%, P corr  = 0.005, and P corr  = 0.043, respectively) and AQP4 antibody-seronegative MS patients (86.7%, 73.3% and 33.3%, P corr  = 0.063, and P corr  = 0.043, respectively). PH, CP and AH were involved in 93.3%, 86.7% and 73.3% of seropositive patients, respectively, and in 53.3%, 60.0% and 40.0% of seronegative patients, respectively. NMO frequently and extensively affects spinal white matter in addition to central gray matter, especially in PC and LC, where isolated perivascular lesions with astrocyte endfoot

  14. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  15. Strength of Temporal White Matter Pathways Predicts Semantic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Biel, Davina; Peñaloza, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jörn; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Noesselt, Toemme; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-11-15

    Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber tracking. Critically, the automatic method allowed assessing the white matter microstructure along the tract. Results demonstrate that the microstructural properties of the left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus predict contextual learning, whereas the left uncinate was associated with cross-situational learning. In addition, we identified regions of special importance within these pathways: the posterior middle temporal gyrus, thought to serve as a lexical interface and specifically related to contextual learning; the anterior temporal lobe, known to be an amodal hub for semantic processing and related to cross-situational learning; and the white matter near the hippocampus, a structure fundamental for the initial stages of new-word learning and, remarkably, related to both types of word learning. No significant associations were found for the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus or the arcuate. While previous results suggest that learning new phonological word forms is mediated by the arcuate fasciculus, these findings show that the temporal pathways are the crucial neural substrate supporting one of the most striking human abilities: our capacity to identify correct associations between words and meanings under referential indeterminacy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The language-processing network is cortically (i.e., gray matter) well defined. However, the role of the

  16. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  17. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, Efrat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Neurosurgery, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  18. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, Efrat; Boop, Frederick A.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods

  19. Distinct white matter abnormalities in different idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences between controls and two subsets of IGE, namely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only (IGE-GTC). We assessed white matter integrity and gray matter volume using diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of fractional anisotropy and voxel-based morphometry, respectively, in 25 patients with IGE, all of whom had experienced generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Specifically, 15 patients with JME and 10 patients with IGE-GTC were compared to two groups of similarly matched controls separately. Correlations between total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures and fractional anisotropy were investigated for both groups. Tractography revealed lower fractional anisotropy in specific tracts including the crus of the fornix, body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tracts in JME with respect to controls, whereas there were no fractional anisotropy differences in IGE-GTC. No correlation was found between fractional anisotropy and total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures for either JME or IGE-GTC. Although false discovery rate-corrected voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no gray matter volume differences between patient and control groups, spatial extent cluster-corrected VBM analysis suggested a trend of gray matter volume reduction in frontal and central regions in both patient groups, more lateral in JME and more medial in IGE-GTC. The findings support the idea that the clinical syndromes of JME and IGE-GTC have unique anatomic substrates. The fact that the primary clinical

  20. The effects of white matter hyperintensities and amyloid deposition on Alzheimer dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The amount of amyloid deposition and white matter damage independently predicts cognitive impairment. This suggests a diagnostic utility of qualitative white matter scales in addition to measuring amyloid levels.

  1. Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities

  2. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.White_Matter [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.White_Matter hg19 Histone Neural White Matter SRX998282,SRX1096828...,SRX998280,SRX1096827 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.White_Matter.bed ...

  6. Exploring the multiple-hit hypothesis of preterm white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L. Barnett

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests multiple perinatal risk factors have an independent association with diffuse white matter injury at term equivalent age and exposure to multiple perinatal risk factors exacerbates dMRI defined, clinically significant white matter injury. Our findings support the multiple hit hypothesis for preterm white matter injury.

  7. Occipital deep white matter hyperintensity as seen by MRI, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Masahito; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 270 patients with various neurologic complaints (1-15Y) with a 0.5 tesla superconducting imaging system using a field echo T1-weighted sequence and spin echo T2-weighted and PD-weighted sequences. Twenty-seven of them had deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) in the occipital lobe on T2-weighted images. The frequency of mild DWMH differed in different age groups, suggesting that mild DWMH may result from delayed myelination in the central nervous system. However, the frequency of severe DWMH, which was revealed as isointense relative to cerebrospinal fluid, did not differ in different age groups and it was significantly more common in severely retarded patients. Classification of DWMH based on the signal intensity is valuable to distinguish white matter abnormalities in the occipital lobe from delayed myelination in the same site. (author)

  8. ABCD1 dysfunction alters white matter microvascular perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauer, Arne; Da, Xiao; Hansen, Mikkel Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which lead to a rapidly progressive cerebral inflammatory demyelination in up to 60% of affected males. Selective brain endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability...... of the blood–brain barrier suggest that white matter microvascular dysfunction contributes to the conversion to cerebral disease. Applying a vascular model to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic reson- ance perfusion imaging, we demonstrate that lack of ABCD1 function causes increased...... capillary flow heterogeneity in asymptom- atic hemizygotes predominantly in the white matter regions and developmental stages with the highest probability for conversion to cerebral disease. In subjects with ongoing inflammatory demyelination we observed a sequence of increased capillary flow hetero...

  9. White dwarf stars as strange quark matter detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O G [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstroFisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y GeoFisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-11-01

    We show that the presence of a strange matter core inside a white dwarf (WD) star produces a drastic change in the spectrum of non-radial oscillations in the range of periods corresponding to gravity modes. The distinctive, observable signal for such a core is a very short period spacing between consecutive modes, far shorter than in the case of pulsating WDs without any compact core. (letter to the editor)

  10. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7-16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n=22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n=39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty×age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T; Alm, Kylie H; Metoki, Athanasia; Hampton, William; Riggins, Tracy; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-12-01

    Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children's performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years.Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait.

  13. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Becker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18–20 years old at baseline regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment.

  14. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Never forget a name: white matter connectivity predicts person memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoki, Athanasia; Alm, Kylie H.; Wang, Yin; Ngo, Chi T.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2018-01-01

    Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the UF supports associative memory processes and that this tract can be parcellated into subtracts that support specific types of memory. Healthy young adults performed behavioral tasks (two face-name learning tasks, one word pair memory task) and underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. Our results revealed that variation in UF microstructure was significantly associated with individual differences in performance on both face-name tasks, as well as the word association memory task. A UF sub-tract, functionally defined by its connectivity between face-selective regions in the anterior temporal lobe and orbitofrontal cortex, selectively predicted face-name learning. In contrast, connectivity between the fusiform face patch and both anterior face patches had no predictive validity. These findings suggest that there is a robust and replicable relationship between the UF and associative learning and memory. Moreover, this large white matter pathway can be subdivided to reveal discrete functional profiles. PMID:28646241

  16. White matter sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourisly Ali K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-biased psychophysiology, behavior, brain function, and conditions are extensive, yet underlying structural brain mechanisms remain unclear. There is contradicting evidence regarding sexual dimorphism when it comes to brain structure, and there is still no consensus on whether or not there exists such a dimorphism for brain white matter. Therefore, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis along with global volume analysis for white matter across sex. We analyzed 384 T1-weighted MRI brain images (192 male, 192 female to investigate any differences in white matter (WM between males and females. In the VBM analysis, we found males to have larger WM, compared to females, in occipital, temporal, insular, parietal, and frontal brain regions. In contrast, females showed only one WM region to be significantly larger than males: the right postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe region. Although, on average, males showed larger global WM volume, we did not find any significant difference in global WM volume between males and females.

  17. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2006-01-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data

  18. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE MATTER CONNECTIVITY BASED ON THE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY AND THE VOLUMETRIC WHITE MATTER PARCELLATIONS BASED ON DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Hyekyoung; Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Avants, Brian B; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating white matter connectivity using a novel computational framework that does not use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) but only uses T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed method relies on correlating Jacobian determinants across different voxels based on the tensor-based morphometry (TBM) framework. In this paper, we show agreement between the TBM-based white matter connectivity and the DTI-based white matter atlas. As an application, altered white matter connectivity in a clinical population is determined.

  19. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d?Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional ...

  20. DEWS (DEep White matter hyperintensity Segmentation framework): A fully automated pipeline for detecting small deep white matter hyperintensities in migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Seung-Hak; Cha, Jihoon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Hyunjin

    2018-01-01

    Migraineurs show an increased load of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and more rapid deep WMH progression. Previous methods for WMH segmentation have limited efficacy to detect small deep WMHs. We developed a new fully automated detection pipeline, DEWS (DEep White matter hyperintensity Segmentation framework), for small and superficially-located deep WMHs. A total of 148 non-elderly subjects with migraine were included in this study. The pipeline consists of three components: 1) white matter (WM) extraction, 2) WMH detection, and 3) false positive reduction. In WM extraction, we adjusted the WM mask to re-assign misclassified WMHs back to WM using many sequential low-level image processing steps. In WMH detection, the potential WMH clusters were detected using an intensity based threshold and region growing approach. For false positive reduction, the detected WMH clusters were classified into final WMHs and non-WMHs using the random forest (RF) classifier. Size, texture, and multi-scale deep features were used to train the RF classifier. DEWS successfully detected small deep WMHs with a high positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.98 and true positive rate (TPR) of 0.70 in the training and test sets. Similar performance of PPV (0.96) and TPR (0.68) was attained in the validation set. DEWS showed a superior performance in comparison with other methods. Our proposed pipeline is freely available online to help the research community in quantifying deep WMHs in non-elderly adults.

  1. QCD matter in white dwarfs and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, M.; Lan, N.Q.; Suh, I.-S.

    2010-01-01

    The search for astrophysical evidence for a transition to QCD matter is an important goal. Although much effort has gone into searching for neutron star candidates, here we describe the exploration of two other possible signatures. One is the search for strange dwarfs. Masses and radii for a large number of white dwarfs have been deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures, and binary or spectroscopic masses. Some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equation of state. We argue that there is marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs that are possible candidates for strange matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis. We also review the current status of core-collapse supernova research, and in particular, the effects on the explosion of a QCD phase transition in the proto-neutron-star core. We describe how a first order transition could enhance the explosion and lead to observable effects in the emergent neutrino light curve. (author)

  2. Automated detection of Lupus white matter lesions in MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Roura Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed information which can be used to detect and segment white matter lesions (WML. In this work we propose an approach to automatically segment WML in Lupus patients by using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images. Lupus WML appear as small focal abnormal tissue observed as hyperintensities in the FLAIR images. The quantification of these WML is a key factor for the stratification of lupus patients and therefore both lesion detection and segmentation play an important role. In our approach, the T1w image is first used to classify the three main tissues of the brain, white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, while the FLAIR image is then used to detect focal WML as outliers of its GM intensity distribution. A set of post-processing steps based on lesion size, tissue neighborhood, and location are used to refine the lesion candidates. The proposal is evaluated on 20 patients, presenting qualitative and quantitative results in terms of precision and sensitivity of lesion detection (True Positive Rate (62% and Positive Prediction Value (80% respectively as well as segmentation accuracy (Dice Similarity Coefficient (72%. Obtained results illustrate the validity of the approach to automatically detect and segment lupus lesions. Besides, our approach is publicly available as a SPM8/12 toolbox extension with a simple parameter configuration.

  3. Frontoparietal white matter integrity predicts haptic performance in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Borstad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontoparietal white matter supports information transfer between brain areas involved in complex haptic tasks such as somatosensory discrimination. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between microstructural integrity of frontoparietal network white matter and haptic performance in persons with chronic stroke and to compare frontoparietal network integrity in participants with stroke and age matched control participants. Nineteen individuals with stroke and 16 controls participated. Haptic performance was quantified using the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe, an 18-item match-to-sample test of weight and texture discrimination. Three tesla MRI was used to obtain diffusion-weighted and high-resolution anatomical images of the whole brain. Probabilistic tractography was used to define 10 frontoparietal tracts total; Four intrahemispheric tracts measured bilaterally 1 thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex (T–S1, 2 thalamus to primary motor cortex (T–M1, 3 primary to secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 to SII and 4 primary somatosensory cortex to middle frontal gyrus (S1 to MFG and, 2 interhemispheric tracts; S1–S1 and precuneus interhemispheric. A control tract outside the network, the cuneus interhemispheric tract, was also examined. The diffusion metrics fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial (AD and radial diffusivity (RD were quantified for each tract. Diminished FA and elevated MD values are associated with poorer white matter integrity in chronic stroke. Nine of 10 tracts quantified in the frontoparietal network had diminished structural integrity poststroke compared to the controls. The precuneus interhemispheric tract was not significantly different between groups. Principle component analysis across all frontoparietal white matter tract MD values indicated a single factor explained 47% and 57% of the variance in tract mean diffusivity in stroke and control groups respectively

  4. Frontoparietal white matter integrity predicts haptic performance in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstad, Alexandra L; Choi, Seongjin; Schmalbrock, Petra; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Frontoparietal white matter supports information transfer between brain areas involved in complex haptic tasks such as somatosensory discrimination. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between microstructural integrity of frontoparietal network white matter and haptic performance in persons with chronic stroke and to compare frontoparietal network integrity in participants with stroke and age matched control participants. Nineteen individuals with stroke and 16 controls participated. Haptic performance was quantified using the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe), an 18-item match-to-sample test of weight and texture discrimination. Three tesla MRI was used to obtain diffusion-weighted and high-resolution anatomical images of the whole brain. Probabilistic tractography was used to define 10 frontoparietal tracts total; Four intrahemispheric tracts measured bilaterally 1) thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex (T-S1), 2) thalamus to primary motor cortex (T-M1), 3) primary to secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 to SII) and 4) primary somatosensory cortex to middle frontal gyrus (S1 to MFG) and, 2 interhemispheric tracts; S1-S1 and precuneus interhemispheric. A control tract outside the network, the cuneus interhemispheric tract, was also examined. The diffusion metrics fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were quantified for each tract. Diminished FA and elevated MD values are associated with poorer white matter integrity in chronic stroke. Nine of 10 tracts quantified in the frontoparietal network had diminished structural integrity poststroke compared to the controls. The precuneus interhemispheric tract was not significantly different between groups. Principle component analysis across all frontoparietal white matter tract MD values indicated a single factor explained 47% and 57% of the variance in tract mean diffusivity in stroke and control groups respectively. Age

  5. White dwarf stars: cosmic chronometers and dark matter probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi

    2018-04-01

    White dwarfs (WD) are the endpoint of the evolution of the large majority of stars formed in our galaxy. In the last two decades observations and theory have improved to a level that makes it possible to employ WD for determining ages of the stellar populations in the disk of the Milky Way and in the nearest star clusters, and constrain the existence and properties of dark matter (DM) candidates. This review is centred on WD models, age-dating, and DM identification methods, recent results and future developments of the field.

  6. White matter lesions in psychiatric patients: a retrospective MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Teichmann, E.; Hofmann, E.; Schmidtke, A.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Nadjmi, M.

    1992-01-01

    T2-weighted MRI scans of psychiatric patients with at least one white matter lesion (WML) were compared to 83 non-psychiatric controls with respect to WML number and distribution. MANOVA resulted in significant effects for sex, age and patient group with respect to WML number. In the psychiatric patients, infratentorial WML prevailed in organic psychoses. WML number was positively correlated with age with the exception of right temporal lobe WML. Based on WML spatial distribution, four patient clusters were found. Clusters with widely distributed WML comprised older patients with late onset of illness; right frontal and temporal WML were associated with mania, euphoria and unstable mood. (orig.)

  7. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E; Londoño, Ana C; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-05-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer's disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer's disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer's disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer's disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding functions known to

  8. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar

    2015-01-01

    structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole brain vertex- wise cortical thickness analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. AP possessors (APs) displayed increased cortical thickness in a number of areas including the left superior temporal gyrus......, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found increased fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous...... studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior superior temporal gyrus in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a correlation between the white matter cluster and the right parahippocampal gyrus. This is a novel finding...

  9. Disrupted white matter structure underlies cognitive deficit in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xin; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Yaojing; Zhang, Zhanjun; Sun, Xuan; Chen, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered a risk factor of cognitive impairments and could result in white matter changes. Current studies on hypertension-related white matter (WM) changes focus only on regional changes, and the information about global changes in WM structure network is limited. We assessed the cognitive function in 39 hypertensive patients and 37 healthy controls with a battery of neuropsychological tests. The WM structural networks were constructed by utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. The direct and indirect correlations among cognitive impairments, brain WM network disruptions and hypertension were analyzed with structural equation modelling (SEM). Hypertensive patients showed deficits in executive function, memory and attention compared with controls. An aberrant connectivity of WM networks was found in the hypertensive patients (P Eglob = 0.005, P Lp = 0.005), especially in the frontal and parietal regions. Importantly, SEM analysis showed that the decline of executive function resulted from aberrant WM networks in hypertensive patients (p = 0.3788, CFI = 0.99). These results suggest that the cognitive decline in hypertensive patients was due to frontal and parietal WM disconnections. Our findings highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension patients. (orig.)

  10. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR. Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  11. Malnutrition and cerebral white matter lesions in dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masanori; Mukai, Kazumitsu; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Sanada, Daisuke; Shibata, Takanori; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Akizawa, Tadao; Wakasa, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between nutritional status and the severity of cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in dialysis patients. Subjects consisted of 28 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis in the affiliated hospitals of Showa University Hospital. All subjects underwent brain MRI and various clinical and laboratory tests. All subjects were divided into three groups based on the following criteria. Group I was defined as having 0 or 1 of the 4 findings of malnutrition (body mass index 2 , total lymphocyte counts 3 , serum albumin concentrations <3.5 g/dL, normalized protein catabolic rate <0.9 g/kg/day). Group II was defined as having 2 of these 4 findings, and group III was defined as having 3 or all of these 4 findings. WMLs detected on T2-weightd MRI were rated using the semiquantitative method yielding two continuous variables (perivascular hyperintensity (PVH) scores, deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH) scores). PVH and DSWMH scores were significantly higher in patients in groups III and II compared to that of those in group I. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the four findings of malnourishment described above had significant impact on PVH and DSWMH scores. These findings suggest that nutritional status (especially malnutrition) in dialysis patients may be involved in the severity of WMLs. (author)

  12. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fulai; Zhu, Xueling; Kong, Lingyu; Shen, Huaizhen; Liao, Weihua; Jiang, Canhua

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD) in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA) than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  13. Effects of bilingualism on white matter integrity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John A E; Grundy, John G; De Frutos, Jaisalmer; Barker, Ryan M; Grady, Cheryl; Bialystok, Ellen

    2018-02-15

    Bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia symptoms and has thus been characterized as a mechanism for cognitive or brain reserve, although the origin of this reserve is unknown. Studies with young adults generally show that bilingualism is associated with a strengthening of white matter, but there is conflicting evidence for how bilingualism affects white matter in older age. Given that bilingualism has been shown to help stave off the symptoms of dementia by up to four years, it is crucial that we clarify the mechanism underlying this reserve. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare monolinguals and bilinguals while carefully controlling for potential confounds (e.g., I.Q., MMSE, and demographic variables). We show that group differences in Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Radial Diffusivity (RD) arise from multivariable interactions not adequately controlled for by sequential bivariate testing. After matching and statistically controlling for confounds, bilinguals still had greater axial diffusivity (AD) in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus than monolingual peers, supporting a neural reserve account for healthy older bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced anterior internal capsule white matter integrity in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Prem, Martin; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Schnell, Susanne; Kiselev, Valerij G; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system diseases, however, its neurobiology is poorly understood. Up to now, nothing is known about the integrity of white matter tracts in insomnia patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used in a well-characterized sample of primary insomnia (PI) patients and good sleeper controls to fill this void. Voxelwise between-group comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed in 24 PI patients (10 males; 14 females; 42.7 ± 14.5 years) and 35 healthy good sleepers (15 males; 20 females; 40.1 ± 9.1 years) with age and sex as covariates. PI patients showed reduced FA values within the right anterior internal capsule and a trend for reduced FA values in the left anterior internal capsule. The results suggest that insomnia is associated with a reduced integrity of white matter tracts in the anterior internal capsule indicating that disturbed fronto-subcortical connectivity may be a cause or consequence of the disorder.

  15. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  16. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqun; Guo Xiaojuan; Qi Zhigang; Yao Li; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  17. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  18. Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-01-30

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study of White Matter in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Katie; Wu, Jinghui; Malhotra, Anil K.; Burdick, Katherine E.; DeRosse, Pamela; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence from post-mortem and magnetic resonance imaging studies that hyperintensities, oligodendrioglial abnormalities and gross white matter volumetric alterations play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. There is also functional imaging evidence for a defect in frontal cortico-subcortical pathways in bipolar disorder, but the white matter comprising these pathways has not been well-investigated. Few studies have investigated white matter integrity in patients with b...

  20. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlin, Lauren E.; Verstynen, Timothy D.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Voss, Michelle W.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the beha...

  1. Supratentorial ependymoma in child: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Anna, Tatiana Kelly Brasileiro de; Zuppani, Aguinaldo Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Ependymoma is a neuro epithelial tumor of the glioneural group which originates in the ependyma, with slow growth and infratentorial location in 2/3 of the cases. The infratentorials are more common in children and the supratentorials in adults. This report describes a case in childhood, supratentorial, in close contact with the lateral ventricle, predominantly cystic, with solid areas, little regional expansive effect and evidenced by the pathology as an infrequent subtype in this age group, the subependymoma. (author)

  2. Multiple sclerosis: changes in microarchitecture of white matter tracts after training with a video game balance board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperini, Luca; Fanelli, Fulvia; Petsas, Nikolaos; Sbardella, Emilia; Tona, Francesca; Raz, Eytan; Fortuna, Deborah; De Angelis, Floriana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Pantano, Patrizia

    2014-11-01

    To determine if high-intensity, task-oriented, visual feedback training with a video game balance board (Nintendo Wii) induces significant changes in diffusion-tensor imaging ( DTI diffusion-tensor imaging ) parameters of cerebellar connections and other supratentorial associative bundles and if these changes are related to clinical improvement in patients with multiple sclerosis. The protocol was approved by local ethical committee; each participant provided written informed consent. In this 24-week, randomized, two-period crossover pilot study, 27 patients underwent static posturography and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at study entry, after the first 12-week period, and at study termination. Thirteen patients started a 12-week training program followed by a 12-week period without any intervention, while 14 patients received the intervention in reverse order. Fifteen healthy subjects also underwent MR imaging once and underwent static posturography. Virtual dissection of white matter tracts was performed with streamline tractography; values of DTI diffusion-tensor imaging parameters were then obtained for each dissected tract. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed to evaluate whether DTI diffusion-tensor imaging parameters significantly changed after intervention, with false discovery rate correction for multiple hypothesis testing. There were relevant differences between patients and healthy control subjects in postural sway and DTI diffusion-tensor imaging parameters (P balance improvement detected at static posturography (r = -0.381 to 0.401, P balance board system modified the microstructure of superior cerebellar peduncles. The clinical improvement observed after training might be mediated by enhanced myelination-related processes, suggesting that high-intensity, task-oriented exercises could induce favorable microstructural changes in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis.

  3. Cellular complexity in subcortical white matter: a distributed control circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Jorge A

    2018-03-01

    The subcortical white matter (SWM) has been traditionally considered as a site for passive-neutral-information transfer through cerebral cortex association and projection fibers. Yet, the presence of subcortical neuronal and glial "interstitial" cells expressing immunolabelled neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and synaptic vesicular proteins, and recent immunohistochemical and electrophysiological observations on the rat visual cortex as well as interactive regulation of myelinating processes support the possibility that SWM nests subcortical, regionally variable, distributed neuronal-glial circuits, that could influence information transfer. Their hypothetical involvement in regulating the timing and signal transfer probability at the SWM axonal components ought to be considered and experimentally analysed. Thus, the "interstitial" neuronal cells-associated with local glial cells-traditionally considered to be vestigial and functionally inert under normal conditions, they may well turn to be critical in regulating information transfer at the SWM.

  4. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of perinatal white matter injury severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Riddle

    Full Text Available Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate.We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter.A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI.Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI.

  5. White matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20-50% as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE. We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = -2.25+/-1.77, non-NPSLE = -1.22+/-1.03, Controls = -0.10+/-.57; F = 13.2, p<.001. In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results.

  6. Considerations for the optimization of induced white matter injury preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shafique Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The white matter injury in relation to acute neurologic conditions, especially stroke, has remained obscure until recently. Current advances in the imaging technologies in the field of stroke have confirmed that white matter injury plays an important role in the prognosis of stroke and suggest that white matter protection is essential for functional recovery and post-stroke rehabilitation. However, due to the lack of a reproducible animal model of white matter injury, the pathophysiology and mechanisms of this injury are not well studied. Moreover, producing selective white matter injury in animals, especially in rodents, has proven to be challenging. Problems associated with inducing selective white matter ischemic injury in the rodent derive from differences in the architecture of the brain, most particularly the ratio of white matter to gray matter in rodents compared to humans, the agents used to induce the injury, and the location of the injury. Aging, gender differences, and comorbidities further add to this complexity. This review provides a brief account of the techniques commonly used to induce general white matter injury in animal models (stroke and non-stroke related and highlights relevance, optimization issues, and translational potentials associated with this particular form of injury.

  7. Shades of white : diffusion properties of T1- and FLAIR-defined white matter signal abnormalities differ in stages from cognitively normal to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Joost M.; Gronenschild, Ed HBM; Salat, David H.; Freeze, Whitney M.; Ivanov, Dimo; Clerx, Lies; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Aalten, Pauline; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.

    The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on

  8. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  9. White Matter Hyperintensity Volume and Cerebral Perfusion in Older Individuals with Hypertension Using Arterial Spin-Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, J. W.; Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; Nederveen, A. J.; Vrenken, H.; Steenwijk, M. D.; Caan, M. W. A.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; van Gool, W. A.; Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in elderly patients with hypertension may be part of a general cerebral perfusion deficit, involving not only the white matter hyperintensities but also the surrounding normal-appearing white matter and gray matter. We

  10. Gray/White Matter Contrast in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Uribe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gray/white matter contrast (GWC decreases with aging and has been found to be a useful MRI biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but its utility in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients has not been investigated. The aims of the study were to test whether GWC is sensitive to aging changes in PD patients, if PD patients differ from healthy controls (HCs in GWC, and whether the use of GWC data would improve the sensitivity of cortical thickness analyses to differentiate PD patients from controls. Using T1-weighted structural images, we obtained individual cortical thickness and GWC values from a sample of 90 PD patients and 27 controls. Images were processed with the automated FreeSurfer stream. GWC was computed by dividing the white matter (WM by the gray matter (GM values and projecting the ratios onto a common surface. The sample characteristics were: 52 patients and 14 controls were males; mean age of 64.4 ± 10.6 years in PD and 64.7 ± 8.6 years in controls; 8.0 ± 5.6 years of disease evolution; 15.6 ± 9.8 UPDRS; and a range of 1.5–3 in Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y stage. In both PD and controls we observed significant correlations between GWC and age involving almost the entire cortex. When applying a stringent cluster-forming threshold of p < 0.0001, the correlation between GWC and age also involved the entire cortex in the PD group; in the control group, the correlation was found in the parahippocampal gyrus and widespread frontal and parietal areas. The GWC of PD patients did not differ from controls’, whereas cortical thickness analyses showed thinning in temporal and parietal cortices in the PD group. Cortical thinning remained unchanged after adjusting for GWC. GWC is a very sensitive measure for detecting aging effects, but did not provide additional information over other parameters of atrophy in PD.

  11. White matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunctions in neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Blanc

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory disease of central nervous system characterized by optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive acute transverse myelitis. NMO patients have cognitive dysfunctions but other clinical symptoms of brain origin are rare. In the present study, we aimed to investigate cognitive functions and brain volume in NMO. The study population consisted of 28 patients with NMO and 28 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and educational level. We applied a French translation of the Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB-N to the NMO patients. Using SIENAx for global brain volume (Grey Matter, GM; White Matter, WM; and whole brain and VBM for focal brain volume (GM and WM, NMO patients and controls were compared. Voxel-level correlations between diminished brain concentration and cognitive performance for each tests were performed. Focal and global brain volume of NMO patients with and without cognitive impairment were also compared. Fifteen NMO patients (54% had cognitive impairment with memory, executive function, attention and speed of information processing deficits. Global and focal brain atrophy of WM but not Grey Matter (GM was found in the NMO patients group. The focal WM atrophy included the optic chiasm, pons, cerebellum, the corpus callosum and parts of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, including superior longitudinal fascicle. Visual memory, verbal memory, speed of information processing, short-term memory and executive functions were correlated to focal WM volumes. The comparison of patients with, to patients without cognitive impairment showed a clear decrease of global and focal WM, including brainstem, corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum but also superior and inferior longitudinal fascicles. Cognitive impairment in NMO patients is correlated to the decreased of global and focal WM volume of the brain. Further studies are needed to better understand the precise origin of cognitive impairment in

  12. Quantifying Cerebellum Grey Matter and White Matter Perfusion Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF, studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM and white matter (WM, and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1 mL/100 g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5 mL/100 g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values.

  13. Quantifying cerebellum grey matter and white matter perfusion using pulsed arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Briggs, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL) parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM), and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1 mL/100 g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5 mL/100 g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values.

  14. Quantifying Cerebellum Grey Matter and White Matter Perfusion Using Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N.; Purdy, David E.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate quantification of cerebellum cerebral blood flow (CBF), studies were performed to systematically optimize arterial spin labeling (ASL) parameters for measuring cerebellum perfusion, segment cerebellum to obtain separate CBF values for grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM), and compare FAIR ASST to PICORE. Cerebellum GM and WM CBF were measured with optimized ASL parameters using FAIR ASST and PICORE in five subjects. Influence of volume averaging in voxels on cerebellar grey and white matter boundaries was minimized by high-probability threshold masks. Cerebellar CBF values determined by FAIR ASST were 43.8 ± 5.1 mL/100 g/min for GM and 27.6 ± 4.5 mL/100 g/min for WM. Quantitative perfusion studies indicated that CBF in cerebellum GM is 1.6 times greater than that in cerebellum WM. Compared to PICORE, FAIR ASST produced similar CBF estimations but less subtraction error and lower temporal, spatial, and intersubject variability. These are important advantages for detecting group and/or condition differences in CBF values. PMID:24949416

  15. White matter damage is related to ataxia severity in SCA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J-S; Klein, J C; Baudrexel, S; Deichmann, R; Nolte, D; Hilker, R

    2014-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most frequent inherited cerebellar ataxia in Europe, the US and Japan, leading to disability and death through motor complications. Although the affected protein ataxin-3 is found ubiquitously in the brain, grey matter atrophy is predominant in the cerebellum and the brainstem. White matter pathology is generally less severe and thought to occur in the brainstem, spinal cord, and cerebellar white matter. Here, we investigated both grey and white matter pathology in a group of 12 SCA3 patients and matched controls. We used voxel-based morphometry for analysis of tissue loss, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to investigate microstructural pathology. We analysed correlations between microstructural properties of the brain and ataxia severity, as measured by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) score. SCA3 patients exhibited significant loss of both grey and white matter in the cerebellar hemispheres, brainstem including pons and in lateral thalamus. On between-group analysis, TBSS detected widespread microstructural white matter pathology in the cerebellum, brainstem, and bilaterally in thalamus and the cerebral hemispheres. Furthermore, fractional anisotropy in a white matter network comprising frontal, thalamic, brainstem and left cerebellar white matter strongly and negatively correlated with SARA ataxia scores. Tractography identified the thalamic white matter thus implicated as belonging to ventrolateral thalamus. Disruption of white matter integrity in patients suffering from SCA3 is more widespread than previously thought. Moreover, our data provide evidence that microstructural white matter changes in SCA3 are strongly related to the clinical severity of ataxia symptoms.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging, white matter lesions, the corpus callosum, and gait in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait impairment is common in the elderly, especially affected by stroke and white matter hyper intensities found in conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more sensitive to white matter damage than conventional MRI. The relationship between DTI measure...

  17. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Associations with White Matter Volume and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…

  18. The dimensionality of between-person differences in white matter microstructure in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Laukka, Erika Jonsson; Rieckmann, Anna; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Li, Tie-Qiang; Jonsson, Tomas; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Between-person differences in white matter microstructure may partly generalize across the brain and partly play out differently for distinct tracts. We used diffusion-tensor imaging and structural equation modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of 260 adults aged 60-87 years. Mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of seven white matter tracts in each hemisphere were quantified. Results showed good fit of a model positing that individual differences in white matter microstructure are structured according to tracts. A general factor, although accounting for variance in the measures, did not adequately represent the individual differences. This indicates the presence of a substantial amount of tract-specific individual differences in white matter microstructure. In addition, individual differences are to a varying degree shared between tracts, indicating that general factors also affect white matter microstructure. Age-related differences in white matter microstructure were present for all tracts. Correlations among tract factors did not generally increase as a function of age, suggesting that aging is not a process with homogenous effects on white matter microstructure across the brain. These findings highlight the need for future research to examine whether relations between white matter microstructure and diverse outcomes are specific or general. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  20. Decoupling of structural and functional brain connectivity in older adults with white matter hyperintensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y. D.; Schultz, A. P.; Leemans, A.; O'Sullivan, M. J.; Gurol, M. E.; Sperling, R.; Greenberg, S. M.; Viswanathan, A.; Hedden, T.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related impairments in the default network (DN) have been related to disruptions in connecting white matter tracts. We hypothesized that the local correlation between DN structural and functional connectivity is negatively affected in the presence of global white matter injury. In 125 clinically

  1. Growth of White Matter in the Adolescent Brain: Myelin or Axon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    White matter occupies almost half of the human brain. It contains axons connecting spatially segregated modules and, as such, it is essential for the smooth flow of information in functional networks. Structural maturation of white matter continues during adolescence, as reflected in age-related changes in its volume, as well as in its…

  2. Microstructural Abnormalities of Short-Distance White Matter Tracts in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Smylie, Daren M.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have suggested atypical functional connectivity and reduced integrity of long-distance white matter fibers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, evidence for short-distance white matter fibers is still limited, despite some speculation of…

  3. A semi-automated method for measuring thickness and white matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-automated method for measuring thickness and white matter integrity of the corpus callosum. ... and interhemispheric differences. Future research will determine normal values for age and compare CC thickness with peripheral white matter volume loss in large groups of patients, using the semiautomated technique.

  4. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  5. Does functional MRI detect activation in white matter? A review of emerging evidence, issues, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Jodie R.; Mazerolle, Erin L.; D'Arcy, Ryan C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that allows for visualization of activated brain regions. Until recently, fMRI studies have focused on gray matter. There are two main reasons white matter fMRI remains controversial: (1) the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal depends on cerebral blood flow and volume, which are lower in white matter than gray matter and (2) fMRI signal has been associated with post-synaptic potentials (mainly localized in gray matter) as opposed to action potentials (the primary type of neural activity in white matter). Despite these observations, there is no direct evidence against measuring fMRI activation in white matter and reports of fMRI activation in white matter continue to increase. The questions underlying white matter fMRI activation are important. White matter fMRI activation has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of brain connectivity research, as well as improve the assessment and diagnosis of white matter and connectivity disorders. The current review provides an overview of the motivation to investigate white matter fMRI activation, as well as the published evidence of this phenomenon. We speculate on possible neurophysiologic bases of white matter fMRI signals, and discuss potential explanations for why reports of white matter fMRI activation are relatively scarce. We end with a discussion of future basic and clinical research directions in the study of white matter fMRI. PMID:25152709

  6. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  7. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Li Kuncheng; Li Lin; Shan Baoci; Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE

  8. Comorbidities, confounders, and the white matter transcriptome in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Sheahan, Pam J; Kaplan, Warren; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol abuse is the world's third leading cause of disease and disability, and one potential sequel of chronic abuse is alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). This clinically manifests as cognitive dysfunction and pathologically as atrophy of white matter (WM) in particular. The mechanism linking chronic alcohol intoxication with ARBD remains largely unknown but it is also complicated by common comorbidities such as liver damage and nutritional deficiencies. Liver cirrhosis, in particular, often leads to hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a primary glial disease. In a novel transcriptomic study, we targeted the WM only of chronic alcoholics in an attempt to tease apart the pathogenesis of ARBD. Specifically, in alcoholics with and without HE, we explored both the prefrontal and primary motor cortices, 2 regions that experience differential levels of neuronal loss. Our results suggest that HE, along with 2 confounders, gray matter contamination, and low RNA quality are major drivers of gene expression in ARBD. All 3 exceeded the effects of alcohol itself. In particular, low-quality RNA samples were characterized by an up-regulation of translation machinery, while HE was associated with a down-regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism pathways. The findings in HE alcoholics are consistent with the metabolic acidosis seen in this condition. In contrast non-HE alcoholics had widespread but only subtle changes in gene expression in their WM. Notwithstanding the latter result, this study demonstrates that significant confounders in transcriptomic studies of human postmortem brain tissue can be identified, quantified, and "removed" to reveal disease-specific signals. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Pathological changes in the white matter after spinal contusion injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Joakim Ek

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that after spinal cord injury, the loss of grey matter is relatively faster than loss of white matter suggesting interventions to save white matter tracts offer better therapeutic possibilities. Loss of white matter in and around the injury site is believed to be the main underlying cause for the subsequent loss of neurological functions. In this study we used a series of techniques, including estimations of the number of axons with pathology, immunohistochemistry and mapping of distribution of pathological axons, to better understand the temporal and spatial pathological events in white matter following contusion injury to the rat spinal cord. There was an initial rapid loss of axons with no detectable further loss beyond 1 week after injury. Immunoreactivity for CNPase indicated that changes to oligodendrocytes are rapid, extending to several millimetres away from injury site and preceding much of the axonal loss, giving early prediction of the final volume of white matter that survived. It seems that in juvenile rats the myelination of axons in white matter tracts continues for some time, which has an important bearing on interpretation of our, and previous, studies. The amount of myelin debris and axon pathology progressively decreased with time but could still be observed at 10 weeks after injury, especially at more distant rostral and caudal levels from the injury site. This study provides new methods to assess injuries to spinal cord and indicates that early interventions are needed for the successful sparing of white matter tracts following injury.

  10. White Matter Hyperintensities Are Under Strong Genetic Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Perminder S; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mather, Karen A; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Wen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    The genetic basis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is still unknown. This study examines the heritability of WMH in both sexes and in different brain regions, and the influence of age. Participants from the Older Australian Twins Study were recruited (n=320; 92 monozygotic and 68 dizygotic pairs) who volunteered for magnetic resonance imaging scans and medical assessments. Heritability, that is, the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total phenotypic variance, was estimated using the twin design. Heritability was high for total WMH volume (0.76), and for periventricular WMH (0.64) and deep WMH (0.77), and varied from 0.18 for the cerebellum to 0.76 for the occipital lobe. The genetic correlation between deep and periventricular WMH regions was 0.85, with one additive genetics factor accounting for most of the shared variance. Heritability was consistently higher in women in the cerebral regions. Heritability in deep but not periventricular WMH declined with age, in particular after the age of 75. WMH have a strong genetic influence but this is not uniform through the brain, being higher for deep than periventricular WMH and in the cerebral regions. The genetic influence is higher in women, and there is an age-related decline, most markedly for deep WMH. The data suggest some heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of WMH for different brain regions and for men and women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Cognitive Intraindividual Variability and White Matter Integrity in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraindividual variability (IIV of cognitive performance has been shown to increase with aging. While brain research has generally focused on mean performance, little is known about neural correlates of cognitive IIV. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that IIV relates more strongly than mean level of performance to the quality of white matter (WM. Our study aims to explore the relation between WM integrity and cognitive IIV by combining functional (fMRI and structural (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI imaging. Twelve young adults (aged 18–30 years and thirteen older adults (61–82 years underwent a battery of neuropsychological tasks, along with fMRI and DTI imaging. Their behavioral data were analyzed and correlated with the imaging data at WM regions of interest defined on the basis of (1 the fMRI-activated areas and (2 the Johns Hopkins University (JHU WM tractography atlas. For both methods, fractional anisotropy, along with the mean, radial, and axial diffusivity parameters, was computed. In accord with previous studies, our results showed that the DTI parameters were more related to IIV than to mean performance. Results also indicated that age differences in the DTI parameters were more pronounced in the regions activated primarily by young adults during a choice reaction-time task than in those also activated in older adults.

  12. Effects of white matter microstructure on phase and susceptibility maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Samuel; Bowtell, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the frequency variation produced by the microstructure of white matter (WM). The frequency offsets in a WM tissue sample that are not explained by the effect of bulk isotropic or anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, but rather result from the local microstructure, were characterized for the first time. QSM and STI were then applied to simulated frequency maps that were calculated using a digitized whole-brain, WM model formed from anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging data acquired from a volunteer. In this model, the magnitudes of the frequency contributions due to anisotropy and microstructure were derived from the results of the tissue experiments. The simulations suggest that the frequency contribution of microstructure is much larger than that due to bulk effects of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. In QSM, the microstructure contribution introduced artificial WM heterogeneity. For the STI processing, the microstructure contribution caused the susceptibility anisotropy to be significantly overestimated. Microstructure-related phase offsets in WM yield artifacts in the calculated susceptibility maps. If susceptibility mapping is to become a robust MRI technique, further research should be carried out to reduce the confounding effects of microstructure-related frequency contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Different associations of white matter lesions with depression and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jun-Young

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the hypothesis that white matter lesions (WML are primarily associated with regional frontal cortical volumes, and to determine the mediating effects of these regional frontal cortices on the associations of WML with depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Methods Structural brains MRIs were performed on 161 participants: cognitively normal, cognitive impaired but not demented, and demented participants. Lobar WML volumes, regional frontal cortical volumes, depressive symptom severity, and cognitive abilities were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify WML volume effects on frontal cortical volume. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the MRI-depression and the MRI-cognition path relationships. Results WML predicted frontal cortical volume, particularly in medial orbirtofrontal cortex, irrespective of age, gender, education, and group status. WML directly predicted depressive score, and this relationship was not mediated by regional frontal cortices. In contrast, the association between WML and cognitive function was indirect and mediated by regional frontal cortices. Conclusions These findings suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in older adults may differ.

  14. Brain asymmetry in the white matter making and globularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina eTheofanopoulou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from the field of language genetics and evolutionary anthropology have put forward the hypothesis that the emergence of our species-specific brain is to be understood not in terms of size, but in light of developmental changes that gave rise to a more globular braincase configuration after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans. On the grounds that (i white matter myelination is delayed relative to other brain structures and in humans is protracted compared with other primates and (ii neural connectivity is linked genetically to our brain/skull morphology and language-ready brain, I take it that one significant evolutionary change in Homo sapiens’ lineage is the interhemispheric connectivity mediated by the Corpus Callosum. The size, myelination and fiber caliber of the Corpus Callosum presents an anterior-to-posterior increase, in a way that inter-hemispheric connectivity is more prominent in the sensory motor areas, whereas high- order areas are more intra-hemispherically connected. Building on evidence from language-processing studies that account for this asymmetry (‘lateralization’ in terms of brain rhythms, I present an evo-devo hypothesis according to which the myelination of the Corpus Callosum, Brain Asymmetry and Globularity are conjectured to make up the angles of a co-evolutionary triangle that gave rise to our language-ready brain.

  15. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  16. White matter injury in term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amanda M; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Sargent, Michael A; Lupton, Brian A; Hill, Alan; Roland, Elke; Miller, Steven P

    2009-01-01

    White matter injury (WMI) is the characteristic pattern of brain injury detected on magnetic resonance imaging in the premature newborn. Focal noncystic WMI is increasingly recognized in populations of term newborns. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of focal noncystic WMI in a cohort of 48 term newborns with encephalopathy studied with magnetic resonance imaging at 72 +/- 12 h of life, and to identify clinical risk factors for this pattern of injury. Eleven newborns (23%; 95% CI 11-35) were found to have WMI (four minimal, three moderate, and four severe). In 10 of the 11 newborns, the WMI was associated with restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps. An increasing severity of WMI was associated with lower gestational age at birth (p = 0.05), but not lower birth weight. Newborns with WMI had milder encephalopathy and fewer clinical seizures relative to other newborns in the cohort. Other brain injuries were seen in three of the 11 newborns: basal nuclei predominant pattern of injury in one and cortical strokes in two. These findings suggest that WMI in the term newborn is acquired near birth and that the state of brain maturation is an important determinant of this pattern of brain injury.

  17. White matter hyperintensities segmentation: a new semi-automated method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela eIorio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter hyperintensities (WMH are brain areas of increased signal on T2-weighted or fluid attenuated inverse recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans. In this study we present a new semi-automated method to measure WMH load that is based on the segmentation of the intensity histogram of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Thirty patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment with variable WMH load were enrolled. The semi-automated WMH segmentation included: removal of non-brain tissue, spatial normalization, removal of cerebellum and brain stem, spatial filtering, thresholding to segment probable WMH, manual editing for correction of false positives and negatives, generation of WMH map and volumetric estimation of the WMH load. Accuracy was quantitatively evaluated by comparing semi-automated and manual WMH segmentations performed by two independent raters. Differences between the two procedures were assessed using Student’s t tests and similarity was evaluated using linear regression model and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC. The volumes of the manual and semi-automated segmentations did not statistically differ (t-value= -1.79, DF=29, p= 0.839 for rater 1; t-value= 1.113, DF=29, p= 0.2749 for rater 2, were highly correlated (R²= 0.921, F (1,29 =155,54, p

  18. Occipital White Matter Tracts in Human and Macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Pestilli, Franco; Weiner, Kevin S; Keliris, Georgios A; Landi, Sofia M; Sliwa, Julia; Ye, Frank Q; Barnett, Michael A; Leopold, David A; Freiwald, Winrich A; Logothetis, Nikos K; Wandell, Brian A

    2017-06-01

    We compare several major white-matter tracts in human and macaque occipital lobe using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The comparison suggests similarities but also significant differences in the tracts. There are several apparently homologous tracts in the 2 species, including the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), optic radiation, forceps major, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). There is one large human tract, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, with no corresponding fasciculus in macaque. We could identify the macaque VOF (mVOF), which has been little studied. Its position is consistent with classical invasive anatomical studies by Wernicke. VOF homology is supported by similarity of the endpoints in V3A and ventral V4 across species. The mVOF fibers intertwine with the dorsal segment of the ILF, but the human VOF appears to be lateral to the ILF. These similarities and differences between the occipital lobe tracts will be useful in establishing which circuitry in the macaque can serve as an accurate model for human visual cortex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Anatomy and white matter connections of the orbitofrontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Joshua D; Conner, Andrew K; Bonney, Phillip A; Glenn, Chad A; Baker, Cordell M; Boettcher, Lillian B; Briggs, Robert G; O'Donoghue, Daniel L; Wu, Dee H; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is understood to have a role in outcome evaluation and risk assessment and is commonly involved with infiltrative tumors. A detailed understanding of the exact location and nature of associated white matter tracts could significantly improve postoperative morbidity related to declining capacity. Through diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, the authors have characterized these connections based on relationships to other well-known structures. METHODS Diffusion imaging from the Human Connectome Project for 10 healthy adult controls was used for tractography analysis. The OFC was evaluated as a whole based on connectivity with other regions. All OFC tracts were mapped in both hemispheres, and a lateralization index was calculated with resultant tract volumes. Ten postmortem dissections were then performed using a modified Klingler technique to demonstrate the location of major tracts. RESULTS The authors identified 3 major connections of the OFC: a bundle to the thalamus and anterior cingulate gyrus, passing inferior to the caudate and medial to the vertical fibers of the thalamic projections; a bundle to the brainstem, traveling lateral to the caudate and medial to the internal capsule; and radiations to the parietal and occipital lobes traveling with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. CONCLUSIONS The OFC is an important center for processing visual, spatial, and emotional information. Subtle differences in executive functioning following surgery for frontal lobe tumors may be better understood in the context of the fiber-bundle anatomy highlighted by this study.

  20. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Verstynen, Timothy D; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the behavioral importance of higher levels of white matter microstructural organization with greater fitness levels remains a matter of speculation. Here we tested whether cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) levels were associated with white matter microstructure and whether this relationship constituted an indirect pathway between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in two large, cognitively and neurologically healthy older adult samples. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine white matter microstructure in two separate groups: Experiment 1, N=113 (mean age=66.61) and Experiment 2, N=154 (mean age=65.66). Using a voxel-based regression approach, we found that higher VO2max was associated with higher fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructure, in a diverse network of white matter tracts, including the anterior corona radiata, anterior internal capsule, fornix, cingulum, and corpus callosum (PFDR-correctedmicrostructure within these regions, among others, constituted a significant indirect path between VO2max and spatial working memory performance. These results suggest that greater aerobic fitness levels are associated with higher levels of white matter microstructural organization, which may, in turn, preserve spatial memory performance in older adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between progression of brain white matter changes and late-life depression: 3-year results from the LADIS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firbank, M.J.; Teodorczuk, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Gouw, A.A.; Wallin, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Inzitari, D.; Wahlund, L.O.; Pantoni, L.; Poggesi, A.; Pracucci, G.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brain white matter changes (WMC) and depressive symptoms are linked, but the directionality of this association remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the relationship between baseline and incident depression and progression of white matter changes. Method: In a longitudinal multicentre

  2. Optimal voxel size for measuring global gray and white matter proton metabolite concentrations using chemical shift imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars Peter Grüner; Adalsteinsson, E; Pfefferbaum, A

    2000-01-01

    Quantification of gray and white matter levels of spectroscopically visible metabolites can provide important insights into brain development and pathological conditions. Chemical shift imaging offers a gain in efficiency for estimation of global gray and white matter metabolite concentrations co...

  3. Altered gray matter volume and white matter integrity in college students with mobile phone dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone dependence (MPD is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Gray matter volume (GMV and white matter (WM integrity (four indexes: fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD; axial diffusivity, AD; and radial diffusivity, RD were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female were enrolled and separated into two groups (MPD group, N=34; control group, N=34 based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG, and bilateral thalamus (Thal. In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of white matter integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH. Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with phone-overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation with other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  4. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity.

  5. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan, Yunyun, E-mail: xiaoyun81.love@163.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); He, Yong, E-mail: yong.h.he@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yu, Chunshui, E-mail: csyuster@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: jun_wang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Jing, E-mail: sainthj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Ye, Jing, E-mail: jingye.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Parizel, Paul M., E-mail: paul.parizel@ua.ac.be [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, 8 Belgium (Belgium); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni, E-mail: nshu55@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS.

  6. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jing; Ye, Jing; Parizel, Paul M.; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS

  7. A voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Katie; Wu, Jinghui; Malhotra, Anil K; Burdick, Katherine E; DeRosse, Pamela; Ardekani, Babak A; Szeszko, Philip R

    2009-05-01

    There is evidence from post-mortem and magnetic resonance imaging studies that hyperintensities, oligodendroglial abnormalities, and gross white matter volumetric alterations are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. There is also functional imaging evidence for a defect in frontal cortico-subcortical pathways in bipolar disorder, but the white matter comprising these pathways has not been well investigated. Few studies have investigated white matter integrity in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy volunteers and the majority of studies have used manual region-of-interest approaches. In this study, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) values between 30 patients with bipolar disorder and 38 healthy volunteers in the brain white matter using a voxelwise analysis following intersubject registration to Talairach space. Compared to healthy volunteers, patients demonstrated significantly (p or =50) higher FA within the right and left frontal white matter and lower FA within the left cerebellar white matter. Examination of individual eigenvalues indicated that group differences in both axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity contributed to abnormal FA within these regions. Tractography was performed in template space on averaged diffusion tensor imaging data from all individuals. Extraction of bundles passing through the clusters that differed significantly between groups suggested that white matter abnormalities along the pontine crossing tract, corticospinal/corticopontine tracts, and thalamic radiation fibers may be involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Our findings are consistent with models of bipolar disorder that implicate dysregulation of cortico-subcortical and cerebellar regions in the disorder and may have relevance for phenomenology.

  8. Raymond de Vieussens and his contribution to the study of white matter anatomy: historical vignette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Francesco; Morris, Christopher M; Mitchell, Patrick; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the study of white matter anatomy, both with the use of postmortem dissections and diffusion tensor imaging tractography. One of the precursors in the study of white matter anatomy was Raymond de Vieussens (1641-1716), a French anatomist born in Le Vigan. He studied medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France, one of the most ancient and lively schools of medicine in Europe. In 1684 Vieussens published his masterpiece, the Neurographia Universalis, which is still considered one of the most complete and accurate descriptions of the nervous system provided in the 17th century. He described the white matter of the centrum ovale and was the first to demonstrate the continuity of the white matter fibers from the centrum ovale to the brainstem. He also described the dentate nuclei, the pyramids, and the olivary nuclei. According to the theory of Galen, Vieussens considered that the function of the white matter was to convey the "animal spirit" from the centrum ovale to the spinal cord. Although neglected, Vieussens' contribution to the study of white matter is relevant. His pioneering work showed that the white matter is not a homogeneous substance, but rather a complex structure rich in fibers that are interconnected with different parts of the brain. These initial results paved the way to advancements observed in later centuries that eventually led to modern hodology.

  9. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity. PMID:26063964

  10. Damage to white matter bottlenecks contributes to language impairments after left hemispheric stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Griffis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the white matter underlying the left posterior temporal lobe leads to deficits in multiple language functions. The posterior temporal white matter may correspond to a bottleneck where both dorsal and ventral language pathways are vulnerable to simultaneous damage. Damage to a second putative white matter bottleneck in the left deep prefrontal white matter involving projections associated with ventral language pathways and thalamo-cortical projections has recently been proposed as a source of semantic deficits after stroke. Here, we first used white matter atlases to identify the previously described white matter bottlenecks in the posterior temporal and deep prefrontal white matter. We then assessed the effects of damage to each region on measures of verbal fluency, picture naming, and auditory semantic decision-making in 43 chronic left hemispheric stroke patients. Damage to the posterior temporal bottleneck predicted deficits on all tasks, while damage to the anterior bottleneck only significantly predicted deficits in verbal fluency. Importantly, the effects of damage to the bottleneck regions were not attributable to lesion volume, lesion loads on the tracts traversing the bottlenecks, or damage to nearby cortical language areas. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping revealed additional lesion predictors of deficits. Post-hoc fiber tracking of the peak white matter lesion predictors using a publicly available tractography atlas revealed evidence consistent with the results of the bottleneck analyses. Together, our results provide support for the proposal that spatially specific white matter damage affecting bottleneck regions, particularly in the posterior temporal lobe, contributes to chronic language deficits after left hemispheric stroke. This may reflect the simultaneous disruption of signaling in dorsal and ventral language processing streams.

  11. White matter microstructure alterations: a study of alcoholics with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Durkee

    Full Text Available Many brain imaging studies have demonstrated reductions in gray and white matter volumes in alcoholism, with fewer investigators using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the integrity of white matter pathways. Among various medical conditions, alcoholism and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD are two comorbid diseases that have similar degenerative effects on the white matter integrity. Therefore, understanding and differentiating these effects would be very important in characterizing alcoholism and PTSD. Alcoholics are known to have neurocognitive deficits in decision-making, particularly in decisions related to emotionally-motivated behavior, while individuals with PTSD have deficits in emotional regulation and enhanced fear response. It is widely believed that these types of abnormalities in both alcoholism and PTSD are related to fronto-limbic dysfunction. In addition, previous studies have shown cortico-limbic fiber degradation through fiber tracking in alcoholism. DTI was used to measure white matter fractional anisotropy (FA, which provides information about tissue microstructure, possibly indicating white matter integrity. We quantitatively investigated the microstructure of white matter through whole brain DTI analysis in healthy volunteers (HV and alcohol dependent subjects without PTSD (ALC and with PTSD (ALC+PTSD. These data show significant differences in FA between alcoholics and non-alcoholic HVs, with no significant differences in FA between ALC and ALC+PTSD in any white matter structure. We performed a post-hoc region of interest analysis that allowed us to incorporate multiple covariates into the analysis and found similar results. HV had higher FA in several areas implicated in the reward circuit, emotion, and executive functioning, suggesting that there may be microstructural abnormalities in white matter pathways that contribute to neurocognitive and executive functioning deficits observed in alcoholics. Furthermore

  12. DTI and VBM reveal white matter changes without associated gray matter changes in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Marcus; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Keil, Boris; Rosenow, Felix; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Knake, Susanne; Menzler, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We evaluated cerebral white and gray matter changes in patients with iRLS in order to shed light on the pathophysiology of this disease. Methods Twelve patients with iRLS were compared to 12 age- and sex-matched controls using whole-head diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) techniques. Evaluation of the DTI scans included the voxelwise analysis of the fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). Results Diffusion tensor imaging revealed areas of altered FA in subcortical white matter bilaterally, mainly in temporal regions as well as in the right internal capsule, the pons, and the right cerebellum. These changes overlapped with changes in RD. Voxel-based morphometry did not reveal any gray matter alterations. Conclusions We showed altered diffusion properties in several white matter regions in patients with iRLS. White matter changes could mainly be attributed to changes in RD, a parameter thought to reflect altered myelination. Areas with altered white matter microstructure included areas in the internal capsule which include the corticospinal tract to the lower limbs, thereby supporting studies that suggest changes in sensorimotor pathways associated with RLS. PMID:26442748

  13. Experimental focal neocortical epilepsy is associated with reduced white matter volume growth : results from multiparametric MRI analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Wim; van Meer, Maurits P A; van der Marel, Kajo; Zwartbol, René; Viergever, Max A.; Braun, Kees P J; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Focal epilepsy has recently been associated with remote white matter damage, including reduced white matter volume. Longitudinal assessment of these white matter changes, in relation to functional mechanisms and consequences, may be ideally done by in vivo neuroimaging in well-controlled

  14. Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gons, Rob A R; van Norden, Anouk G W; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Oudheusden, Lucas J B; van Uden, Inge W M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Various pathophysiological pathways have been proposed to cause such a cognitive decline, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Smoking may affect the microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter. Diffusion tensor imaging is known to be sensitive for microstructural changes in cerebral white matter. We therefore cross-sectionally studied the relation between smoking behaviour (never, former, current) and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions as well as the relation between smoking behaviour and cognitive performance. A structured questionnaire was used to ascertain the amount and duration of smoking in 503 subjects with small-vessel disease, aged between 50 and 85 years. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. All subjects underwent 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Using diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions. A history of smoking was associated with significant higher values of mean diffusivity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions (P-trend for smoking status = 0.02) and with poorer cognitive functioning compared with those who never smoked. Associations with smoking and loss of structural integrity appeared to be strongest in normal-appearing white matter. Furthermore, the duration of smoking cessation was positively related to lower values of mean diffusivity and higher values of fractional anisotropy in normal-appearing white matter [β = -0.004 (95% confidence interval -0.007 to 0.000; P = 0.03) and β = 0.019 (95% confidence interval 0.001-0.038; P = 0.04)]. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values in normal-appearing white matter of subjects who had quit smoking for >20 years were comparable with subjects who had never smoked. These data suggest

  15. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela.; Prayer, Lucas

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela. E-mail: daniela.prayer@univie.ac.at; Prayer, Lucas

    2003-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function.

  17. The role of white matter lesions in cognitive impairment of vascular origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.

    2003-01-01

    Abnormalities involving the cerebral white matter, in particular the centrum semiovale, are a subject of great current interest. Partly this is because modern neuroimaging methods detect white matter changes with increasing frequency in persons older than 60 years and also because these abnormalities may be associated with specific neuro behavioral deficits, including cognitive impairment. The significance of these changes, as well as their pathophysiological background is incompletely understood. The aim of this paper is to critically review the existing knowledge about the role of the white matter lesions, based on the critical analysis of over 100 publications (most appearing in the last decade). (author)

  18. White matter mapping by DTI-based tractography for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    2009-01-01

    To validate the corticospinal tract (CST) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) illustrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we used CST- and AF-tractography integrated neuronavigation and monopolar and bipolar direct fiber stimulation. Forty seven patients with brain lesions adjacent to the CST and AF were studied. During lesion resection, direct fiber stimulation was applied to the CST and AF to elicit motor responses (fiber-motor evoked potential (MEP)) and the impairment of language-related functions to identify the CST and AF. The minimum distance between the resection border and illustrated CST was measured on postoperative images. Direct fiber stimulation demonstrated that CST- and AF-tractography accurately reflected anatomical CST functioning. The cortical stimulation to the gyrus, including the language-functional MRI (fMRI) activation, evoked speech arrest, while the subcortical stimulation close to the AF reproducibly caused 'paranomia' without speech arrest. There were strong correlations between stimulus intensity for the fiber-MEP and the distance between eloquent fibers and the stimulus points. The convergent calculation formulated 1.8 mA as the electrical threshold of CST for the fiber-MEP, which was much smaller than that of the hand motor area. Validated tractography demonstrated the mean distance and intersection angle between CST and AF were 5 mm and 107 deg, respectively. In addition, the anisotropic diffusion-weighted image (ADWI) and CST-tractography clearly indicated the locations of the primary motor area (PMA) and the central sulcus and well reflected the anatomical characteristics of the corticospinal tract in the human brain. DTI-based tractography is a reliable way to map the white matter connections in the entire brain in clinical and basic neuroscience. By combining these techniques, investigating the cortico-subcortical connections in the human central nervous system could contribute to elucidating the neural networks of the human brain and

  19. White matter mapping by DTI-based tractography for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the corticospinal tract (CST) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) illustrated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we used CST- and AF-tractography integrated neuronavigation and monopolar and bipolar direct fiber stimulation. Forty seven patients with brain lesions adjacent to the CST and AF were studied. During lesion resection, direct fiber stimulation was applied to the CST and AF to elicit motor responses (fiber-MEP) and the impairment of language-related functions to identify the CST and AF. The minimum distance between the resection border and illustrated CST was measured on postoperative images. Direct fiber stimulation demonstrated that CST- and AF-tractography accurately reflected anatomical CST functioning. The cortical stimulation to the gyrus, including the language-fMRI activation, evoked speech arrest, while the subcortical stimulation close to the AF reproducibly caused 'paranomia' without speech arrest. There were strong correlations between stimulus intensity for the fiber-MEP and the distance between eloquent fibers and the stimulus points. The convergent calculation formulated 1.8 mA as the electrical threshold of CST for the fiber-MEP, which was much smaller than that of the hand motor area. Validated tractography demonstrated the mean distance and intersection angle between CST and AF were 5 mm and 107 deg, respectively. In addition, the anisotropic diffusion-weighted image (ADWI) and CST-tractography clearly indicated the locations of the primary motor area (PMA) and the central sulcus and well reflected the anatomical characteristics of the corticospinal tract in the human brain. DTI-based tractography is a reliable way to map the white matter connections in the entire brain in clinical and basic neuroscience. By combining these techniques, investigating the cortico-subcortical connections in the human central nervous system could contribute to elucidating the neural networks of the human brain and shed light

  20. White matter damage impairs access to consciousness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Françoise; Del Cul, Antoine; Malikova, Irina; Naccache, Lionel; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cohen, Laurent; Cherif, André Ali; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Audoin, Bertrand

    2009-01-15

    Global neuronal workspace theory predicts that damage to long-distance white matter (WM) tracts should impair access to consciousness during the perception of brief stimuli. To address this issue, we studied visual backward masking in 18 patients at the very first clinical stage of multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurological disease characterized by extensive WM damage, and in 18 matched healthy subjects. In our masking paradigm, the visibility of a digit stimulus increases non-linearly as a function of the interval duration between this target and a subsequent mask. In order to characterize quantitatively, for each subject, the transition between non-conscious and conscious perception of the stimulus, we used non-linear regression to fit a sigmoid curve to objective performance and subjective visibility reports as a function of target-mask delay. The delay corresponding to the inflexion point of the sigmoid, where visibility suddenly increases, was termed the "non-linear transition threshold" and used as a summary measure of masking efficiency. Objective and subjective non-linear transition thresholds were highly correlated across subjects in both groups, and were higher in patients compared to controls. In patients, variations in the non-linear transition threshold were inversely correlated to the Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) values inside the right dorsolateral prefrontal WM, the right occipito-frontal fasciculus and the left cerebellum. This study provides clinical evidence of a relationship between impairments of conscious access and integrity of large WM bundles, particularly involving prefrontal cortex, as predicted by global neuronal workspace theory.

  1. White matter lesions of the aging brain visualized on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Shindou, Masaaki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Kato, Toshio; Monma, Keiji; Segawa, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the relationship between the severity of the white matter lesions (WMLs) and aging. We reviewed 215 subjects (11-88 years of age) referred for MR imaging performed between June 1988 and August 1989 on a 0.5T superconducting MR imager. The spin echo technique of image acquisition was used, with TR 1800 ms and TE 120 ms. All subjects were free from neurological abnormalities. The patterns of MR imaging of the incidental WMLs were divided into four grades; grades 0-3 (grade 0, no lesions; grade 1, lesions confined to one lobe; grade 2, lesions beyond one lobe; grade 3, confluent periventricular lesions). We investigated the relationships among the prevalence of WMLs, the grading of WMLs, age, and hypertension. Furthermore, we analyzed the grading of WMLs in relation to the degree of brain atrophy (bicaudate index) and the prevalence of basal ganglionic lesions. The mean age of grade 0 (n=90), grade 1 (n=36), grade 2 (n=58) and grade 3 (n=31) was 43.4±13.2, 57.3±7.3, 63.5±10.8 and 71.6±8.5. The statistical difference of age between grade 0 and 1 (p 160 mmHg) showed higher grading of WMLs than other subjects. There was a statistical difference in the bicaudate index between grade 0 and 2 (p<0.001), and grade 0 and 3 (p<0.001). Of the 89 subjects of grade 2 or 3, 47 (53%) had basal ganglionic and/or thalamic lesions. It was confirmed that WMLs of neurologically healthy subjects significantly correlated with aging. In addition, hypertension accelerated WMLs. (author)

  2. Neurons in the white matter of the adult human neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Luisa Suarez-Sola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The white matter (WM of the adult human neocortex contains the so-called “interstitial neurons”. They are most numerous in the superficial WM underlying the cortical gyri, and decrease in density toward the deep WM. They are morphologically heterogeneous. A subgroup of interstitial neurons display pyramidal-cell like morphologies, characterized by a polarized dendritic tree with a dominant apical dendrite, and covered with a variable number of dendritic spines. In addition, a large contingent of interstitial neurons can be classified as interneurons based on their neurochemical profile as well as on morphological criteria. WM- interneurons have multipolar or bipolar shapes and express GABA and a variety of other neuronal markers, such as calbindin and calretinin, the extracellular matrix protein reelin, or neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The heterogeneity of interstitial neurons may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Interstitial neurons are most prominent in human brain, and only rudimentary in the brain of non-primate mammals. These evolutionary differences have precluded adequate experimental work on this cell population, which is usually considered as a relict of the subplate, a transient compartment proper of development and without a known function in the adult brain. The primate-specific prominence of the subplate in late fetal stages points to an important role in the establishment of interstitial neurons. Neurons in the adult WM may be actively involved in coordinating inter-areal connectivity and regulation of blood flow. Further studies in primates will be needed to elucidate the developmental history, adult components and activities of this large neuronal system.

  3. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  4. Night sleep influences white matter microstructure in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Melloni, Elisa M T; Dallaspezia, Sara; Bollettini, Irene; Locatelli, Clara; Poletti, Sara; Colombo, Cristina

    2017-08-15

    Alteration of circadian rhythms and sleep disruption are prominent trait-like features of bipolar disorder (BD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures suggest a widespread alteration of white matter (WM) microstructure in patients with BD. Sleep promotes myelination and oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferation. We hypothesized a possible association between DTI measures of WM microstructure and sleep quantity measures in BD. We studied 69 inpatients affected by a depressive episode in course of type I BD. We used whole brain tract-based spatial statistics on DTI measures of WM microstructure: axial, radial, and mean diffusivity (AD, RD, MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Self-assessed measures of time asleep (TA) and total sleep time (TST) were extracted from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Actigraphic recordings were performed on a subsample of 23 patients. We observed a positive correlation of DTI measures of FA with actigraphic measures of TA and TST, and with PSQI measure of TA. DTI measures of RD inversely associated with actigraphic measure of TA, and with PSQI measures of TA and TST. Several WM tracts were involved, including corpus callosum, cyngulate gyrus, uncinate fasciculus, left superior and inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, thalamic radiation, corona radiata, retrolenticular part of internal capsule and corticospinal tract. The study is correlational in nature, and no conclusion about a causal connection can be drawn. Reduced FA with increased RD and MD indicate higher water diffusivity associated with less organized myelin and/or axonal structures. Our findings suggest an association between sleep disruption and these measures of brain microstructure in specific tracts contributing to the functional connectivity in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extensive Supratentorial Hemorrhages Following Posterior Fossa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote supratentorial hematoma soon after posterior fossa surgery for the removal of a space-occupying lesion is a rare but dramatic and dreaded complication, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. A 47-year-old woman presented with headache of 1-year duration that worsened over last 2 months, progressive ...

  7. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.Z.; Oba, H.; Ohtomo, K.; Aihara, M.; Hayashibe, H.; Nakazawa, S.; Uchiyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  8. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.Z. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Oba, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Aihara, M. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Hayashibe, H. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Nakazawa, S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Uchiyama, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  9. Broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric phenotypes associated with white matter disease in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Tugce B; Davila, Jorge; Lewis, Denice; Boafo, Addo; Sell, Erick; Richer, Julie; Nikkel, Sarah M; Armour, Christine M; Tomiak, Eva; Lines, Matthew A; Sawyer, Sarah L

    2018-01-01

    White matter lesions have been described in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). How these lesions correlate with the neurocognitive features associated with PTEN mutations, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay, has not been well established. We report nine patients with PTEN mutations and white matter changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), eight of whom were referred for reasons other than developmental delay or ASD. Their clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic macrocephaly with normal development/intellect, to obsessive compulsive disorder, and debilitating neurological disease. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first detailed description of PTEN-related white matter changes in adult patients and in children with normal development and intelligence. We present a detailed assessment of the neuropsychological phenotype of our patients and discuss the relationship between the wide array of neuropsychiatric features and observed white matter findings in the context of these individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Changes in functional organization and white matter integrity in the connectome in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tinaz

    2017-01-01

    Our results suggest that despite subtle white matter connectivity changes, the overall structural organization of the PD connectome remains robust at relatively early disease stages. However, there is a breakdown in the functional modular organization of the PD connectome.

  11. White matter microstructure in transsexuals and controls investigated by diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranz, Georg S; Hahn, Andreas; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Küblböck, Martin; Hummer, Allan; Ganger, Sebastian; Seiger, Rene; Winkler, Dietmar; Swaab, Dick F; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    Biological causes underpinning the well known gender dimorphisms in human behavior, cognition, and emotion have received increased attention in recent years. The advent of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has permitted the investigation of the white matter microstructure in

  12. White Matter Hyperintensities and Cognitive Impairment During Electroconvulsive Therapy in Severely Depressed Elderly Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Wattjes, M.P.; Comijs, H.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Eikelenboom, P.; Craen, A.J.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Transient cognitive impairment during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be a reason to discontinue ECT in depressed elderly patients. We hypothesized that both white matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy contribute to transient cognitive impairment during ECT.

  13. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on Human Brain Gray Matter and White Matter--Evidence from MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available There is limited and inconclusive evidence that space environment, especially microgravity condition, may affect microstructure of human brain. This experiment hypothesized that there would be modifications in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM of the brain due to microgravity.Eighteen male volunteers were recruited and fourteen volunteers underwent -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR for 30 days simulated microgravity. High-resolution brain anatomical imaging data and diffusion tensor imaging images were collected on a 3T MR system before and after HDBR. We applied voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics analysis to investigate the structural changes in GM and WM of brain.We observed significant decreases of GM volume in the bilateral frontal lobes, temporal poles, parahippocampal gyrus, insula and right hippocampus, and increases of GM volume in the vermis, bilateral paracentral lobule, right precuneus gyrus, left precentral gyrus and left postcentral gyrus after HDBR. Fractional anisotropy (FA changes were also observed in multiple WM tracts.These regions showing GM changes are closely associated with the functional domains of performance, locomotion, learning, memory and coordination. Regional WM alterations may be related to brain function decline and adaption. Our findings provide the neuroanatomical evidence of brain dysfunction or plasticity in microgravity condition and a deeper insight into the cerebral mechanisms in microgravity condition.

  14. White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in High-Altitude U-2 Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    SUBJECT TERMS MRI; white matter hyperintensities; hypobaric exposure; neurological decompression sickness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...normal controls and did not increase with age in pilots, suggesting that hypobaric exposure produces white matter damage different from that occurring in...relapse we observed in 3 NDCS pilots after successful hyperbaric treatment (US Navy Treatment Table 6; 100% fraction of inspired oxygen; 2.8 atm absolute

  15. Netrin-1 overexpression promotes white matter repairing and remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaosong; Li, Yaning; Lu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Damage of oligodendrocytes after ischemia has negative impact on white matter integrity and neuronal function. In this work, we explore whether Netrin-1 (NT-1) overexpression facilitates white matter repairing and remodeling. Adult CD-1 mice received stereotactic injection of adeno-associated virus carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). One week after gene transfer, mice underwent 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The effect of NT-1 on neural function was evaluated by neurobehavioral te...

  16. Neonatal white matter abnormalities an important predictor of neurocognitive outcome for very preterm children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne J Woodward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. DESIGN/METHODS: The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation infants born from 1998-2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. RESULTS: At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white

  17. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  18. White matter integrity deficits in prefrontal-amygdala pathways in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Anderson, Adam W; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2012-01-16

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with significant non-social fears. Consistent with this elevated non-social fear, individuals with Williams syndrome have an abnormally elevated amygdala response when viewing threatening non-social stimuli. In typically-developing individuals, amygdala activity is inhibited through dense, reciprocal white matter connections with the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies suggest a functional uncoupling of normal prefrontal-amygdala inhibition in individuals with Williams syndrome, which might underlie both the extreme amygdala activity and non-social fears. This functional uncoupling might be caused by structural deficits in underlying white matter pathways; however, prefrontal-amygdala white matter deficits have yet to be explored in Williams syndrome. We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate prefrontal-amygdala white matter integrity differences in individuals with Williams syndrome and typically-developing controls with high levels of non-social fear. White matter pathways between the amygdala and several prefrontal regions were isolated using probabilistic tractography. Within each pathway, we tested for between-group differences in three measures of white matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and parallel diffusivity (λ(1)). Individuals with Williams syndrome had lower FA, compared to controls, in several of the prefrontal-amygdala pathways investigated, indicating a reduction in white matter integrity. Lower FA in Williams syndrome was explained by significantly higher RD, with no differences in λ(1), suggestive of lower fiber density or axon myelination in prefrontal-amygdala pathways. These results suggest that deficits in the structural integrity of prefrontal-amygdala white matter pathways might underlie the increased amygdala activity and extreme non-social fears observed in Williams syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative ultrasonography of the periventricular white and grey matter of the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaart, R A; Thijssen, J M; Rotteveel, J J; Valckx, F M; van Geemen, A J

    1999-05-01

    This study addresses the value of operator-independent computer processing of ultrasonograms of the developing brain. With this aim, routine cranial ultrasonograms obtained from 39 term and preterm infants without clinical or sonographic evidence of brain damage were analyzed by five observers. The procedure, respectively, included: 1. the definition of four regions of interest (ROI), one white matter and one grey matter area on each side of the brain; 2. digitization of the sonogram data within these ROIs; 3. correction for the equipment settings, using data from a tissue-mimicking phantom as a reference; and 4. calculation of four sonogram characteristics (i.e., mean echo level, MEAN, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, and axial and lateral correlation, CORAX and CORLAT, of the echo level co-occurrence matrix). Significant differences between both sides of the brain or a significant influence of ROI size were not found. The interobserver spread was considerable, but less than the intersubject spread. Two sonogram characteristics seemed strongly correlated in white and grey matter (CORAX and CORLAT) and another only in white matter (SNR with CORAX and CORLAT). MEAN seemed not to be correlated with any other characteristic. Furthermore, it was found that maturation equally decreases white and grey matter MEAN and, thus, hardly affects the ratio between the two. An effect on the other sonogram characteristics was only found in the white matter (i.e., an increase of SNR and a decrease of CORAX and CORLAT). Except for MEAN, the grey matter sonogram characteristics seem hardly affected by maturation. In view of these findings, we conclude that quantitative ultrasonography reveals white and grey matter maturation and, furthermore, provides a conceptional-age-independent reference (MEAN white:grey matter ratio) that might be found to facilitate the detection of pathologic brain alterations.

  20. Probing white-matter microstructure with higher-order diffusion tensors and susceptibility tensor MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Murphy, Nicole E.; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has become an invaluable tool for studying white matter microstructure and brain connectivity. The emergence of quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) has provided another unique tool for assessing the structure of white matter. In the highly ordered white matter structure, diffusion MRI measures hindered water mobility induced by various tissue and cell membranes, while susceptibility sensitizes to the molecular composition and axonal arrangement. Integrating these two methods may produce new insights into the complex physiology of white matter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between diffusion and magnetic susceptibility in the white matter. Experiments were conducted on phantoms and human brains in vivo. Diffusion properties were quantified with the diffusion tensor model and also with the higher order tensor model based on the cumulant expansion. Frequency shift and susceptibility tensor were measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging. These diffusion and susceptibility quantities were compared and correlated in regions of single fiber bundles and regions of multiple fiber orientations. Relationships were established with similarities and differences identified. It is believed that diffusion MRI and susceptibility MRI provide complementary information of the microstructure of white matter. Together, they allow a more complete assessment of healthy and diseased brains. PMID:23507987

  1. DCDC2 polymorphism is associated with left temporoparietal gray and white matter structures during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-10-22

    Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414455-08$15.00/0.

  2. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepomaeki, V. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Paavilainen, T.; Komu, M. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Matomaeki, J.; Lapinleimu, H.; Liisa Lehtonen, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Hurme, S. [University of Turku, Department of Biostatistics, Turku (Finland); Haataja, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, R. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  3. White matter deficits in psychopathic offenders and correlation with factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers

    Full Text Available Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis in 11 psychopathic offenders matched to 11 healthy controls was completed. Fractional anisotropy was calculated within each voxel and comparisons were made between groups using a permutation test. Any clusters of white matter voxels different between groups were submitted to probabilistic tractography. Significant differences in fractional anisotropy were found between psychopathic offenders and healthy controls in three main white matter clusters. These three clusters represented two major networks: an amygdalo-prefrontal network, and a striato-thalamo-frontal network. The interpersonal/affective component of the PCL-R correlated with white matter deficits in the orbitofrontal cortex and frontal pole whereas the antisocial component correlated with deficits in the striato-thalamo-frontal network. In addition to replicating earlier work concerning disruption of an amygdala-prefrontal network, we show for the first time that white matter integrity in a striato-thalamo-frontal network is disrupted in psychopathic offenders. The novelty of our findings lies in the two dissociable white matter networks that map directly onto the two major factors of psychopathy.

  4. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepomaeki, V.; Paavilainen, T.; Komu, M.; Matomaeki, J.; Lapinleimu, H.; Liisa Lehtonen, L.; Hurme, S.; Haataja, L.; Parkkola, R.

    2012-01-01

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  5. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  6. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Choi, So Young; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Painter, Michael J.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blueml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  7. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul; Lequin, Maarten; Pul, Carola van; Buijs, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm 2 ) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  8. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  9. White matter hypoperfusion and damage in dementia: post-mortem assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has revealed a range of white matter abnormalities that are common in dementia, some that predict cognitive decline. The abnormalities may result from structural diseases of the cerebral vasculature, such as arteriolosclerosis and amyloid angiopathy, but can also be caused by nonstructural vascular abnormalities (eg, of vascular contractility or permeability), neurovascular instability or extracranial cardiac or vascular disease. Conventional histopathological assessment of the white matter has tended to conflate morphological vascular abnormalities with changes that reflect altered interstitial fluid dynamics or white matter ischemic damage, even though the latter may be of extracranial or nonstructural etiology. However, histopathology is being supplemented by biochemical approaches, including the measurement of proteins involved in the molecular responses to brain ischemia, myelin proteins differentially susceptible to ischemic damage, vessel-associated proteins that allow rapid measurement of microvessel density, markers of blood-brain barrier dysfunction and axonal injury, and mediators of white matter damage. By combining neuroimaging with histopathology and biochemical analysis, we can provide reproducible, quantitative data on the severity of white matter damage, and information on its etiology and pathogenesis. Together these have the potential to inform and improve treatment, particularly in forms of dementia to which white matter hypoperfusion makes a significant contribution. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  10. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: Reasoning training alters structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson P Mackey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA, have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23 who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT, a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n=22. DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination.

  11. Ischemic tolerance in pre-myelinated white matter: the role of astrocyte glycogen in brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Robert

    2015-06-01

    In isolated white matter, ischemic tolerance changes dramatically in the period immediately before the onset of myelination. In the absence of an extrinsic energy source, postnatal day 0 to 2 (P0 to P2) white matter axons are here shown to maintain excitability for over twice as long as axons >P2, a differential that was dependent on glycogen metabolism. Prolonged withdrawal of extrinsic energy supply tended to spare axons in zones around astrocytes, which are shown to be the sole repository for glycogen particles in developing white matter. Analysis of mitochondrial volume fraction revealed that neither axons nor astrocytes had a low metabolic rate in neonatal white matter, while oligodendroglia at older ages had an elevated metabolism. The astrocyte population is established early in neural development, and exhibits reduced cell density as maturation progresses and white matter expands. The findings show that this event establishes the necessary conditions for ischemia sensitivity in white matter and indicates that astrocyte proximity may be significant for the survival of neuronal elements in conditions associated with compromised energy supply.

  12. Sex-related difference in human white matter volumes studied: Inspection of the corpus callosum and other white matter by VBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Akihiko; Chen, Yen-Wei; Tanigaki, Kenji; Yamada, Atsushi; Vigers, Piers; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Akiguchi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    It has been contended that any observed difference of the corpus callosum (CC) size between men and women is not sex-related but brain-size-related. A recent report, however, showed that the midsagittal CC area was significantly larger in women in 37 brain-size-matched pairs of normal young adults. Since this constituted strong evidence of sexual dimorphism and was obtained from publicly available data in OASIS, we examined volume differences within the CC and in other white matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We created a three-dimensional region of interest of the CC and measured its volume. The VBM statistics were analyzed by permutation test and threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) with the significance levels at FWER women in the same 37 brain-size-matched pairs. We found that the CC genu was the subregion showing the most significant sex-related difference. We also found that white matter in the bilateral anterior frontal regions and the left lateral white matter near to Broca’s area were larger in women, whereas there were no significant larger regions in men. Since we used brain-size-matched subjects, our results gave strong volumetric evidence of localized sexual dimorphism of white matter.

  13. Determinants of cerebral white matter lesions: A longitudinal population based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. de Leeuw (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractW hite matter lesions are frequently found on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans of elderly non-demented and demented people. l-4 The pathogenesis of white matter lesions is largely unknown. However age and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure levels and indicators of

  14. Information processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter and general intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloza, Clara; Cox, Simon R; Duff, Barbara; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2016-08-30

    Several authors have proposed that schizophrenia is the result of impaired connectivity between specific brain regions rather than differences in local brain activity. White matter abnormalities have been suggested as the anatomical substrate for this dysconnectivity hypothesis. Information processing speed may act as a key cognitive resource facilitating higher order cognition by allowing multiple cognitive processes to be simultaneously available. However, there is a lack of established associations between these variables in schizophrenia. We hypothesised that the relationship between white matter and general intelligence would be mediated by processing speed. White matter water diffusion parameters were studied using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and computed within 46 regions-of-interest (ROI). Principal component analysis was conducted on these white matter ROI for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, and on neurocognitive subtests to extract general factors of white mater structure (gFA, gMD), general intelligence (g) and processing speed (gspeed). There was a positive correlation between g and gFA (r= 0.67, p =0.001) that was partially and significantly mediated by gspeed (56.22% CI: 0.10-0.62). These findings suggest a plausible model of structure-function relations in schizophrenia, whereby white matter structure may provide a neuroanatomical substrate for general intelligence, which is partly supported by speed of information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the Cell Population in the Brain White Matter of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup; Kjær, Majken; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    While brain gray matter is primarily associated with sensorimotor processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinates communication between different brain regions, and acts as a relay for input/output signals. Previous studies have described......, and microglia) in the cerebral white matter of 9 infants aged 0-33 months, using design-based stereological methods to obtain quantitative data about brain development. There were linear increases with age in the numbers of oligodendrocytes (7-28 billion) and astrocytes (1.5-6.7 billion) during the first 3...

  16. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  17. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  18. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders. PMID:27199831

  19. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD

  20. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang [Dept. of Bioengineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China)

    2008-02-15

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD.

  1. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang (Dept. of Bioengineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China))

    2008-02-15

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD

  2. Voxel-based MRI intensitometry reveals extent of cerebral white matter pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hartung

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging have shown great potential in capturing a common white matter pathology. However the sensitivity is variable and diffusion tensor imaging is not yet applicable to the routine clinical environment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM has revealed grey matter changes in ALS, but the bias-reducing algorithms inherent to traditional VBM are not optimized for the assessment of the white matter changes. We have developed a novel approach to white matter analysis, namely voxel-based intensitometry (VBI. High resolution T1-weighted MRI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla in 30 ALS patients and 37 age-matched healthy controls. VBI analysis at the group level revealed widespread white matter intensity increases in the corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, sub-central, frontal and occipital white matter tracts and cerebellum. VBI results correlated with disease severity (ALSFRS-R and patterns of cerebral involvement differed between bulbar- and limb-onset. VBI would be easily translatable to the routine clinical environment, and once optimized for individual analysis offers significant biomarker potential in ALS.

  3. White matter alterations in neurodegenerative and vascular dementia; Marklagerveraenderungen bei neurodegenerativen und vaskulaeren Demenzerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 66421, Homburg (Germany); Kessler, H.; Falkai, P. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Retz, W.; Roesler, M. [Arbeitsgruppe Gerontopsychiatrie, Universitaets-Nervenklinik Homburg (Germany); Institut fuer gerichtliche Psychologie und Psychiatrie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetskliniken des Saarlandes, Homburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Due to a significant overlap of the two syndromes, differentiation of degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer-type from vascular dementia may be difficult even when imaging studies are available. White matter changes occur in many patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Little is known about the impact of white matter changes on the course and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. High sensitivity of MRI in the detection of white matter alterations may account for over-diagnosing vascular dementia. The clinical significance of white matter alterations in dementia is still a matter of debate. The article reviews current concepts about the role of white matter alterations in dementia. (orig.) [German] Die Zuordnung einer Demenzerkrankung zu einem neurodegenerativen Pathomechanismus, wie der Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) oder einem vaskulaeren Pathomechanismus, kann trotz der Verfuegbarkeit bildgebender Verfahren Probleme bereiten. Ueberlappungen neurodegenerativer und vaskulaerer Mechanismen sind haeufig. Mikroangiopathische Veraenderungen des Marklagers finden sich bei einem hohen Anteil von Patienten mit der klinischen Verlaufsform einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ. Es ist unklar, ob es sich um eine Koinzidenz zweier Pathomechanismen handelt oder ob eine wechselseitige Beeinflussung stattfindet. Die hohe Sensitivitaet der Magnetresonanztomographie bei der Erfassung mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers koennte dazu fuehren, dass zu vaskulaere Demenzerkrankungen haeufig diagnostiziert werden. Der Einfluss mikroangiopathischer Veraenderungen des Marklagers auf den Demenzverlauf wird kontrovers diskutiert. Die vorgelegte Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die aktuellen Konzepte zum Stellenwert von Marklagerveraenderungen bei Demenzerkrankungen. (orig.)

  4. White matter integrity as a predictor of response to treatment in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; Chaddock, Chris; Dell'acqua, Flavio; Handley, Rowena; Reinders, A A T Simone; Mondelli, Valeria; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Diforti, Marta; Simmons, Andrew; David, Anthony S; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M; Kapur, Shitij; Dazzan, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of brain white matter connections is central to a patient's ability to respond to pharmacological interventions. This study tested this hypothesis using a specific measure of white matter integrity, and examining its relationship to treatment response using a prospective design in patients within their first episode of psychosis. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired in 63 patients with first episode psychosis and 52 healthy control subjects (baseline). Response was assessed after 12 weeks and patients were classified as responders or non-responders according to treatment outcome. At this second time-point, they also underwent a second diffusion tensor imaging scan. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to assess fractional anisotropy as a marker of white matter integrity. At baseline, non-responders showed lower fractional anisotropy than both responders and healthy control subjects (P psychosis. These data, together with earlier findings on cortical grey matter, suggest that grey and white matter integrity at the start of treatment is an important moderator of response to antipsychotics. These findings can inform patient stratification to anticipate care needs, and raise the possibility that antipsychotics may restore white matter integrity as part of the therapeutic response.

  5. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased White Matter Inflammation in Aging- and Alzheimer’s Disease Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Raj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis. Particularly in white matter microglia of 24-month-old mice, abundant expression of phagocytic markers including Mac-2, Axl, CD16/32, Dectin1, CD11c, and CD36 was detected. Interestingly, in white matter of human brain tissue the first signs of inflammatory activity were already detected during middle age. Thus quantification of microglial proteins, such as CD68 (commonly associated with phagocytosis and HLA-DR (associated with antigen presentation, in postmortem human white matter brain tissue showed an age-dependent increase in immunoreactivity already in middle-aged people (53.2 ± 2.0 years. This early inflammation was also detectable by non-invasive positron emission tomography imaging using [11C]-(R-PK11195, a ligand that binds to activated microglia. Increased microglia activity was also prominently present in the white matter of human postmortem early-onset AD (EOAD brain tissue. Interestingly, microglia activity in the white matter of late-onset AD (LOAD CNS was similar to that of the aged clinically silent AD cases. These data indicate that microglia-induced neuroinflammation is predominant in the white matter of aging mice and humans as well as in EOAD brains. This white matter inflammation may contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration, and have prognostic value for detecting the onset and progression of aging and neurodegeneration.

  8. Cortisol Reactivity to Stress and Its Association With White Matter Integrity in Adults With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Katie L; Chiappelli, Joshua; Sampath, Hemalatha; Rowland, Laura M; Thangavelu, Kavita; Davis, Beshaun; Du, Xiaoming; Muellerklein, Florian; Daughters, Stacey; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L Elliot

    2015-09-01

    Although acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress is often adaptive, prolonged responses may have detrimental effects. Many components of white matter structures are sensitive to prolonged cortisol exposure. We aimed to identify a behavioral laboratory assay for cortisol response related to brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that an abnormally prolonged cortisol response to stress may be linked to abnormal white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia. Acute and prolonged salivary cortisol response was measured outside the scanner at pretest and then at 0, 20, and 40 minutes after a psychological stress task in patients with schizophrenia (n = 45) and controls (n = 53). Tract-averaged white matter was measured by 64-direction diffusion tensor imaging in a subset of patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 33). Patients who did not tolerate the psychological stress task and quit had greater acute (t = 2.52 [p = .016] and t = 3.51 [p = .001] at 0 and 20 minutes) and prolonged (t = 3.62 [p = .001] at 40 minutes) cortisol reactivity compared with patients who finished the task. Abnormally prolonged cortisol reactivity in patients was significantly associated with reduced white matter integrity (r = -0.468, p = .009). Regardless of task completion status, acute cortisol response was not related to the white matter measures in patients or controls. This paradigm was successful at identifying a subset of patients whose cortisol response was associated with brain pathophysiology. Abnormal cortisol response may adversely affect white matter integrity, partly explaining this pathology observed in schizophrenia. Prolonged stress responses may be targeted for intervention to test for protective effects against white matter damages.

  9. The Plasticity of Brain Gray Matter and White Matter following Lower Limb Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation induces functional reorganization in the sensory and motor cortices. However, the extent of structural changes after lower limb amputation in patients without phantom pain remains uncertain. We studied 17 adult patients with right lower limb amputation and 18 healthy control subjects using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA of white matter (WM were investigated. In amputees, a thinning trend was seen in the left premotor cortex (PMC. Smaller clusters were also noted in the visual-to-motor regions. In addition, the amputees also exhibited a decreased FA in the right superior corona radiata and WM regions underlying the right temporal lobe and left PMC. Fiber tractography from these WM regions showed microstructural changes in the commissural fibers connecting the bilateral premotor cortices, compatible with the hypothesis that amputation can lead to a change in interhemispheric interactions. Finally, the lower limb amputees also displayed significant FA reduction in the right inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, which is negatively correlated with the time since amputation. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the amputation of lower limb could induce changes in the cortical representation of the missing limb and the underlying WM connections.

  10. Grey and white matter changes across the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lillo

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD lie on a clinical, pathological and genetic continuum with patients of one disease exhibiting features of the other. Nevertheless, to date, the underlying grey matter and white matter changes across the ALS-FTD disease continuum have not been explored. In this study fifty-three participants with ALS (n = 10, ALS-FTD (n = 10 and behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD; n = 15 as well as controls (n = 18, underwent detailed clinical assessment plus structural imaging using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis of magnetic resonance brain imaging to examine grey and white matter differences and commonalities across the continuum. Importantly, patient groups were matched for age, education, gender and disease duration. VBM and DTI results showed that changes in the ALS group were confined mainly to the motor cortex and anterior cingulate as well as their underlying white matter tracts. ALS-FTD and bvFTD showed widespread grey matter and white matter changes involving frontal and temporal lobes. Extensive prefrontal cortex changes emerged as a marker for bvFTD compared to other subtypes, while ALS-FTD could be distinguished from ALS by additional temporal lobe grey and white matter changes. Finally, ALS could be mainly distinguished from the other two groups by corticospinal tract degeneration. The present study shows for the first time that FTD and ALS overlap in anterior cingulate, motor cortex and related white matter tract changes across the whole continuum. Nevertheless, frontal and temporal atrophy as well as corticospinal tract degeneration emerged as marker for subtype classification, which will inform future diagnosis and target disease management across the continuum.

  11. Gray, White Matter Concentration Changes and Their Correlation with Heterotopic Neurons in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Joo, Eun Yun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To identify changes in gray and white matter concentrations (GMC, WMC), and their relation to heterotopic neuron numbers in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The gray matter or white matter concentrations of 16 left and 15 right mTLE patients who achieved an excellent surgical outcome were compared with those of 24 healthy volunteers for the left group and with 23 healthy volunteers for the right group, by optimized voxel-based morphometry using unmodulated and modulated images. A histologic count of heterotopic neurons was obtained in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe originating from the patients' surgical specimens. In addition, the number of heterotopic neurons were tested to determine if there was a correlation with the GMC or WMC. The GMCs of the left and right mTLE groups were reduced in the ipsilateral hippocampi, bilateral thalami, precentral gyri, and in the cerebellum. The WMCs were reduced in the ipsilateral white matter of the anterior temporal lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, and internal capsules, but increased in the pons and bilateral precentral gyri. The heterotopic neuron counts in the left mTLE group showed a positive correlation (r = 0.819, p < 0.0001) with GMCs and a negative correlation (r = - 0.839, p < 0.0001) with WMCs in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. The present study shows the abnormalities of the cortico-thalamo- hippocampal network including a gray matter volume reduction in the anterior frontal lobes and an abnormality of brain tissue concentration in the pontine area. Furthermore, heterotopic neuron numbers were significantly correlated with GMC or WMC in the left white matter of anterior temporal lobe.

  12. Microstructural abnormalities in white and gray matter in obese adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Nouwen

    Full Text Available Aims/hypotheses: In adults, type 2 diabetes and obesity have been associated with structural brain changes, even in the absence of dementia. Some evidence suggested similar changes in adolescents with type 2 diabetes but comparisons with a non-obese control group have been lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in microstructure of gray and white matter between adolescents with type 2 diabetes, obese adolescents and healthy weight adolescents. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 15 adolescents with type 2 diabetes, 21 obese adolescents and 22 healthy weight controls. Volumetric differences in the gray matter between the three groups were examined using voxel based morphology, while tract based spatial statistics was used to examine differences in the microstructure of the white matter. Results: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes and obese adolescents had reduced gray matter volume in the right hippocampus, left putamen and caudate, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus compared to healthy weight controls. Type 2 diabetes was also associated with significant regional changes in fractional anisotropy within the corpus callosum, fornix, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left uncinate, left internal and external capsule. Fractional anisotropy reductions within these tracts were explained by increased radial diffusivity, which may suggest demyelination of white matter tracts. Mean diffusivity and axial diffusivity did not differ between the groups. Conclusion/interpretation: Our data shows that adolescent obesity alone results in reduced gray matter volume and that adolescent type 2 diabetes is associated with both white and gray matter abnormalities. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Obesity, White matter, Gray matter, Demyelination

  13. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Running exercise protects the capillaries in white matter in a rat model of depression.

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    Chen, Lin-Mu; Zhang, Ai-Pin; Wang, Fei-Fei; Tan, Chuan-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Running has been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medication. However, the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of running are not fully understood. Changes of capillaries in white matter have been discovered in clinical patients and depression model rats. Considering the important part of white matter in depression, running may cause capillary structural changes in white matter. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) rats were provided with a 4-week running exercise (from the fifth week to the eighth week) for 20 minutes each day for 5 consecutive days each week. Anhedonia was measured by a behavior test. Furthermore, capillary changes were investigated in the control group, the CUS/Standard group, and the CUS/Running group using stereological methods. The 4-week running increased sucrose consumption significantly in the CUS/Running group and had significant effects on the total volume, total length, and total surface area of the capillaries in the white matter of depression rats. These results demonstrated that exercise-induced protection of the capillaries in white matter might be one of the structural bases for the exercise-induced treatment of depression. It might provide important parameters for further study of the vascular mechanisms of depression and a new research direction for the development of clinical antidepressant means. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3577-3586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Coupled changes in brain white matter microstructure and fluid intelligence in later life.

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    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bastin, Mark E; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Engelhardt, Laura E; Cox, Simon R; Royle, Natalie A; Gow, Alan J; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Taylor, Adele M; Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Starr, John M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-06-03

    Understanding aging-related cognitive decline is of growing importance in aging societies, but relatively little is known about its neural substrates. Measures of white matter microstructure are known to correlate cross-sectionally with cognitive ability measures, but only a few small studies have tested for longitudinal relations among these variables. We tested whether there were coupled changes in brain white matter microstructure indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) and three broad cognitive domains (fluid intelligence, processing speed, and memory) in a large cohort of human participants with longitudinal diffusion tensor MRI and detailed cognitive data taken at ages 73 years (n = 731) and 76 years (n = 488). Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure were coupled with changes in fluid intelligence, but not with processing speed or memory. Individuals with higher baseline white matter FA showed less subsequent decline in processing speed. Our results provide evidence for a longitudinal link between changes in white matter microstructure and aging-related cognitive decline during the eighth decade of life. They are consistent with theoretical perspectives positing that a corticocortical "disconnection" partly explains cognitive aging. Copyright © 2015 Ritchie et al.

  16. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of Unusual White Matter Lesion in a Patient with Menkes Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Shin; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Hee Suk

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the diffusion-weighted imaging of unusual white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. On the initial MR imaging, the white matter lesions were localized in the deep periventricular white matter in the absence of diffuse cortical atrophy. The lesion showed diffuse high signal on the diffusion weighted images and diffuse progression and persistent hyperintensity on the follow up imaging. Our case suggests that the white matter lesion may precede diffuse cortical atrophy in a patient with Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked disorder that's caused by impaired intracellular transport of copper. We describe here the DWI findings of unusual and progressive white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder, and it is due to an inborn error of copper metabolism. The cause of Menkes disease has been isolated to a genetic defect in copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase, and this results in low levels of intracellular copper. It is characterized clinically by failure to thrive, retarded mental and motor development, clonic seizure and peculiarly coarse, sparse and colorless scalp hair. These clinical findings can be explained by a dysfunction of the copper-dependent enzymes

  18. Characterization of neurons in the cortical white matter in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Zsófia; Janszky, József; Sétáló, György; Horváth, Réka; Horváth, Zsolt; Dóczi, Tamás; Seress, László; Ábrahám, Hajnalka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to characterize neurons in the archi- and neocortical white matter, and to investigate their distribution in mesial temporal sclerosis. Immunohistochemistry and quantification of neurons were performed on surgically resected tissue sections of patients with therapy-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe tissues of patients with tumor but without epilepsy and that from autopsy were used as controls. Neurons were identified with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against NeuN, calcium-binding proteins, transcription factor Tbr1 and neurofilaments. We found significantly higher density of neurons in the archi- and neocortical white matter of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy than in that of controls. Based on their morphology and neurochemical content, both excitatory and inhibitory cells were present among these neurons. A subset of neurons in the white matter was Tbr-1-immunoreactive and these neurons coexpressed NeuN and neurofilament marker SMI311R. No colocalization of Tbr1 was observed with the inhibitory neuronal markers, calcium-binding proteins. We suggest that a large population of white matter neurons comprises remnants of the subplate. Furthermore, we propose that a subset of white matter neurons was arrested during migration, highlighting the role of cortical maldevelopment in epilepsy associated with mesial temporal sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  20. Preliminary study of normal changes in brain white matter during childhood with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiangxi; Guo Xuemei; Xie Sheng; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the normal changes in brain white matter during childhood by analyzing the anisotropy of different regions and different age groups with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: DTI was performed in 89 children (age range from 2 days to 18 years) without brain abnormalities, and the data measured in fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed statistically. Children less than 6 months were ranged to group 1, 6-12 months to group 2, 1-3 years to group 3, 3-5 years to group 4, 5-8 years to group 5, 8-12 years to group 6, 12-18 years to group 7. Results: (1) There were significant differences in anisotropy (FA values) among different regions of white matter in brain. In group 7, the FA value of corpus callosum was 0.826 ± 0.039, middle cerebellar peduncle 0.678 ± 0.043, frontal white matter 0.489 ± 0.033. (2) The anisotropy among different age group was statistically different, P<0.05. (3) The anisotropy of white matter increased with the increasing of age, and FA values showed positively exponentially correlations with age. Conclusion: DTI shows the structure of white matters in vivo, with which normal changes in brain during childhood can be evaluated. (authors)

  1. Executive dysfunctions in migraine with and without aura: what is the role of white matter lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pira, Francesco; Reggio, Ester; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Maci, Tiziana; Cavallaro, Tiziana; Zappia, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions and white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging have been reported in migraine. The aim of this study was to determine whether any correlation between these 2 variables exists. Forty-four subjects affected by migraine with or without aura were compared with 16 healthy subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions was administered to all subjects. Number and total volume of white matter lesions were assessed in the whole brain and in the frontal lobe. The performances of both groups of migraineurs, with and without aura, were significantly worse when compared with controls on Boston Scanning Test. Moreover, we found lower performances compared with controls respectively on Frontal Assessment Battery in patients with migraine with aura and on Controlled Oral Word Association Test in patients with migraine without aura. Nineteen patients (43.2%) and one control subject (6.2%) had white matter lesions. We did not find any significant correlation between white matter lesions load and neuropsychological performances. On the basis of our results, white matter lesions load on magnetic resonance imaging do not seem to contribute to neuropsychological performances deficit in migraineurs. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  2. White matter microstructure damage in tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, ChunYan; Song, Wei; Chen, Qin; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang; Gong, QiYong

    2017-01-01

    Resting tremor is one of the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several lines of evidence suggest resting tremor may have different underlying pathophysiological processes from those of bradykinesia and rigidity. The current study aims to identify white matter microstructural abnormalities associated with resting tremor in PD. We recruited 60 patients with PD (30 with tremor-dominant PD and 30 with nontremor-dominant PD) and 26 normal controls. All participants underwent clinical assessment and diffusion tensor MRI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate white matter integrity across the entire white matter tract skeleton. Compared with both healthy controls and the nontremor-dominant PD patients, the tremor-dominant PD patients were characterized by increased mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) along multiple white matter tracts, mainly involving the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) pathway. The mean AD value in clusters with significant difference was correlated with resting tremor score in the tremor-dominant PD patients. There was no significant difference between the nontremor-dominant PD patients and controls. Our results support the notion that resting tremor in PD is a distinct condition in which significant microstructural white matter changes exist and provide evidence for the involvement of the CTC in tremor genesis of PD. (orig.)

  3. Anterior temporal white matter lesions in myotonic dystrophy with intellectual impairment: an MRI and neuropathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, A.; Tashiro, K.; Terae, S.; Fujita, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy using MRI and the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), to see it specific MRI findings were associated with intellectual impairment. We also compared them with the neuropathological findings in an autopsy case of MD with intellectual impairment. Mild intellectual impairment was found in 8 of the 12 patients. On T 2-weighted and proton density-weighted images, high-intensity areas were seen in cerebral white matter in 10 of the 12 patients. In seven of these, anterior temporal white-matter lesions (ATWML) were found; all seven had mild intellectual impairment (MMSE 22-26), whereas none of the four patients with normal mentation had ATWML. In only one of the eight patients with intellectual impairment were white-matter lesions not found. Pathological findings were severe loss and disordered arrangement of myelin sheaths and axons in addition to heterotopic neurons within anterior temporal white matter. Bilateral ATWML might be a factor for intellectual impairment in MD. The retrospective pathological study raised the possibility that the ATWML are compatible with focal dysplasia of white matter. (orig.)

  4. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  5. White matter microstructure damage in tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients

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    Luo, ChunYan; Song, Wei; Chen, Qin; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang [Sichuan University, Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Gong, QiYong [Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Resting tremor is one of the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several lines of evidence suggest resting tremor may have different underlying pathophysiological processes from those of bradykinesia and rigidity. The current study aims to identify white matter microstructural abnormalities associated with resting tremor in PD. We recruited 60 patients with PD (30 with tremor-dominant PD and 30 with nontremor-dominant PD) and 26 normal controls. All participants underwent clinical assessment and diffusion tensor MRI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to investigate white matter integrity across the entire white matter tract skeleton. Compared with both healthy controls and the nontremor-dominant PD patients, the tremor-dominant PD patients were characterized by increased mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) along multiple white matter tracts, mainly involving the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) pathway. The mean AD value in clusters with significant difference was correlated with resting tremor score in the tremor-dominant PD patients. There was no significant difference between the nontremor-dominant PD patients and controls. Our results support the notion that resting tremor in PD is a distinct condition in which significant microstructural white matter changes exist and provide evidence for the involvement of the CTC in tremor genesis of PD. (orig.)

  6. Usefulness of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of White Matter in Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, S.; Kinoshita, T.; Matsusue, E.; Fujii, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion tensor imaging in detecting the water diffusivity caused by neuro pathological change in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, 20 with vascular dementia, and 10 control subjects were examined. Diffusion tensor imaging applied diffusion gradient encoding in six non-collinear directions. Fractional anisotropy values were compared in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and anterior and posterior white matter among the three groups. Results: In the patients with Alzheimer disease, fractional anisotropy values of the posterior white matter were significantly lower than those of controls. In patients with vascular dementia, fractional anisotropy values of the anterior white matter tended to be lower than those of the posterior white matter (P=0.07). Conclusion: Diffusion tensor imaging reflects the neuro pathological changes in the white matter, and may be useful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Keywords: Alzheimer disease, .; diffusion tensor imaging, .; vascular dementia

  7. Mapping White Matter Integrity and Neurobehavioral Correlates in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Johnson, Arianne; Kan, Eric; Lu, Lisa H.; Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities and neurocognitive dysfunction have been observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Little is known about how white matter integrity is related to these functional and morphological deficits. We used a combination of diffusion tensor and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate white matter integrity in individuals with FASDs and related these findings to neurocognitive deficits. Seventeen children and adolescents with FASDs were compared with 19 typically developing age-and gender-matched controls. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in individuals with FASDs relative to controls in the right lateral temporal lobe and bilaterally in the lateral aspects of the splenium of the corpus callosum. White matter density was also lower in some, but not all regions in which FA was lower. FA abnormalities were confirmed to be in areas of white matter in post hoc region of interest analyses, further supporting that less myelin or disorganized fiber tracts are associated with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Significant correlations between performance on a test of visuomotor integration and FA in bilateral splenium, but not temporal regions were observed within the FASD group. Correlations between the visuomotor task and FA within the splenium were not significant with in the control group, and were not significant for measures of reading ability. This suggests that this region of white matter is particularly susceptible to damage from prenatal alcohol exposure and that disruption of splenial fibers in this group is associated with poorer visuomotor integration. PMID:18256251

  8. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  9. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  10. White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona S Anderson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiona S Anderson1, Alicia S Kunin-Batson1, Joanna L Perkins2, K Scott Baker31Divisions of Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience; 2Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics, Minneapolis, MN, USA and 3Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Current theory suggests that neurocognitive late effects of treatments for childhood cancer such as difficulties with attention, processing speed and visual-motor ability are the result of white matter damage. Neuroimaging studies have produced a variety of white matter findings. However, although white matter is thought to be differentially affected, previous studies have not demonstrated a discrepancy between white and gray matter function. The present study included 36 children treated for childhood leukemia with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT. Their performance on neurocognitive measures traditionally thought to measure white matter was compared to performance on measures thought to measure gray matter function. Composite white and gray matter standard scores were created based on neuropsychological measures that individuals with known white or gray matter damage perform poorly. As predicted, composite white matter scores (mean = 98.1 were significantly lower (t = 2.26, p = 0.03 than composite gray matter scores (mean = 102.5. Additionally, as gray matter performance increased, the difference between gray and white matter scores increased (R = 0.353, p = 0.035. Overall, the results of this study support the current theory that white matter damage is responsible for the more subtle neurocognitive late effects resulting from treatment for childhood leukemia.Keywords: late effects of cancer treatment, leukemia, neuropsychology, white matter, brain function

  11. The hidden-Markov brain: comparison and inference of white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Salvetti, Federica; Wang, Bing; Diani, Marco; Heindel, Walter; Knecht, Stefan; Wersching, Heike; Baune, Bernhard T.; Berger, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Rating and quantification of cerebral white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important tasks in various clinical and scientific settings. As manual evaluation is time consuming and imprecise, much effort has been made to automate the quantification of white matter hyperintensities. There is rarely any report that attempts to study the similarity/dissimilarity of white matter hyperintensity patterns that have different sizes, shapes and spatial localizations on the MRI. This paper proposes an original computational neuroscience framework for such a conceptual study with a standpoint that the prior knowledge about white matter hyperintensities can be accumulated and utilized to enable a reliable inference of the rating of a new white matter hyperintensity observation. This computational approach for rating inference of white matter hyperintensities, which appears to be the first study, can be utilized as a computerized rating-assisting tool and can be very economical for diagnostic evaluation of brain tissue lesions.

  12. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  13. Preclinical cerebral network connectivity evidence of deficits in mild white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WMLs are notable for their high prevalence and have been demonstrated to be a potential neuroimaging biomarker of early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to identify the brain functional and structural mechanisms underlying cognitive decline observed in mild WMLs. Multi-domain cognitive tests, as well as resting-state, diffusion tensor and structural images were obtained on 42 mild WMLs and 42 age/sex-matched healthy controls. For each participant, we examined the functional connectivity of three resting-state networks related to the changed cognitive domains: the default mode network (DMN and the bilateral fronto-parietal network (FPN. We also performed voxel-based morphometry analysis to compare whole-brain gray matter volume, atlas-based quantification of the white matter tracts interconnecting the RSNs, and the relationship between functional connectivity and structural connectivity. We observed functional connectivity alterations in the DMN and the right FPN combined with related white matter integrity disruption in mild WMLs. However, no significant gray matter atrophy difference was found. Furthermore, the right precuneus functional connectivity in the DMN exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the memory test scores. Our study suggests that in mild WMLs, dysfunction of RSNs might be a consequence of decreased white matter structural connectivity, which further affects cognitive performance.

  14. Analysis of the brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - differences between normal grey and white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukowski, P.; Podgorski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Szewczyk, P.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows for an assessment of the metabolite concentration in tissues. The sources of the strongest resonance signals within the brain are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI) and water. The aim of our study was to analyse the ratios of metabolite signals within the brain in HMRS in the healthy population, to define the differences between the grey and white matter spectra. Material/Methods: We studied prospectively 90 subjects aged from 8 to 80 years (mean 43.3 years, SD=17.9), without neurological symptoms or abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging. In all patients, brain HMRS with Signa HDx 1.5 T MR unit (GE Healthcare) was performed with PRESS sequence, using a single voxel method, at TE of 35 ms and TR of 1500 ms. Spectroscopic evaluation involved voxels placed in the white matter of parietal lobe (PWM) and the grey matter of posterior cingulate gyrus (PGM). On the basis of the intensity of NAA, Cr, Cho, mI and water signals, the proportions of these signals were calculated, as well as the ratio of the analyzed metabolite signal to the sum of signals of NAA, Cho, Cr and mI (%Met) in the PGM and PWM voxels. We compared the proportions in the same patients in PGM and PWM voxels. Results: There has been a statistically significant difference between the proportions of a majority of the metabolite ratios evaluated in PGM and PWM, indicating the higher concentration of NAA, Cr and mI in grey matter, and higher concentration of Cho in white matter. Conclusions: HMRS spectra of the brain grey and white matter differ significantly. The concentrations of NAA, Cr and mI are higher in grey matter, while of choline - in the white matter. (authors)

  15. White matter impairments in autism, evidence from voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoyan; Tang, Tianyu; Hong, Shanshan; Hang, Yueyue; Zou, Bing; Li, Huiguo; Zhou, Zhenyu; Ruan, Zongcai; Lu, Zuhong; Tao, Guotai; Liu, Yijun

    2009-04-10

    This study explored white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with high functioning autism (HFA). Twelve male children with HFA and ten matched typically developing children underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found a significant decrease of the white matter density in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and right anterior cingulate and a significant increase in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and left cingulate gyrus in the HFA group compared with the control group. The HFA group also had decreased FA in the frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. By combining DT-MRI FA and MRI volumetric analyses based on the VBM model, the results showed consistent white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with HFA.

  16. White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights from DTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Xekardaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have reported significant changes in white matter in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, a recently developed technique, enables the detection of microstructural changes in white matter. It is a noninvasive in vivo technique that assesses water molecules' diffusion in brain tissues. The most commonly used parameters are axial and radial diffusivity reflecting diffusion along and perpendicular to the axons, as well as mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy representing global diffusion. Although the combination of these parameters provides valuable information about the integrity of brain circuits, their physiological meaning still remains controversial. After reviewing the basic principles of DTI, we report on recent contributions that used this technique to explore subtle structural changes in white matter occurring in elderly patients with bipolar disorder and Alzheimer disease.

  17. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  18. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet P. Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI. The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1 a region-specific analysis and 2 a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of

  19. White matter abnormalities in gene-positive myoclonus-dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Johan N.; Beukers, Richard J.; van der Salm, S. M. A.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2012-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia is an autosomal dominantly inherited movement disorder clinically characterized by myoclonic jerks and dystonic movements of the upper body. Functional imaging and structural gray matter imaging studies in M-D suggest defective sensorimotor integration and an association between

  20. Intra-individual variability in information processing speed reflects white matter microstructure in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Erin L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena A; Omisade, Antonina; Fisk, John D

    2013-01-01

    Slowed information processing speed is commonly reported in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and is typically investigated using clinical neuropsychological tests, which provide sensitive indices of mean-level information processing speed. However, recent studies have demonstrated that within-person variability or intra-individual variability (IIV) in information processing speed may be a more sensitive indicator of neurologic status than mean-level performance on clinical tests. We evaluated the neural basis of increased IIV in mildly affected relapsing-remitting MS patients by characterizing the relation between IIV (controlling for mean-level performance) and white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty women with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 matched control participants completed the Computerized Test of Information Processing (CTIP), from which both mean response time and IIV were calculated. Other clinical measures of information processing speed were also collected. Relations between IIV on the CTIP and DTI metrics of white matter microstructure were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics. We observed slower and more variable responses on the CTIP in MS patients relative to controls. Significant relations between white matter microstructure and IIV were observed for MS patients. Increased IIV was associated with reduced integrity in more white matter tracts than was slowed information processing speed as measured by either mean CTIP response time or other neuropsychological test scores. Thus, despite the common use of mean-level performance as an index of cognitive dysfunction in MS, IIV may be more sensitive to the overall burden of white matter disease at the microstructural level. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential value of considering within-person fluctuations, in addition to mean-level performance, for uncovering brain-behavior relationships in neurologic disorders with widespread white matter pathology.

  1. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2018-03-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MT w ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MT w and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MT w images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MT w images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MT w sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MT w imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MT w imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sabin, Noah D. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ogg, Robert J. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Boop, Frederick A. [Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Jane, John A. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Results: Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non–surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. Conclusions: DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect longitudinally

  3. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Sabin, Noah D.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Ogg, Robert J.; Boop, Frederick A.; Jane, John A.; Hua, Chiaho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51 atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Results: Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non–surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. Conclusions: DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect longitudinally

  4. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  5. Whole genome grey and white matter DNA methylation profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Sandoval, Juan; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel; Gräff, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood. Herein, we determined the DNA methylation patterns of grey and white matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), an important region for higher cognitive skills that is particularly affected in various neurological diseases. For avoiding interindividual differences, we analyzed white and grey matter from the same donor using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and for validating their biological significance, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and pyrosequencing in ten and twenty independent samples, respectively. The combination of these analysis indicated robust grey-white matter differences in DNA methylation. What is more, cell type-specific markers were enriched among the most differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, we also found an outstanding number of grey-white matter differentially methylated genes that have previously been associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, as well as Multiple and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented here thus constitute an important resource for future studies not only to gain insight into brain regional as well as grey and white matter differences, but also to unmask epigenetic alterations that might underlie neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. White matter tract signatures of impaired social cognition in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Downey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of social cognition are often leading features in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and likely to reflect large-scale brain network disintegration. However, the neuroanatomical basis of impaired social cognition in FTLD and the role of white matter connections have not been defined. Here we assessed social cognition in a cohort of patients representing two core syndromes of FTLD, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 29 and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA; n = 15, relative to healthy older individuals (n = 37 using two components of the Awareness of Social Inference Test, canonical emotion identification and sarcasm identification. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI was used to derive white matter tract correlates of social cognition performance and compared with the distribution of grey matter atrophy on voxel-based morphometry. The bvFTD and svPPA groups showed comparably severe deficits for identification of canonical emotions and sarcasm, and these deficits were correlated with distributed and overlapping white matter tract alterations particularly affecting frontotemporal connections in the right cerebral hemisphere. The most robust DTI associations were identified in white matter tracts linking cognitive and evaluative processing with emotional responses: anterior thalamic radiation, fornix (emotion identification and uncinate fasciculus (sarcasm identification. DTI associations of impaired social cognition were more consistent than corresponding grey matter associations. These findings delineate a brain network substrate for the social impairment that characterises FTLD syndromes. The findings further suggest that DTI can generate sensitive and functionally relevant indexes of white matter damage in FTLD, with potential to transcend conventional syndrome boundaries.

  7. Accretion of matter onto white dwarfs as a possible x-ray mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGregoria, A.J.

    1973-01-01

    Accretion of matter onto white dwarfs is investigated; to see if x-rays are produced; to see what type of radiation spectrum one gets; to see what type of short term time dependent behavior one gets; and, finally, to see how everything varies as the rate of inflow of matter is varied and as the mass and radius of the white dwarf under consideration are varied. The main approximation used is the assumption of spherical symmetry. The motivation behind the investigation is to see how well one can explain the various x-ray sources known

  8. Genetic Schizophrenia Risk Variants Jointly Modulate Total Brain and White Matter Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Afke F; Bakker, Steven C; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2013-01-01

    with total brain volume (R(2)=.048, p=1.6×10(-4)) and white matter volume (R(2)=.051, p=8.6×10(-5)) equally in patients and control subjects. The number of (independent) SNPs that substantially influenced both disease risk and white matter (n=2020) was much smaller than the entire set of SNPs that modulated...... modulating schizophrenia and brain volume. METHODS: Odds ratios for genome-wide SNP data were calculated in the sample collected by the Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study Consortium (8690 schizophrenia patients and 11,831 control subjects, excluding subjects from the present study). These were used...

  9. Pathophysiology of white matter perfusion in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rachel; Ashby, Emma L; Wellington, Dannielle; Barrow, Vivienne M; Palmer, Jennifer C; Kehoe, Patrick G; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the contributors and physiological responses to white matter hypoperfusion in the human brain. We previously showed the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 in post-mortem human brain tissue correlates with the degree of ante-mortem ischaemia. In age-matched post-mortem cohorts of Alzheimer's disease (n = 49), vascular dementia (n = 17) and control brains (n = 33) from the South West Dementia Brain Bank (Bristol), we have now examined the relationship between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and several other proteins involved in regulating white matter vascularity and blood flow. Across the three cohorts, white matter perfusion, indicated by the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1, correlated positively with the concentration of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin 1 (P = 0.0005), and negatively with the concentration of the pro-angiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0015). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which catalyses production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II was not altered. In samples of frontal white matter from an independent (Oxford, UK) cohort of post-mortem brains (n = 74), we confirmed the significant correlations between the ratio of myelin-associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 and both endothelin 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. We also assessed microvessel density in the Bristol (UK) samples, by measurement of factor VIII-related antigen, which we showed to correlate with immunohistochemical measurements of vessel density, and found factor VIII-related antigen levels to correlate with the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.0487), suggesting that upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor tends to increase vessel density in the white matter. We propose that downregulation of endothelin 1 and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in the context

  10. White matter magnetic resonance hyperintensities in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective MRI study the presence, appearance, volume, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) correlates of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were examined in 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in 10 age matched healthy...... in the Alzheimer's disease group (p ... patients had extensive DWMH lesions in the central white matter. In the group of patients with Alzheimer's disease as a whole, the volume of DWMHs correlated well with rCBF in the hippocampal region ( r = -0.72; p

  11. Enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in vanishing white matter: expanding the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Thomas Jose; Montealegre, Denia Ramirez; Matsumoto, Julie Ann

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal cranial or spinal nerve contrast enhancement on MRI in cases of suspected pediatric leukodystrophy is recognized as an important clue to the diagnosis of either metachromatic leukodystrophy or globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease). We report a case of genetically confirmed childhood vanishing white matter with enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in addition to the more typical intracranial findings. This case expands the limited differential diagnosis of cranial nerve or spinal nerve enhancement in cases of suspected leukodystrophy and may aid in more efficient work-up and earlier diagnosis of vanishing white matter.

  12. Relaxation time measurements of white and grey matter in multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Appel, B.; Moens, E.; Academisch Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp

    1987-01-01

    In a patient population of some 450 with definite, probable, and possible multiple sclerosis referred to us for MRI, some 40 suffering from definite MS were chosen randomly for relaxation time measurements of plaque-free grey and white matter. T 1 values could not be used for diagnostic purposes owing to their broad standard deviation. Overall white matter T 2 was slightly higher in MS patients than in a non-MS population (94 ms versus 89 ms). Because these changes are not visible in MR images, relaxation time measurements may prove valuable for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  13. Aortic stiffness is associated with white matter integrity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Schinkel, Linda D. van; Westenberg, Jos J.; Elderen, Saskia G. van; Buchem, Mark A. van; Grond, Jeroen van der; Roos, Albert de; Smit, Johannes W.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association between aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness and diffusion tensor imaging of brain white matter integrity in patients with type 1 diabetes using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Forty-one patients with type 1 diabetes (23 men, mean age 44 ± 12 years, mean diabetes duration 24 ± 13 years) were included. Aortic PWV was assessed using through-plane velocity-encoded MRI. Brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements were performed on 3-T MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated for white and grey matter integrity. Pearson correlation and multivariable linear regression analyses including cardiovascular risk factors as covariates were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that aortic PWV is independently associated with white matter integrity FA (β = -0.777, p = 0.008) in patients with type 1 diabetes. This effect was independent of age, gender, mean arterial pressure, body mass index, smoking, duration of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin levels. Aortic PWV was not significantly related to grey matter integrity. Our data suggest that aortic stiffness is independently associated with reduced white matter integrity in patients with type 1 diabetes. (orig.)

  14. Family Income, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and White Matter Structure in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Dufford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Family income is associated with gray matter morphometry in children, but little is known about the relationship between family income and white matter structure. In this paper, using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a whole brain, voxel-wise approach, we examined the relationship between family income (assessed by income-to-needs ratio and white matter organization in middle childhood (N = 27, M = 8.66 years. Results from a non-parametric, voxel-wise, multiple regression (threshold-free cluster enhancement, p < 0.05 FWE corrected indicated that lower family income was associated with lower white matter organization [assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA] for several clusters in white matter tracts involved in cognitive and emotional functions including fronto-limbic circuitry (uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle, association fibers (inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tracts. Further, we examined the possibility that cumulative risk (CR exposure might function as one of the potential pathways by which family income influences neural outcomes. Using multiple regressions, we found lower FA in portions of these tracts, including those found in the left cingulum bundle and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, was significantly related to greater exposure to CR (β = -0.47, p < 0.05 and β = -0.45, p < 0.05.

  15. Quantitative MRI assessments of white matter in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Li, Chin-Shang; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative MR imaging methods to prospectively assess changes in the physiological structure of white matter during the temporal evolution of leukoencephalopathy (LE) in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The longitudinal incidence, extent (proportion of white matter affect), and intensity (elevation of T1 and T2 relaxation rates) of LE was evaluated for 44 children. A combined imaging set consisting of T1, T2, PD, and FLAIR MR images and white matter, gray matter and CSF a priori maps from a spatially normalized atlas were analyzed with a neural network segmentation based on a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM). Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation maps were generated using a nonlinear parametric optimization procedure to fit the corresponding multi-exponential models. A Cox proportional regression was performed to estimate the effect of intravenous methotrexate (IV-MTX) exposure on the development of LE followed by a generalized linear model to predict the probability of LE in new patients. Additional T-tests of independent samples were performed to assess differences in quantitative measures of extent and intensity at four different points in therapy. Higher doses and more courses of IV-MTX placed patients at a higher risk of developing LE and were associated with more intense changes affecting more of the white matter volume; many of the changes resolved after completion of therapy. The impact of these changes on neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in survivors remains to be determined.

  16. Aortic stiffness is associated with white matter integrity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Schinkel, Linda D. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and General Internal Medicine (C7-Q), Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Westenberg, Jos J.; Elderen, Saskia G. van; Buchem, Mark A. van; Grond, Jeroen van der; Roos, Albert de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Smit, Johannes W. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and General Internal Medicine (C7-Q), Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of General Internal Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To assess the association between aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness and diffusion tensor imaging of brain white matter integrity in patients with type 1 diabetes using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Forty-one patients with type 1 diabetes (23 men, mean age 44 ± 12 years, mean diabetes duration 24 ± 13 years) were included. Aortic PWV was assessed using through-plane velocity-encoded MRI. Brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements were performed on 3-T MRI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated for white and grey matter integrity. Pearson correlation and multivariable linear regression analyses including cardiovascular risk factors as covariates were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that aortic PWV is independently associated with white matter integrity FA (β = -0.777, p = 0.008) in patients with type 1 diabetes. This effect was independent of age, gender, mean arterial pressure, body mass index, smoking, duration of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin levels. Aortic PWV was not significantly related to grey matter integrity. Our data suggest that aortic stiffness is independently associated with reduced white matter integrity in patients with type 1 diabetes. (orig.)

  17. Supratentorial endodermal cysts: review of literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Riccardo; Artico, Marco; Colonnese, Claudio; Marrocco, Luigi; Wierzbicki, Venceslao

    2013-11-01

    Supratentorial endodermal cysts are very rare pathological entities. Their pathoembryology is largely unknown and they can represent a diagnostic challenge. A research performed on the PubMed database in December 2010, to screen for supratentorial endodermal cyst studies, demonstrated that since 1960 only 31 supratentorial endodermal cysts have been described in the literature, including our case: a 42-year-old woman with a parasellar endodermal cyst. These lesions are usually benign. As with other types of brain cysts, the signs and symptoms caused by supratentorial endodermal cysts are mainly linked to the compression or irritation of surrounding neural structures. Upon neuroimaging examination, they typically appear as a round or lobulated mass. The signal intensity may vary depending on the protein content of the cyst. The majority of reported supratentorial endodermal cysts were completely excised with good or excellent results. Incomplete excision can result in an increased risk of recurrence, infection, and dissemination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Black-White achievement gap: Do state policies matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I. Braun

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding issue in American education is the gap in academic achievement between majority and minority students. The goal of this study is to accumulate and evaluate evidence on the relationship between state education policies and changes in the Black-White achievement gap, while addressing some of the methodological issues that have led to differences in interpretations of earlier findings. To that end, we consider the experiences of ten states that together enroll more than forty percent of the nation's Black students. We estimate the trajectories of Black student and White student achievement on the NAEP 8th grade mathematics assessment over the period 1992 to 2000, and examine the achievement gap at three levels of aggregation: the state as a whole, groups of schools (strata within a state defined by the SES level of the student population, and within schools within a stratum within a state. From 1992 to 2000, at every level of aggregation, mean achievement rose for both Black students and White students. However, for most states the achievement gaps were large and changed very little at every level of aggregation. The gaps are pervasive, profound and persistent. There is substantial heterogeneity among states in the types of policies they pursued, as well as the coherence and consistency of those policies during the period 1988-1998. We find that states' overall policy rankings (based on our review of the data correlate moderately with their record in improving Black student achievement but are somewhat less useful in predicting their record with respect to reducing the achievement gaps. States' rankings on commitment to teacher quality correlate almost as well as did the overall policy ranking. Thus, state reform efforts are a blunt tool, but a tool nonetheless. Our findings are consistent with the following recommendations: states' reform efforts should be built on broad-based support and buffered as much as possible from changes in

  19. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Dole

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution

  20. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution anomalies and the

  1. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  2. White matter injury in newborns with congenital heart disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Ou, Xiawei; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Glasier, Charles M; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Yap, Vivien L; Schmitz, Michael L; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2014-09-01

    Brain injury is observed on cranial magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively in up to 50% of newborns with congenital heart disease. Newer imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging provide sensitive measures of the white matter integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diffusion tensor imaging analysis technique of tract-based spatial statistics in newborns with congenital heart disease. Term newborns with congenital heart disease who would require surgery at less than 1 month of age were prospectively enrolled (n = 19). Infants underwent preoperative and postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics, an objective whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis technique, was used to determine differences in white matter fractional anisotropy between infant groups. Term control infants were also compared with congenital heart disease infants. Postmenstrual age was equivalent between congenital heart disease infant groups and between congenital heart disease and control infants. Ten infants had preoperative brain injury, either infarct or white matter injury, by conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging. The technique of tract-based spatial statistics showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (P tensor imaging analysis technique that may have better sensitivity in detecting white matter injury compared with conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging in term newborns with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Histories of Marijuana Use and Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobus, J.; McQueeny, T.; Bava, S.; Schweinsburg, B. C.; Frank, L.R.; Yang, T. T.; Tapert, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities have been observed in adolescents with alcohol use disorders but less is known about neuropathological brain characteristics of teens with subdiagnostic binge drinking or the common pattern of binge drinking combined with marijuana use. The goal of this study was to examine white matter integrity in adolescents with histories of binge drinking and marijuana use.

  4. Association of plasma homocysteine and white matter hypodensities in a sample of stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homocysteine in vascular disorders have yielded conflicting data. There are also differences based on various ethnicities and cultures. In this study, we have examined the homocysteine patterns in local stroke patients, so as to ascertain the homocysteine status in a sample of local population. Homocysteine-white matter hypodensities relationship in stroke is emerging, as an important aspect in stroke pathophysiology and is thought to have prognostic and therapeutic values. Methods: We included 150 stroke patients who were diagnosed as having clinical stroke on the basis of history; physical examination and CT (Computerized Tomography) scan of brain. These patients were recruited from neurology and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals of Lahore. The presence or absence of white matter hypodensities were diagnosed after consultation with a radiologist. Blood samples were collected from the same stroke patients. Results: We found a strong association between white matter hypodensities and total homocysteine in plasma of stroke patients p<0.001. Conclusion: Homocysteine is a risk factor for white matter hypodensities in stroke patients in our study. (author)

  5. White matter changes contribute to corpus callosum atrophy in the elderly: The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Sjöstrand, Karl

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The corpus callosum (CC) is the most important structure involved in the transmission of interhemispheric information. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between regional age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and atrophy of CC in elderly ...

  6. White Matter Deficits in Psychopathic Offenders and Correlation with Factor Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Nazeri, A.; Jesus, D.R. de; Stirpe, T.; Felsky, D.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Daskalakis, Z.J.; Voineskos, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis in 11

  7. Unaffected twins discordant for affective disorders show changes in anterior callosal white matter microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M; Madsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological mechanisms mediating an increased risk to develop affective disorders remain poorly understood. In a group of individuals with a family history of major depressive (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD), we investigated the microstructural properties of white matter fiber...

  8. White Matter Lesion Progression: Genome-Wide Search for Genetic Influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Hofer (Edith); M. Cavalieri (Margherita); J.C. Bis (Joshua); C. DeCarli (Charles); M. Fornage (Myriam); S. Sigurdsson (Sigurdur); V. Srikanth (Velandai); S. Trompet (Stella); B.F.J. Verhaaren (Benjamin); C. Wolf (Christiane); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Beiser (Alexa); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); M. Callisaya (Michele); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); A.J.M. De Craen (Anton J. M.); C. Dufouil (Carole); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); I. Ford; P. Freudenberger (Paul); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); G. Heiss (Gerardo); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Lumley (Thomas); O. Martinez (Oliver); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); C. Moran (Chris); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); T.G. Phan (Thanh); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); N. Sattar (Naveed); S. Schilling (Sabrina); D.K. Shibata (Dean); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); G.D. Smith; D.J. Stott (David. J.); K.D. Taylor (Kent); R. Thomson (Russell); A.M. Töglhofer (Anna Maria); C. Tzourio (Christophe); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); J. Wang (Jing); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); B. Gwen Windham; M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A.P. Zijdenbos; R.J. Beare (Richard); S. Debette (Stéphanie); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); L.J. Launer (Lenore); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); S. Seshadri (Sudha); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Schmidt (Reinhold)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic

  9. Association of gait and balance disorders with age-related white matter changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baezner, H.; Blahak, C.; Poggesi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Hennerici, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) Study, 11 European centers are evaluating the role of age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent determinant of the transition to disability in the elderly (65 to 84 years). We aimed at determining the influence of ARWMC on

  10. The white matter of the human cerebrum: part I The occipital lobe by Heinrich Sachs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Mahmood, Sajedha; Vergani, Francesco; Catani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is the first complete translation of Heinrich Sachs' outstanding white matter atlas dedicated to the occipital lobe. This work is accompanied by a prologue by Prof Carl Wernicke who for many years was Sachs' mentor in Breslau and enthusiastically supported his work. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in the Cell Population in Brain White Matter in Multiple System Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykjaer, Charlotte Havelund; Brudek, Tomasz; Salvesen, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To establish the extent of involvement of the white matter in the disease, we have used stereology to quantify the total number of neurons and glial cells (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia) in the brains from 10 MSA patients and 11 controls. RESULTS: The mean total number...... of white matter interstitial neurons in the patient brains was 0.5 × 10(9) (coefficient of variation = standard deviation/mean = 0.37), which was significantly lower than the 1.1 × 10(9) (0.41) in the control brains (P = .001) and equal to a reduction by ∼50%. The patient brains had a significantly higher...... number of white matter microglia, 1.5 × 10(9) (0.47) versus 0.7 × 10(9) (0.39) microglia in the control subjects (P = .003) and equal to an increase by ∼ 100%. There was no significant difference in mean total numbers of white matter oligodendrocytes and astrocytes between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We...

  12. Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Zou, Runyu; Muetzel, Ryan L; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal maternal depression has been associated with multiple problems in offspring involving affect, cognition, and neuroendocrine functioning. This suggests that prenatal depression influences neurodevelopment. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism remains unclear. We prospectively assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and at the child's age 3 years are related to white matter microstructure in 690 children. The association of paternal depressive symptoms with childhood white matter microstructure was assessed to evaluate genetic or familial confounding. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory. In children aged 6-9 years, we used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure characteristics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and to lower FA and higher MD in the cingulum bundle. No associations of maternal depressive symptoms at the child's age of 3 years with white matter characteristics were observed. Paternal depressive symptoms also showed a trend toward significance for a lower FA in the cingulum bundle. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum bundle. These structures are part of the limbic system, which is involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. As paternal depressive symptoms were also related to lower FA in the cingulum, the observed effect may partly reflect a genetic predisposition and shared environmental family factors and to a lesser extent a specific intrauterine effect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. White matter hyperintensities are seen only in GRN mutation carriers in the GENFI cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudre, C.H. (Carole H.); M. Bocchetta (Martina); D.M. Cash (David M); D.L. Thomas (David L); Woollacott, I. (Ione); Dick, K.M. (Katrina M.); J.C. van Swieten (John); B. Borroni (Barbara); D. Galimberti (Daniela); M. Masellis (Mario); M.C. Tartaglia (Maria Carmela); J.B. Rowe (James); M.J. Graff (Maud J.L.); F. Tagliavini (Fabrizio); G.B. Frisoni (Giovanni B.); R. Laforce (Robert); E. Finger (Elizabeth); A. De Mendonça (Alexandre); S. Sorbi (Sandro); S. Ourselin (Sebastien); M.J. Cardoso (Manuel Jorge); J.D. Rohrer (Jonathan D)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGenetic frontotemporal dementia is most commonly caused by mutations in the progranulin (GRN), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) genes. Previous small studies have reported the presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities

  14. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P. Klosinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  15. Cerebral H-1 MR spectroscopy revealing white matter NAA decreases in glutaric aciduria type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P. E.; Smit, G. P. A.; Meiners, L. C.; Oudkerk, M.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    MR spectroscopy in two patients with glutaric aciduria type I revealed reductions in the white matter N-acetylaspartate signal, in the more severe case accompanied by a loss of glutamate and the appearance of lactate signals. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Microstructural White Matter Tissue Characteristics Are Modulated by Homocysteine: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Leu, Jyu-Gang; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Viergever, Max A.; Leemans, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine level can lead to adverse effects on the brain white matter through endothelial dysfunction, microstructural inflammation, and neurotoxin effects. Despite previously observed associations between elevated homocysteine and macroscopic structural brain changes, it is still unknown whether microstructural associations of homocysteine on brain tissue properties can be observed in healthy subjects with routine MRI. To this end, we investigated potential relationships between homocyste...

  18. Assessing white matter ischemic damage in dementia patients by measurement of myelin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rachel; Wellington, Dannielle; Esiri, Margaret M; Love, Seth

    2013-01-01

    White matter ischemia is difficult to quantify histologically. Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is highly susceptible to ischemia, being expressed only adaxonally, far from the oligodendrocyte cell body. Myelin-basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) are expressed throughout the myelin sheath. We compared MAG, MBP, and PLP levels in parietal white matter homogenates from 17 vascular dementia (VaD), 49 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 33 control brains, after assessing the post-mortem stability of these proteins. Small vessel disease (SVD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) severity had been assessed in paraffin sections. The concentration of MAG remained stable post-mortem, declined with increasing SVD, and was significantly lower in VaD than controls. The concentration of MBP fell progressively post-mortem, limiting its diagnostic utility in this context. Proteolipid protein was stable post-mortem and increased significantly with SVD severity. The MAG/PLP ratio declined significantly with SVD and CAA severity. The MAG and PLP levels and MAG/PLP did not differ significantly between AD and control brains. We validated the utility of MAG and MAG/PLP measurements on analysis of 74 frontal white matter samples from an Oxford cohort in which SVD had previously been scored. MAG concentration and the MAG/PLP ratio are useful post-mortem measures of ante-mortem white matter ischemia. PMID:23532085

  19. Clinical prediction of fall risk and white matter abnormalities: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tinetti scale is a simple clinical tool designed to predict risk of falling by focusing on gait and stance impairment in elderly persons. Gait impairment is also associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elderly subjects at risk for falling, as deter...

  20. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  1. Galactose oxidase labeling of membrane proteins from human brain white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukkanen, V.; Frey, H.; Salmi, A.

    1981-01-01

    Membrane proteins of human autopsy brain white matter were subjected to a galactose oxidase/NaB 3 H 4 labeling procedure and the membranes labeled by this method or by [ 3 H]acetic anhydride techniques were studied by lectin affinity chromatography using Lens culinaris phytohemagglutinin (lentil lectin) attached to Sepharose 4B beads. (Auth.)

  2. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  3. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radua, J.; Grau, M.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Thiebaut de Schotten, M.; Stein, D.J.; Canales-Rodriguez, E.J.; Catani, M.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or

  4. Presence and progression of white matter hyperintensities and cognition A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; van den Berg, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to quantify the effects of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on specific cognitive functions with particular attention to WMH progression and localization. Methods: PubMed (January 1990-July 2013) and bibliographies from included articles were used. Studies that were included

  5. Regional distribution of cerebral white matter lesions years after preeclampsia and eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Marjon J.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Aukes, Annet M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Faas, Marijke M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; de Groot, Jan C.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of cerebral white matter lesions in women who had eclampsia, preeclampsia, or normotensive pregnancies. The pathophysiology of these lesions, more often seen in formerly eclamptic and preeclamptic women, is unclear but may be related to a predisposition for

  6. Stem cell therapy for white matter disorders: don't forget the microenvironment!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooves, Stephanie; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Heine, Vivi M.

    2016-01-01

    White matter disorders (WMDs) are a major source of handicap at all ages. They often lead to progressive neurological dysfunction and early death. Although causes are highly diverse, WMDs share the property that glia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are among the cells primarily affected, and that

  7. Genome-wide meta-analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in patients with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traylor, M.; Zhang, C.R.; Adib-Samii, P.; Devan, W.J.; Parsons, O.E.; Lanfranconi, S.; Gregory, S.; Cloonan, L.; Falcone, G.J.; Radmanesh, F.; Fitzpatrick, K.; Kanakis, A.; Barrick, T.R.; Moynihan, B.; Lewis, C.M.; Boncoraglio, G.B.; Lemmens, R.; Thijs, V.; Sudlow, C.; Wardlaw, J.; Rothwell, P.M.; Meschia, J.F.; Worrall, B.B.; Levi, C.; Bevan, S.; Furie, K.L.; Dichgans, M.; Rosand, J.; Markus, H.S.; Rost, N.; Klijn, C.J.M.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For 3,670 stroke patients from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, Belgium, and Italy, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis of white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMHV) on data imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference dataset to provide insights into disease mechanisms.

  8. Detection of white matter lesion regions in MRI using SLIC0 and convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Henrique Bandeira; Valente, Thales Levi Azevedo; Diniz, João Otávio Bandeira; Silva, Aristófanes Corrêa; Gattass, Marcelo; Ventura, Nina; Muniz, Bernardo Carvalho; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2018-04-19

    White matter lesions are non-static brain lesions that have a prevalence rate up to 98% in the elderly population. Because they may be associated with several brain diseases, it is important that they are detected as soon as possible. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides three-dimensional data with the possibility to detect and emphasize contrast differences in soft tissues, providing rich information about the human soft tissue anatomy. However, the amount of data provided for these images is far too much for manual analysis/interpretation, representing a difficult and time-consuming task for specialists. This work presents a computational methodology capable of detecting regions of white matter lesions of the brain in MRI of FLAIR modality. The techniques highlighted in this methodology are SLIC0 clustering for candidate segmentation and convolutional neural networks for candidate classification. The methodology proposed here consists of four steps: (1) images acquisition, (2) images preprocessing, (3) candidates segmentation and (4) candidates classification. The methodology was applied on 91 magnetic resonance images provided by DASA, and achieved an accuracy of 98.73%, specificity of 98.77% and sensitivity of 78.79% with 0.005 of false positives, without any false positives reduction technique, in detection of white matter lesion regions. It is demonstrated the feasibility of the analysis of brain MRI using SLIC0 and convolutional neural network techniques to achieve success in detection of white matter lesions regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J.A. van der Werff

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to the severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism.

  10. Integrated analysis of gray and white matter alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, W.C.; Llera, A.; Mennes, M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Faraone, S.V; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to provide detailed insights into the structural organization of the brain, e.g., by means of mapping brain anatomy and white matter microstructure. Understanding interrelations between MRI modalities, rather than mapping modalities in isolation,

  11. Integrated analysis of gray and white matter alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, Winke; Llera, Alberto; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Beckmann, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to provide detailed insights into the structural organization of the brain, e.g., by means of mapping brain anatomy and white matter microstructure. Understanding interrelations between MRI modalities, rather than mapping modalities in isolation,

  12. Quantifying indices of short- and long-range white matter connectivity at each cortical vertex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmela Padula

    Full Text Available Several neurodevelopmental diseases are characterized by impairments in cortical morphology along with altered white matter connectivity. However, the relationship between these two measures is not yet clear. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to compute and display metrics of white matter connectivity at each cortical point. After co-registering the extremities of the tractography streamlines with the cortical surface, we computed two measures of connectivity at each cortical vertex: the mean tracts' length, and the proportion of short- and long-range connections. The proposed measures were tested in a clinical sample of 62 patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS and 57 typically developing individuals. Using these novel measures, we achieved a fine-grained visualization of the white matter connectivity patterns at each vertex of the cortical surface. We observed an intriguing pattern of both increased and decreased short- and long-range connectivity in 22q11DS, that provides novel information about the nature and topology of white matter alterations in the syndrome. We argue that the method presented in this study opens avenues for additional analyses of the relationship between cortical properties and patterns of underlying structural connectivity, which will help clarifying the intrinsic mechanisms that lead to altered brain structure in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. White matter structure and clinical characteristics of stroke patients: A diffusion tensor MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Senoo, Atsushi

    2016-03-15

    Fractional anisotropy has been used in many studies that examined post-stroke changes in white matter. This study was performed to clarify cerebral white matter changes after stroke using generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA). White matter structure was visualized using diffusion tensor imaging in 72 patients with post-stroke arm paralysis. Exercise-related brain regions were examined in cerebral white matter using GFA. The relationship between GFA and clinical characteristics was examined. Overall, the mean GFA of the lesioned hemisphere was significantly lower than that of the non-lesioned hemisphere (PBrodmann area 5 of the non-lesioned hemisphere. Age correlated negatively with GFA in Brodmann areas 5 and 7 of the lesioned hemisphere. Though these results may be due to a decrease in the frequency of use of the paralyzed limb over time, GFA overall was significantly and negatively affected by the subject's age. The GFA values of patients with paralysis of the dominant hand were significantly different from those of patients with paralysis of the nondominant hand in Brodmann areas 4 and 6 of the non-lesioned hemisphere and Brodmann area 4 of the lesioned hemisphere (P<0.05). The stroke size and location were not associated with GFA differences. Differences between the GFA of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres varied depending on the affected brain region, age at onset of paralysis, and paralysis of the dominant or non-dominant hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…

  15. White matter correlates of cognitive domains in normal aging with diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat eSasson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform complex as well as simple cognitive tasks engages a network of brain regions that is mediated by the white matter fiber bundles connecting them. Different cognitive tasks employ distinctive white matter fiber bundles. The temporal lobe and its projections subserve a variety of key functions known to deteriorate during aging. In a cohort of 52 healthy subjects (ages 25-82 years, we performed voxel-wise regression analysis correlating performance in higher-order cognitive domains (executive function, information processing speed, and memory with white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI fiber tracking in the temporal lobe projections (uncinate fasciculus (UF, fornix, cingulum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF. The fiber tracts were spatially registered and statistical parametric maps were produced to spatially localize the significant correlations. Results showed that performance in the executive function domain is correlated with DTI parameters in the left SLF and right UF; performance in the information processing speed domain is correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA in the left cingulum, left fornix, right and left ILF and SLF; and the memory domain shows significant correlations with DTI parameters in the right fornix, right cingulum, left ILF, left SLF and right UF. These findings suggest that DTI tractography enables anatomical definition of region of interest for correlation of behavioral parameters with diffusion indices, and functionality can be correlated with white matter integrity.

  16. The presence of brain white matter lesions in relation to preeclampsia and migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. R.; van Oosterhout, W. P. J.; de Groot, J. C.; Terwindt, G. M.; Zeeman, G. G.

    Introduction Identifying female-specific risk markers for cerebrovascular disease is becoming increasingly important. Both migraine and preeclampsia have been associated with higher incidence of brain white matter lesions (WML) and stroke. We assessed the association between WML and migraine among

  17. White Matter Features Associated With Autistic Traits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Kuno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is among the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autistic traits may impair treatment response in OCD. To identify possible neurostructural deficits underlying autistic traits, we performed white matter tractography on diffusion tensor images (DTI and assessed autistic trait severity using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ in 33 OCD patients. Correlations between AQ and the DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (AD, and radial diffusivity (RD were examined in major white matter tracts that were suggested to be altered in previous OCD studies. We found a negative correlation between AQ and FA and positive correlations between AQ and MD, AD and RD in the left uncinate fasciculus using age, Beck Depression Inventory, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, intelligence quotient and medication as covariates. However, we could not detect the significant results between AQ and all DTI parameters when adding gender as a covariate. In addition, in the ASD comorbid group, FA in the left uncinate fasciculus was significantly lower than in the non-ASD comorbid group and MD and RD were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group. These results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. In ASD, the socio-emotional dysfunction is suggested to be related to the alteration of white matter microstructure in uncinate fasciculus. Our results suggest that variations in white matter features of the left uncinate fasciculus might be partly explained by autistic traits encountered in OCD patients.

  18. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital); Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T[sub 2]- and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T[sub 2]-weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author).

  19. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T 2 - and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T 2 -weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author)

  20. Computerized tomographic evaluation of chronic ischemic lesions in cerebral white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tohgi, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between the low density areas and periventricular lucency (PVL) on CT and the histopathologic changes of chronic ischemic lesions in cerebral white matter. Thirty seven brains from chronic cases with stroke and 17 brains from patients who showed PVLs on CT were examined histologically. CT scans were performed using GE CT/T. Chronic ischemic lesions with severe demyelination or diffuse cavitation were detected as low density areas on CT. But if associated with severe gliosis, those lesions could not be detected on CT. Areas with myelin pallor could not be detected on CT. In some cases diffuse ischemic lesions as demyelination and cavitation were found in the areas corresponding to PVLs on CT. However, they were not always expressed on CT. Other cases with PVL had no histological changes in the frontal white matter. In conclusion, chronic ischemic lesions in the cerebral white matter could not always be detected as low density areas on CT. This may be partly because decreased density due to demyelination and cavitation was counterbalanced by severe gliosis which tends to increase the density. In some cases PVLs were related to diffuse ischemic lesions in the frontal white matter, but this was not always the case. (author)

  1. Risk factor analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities in children with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Land, Veronica; Mutsaerts, Henri J. M. M.; Engelen, Marc; Heijboer, Harriët; Roest, Mark; Hollestelle, Martine J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Cnossen, Marjon H.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Fijnvandraat, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is complicated by silent cerebral infarcts, visible as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both local vaso-occlusion, elicited by endothelial dysfunction, and insufficiency of cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been proposed to be involved

  2. Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-08-30

    Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0 ± 0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ultrastructural pathology of oligodendrocytes in the white matter in continuous paranoid schizophrenia: a role for microglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranova, N A; Vikhreva, O V; Rakhmanova, V I; Orlovskaya, D D

    Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficit of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine of the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in the white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia. Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10). Eleven cases of chronic continuous schizophrenia and 11 normal controls were studied. Areas of oligodendrocytes, of their nuclei and cytoplasm, volume density (Vv) and the number of mitochondria, vacuoles of endoplasmic reticulum and lipofuscin granules were estimated. Group comparison was performed using ANCOVA. The schizophrenia group differed from the control group by paucity of ribosomes in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes, a significant decrease in Vv and the number of mitochondria and increase in the number of lipofuscin granules. Significant correlations between the parameters of lipofuscin granules, mitochondria and vacuoles were found only in the schizophrenia group. The number of lipofuscin granules were correlated positively with the illness duration. Dystrophic alterations of oligodendrocytes attached to microglial cells were found in the white matter of the prefrontal cortex in chronic paranoid schizophrenia as compared to controls. The data obtained suggest that microglia might contribute to abnormalities of energy, lipid and protein metabolism of oligodendrocytes in schizophrenia.

  4. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  5. White-Matter Structural Connectivity Underlying Human Laughter-Related Traits Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Zhong, Suyu; Chan, Yu-Chen; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Gong, Gaolang; He, Yong; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Most research into the neural mechanisms of humor has not explicitly focused on the association between emotion and humor on the brain white matter networks mediating this connection. However, this connection is especially salient in gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at), which is regarded as the presentation of humorlessness, and two related traits, gelotophilia (the enjoyment of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (the enjoyment of laughing at others). Here, we explored whether the topological properties of white matter networks can account for the individual differences in the laughter-related traits of 31 healthy adults. We observed a significant negative correlation between gelotophobia scores and the clustering coefficient, local efficiency and global efficiency, but a positive association between gelotophobia scores and path length in the brain's white matter network. Moreover, the current study revealed that with increasing individual fear of being laughed at, the linking efficiencies in superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus decreased. However, there were no significant correlations between either gelotophilia or katagelasticism scores or the topological properties of the brain white matter network. These findings suggest that the fear of being laughed at is directly related to the level of local and global information processing of the brain network, which might provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of the humor information processing.

  6. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  7. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, W.; Zwiers, M.P.; Mennes, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.; Hartman, C.A.; Franke, C.; Faraone, S.V.; O'Dwyer, L.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A developmental improvement of symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental

  8. Serum carotenoids and cerebral white matter lesions : The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Launer, LJ; de Groot, JG; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; van Gijn, J; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between serum levels of carotenoids and white matter lesions (WMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Evaluation of cross-sectional data from a cohort study. SETTING: The Rotterdam Scan Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three nondemented older persons,

  9. Origin and dynamics of oligodendrocytes in the developing brain : Implications for perinatal white matter injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; de Theije, Caroline G.M.; van Hal, Maurik; Wagenaar, Nienke; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J.; Rowitch, David H; Nijboer, Cora H.

    2018-01-01

    Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology

  10. Alterations of white matter integrity related to the season of birth in schizophrenia: a DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giezendanner

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  11. The white matter of the human cerebrum: Part I The occipital lobe by Heinrich Sachs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J.; Mahmood, Sajedha; Vergani, Francesco; Catani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is the first complete translation of Heinrich Sachs' outstanding white matter atlas dedicated to the occipital lobe. This work is accompanied by a prologue by Prof Carl Wernicke who for many years was Sachs' mentor in Breslau and enthusiastically supported his work. PMID:25527430

  12. No change in total length of white matter fibers in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, A.M.; Marner, L.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    White matter changes have been reported as part of Alzheimer dementia. To investigate this, the total subcortical myelinated nerve fiber length was estimated in postmortem brains from eight females (age 79-88 years) with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compared with brains from 10 female...

  13. Are white matter lesions directly associated with cognitive impairment in patients with lacunar infarcts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van Swieten (John); S. Staal (S.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); M.M.A. Derix (M. M A); J. van Gijn (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractForty-four patients (mean age 66, SD 8 years) with either clinical evidence of a focal lacunar syndrome (n = 36) or with disorders of memory or gait (n = 8) in the presence of a lacunar infarct on CT were studied for cognitive functioning and for the presence of white matter lesions on

  14. Employing visual analytics to aid the design of white matter hyperintensity classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raidou, Renata Georgia; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Sepasian, Neda; Pezzotti, Nicola; Bouvy, Willem H.; Breeuwer, Marcel; Vilanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is important for prognosis and disease monitoring. To this end,classifiers are often trained – usually,using T1 and FLAIR weighted MR images. Incorporating additional features,derived from diffusion weighted MRI,could improve

  15. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly…

  16. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  17. Central Nervous System Brucellosis Granuloma and White Matter Disease in Immunocompromised Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqwaifly, Mohammed; Al-Ajlan, Fahad S; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Al Semari, Abdulaziz

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a multisystem zoonotic disease. We report an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with seizures in an immunocompromised patient in Saudi Arabia who underwent renal transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffuse white matter lesions. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for Brucella sp. Granuloma was detected in a brain biopsy specimen.

  18. Hypomyelination and congenital cataract: neuroimaging features of a novel inherited white matter disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Biancheri, R.; Zara, F.; Bruno, C.; Uziel, G.; van der Knaap, M.S.; Minetti, C.; Tortori-Donati, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is an autosomal recessive white matter disease caused by deficiency of hyccin, a membrane protein implicated in both central and peripheral myelination. We aimed to describe the neuroimaging features of this novel entity.

  19. White Matter Structure in Older Adults Moderates the Benefit of Sleep Spindles on Motor Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Zhu, Alyssa H; Lindquist, John R; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William J; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-11-29

    Sleep spindles promote the consolidation of motor skill memory in young adults. Older adults, however, exhibit impoverished sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism(s) explaining why motor memory consolidation in older adults fails to benefit from sleep remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that male and female older adults show impoverished overnight motor skill memory consolidation relative to young adults, with the extent of impairment being associated with the degree of reduced frontal fast sleep spindle density. The magnitude of the loss of frontal fast sleep spindles in older adults was predicted by the degree of reduced white matter integrity throughout multiple white matter tracts known to connect subcortical and cortical brain regions. We further demonstrate that the structural integrity of selective white matter fiber tracts, specifically within right posterior corona radiata, right tapetum, and bilateral corpus callosum, statistically moderates whether sleep spindles promoted overnight consolidation of motor skill memory. Therefore, white matter integrity within tracts known to connect cortical sensorimotor control regions dictates the functional influence of sleep spindles on motor skill memory consolidation in the elderly. The deterioration of white matter fiber tracts associated with human brain aging thus appears to be one pathophysiological mechanism influencing subcortical-cortical propagation of sleep spindles and their related memory benefits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies have shown that sleep spindle expression is reduced and sleep-dependent motor memory is impaired in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations have remained unknown. The present study reveals that age-related degeneration of white matter within select fiber tracts is associated with reduced sleep spindles in older adults. We further demonstrate that, within these same fiber tracts, the degree of

  20. Characterizing the contrast of white matter and grey matter in high-resolution phase difference enhanced imaging of human brain at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-cerebral Vascular Diseases, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, Shanshan; Yao, Bin; Li, Lili; Guo, Lingfei; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Guangbin [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-cerebral Vascular Diseases, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu, Xiaofei [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Laboratory of Experimental Tumor Immunology, Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zhao, Lianxin [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the feasibility of characterizing the contrast both between and within grey matter and white matter using the phase difference enhanced (PADRE) technique. PADRE imaging was performed in 33 healthy volunteers. Vessel enhancement (VE), tissue enhancement (TE), and PADRE images were reconstructed from source images and were evaluated with regard to differentiation of grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and the two layers, internal sagittal stratum (ISS) and external sagittal stratum (ESS), of optic radiation. White matter regions showed decreased signal intensity compared to grey matter regions. Discrimination was sharper between white matter and cortical grey matter in TE images than in PADRE images, but was poorly displayed in VE images. The stria of Gennari was observed on all three image sets. Low-signal-intensity bands displayed in VE images representing the optic radiation were delineated as two layers of different signal intensities in TE and PADRE images. Statistically significant differences in phase shifts were found between frontal grey and white matter, as well as between ISS and ESS (p < 0.01). The PADRE technique is capable of identifying grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and ISS and ESS, with improved contrast in PADRE and TE images compared to VE images. (orig.)

  1. Characterizing the contrast of white matter and grey matter in high-resolution phase difference enhanced imaging of human brain at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Yao, Bin; Li, Lili; Guo, Lingfei; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Guangbin; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Lianxin; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the feasibility of characterizing the contrast both between and within grey matter and white matter using the phase difference enhanced (PADRE) technique. PADRE imaging was performed in 33 healthy volunteers. Vessel enhancement (VE), tissue enhancement (TE), and PADRE images were reconstructed from source images and were evaluated with regard to differentiation of grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and the two layers, internal sagittal stratum (ISS) and external sagittal stratum (ESS), of optic radiation. White matter regions showed decreased signal intensity compared to grey matter regions. Discrimination was sharper between white matter and cortical grey matter in TE images than in PADRE images, but was poorly displayed in VE images. The stria of Gennari was observed on all three image sets. Low-signal-intensity bands displayed in VE images representing the optic radiation were delineated as two layers of different signal intensities in TE and PADRE images. Statistically significant differences in phase shifts were found between frontal grey and white matter, as well as between ISS and ESS (p < 0.01). The PADRE technique is capable of identifying grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and ISS and ESS, with improved contrast in PADRE and TE images compared to VE images. (orig.)

  2. White Matter Compromise of Callosal and Subcortical Fiber Tracts in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Lincoln, Alan J.; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly viewed as a disorder of functional networks, highlighting the importance of investigating white matter and interregional connectivity. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter integrity for the whole brain and for corpus callosum, internal capsule, and middle…

  3. Computerized detection method for asymptomatic white matter lesions in brain screening MR images using a clustering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Takuya; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Hara, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Asymptomatic white matter lesions are frequently identified by the screening system known as Brain Dock, which is intended for the detection of asymptomatic brain diseases. The detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions is important because their presence is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Therefore, we have developed a computerized method for the detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions in order to assist radiologists in image interpretation as a ''second opinion''. Our database consisted of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images obtained from 73 patients. The locations of the white matter lesions were determined by an experienced neuroradiologist. In order to restrict the area to be searched for white matter lesions, we first segmented the cerebral region in T 1 -weighted images by applying thresholding and region-growing techniques. To identify the initial candidate lesions, k-means clustering with pixel values in T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images was applied to the segmented cerebral region. To eliminate false positives (FPs), we determined the features, such as location, size, and circularity, of each of the initial candidate lesions. Finally, a rule-based scheme and a quadratic discriminant analysis with these features were employed to distinguish between white matter lesions and FPs. The results showed that the sensitivity for the detection of white matter lesions was 93.2%, with 4.3 FPs per image, suggesting that our computerized method may be useful for the detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions in T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images. (author)

  4. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  5. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onnink, A.M.H.; Zwiers, M.P.; Hoogman, M.; Mostert, J.C.; Dammers, J.; Kan, C.C.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Schene, A.H.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107

  6. No evidence that polymorphisms of the vanishing white matter disease genes are risk factors in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, J.C.; Scheper, G.C.; Andel, R.J.; van Berkel, C.G.M.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; van der Knaap, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Febrile infections are known to cause exacerbations in the white matter disorders 'vanishing white matter' (VWM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in EIF2B1-5, the genes involved in VWM, might be risk factors for the development of MS or temperature sensitivity in

  7. White matter fibertracking in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bart D.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Nienke; Blaas, Jorik; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Akkerman, Erik M.; Majoie, Charles B.; van Amelsvoort, Therèse; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Linszen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of white matter pathology in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine whether white matter abnormalities found with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in previous schizophrenia studies are present in the early phase of the illness. DTI was performed at 3 T on 10

  8. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired

  9. Gray and white matter correlates of the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privado, Jesús; Román, Francisco J; Saénz-Urturi, Carlota; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

    2017-05-04

    Personality neuroscience defines the scientific study of the neurobiological basis of personality. This field assumes that individual differences in personality traits are related with structural and functional variations of the human brain. Gray and white matters are structural properties considered separately in previous research. Available findings in this regard are largely disparate. Here we analyze the relationships between gray matter (cortical thickness (CT), cortical surface area (CSA), and cortical volume) and integrity scores obtained after several white matter tracts connecting different brain regions, with individual differences in the personality traits comprised by the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience). These psychological and biological data were obtained from young healthy women. The main findings showed statistically significant associations between occipital CSA variations and extraversion, as well as between parietal CT variations and neuroticism. Regarding white matter integrity, openness showed positive correlations with tracts connecting posterior and anterior brain regions. Therefore, variations in discrete gray matter clusters were associated with temperamental traits (extraversion and neuroticism), whereas long-distance structural connections were related with the dimension of personality that has been associated with high-level cognitive processes (openness). Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew; Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M.; Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Parsons, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  11. Performances of diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD, mean kurtosis (MK, axial kurtosis (AK and radial kurtosis (RK of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS (P  AK (20% > RK (3% and RD (37% > FA (24% > MD (21% for DKI, and RD (43% > FA (30% > MD (21% for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia.

  12. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A. [The University of Melbourne, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  13. White Matter Integrity Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Squeglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on adolescent brain development is important for understanding potential alterations in neurodevelopment. Several cross sectional studies have identified group differences in white matter integrity after initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use, however none have explored white matter trajectories in adolescents pre- and post initiation of use, particularly for marijuana users. This study followed 16 adolescents with minimal alcohol and marijuana use at ages 16–18 over three years. At follow-up, teens were 19–22 years old; half of the participants initiated heavy alcohol use and half initiated heavy alcohol and marijuana use. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed 20 clusters in association and projection fibers tracts (p < 0.01 in which a group by time interaction was found. Most consistently, white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy decreased for those who initiated both heavy alcohol and marijuana use over the follow-up interval. No effect of time or change in white matter integrity was seen for those who initiated alcohol use only in the majority of clusters. In most regions, at the baseline time point, teens who would later initiate both alcohol and marijuana use demonstrated white matter integrity greater than or equal to teens that initiated alcohol use only. Findings suggest poorer tissue integrity associated with combined initiation of heavy alcohol and marijuana use in late adolescence. While pre-existing differences may also be related to likelihood of substance use, the present data suggest an effect on tissue integrity for these teens transitioning to combined alcohol and marijuana use in later adolescence.

  14. Assessment of white matter abnormalities in paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liqian; Chen, Zhuangfei; Deng, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Huang, Chaohua; Jiang, Lijun; Wang, Yingcheng; Wang, Qiang; Collier, David A; Gong, Qiyong; Li, Tao

    2011-12-30

    White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, but the empirical evidence about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders is still limited. This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania. For this purpose, DTI was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=25) and psychotic bipolar mania (n=18) who had been treated with standard pharmacotherapy for fewer than 5 days at the time of study, as well as in normal controls (n=30). The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis. The results show that reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiata (PCR) in patients with psychotic bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiata and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). A direct comparison between the two patient groups found no significant differences in any regions, and none of the findings were associated with illness duration. Correlation analysis indicated that FA values showed a significant negative correlation with positive symptom scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the left frontal-parietal lobe in the paranoid schizophrenia. It was concluded that common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology in the two disorders and might be related to shared risk factors for the two disorders. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eChaddock-Heyman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity (RD, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks.

  16. Surface-based reconstruction and diffusion MRI in the assessment of gray and white matter damage in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffini, Matteo; Bergsland, Niels; LaganÃ, Marcella; Tavazzi, Eleonora; Tortorella, Paola; Rovaris, Marco; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in the application of nonconventional MRI techniques in furthering the understanding of multiple sclerosis pathogenic mechanisms, there are still many unanswered questions, such as the relationship between gray and white matter damage. We applied a combination of advanced surface-based reconstruction and diffusion tensor imaging techniques to address this issue. We found significant relationships between white matter tract integrity indices and corresponding cortical structures. Our results suggest a direct link between damage in white and gray matter and contribute to the notion of gray matter loss relating to clinical disability.

  17. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. DeRamus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals. Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  18. Cortical and white matter alterations in patients with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Shin, Hyung Ik; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-12-02

    Neuropathic pain is one of the major problems of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), which remains refractory to treatment despite a variety of therapeutic approach. Multimodal neuroimaging could provide complementary information for brain mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, which could be based on development of more effective treatment strategies. Ten patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain after SCI and 10 healthy controls underwent FDG-PET, T1-anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. We found decreases of both metabolism and the gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients compared to healthy controls, as well as hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex and gray matter volume loss in bilateral anterior insulae and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. These brain regions are generally known to participate in pain modulation by affective and cognitive processes. Decreases of mean diffusivity (MD) in the right internal capsule including, cerebral peduncle, pre-and post-central white matter, and prefrontal white matter as components of the corticospinal and thalamocortical tracts were demonstrated in patients. Further, lower MD value of prefrontal white matter was correlated with decreased metabolism of medial prefrontal cortex in patients. These results indicated that white matter changes imply abnormal pain modulation in patients as well as motor impairment. Our study showed the functional and structural multimodal imaging modality commonly identified the possible abnormalities in the brain regions participating pain modulation in neuropathic pain. Multifaceted imaging studies in neuropathic pain could be useful elucidating precise mechanisms of persistent pain, and providing future directions for treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Frings

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD dementia are characterised by progressive brain atrophy. Longitudinal MRI volumetry may help to characterise ongoing structural degeneration and support the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. Automated, observer-independent atlas-based MRI volumetry was applied to analyse 102 MRI data sets from 15 bvFTD, 14 AD, and 10 healthy elderly control participants with consecutive scans over at least 12 months. Anatomically defined targets were chosen a priori as brain structures of interest. Groups were compared regarding volumes at clinic presentation and annual change rates. Baseline volumes, especially of grey matter compartments, were significantly reduced in bvFTD and AD patients. Grey matter volumes of the caudate and the gyrus rectus were significantly smaller in bvFTD than AD. The bvFTD group could be separated from AD on the basis of caudate volume with high accuracy (79% cases correct. Annual volume decline was markedly larger in bvFTD and AD than controls, predominantly in white matter of temporal structures. Decline in grey matter volume of the lateral orbitofrontal gyrus separated bvFTD from AD and controls. Automated longitudinal MRI volumetry discriminates bvFTD from AD. In particular, greater reduction of orbitofrontal grey matter and temporal white matter structures after 12 months is indicative of bvFTD.

  20. Investigation of spatial correlation in MR images of human cerebral white matter using geostatistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the structure of human cerebral white matter is gaining interest in the neurological as well as in the neuroscientific community. It has been demonstrated in many studies that white matter is a very dynamic structure, rather than a static construct which does not change for a lifetime. That means, structural changes within white matter can be observed even on short timescales, e.g. in the course of normal ageing, neurodegenerative diseases or even during learning processes. To investigate these changes, one method of choice is the texture analysis of images obtained from white matter. In this regard, MRI plays a distinguished role as it provides a completely non-invasive way of acquiring in vivo images of human white matter. This thesis adapted a statistical texture analysis method, known as variography, to quantify the spatial correlation of human cerebral white matter based on MR images. This method, originally introduced in geoscience, relies on the idea of spatial correlation in geological phenomena: in naturally grown structures near things are correlated stronger to each other than distant things. This work reveals that the geological principle of spatial correlation can be applied to MR images of human cerebral white matter and proves that variography is an adequate method to quantify alterations therein. Since the process of MRI data acquisition is completely different to the measuring process used to quantify geological phenomena, the variographic analysis had to be adapted carefully to MR methods in order to provide a correctly working methodology. Therefore, theoretical considerations were evaluated with numerical samples in a first, and validated with real measurements in a second step. It was shown that MR variography facilitates to reduce the information stored in the texture of a white matter image to a few highly significant parameters, thereby quantifying heterogeneity and spatial correlation distance with an accuracy better than 5

  1. Investigation of spatial correlation in MR images of human cerebral white matter using geostatistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, Fabian

    2014-03-20

    Investigating the structure of human cerebral white matter is gaining interest in the neurological as well as in the neuroscientific community. It has been demonstrated in many studies that white matter is a very dynamic structure, rather than a static construct which does not change for a lifetime. That means, structural changes within white matter can be observed even on short timescales, e.g. in the course of normal ageing, neurodegenerative diseases or even during learning processes. To investigate these changes, one method of choice is the texture analysis of images obtained from white matter. In this regard, MRI plays a distinguished role as it provides a completely non-invasive way of acquiring in vivo images of human white matter. This thesis adapted a statistical texture analysis method, known as variography, to quantify the spatial correlation of human cerebral white matter based on MR images. This method, originally introduced in geoscience, relies on the idea of spatial correlation in geological phenomena: in naturally grown structures near things are correlated stronger to each other than distant things. This work reveals that the geological principle of spatial correlation can be applied to MR images of human cerebral white matter and proves that variography is an adequate method to quantify alterations therein. Since the process of MRI data acquisition is completely different to the measuring process used to quantify geological phenomena, the variographic analysis had to be adapted carefully to MR methods in order to provide a correctly working methodology. Therefore, theoretical considerations were evaluated with numerical samples in a first, and validated with real measurements in a second step. It was shown that MR variography facilitates to reduce the information stored in the texture of a white matter image to a few highly significant parameters, thereby quantifying heterogeneity and spatial correlation distance with an accuracy better than 5

  2. An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM and Grey Matter (GM. The aim of this paper is to
    automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means clustering, Geostatistical Possibilistic clustering and Geostatistical Fuzzy clustering and 3.Optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The proposed system is tested on a database of 208 MRI images. GFCM yields high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 94% and overall accuracy of 93% over FCM and GPC. The clustered brain images are then subjected to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The optimized result obtained from GFCM-PSO provides sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 95%. The detection results reveals that GFCM and GFCMPSO better localizes the large regions of lesions and gives less false positive rate when compared to GPC and GPC-PSO which captures the largest loads of WMLs only in the upper ventral horns of the brain.

  3. Developmental Patterns of Doublecortin Expression and White Matter Neuron Density in the Postnatal Primate Prefrontal Cortex and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Samantha J.; Joshi, Dipesh; Allen, Katherine M.; Sivagnanasundaram, Sinthuja; Rothmond, Debora A.; Saunders, Richard; Noble, Pamela L.; Webster, Maree J.; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque) and density of white matter neurons (humans) during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37) and matched controls (n = 37) and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in schizophrenia. PMID

  4. Developmental patterns of doublecortin expression and white matter neuron density in the postnatal primate prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Fung

    Full Text Available Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque and density of white matter neurons (humans during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37 and matched controls (n = 37 and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging study of early white matter integrity in HIV-infected patients: A tract-based spatial statistics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple cerebral white matter fiber tracts are damaged in HIV-infected patients without cognitive impairment. Quantitative analysis of DTI using TBSS is valuable in evaluating changes of HIV-associated white matter microstructures.

  6. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A.; Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  7. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  8. Disrupted Gamma Synchrony after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with White Matter Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been firmly associated with disrupted white matter integrity due to induced white matter damage and degeneration. However, comparatively less is known about the changes of the intrinsic functional connectivity mediated via neural synchronization in the brain after mTBI. Moreover, despite the presumed link between structural and functional connectivity, no existing studies in mTBI have demonstrated clear association between the structural abnormality of white matter axons and the disruption of neural synchronization. To investigate these questions, we recorded resting state EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI from a cohort of military service members. A newly developed synchronization measure, the weighted phase lag index was applied on the EEG data for estimating neural synchronization. Fractional anisotropy was computed from the DTI data for estimating white matter integrity. Fifteen service members with a history of mTBI within the past 3 years were compared to 22 demographically similar controls who reported no history of head injury. We observed that synchronization at low-gamma frequency band (25–40 Hz across scalp regions was significantly decreased in mTBI cases compared with controls. The synchronization in theta (4–7 Hz, alpha (8–13 Hz, and beta (15–23 Hz frequency bands were not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, we found that across mTBI cases, the disrupted synchronization at low-gamma frequency was significantly correlated with the white matter integrity of the inferior cerebellar peduncle, which was also significantly reduced in the mTBI group. These findings demonstrate an initial correlation between the impairment of white matter integrity and alterations in EEG synchronization in the brain after mTBI. The results also suggest that disruption of intrinsic neural synchronization at low-gamma frequency may be a characteristic functional pathology

  9. In Vivo Evidence of Reduced Integrity of the Gray-White Matter Boundary in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Derek Sayre; Avino, Thomas A; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Daly, Eileen; Marquand, Andre; Murphy, Clodagh M; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; The Mrc Aims Consortium; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Ecker, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast. More specifically, we examined contrast as a percentage between gray and white matter tissue signal intensities (GWPC) sampled at the gray-white matter boundary, and across different cortical layers. We found that individuals with ASD had significantly reduced GWPC in several clusters throughout the cortex (cluster, P gray-white matter interface, which indicates a less distinct gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Our in vivo findings of reduced GWPC in ASD are therefore consistent with prior postmortem findings of a less well-defined gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Taken together, these results indicate that GWPC might be utilized as an in vivo proxy measure of atypical cortical microstructural organization in future studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. White matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin: a population-based study in rural Ecuador (The Atahualpa Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Lama, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is probably one of the most common pathogenetic mechanisms underlying stroke in Latin America. However, the importance of silent markers of small vessel disease, including white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, has not been assessed so far. The study aims to evaluate prevalence and correlates of white matter hyperintensities in community-dwelling elders living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador). Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and invited to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging for identification and grading white matter hyperintensities and other markers of small vessel disease. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we evaluated whether white matter hyperintensities is associated with demographics, cardiovascular health status, stroke, cerebral microbleeds, and cortical atrophy, after adjusting for the other variables. Out of 258 enrolled persons (mean age, 70 ± 8 years; 59% women), 172 (67%) had white matter hyperintensities, which were moderate to severe in 63. Analyses showed significant associations of white matter hyperintensities presence and severity with age and cardiovascular health status, as well as with overt and silent strokes, and a trend for association with cerebral microbleeds and cortical atrophy. Prevalence and correlates of white matter hyperintensities in elders living in rural Ecuador is almost comparable with that reported from industrialized nations, reinforcing the concept that the burden of small vessel disease is on the rise in underserved Latin American populations. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  11. The value of CT-scanning in supratentorial haemangioblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.A.; Pereira, J.R.; Guimaraes, A.; Veiga-Pires, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a case of supratentorial haemangioblastoma, presenting with epileptic fits, without association with polyoythemia, or Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, which, if present, would have given a clinical clue as to the nature of the lesion. (orig.)

  12. Isolated acute non-cystic white matter injury in term infants presenting with neonatal encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2013-03-01

    We discuss possible aetiological factors, MRI evolution of injury and neuro-developmental outcomes of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Thirty-six consecutive infants diagnosed with NE were included. In this cohort, four infants (11%) were identified with injury predominantly in the deep white matter on MRI who were significantly of younger gestation, lower birthweight with higher Apgars at one and five minutes compared to controls. Placental high grade villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) was identified in all four of these infants. Our hypothesis states VUA may induce white matter injury by causing a local inflammatory response and\\/or oxidative stress during the perinatal period. We underline the importance of continued close and systematic evaluation of all cases of NE, including examination of the placenta, in order to come to a better understanding of the clinical presentation, the patterns of brain injury and the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  13. Clinical significance of white matter hyperintensities in MRI in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Masashi

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate clinical significance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in MRI, fifty patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and twenty normal controls were studied. Twenty nine patients with SDAT (58.0%) had periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and twenty three patients with SDAT (46.0%) had deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH). Eight controls (40.0%) had PVH and ten controls (50.0%) had DWMH. There were no significant differences in frequency of WMH between patients with SDAT and normal controls. Past history of hypertension was more frequent in patients with PVH or DWMH than in patients without them. Serum cholesterol level was higher in patients with DWMH than in patients without them. However there were no significant differences in the other clinical features between patients with WMH and patients without them. The results of present study suggest that DWMH in patients with SDAT is associated with cerebrovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. (author)

  14. Pharmacological Effects of Erythropoietin and its Derivative Carbamyl erythropoietin in Cerebral White Matter Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury in the premature infant and the most common cause of cerebral palsy, yet no therapy currently exists for this serious human disorder. As PVL often occurs in preterm infants suffering from cerebral hypoxia/ischemia with or without prior exposure to maternal-fetal infection/inflammation, we used hypoxia/ischemia with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, to produce clinically relevant PVL-like lesions in the white matter in postnatal day six (P6) mice. We studied the white matter pathology under different conditions, such as different durations of hypoxia and different doses of LPS, to evaluate the effects of those etiological factors on neonatal white matter injury. Distinct related pathological events were investigated at different time points during the progression of PVL. We used immunohistochemistry, histological analysis, and electron microscopy (EM) to study demylination that occurs in the white matter area, which is consistent with the pathology of human PVL. Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivative carbamylated EPO (CEPO) are neuroprotective in various experimental models of brain injury. However, none of these studies investigated their efficacy against white matter injury using appropriate animal models of PVL. We produced unilateral or bilateral white matter injury in P6 mice using unilateral carotid ligation (UCL) followed by hypoxia (6% oxygen, 35 min) or by UCL/hypoxia plus LPS injection, respectively. We administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of EPO or CEPO (5000 IU/kg) immediately after the insult, and found both drugs to provide significant protection against white matter injury in PVL mice compared to vehicle-treated groups. In addition, EPO and CEPO treatments attenuated neurobehavioral dysfunctions in an acute manner after PVL injury. EPO and CEPO have relatively few adverse effects, and thus may be a therapeutic agent

  15. Mapping of ApoE4 related white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Hwang, Darryl H.; Kriger, Stephen; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Weiner, Michael; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    ApoliopoproteinE Ɛ4 (ApoE-Ɛ4) polymorphism is the most well known genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimers Disease. The exact mechanism through which ApoE 4 increases AD risk is not fully known, but may be related to decreased clearance and increased oligomerization of Aβ. By making measurements of white matter integrity via diffusion MR and correlating the metrics in a voxel-based statistical analysis with ApoE-Ɛ4 genotype (whilst controlling for vascular risk factor, gender, cognitive status and age) we are able to identify changes in white matter associated with carrying an ApoE Ɛ4 allele. We found potentially significant regions (Puncorrected cognitive decline via a pathway in dependent of normal aging and acute insults that can be measured by CDR and Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS).

  16. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of white matter hyperintensities scoring method on correlations with clinical data: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Straaten, EC; Fazekas, F; Rostrup, Egill

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with decline in cognition, gait, mood, and urinary continence. Associations may depend on the method used for measuring WMH. We investigated the ability of different WMH scoring methods to detect differences in WMH load...... between groups with and without symptoms. METHODS: We used data of 618 independently living elderly with WMH collected in the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study. Subjects with and without symptoms of depression, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence, and memory decline were compared with respect...... to WMH load measured qualitatively using 3 widely used visual rating scales (Fazekas, Scheltens, and Age-Related White Matter Changes scales) and quantitatively with a semiautomated volumetric technique and an automatic lesion count. Statistical significance between groups was assessed with the chi2...

  18. MR imaging of central nervous system white matter tract degeneration (Wallerian degeneration)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, M.J.; Johnson, K.A.; Davis, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is readily demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-one patients with MR signal abnormalities in various central nervous system (CNS) white matter tracts were evaluated with regard to (1) nature of signal abnormality, (2) MR anatomy of the involved tract, and (3) primary pathology (e.g., infarct, tumor, hemorrhage). Most examples of wallerian degeneration result in a thin, continuous band of long T1, long T2 signal abnormality conforming to the known anatomic pathway of a CNS axonal tract. Old, large cortical infarcts have the greatest propensity to show subsequent white-matter tract degeneration. Corticospinal tract degeneration is the type most readily visualized, often seen extending completely from the cerebral cortex through the medulla

  19. White matter changes in stroke patients. Relationship with stroke subtype and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leys, D; Englund, E; Del Ser, T

    1999-01-01

    or white matter lesions or leukoencephalopathy or leukoaraiosis' and 'stroke or cerebral infarct or cerebral hemorrhage or cerebrovascular disease or transient ischemic attack (TIA)'. WMC, as defined radiologically, are present in up to 44% of patients with stroke or TIA and in 50% of patients...... of death or dependency, recurrent stroke of any type, cerebral bleeding under anticoagulation, myocardial infarction, and poststroke dementia. WMC in stroke patients are often associated with small-vessel disease and lead to a higher risk of death, and poor cardiac and neurological outcome. However......White matter changes (WMC), detected by imaging techniques, are frequent in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to determine how WMC relate to stroke subtypes and to stroke outcome. We made a systematic Medline search for articles appearing with two of the following key words: either 'WMC...

  20. MR imaging identification of white-matter lesions in uncomplicated chronic alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, M.; Amicarelli, I.; DiCesare, E.; Rossi, A.; Stratta, P.; Casacchia, M.; Passariello, R.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic alcoholics may have central nervous system (CNS) lesions, such as microvasculitis, or glial, neural, and myelinic degeneration, as has been documented in postmortem studies on patients with Wernicke disease, corpus callosum degeneration, or central pontine myelinolisis. The presence of early white matter diseases can aslo be projected in patients not suffering the neurologic complications of alcoholism. Thirty-five alcoholics (DSM-III criteria) and 35 healthy controls underwent MR imaging at 0.5 T (repetition time/echo time = 1,800/30-120 msec). Subjects older than 60 years or who had CNS injuries or clinically evident hepatopathies were excluded. Besides the aspecific corticosubcortical and cerebellar atrophy, MR imaging disclosed multiple round hyperintense areas in the white matter of 14 patients but in none of the healthy controls. These results suggest early involvement of the brain in chronic alcoholism

  1. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working...... memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...... hypothesized that better SWM performance would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left fronto-parietal network composed of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the regional white matter underlying the dorsolateral pFC, and the posterior parietal cortex. As hypothesized, we...

  2. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  3. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Miranda, Maria J; Born, A Peter

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first...... to suggest that the increased intensity of stimulation associated with preterm birth may advance the process of white matter maturation in the human brain. Questions remain about whether these findings reflect acceleration of the process of white matter maturation generally, or localized alterations induced...

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging tensor shape analysis for assessment of regional white matter differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Dana M; Li, Jonathan Y; Lee, Hui J; Chen, Steven; Dickson, Patricia I; Ellinwood, N Matthew; White, Leonard E; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel tensor shape plot analysis technique of diffusion tensor imaging data as a means to assess microstructural differences in brain tissue. We hypothesized that this technique could distinguish white matter regions with different microstructural compositions. Methods Three normal canines were euthanized at seven weeks old. Their brains were imaged using identical diffusion tensor imaging protocols on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. We examined two white matter regions, the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, each subdivided into an anterior and posterior region. We placed 100 regions of interest in each of the four brain regions. Eigenvalues for each region of interest triangulated onto tensor shape plots as the weighted average of three shape metrics at the plot's vertices: CS, CL, and CP. Results The distribution of data on the plots for the internal capsule differed markedly from the centrum semiovale data, thus confirming our hypothesis. Furthermore, data for the internal capsule were distributed in a relatively tight cluster, possibly reflecting the compact and parallel nature of its fibers, while data for the centrum semiovale were more widely distributed, consistent with the less compact and often crossing pattern of its fibers. This indicates that the tensor shape plot technique can depict data in similar regions as being alike. Conclusion Tensor shape plots successfully depicted differences in tissue microstructure and reflected the microstructure of individual brain regions. This proof of principle study suggests that if our findings are reproduced in larger samples, including abnormal white matter states, the technique may be useful in assessment of white matter diseases.

  5. Cognitive Function and 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tractography of White Matter Hyperintensities in Elderly Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Reginold, William; Luedke, Angela C.; Tam, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Reginold, Jennifer; Islam, Omar; Garcia, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study used 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography to determine if there was an association between tracts crossing white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive function in elderly persons. Methods: Brain T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion tensor MRI scans were acquired in participants above the age of 60 years. Twenty-six persons had WMH identified on T2 FLAIR scans. They completed a battery of neuropsychological tes...

  6. Longitudinal white matter change in frontotemporal dementia subtypes and sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny M. Elahi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: All three of the canonical subtypes of FTD are associated with significant change in white matter integrity over one year. These changes are consistent enough that drug effects in future clinical trials could be detected with relatively small numbers of participants. While there are some differences in regions of change across groups, the genu of the corpus callosum is a region that could be used to track progression in studies that include all subtypes.

  7. Patterns of white matter microstructure in individuals at ultra-high-risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, K; Ebdrup, B H; Glenthøj, B Y

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis present with emerging symptoms and decline in functioning. Previous univariate analyses have indicated widespread white matter (WM) aberrations in multiple brain regions in UHR individuals and patients with schizophrenia. Using multiv......, MO, and higher RD. CONCLUSIONS: UHR individuals demonstrate complex brain patterns of WM abnormalities. Despite the subtle psychopathology of UHR individuals, aberrations in WM appear associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as level of functioning....

  8. Natural variation in sensory-motor white matter organization influences manifestations of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Michael; Gregory, Sarah; Scahill, Rachael I; Mayer, Isabella Sm; Minkova, Lora; Klöppel, Stefan; Seunarine, Kiran K; Boyd, Lara; Borowsky, Beth; Reilmann, Ralf; Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, G; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund Ac; Durr, Alexandra; Rees, Geraint; Rothwell, John C; Langbehn, Douglas; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2016-12-01

    While the HTT CAG-repeat expansion mutation causing Huntington's disease (HD) is highly correlated with the rate of pathogenesis leading to disease onset, considerable variance in age-at-onset remains unexplained. Therefore, other factors must influence the pathogenic process. We asked whether these factors were related to natural biological variation in the sensory-motor system. In 243 participants (96 premanifest and 35 manifest HD; 112 controls), sensory-motor structural MRI, tractography, resting-state fMRI, electrophysiology (including SEP amplitudes), motor score ratings, and grip force as sensory-motor performance were measured. Following individual modality analyses, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify patterns associated with sensory-motor performance, and manifest versus premanifest HD discrimination. We did not detect longitudinal differences over 12 months. PCA showed a pattern of loss of caudate, grey and white matter volume, cortical thickness in premotor and sensory cortex, and disturbed diffusivity in sensory-motor white matter tracts that was connected to CAG repeat length. Two further major principal components appeared in controls and HD individuals indicating that they represent natural biological variation unconnected to the HD mutation. One of these components did not influence HD while the other non-CAG-driven component of axial versus radial diffusivity contrast in white matter tracts were associated with sensory-motor performance and manifest HD. The first component reflects the expected CAG expansion effects on HD pathogenesis. One non-CAG-driven component reveals an independent influence on pathogenesis of biological variation in white matter tracts and merits further investigation to delineate the underlying mechanism and the potential it offers for disease modification. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4615-4628, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Brodmann area analysis of white matter anisotropy and age in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Jason S; Hazlett, Erin A; Chu, King-Wai; Zhang, Jane; Goodman, Chelain R; Newmark, Randall E; Torosjan, Yuliya; Canfield, Emily L; Entis, Jonathan; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Tang, Cheuk Y; Friedman, Joseph; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2011-08-01

    Diffusion tensor and structural MRI images were acquired on ninety-six patients with schizophrenia (69 men and 27 women) between the ages of 18 and 79 (mean=39.83, SD=15.16 DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History). The patients reported a mean age of onset of 23 years (range=13-38, SD=6). Patients were divided into an acute subgroup (duration ≤3 years, n=25), and a chronic subgroup (duration >3 years, n=64). Ninety-three mentally normal comparison subjects were recruited; 55 men and 38 women between the ages of 18 and 82 (mean=35.77, SD=18.12). The MRI images were segmented by Brodmann area, and the fractional anisotropy (FA) for the white matter within each Brodmann area was calculated. The FA in white matter was decreased in patients with schizophrenia broadly across the entire brain, but to a greater extent in white matter underneath frontal, temporal and cingulate cortical areas. Both normals and patients with schizophrenia showed a decrease in anisotropy with age but patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly greater rate of decrease in FA in Brodmann area 10 bilaterally, 11 in the left hemisphere and 34 in the right hemisphere. When the effect of age was removed, patients ill more than three years showed lower anisotropy in frontal motor and cingulate white matter in comparison to acute patients ill three years or less, consistent with an ongoing progression of the illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Homogeneity based segmentation and enhancement of Diffusion Tensor Images : a white matter processing framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    In diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) the Brownian motion of the water molecules, within biological tissue, is measured through a series of images. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) this diffusion is represented using tensors. DTI describes, in a non-invasive way, the local anisotropy pattern enabling the reconstruction of the nervous fibers - dubbed tractography. DMRI constitutes a powerful tool to analyse the structure of the white matter within a voxel, but also to investigate the...

  11. Memory binding and white matter integrity in familial Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarimäki, Heini; Bastin, Mark E.; Londoño, Ana C.; Pettit, Lewis; Lopera, Francisco; Della Sala, Sergio; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Binding information in short-term and long-term memory are functions sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. They have been found to be affected in patients who meet criteria for familial Alzheimer’s disease due to the mutation E280A of the PSEN1 gene. However, only short-term memory binding has been found to be affected in asymptomatic carriers of this mutation. The neural correlates of this dissociation are poorly understood. The present study used diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether the integrity of white matter structures could offer an account. A sample of 19 patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease, 18 asymptomatic carriers and 21 non-carrier controls underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and memory binding assessment. The short-term memory binding task required participants to detect changes across two consecutive screens displaying arrays of shapes, colours, or shape-colour bindings. The long-term memory binding task was a Paired Associates Learning Test. Performance on these tasks were entered into regression models. Relative to controls, patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease performed poorly on both memory binding tasks. Asymptomatic carriers differed from controls only in the short-term memory binding task. White matter integrity explained poor memory binding performance only in patients with familial Alzheimer’s disease. White matter water diffusion metrics from the frontal lobe accounted for poor performance on both memory binding tasks. Dissociations were found in the genu of corpus callosum which accounted for short-term memory binding impairments and in the hippocampal part of cingulum bundle which accounted for long-term memory binding deficits. The results indicate that white matter structures in the frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable to the early stages of familial Alzheimer’s disease and their damage is associated with impairments in two memory binding

  12. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O' Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tosi, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P. (Imaging Sciences Dept. and Clinical Research Facility, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (GB))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0+-1.1 vs. 5.1+-0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1+-0.9 vs. 3.1+-0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  13. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O'Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tos i, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0±1.1 vs. 5.1±0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1±0.9 vs. 3.1±0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  14. Altered White Matter Integrity in Smokers Is Associated with Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Peiyu; Shen, Zhujing; Wang, Chao; Qian, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a significant cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Understanding the neural mechanisms of nicotine addiction and smoking cessation may provide effective targets for developing treatment strategies. In the present study, we explored whether smokers have white matter alterations and whether these alterations are related to cessation outcomes and smoking behaviors. Sixty-six smokers and thirty-seven healthy non-smokers were enrolled. The participants underwent magnetic resonance ...

  15. Obesity gene NEGR1 associated with white matter integrity in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; Braskie, Meredith N; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Hibar, Derrek P; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-11-15

    Obesity is a crucial public health issue in developed countries, with implications for cardiovascular and brain health as we age. A number of commonly-carried genetic variants are associated with obesity. Here we aim to see whether variants in obesity-associated genes--NEGR1, FTO, MTCH2, MC4R, LRRN6C, MAP2K5, FAIM2, SEC16B, ETV5, BDNF-AS, ATXN2L, ATP2A1, KCTD15, and TNN13K--are associated with white matter microstructural properties, assessed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) in young healthy adults between 20 and 30 years of age from the Queensland Twin Imaging study (QTIM). We began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect. Risk allele rs2815752 in NEGR1 was most associated with lower white matter integrity across a substantial portion of the brain. Across the area of significance in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 2.2% lower average FA. This is the first study to find an association between an obesity risk gene and differences in white matter integrity. As our subjects were young and healthy, our results suggest that NEGR1 has effects on brain structure independent of its effect on obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Severe retinopathy of prematurity predicts delayed white matter maturation and poorer neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Torin J A; Chau, Vann; Gardiner, Jane; Foong, Justin; Vinall, Jillian; Zwicker, Jill G; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with (1) abnormal white matter maturation and (2) neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months' corrected age (CA) compared with neonates without severe ROP. We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm neonates born 24-28 weeks' gestational age recruited between 2006 and 2013 with brain MRIs obtained both early in life and at term-equivalent age. Severe ROP was defined as ROP treated with retinal laser photocoagulation. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), white matter maturation was assessed by mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in seven predefined regions of interest. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) composite scores at 18 months' CA. Subjects were compared using Fisher's exact, Kruskal-Wallis and generalised estimating equations. Families were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit at BC Women's Hospital. Of 98 extremely preterm neonates (median: 26.0 weeks) assessed locally for ROP, 19 (19%) had severe ROP and 83 (85%) were assessed at 18 months' CA. Severe ROP was associated with lower FA in the posterior white matter, and with decreased measures of brain maturation in the optic radiations, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and external capsule on TBSS. Bayley-III cognitive and motor scores were lower in infants with severe ROP. Severe ROP is associated with maturational delay in the optic radiations, PLIC, external capsule and posterior white matter, housing the primary visual and motor pathways, and is associated with poorer cognitive and motor outcomes at 18 months' CA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Central Artery Stiffness, Baroreflex Sensitivity, and Brain White Matter Neuronal Fiber Integrity in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tarumi, Takashi; de Jong, Daan L.K.; Zhu, David C.; Tseng, Benjamin Y.; Liu, Jie; Hill, Candace; Riley, Jonathan; Womack, Kyle B.; Kerwin, Diana R.; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C. Munro; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral hypoperfusion elevates the risk of brain white matter (WM) lesions and cognitive impairment. Central artery stiffness impairs baroreflex, which controls systemic arterial perfusion, and may deteriorate neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among brain WM neuronal fiber integrity, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and central artery stiffness in older adults. Fifty-four adults (65±6 years) with normal cognitive function or mild cog...

  18. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Freddy J; Gavrieli, Anna; Saade-Lemus, Patricia; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Novak, Vera

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities. This review analyzes the impact of metabolic syndrome on white matter microstructural integrity, brain structure abnormalities and their relationship to cognitive function. Each of the metabolic syndrome components exerts a specific signature of white matter microstructural abnormalities. Metabolic syndrome and its components exert both additive/synergistic, as well as, independent effects on brain microstructure thus accelerating brain aging and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Collateral Flow and White Matter Disease in Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Mami; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Kusaka, Gen; Tanaka, Yuichi; Naritaka, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    When an internal carotid artery (ICA) occludes, a patient may develop cerebral infarction (CI). We investigated whether CI caused by ICA occlusion (ICAO) is associated with collateral flow through the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (ACoA and PCoA). In 100 patients with ICAO, we investigated CI and white matter disease by performing an MRI and the anatomy of the ACoA and PCoA were investigated by performing magnetic resonance angiography. All patients were divided into the symptomatic CI group or the no-CI group. The collateral flow pathway was estimated by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-PCoA score and the collateral flow volume after ICAO was estimated by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow score, based on how well the MCA was visualized. Of 100 patients with ICAO, the symptomatic CI group included 36 patients. ACA-PCoA score and white matter disease grades were significantly higher in the CI group (indicating poor collateral flow). More than 80% of patients with an ACA-PCoA score of 4 (poor collateral) experienced symptomatic CI. Thirty-one symptomatic CI patients (86%) had an MCA flow score of 1 or 2 (decreased MCA flow). The ACA-PCoA score and white matter disease grade may suggest an increased risk of CI following ICAO. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. White matter disease correlates with lexical retrieval deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Powers

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate fractional anisotropy changes associated with the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia to measures of lexical retrieval.Methods: We collected neuropsychological testing, volumetric MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging on semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (n=11 and logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (n=13 patients diagnosed using published criteria. We also acquired neuroimaging data on a group of demographically comparable healthy seniors (n=34. Fractional anisotropy was calculated and analyzed using a white matter tract-specific analysis approach. This approach utilizes anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used non-parametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate language performance to fractional anisotropy and determine regions of reduced fractional anisotropy in patients. Results: We found widespread fractional anisotropy reductions in white matter for both variants of primary progressive aphasia. Fractional anisotropy was related to both confrontation naming and category naming fluency performance in left uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia. Conclusions: Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia are associated with distinct disruptions of a large-scale network implicated in lexical retrieval, and the white matter disease in each phenotype may contribute to language impairments including lexical retrieval.

  1. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of periventricular white matter and hippocampus in obstructive sleep apnea patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kızılgöz, Volkan; Aydın, Hasan; Tatar, İdil Güneş; Hekimoğlu, Baki; Ardıç, Sadık; Fırat, Hikmet; Dönmez, Cem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose the hypoxic impairment by Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), an advanced MR imaging technique, which could not be visualised by routine imaging methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). 20 OSA patients and 5 controls were included in this prospective research. MRS was performed on these 25 subjects to examine cerebral hypoxemia in specific regions (periventricular white matter and both hippocampi). Polysomnography was assumed as the gold standard. Statistical analysis was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test and Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. In the periventricular white matter, NAA/Cho ratio in OSA patients was significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences between the OSA and the control group for NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios for both hippocampal regions. Additionally, Cho/Cr ratio in the periventricular white matter region of OSA group was higher than in the control group (p<0.05). Hypoxic impairment induced by repeated episodes of apnea leads to significant neuronal damage in OSA patients. MRS provides valuable information in the assessment of hypoxic ischemic impairment by revealing important metabolite ratios for the specific areas of the brain

  2. Differential diagnosis of white matter diseases in the tropics: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In hospitals in the tropics, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI facilities in urban areas and especially in teaching institutions have resulted in white matter diseases being frequently reported in a variety of clinical settings. Unlike the west where multiple sclerosis (MS is the commonest white matter disease encountered, in the tropics, there are myriad causes for the same. Infectious and post infectious disorders probably account for the vast majority of these diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection tops the list of infective conditions. Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis occasionally presents with patchy parenchymal lesions unaccompanied by meningeal involvement. Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV infection and cystic inflammatory lesions such as neurocysticercosis are important causes to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Diagnosing post infectious demyelinating disorders is equally challenging since more than a third of cases seen in the tropics do not present with history of past infection or vaccinations. Metabolic and deficiency disorders such as Wernicke′s encephalopathy, osmotic demyelinating syndrome associated with extra pontine lesions and Vitamin B12 deficiency states can occassionaly cause confusion in diagnosis. This review considers a few important disorders which manifest with white matter changes on MRI and create diagnostic difficulties in a population in the tropics.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain white matter in Huntington gene mutation individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Arb Saba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the role of the involvement of white matter tracts in huntingtin gene mutation patients as a potential biomarker of the progression of the disease. Methods We evaluated 34 participants (11 symptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, 12 presymptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, and 11 controls. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging, with measurement of fractional anisotropy. Results We observed a significant decrease of fractional anisotropy in the cortical spinal tracts, corona radiate, corpus callosum, external capsule, thalamic radiations, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus in the Huntington disease group compared to the control and presymptomatic groups. Reduction of fractional anisotropy is indicative of a degenerative process and axonal loss. There was no statistically significant difference between the presymptomatic and control groups. Conclusion White matter integrity is affected in huntingtin gene mutation symptomatic individuals, but other studies with larger samples are required to assess its usefulness in the progression of the neurodegenerative process.

  4. The apparent diffusion coefficient of water in gray and white matter of the infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Peitersen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to obtain normal values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the infant brain and to compare ADC maps with T1- and T2-weighted images. METHOD: Diffusion was measured in nine infants with an ECG-gated SE sequence compensated for first-order motion. One axial slice...... it appeared on T1- or T2-weighted images. In gray and white matter, the mean ADC ranged from 0.95 x 10(-9) to 1.76 x 10(-9) m2/s. In the frontal and occipital white matter, in the genu corporis callosi, and in the lentiform nucleus, the ADC decreased with increasing age. The cortex/white matter ratio...... of the ADC increased with age and approached 1 at the age of 30 weeks. CONCLUSION: ADC maps add information to the T1 and T2 images about the size and course of unmyelinated as well as myelinated tracts in the immature brain....

  5. Thalamic diffusion differences related to cognitive function in white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andújar, Marina; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Clemente, Imma; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are related to cognitive deficits, probably due to a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits. We explored thalamic diffusion differences related to white matter lesions (WMLs) and their association with cognitive function in middle-aged individuals. Ninety-six participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were included. Participants were classified into groups based on low grade and high grade of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to study thalamic diffusion differences between groups. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in significant areas were calculated for each subject and correlated with cognitive performance. Participants with high-grade PVHs and DWMHs showed lower FA thalamic values compared to those with low-grade PVHs and DWMHs, respectively. Decreased FA thalamic values in high-grade DWMHs, but not high-grade PVH, were related to lower levels of performance in psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, and visuospatial skills. Thalamic diffusion differences are related to lower cognitive function only in participants with high-grade DWMHs. These results support the hypothesis that fronto-subcortical disruption is associated with cognitive function only in DWMHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Verbal working memory performance correlates with regional white matter structures in the frontoparietal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-10-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working memory performance has been suggested based on the analysis of individuals with varying pathologies. This study aimed to identify correlations between white matter and individual differences in verbal working memory performance in normal young subjects. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses using T1-weighted structural images as well as voxel-based analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA) using diffusion tensor imaging. Using the letter span task, we measured verbal working memory performance in normal young adult men and women (mean age, 21.7 years, SD=1.44; 42 men and 13 women). We observed positive correlations between working memory performance and regional white matter volume (rWMV) in the frontoparietal regions. In addition, FA was found to be positively correlated with verbal working memory performance in a white matter region adjacent to the right precuneus. These regions are consistently recruited by working memory. Our findings suggest that, among normal young subjects, verbal working memory performance is associated with various regions that are recruited during working memory tasks, and this association is not limited to specific parts of the working memory network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical simulation model of hyperacute/acute stage white matter infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Yamada, Kei; Oouchi, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2008-01-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the mechanisms of changes in diffusivity (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) in acute brain infarction, changes in diffusion anisotropy (fractional anisotropy [FA]) in white matter have not been examined. We hypothesized that membrane permeability as well as axonal swelling play important roles, and we therefore constructed a simulation model using random walk simulation to replicate the diffusion of water molecules. We implemented a numerical diffusion simulation model of normal and infarcted human brains using C++ language. We constructed this 2-pool model using simple tubes aligned in a single direction. Random walk simulation diffused water. Axon diameters and membrane permeability were then altered in step-wise fashion. To estimate the effects of axonal swelling, axon diameters were changed from 6 to 10 microm. Membrane permeability was altered from 0% to 40%. Finally, both elements were combined to explain increasing FA in the hyperacute stage of white matter infarction. The simulation demonstrated that simple water shift into the intracellular space reduces ADC and increases FA, but not to the extent expected from actual human cases (ADC approximately 50%; FA approximately +20%). Similarly, membrane permeability alone was insufficient to explain this phenomenon. However, a combination of both factors successfully replicated changes in diffusivity indices. Both axonal swelling and reduced membrane permeability appear important in explaining changes in ADC and FA based on eigenvalues in hyperacute-stage white matter infarction.

  8. Unusual progression of herpes simplex encephalitis with basal ganglia and extensive white matter involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Manabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 51-year old male with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE showing unusual progression and magnetic resonance (MR findings. The initial neurological manifestation of intractable focal seizure with low-grade fever persisted for three days, and rapidly coma, myoclonic status, and respiratory failure with high-grade fever emerged thereafter. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for HSV-1 DNA. In the early stage, MR images (MRI were normal. On subsequent MR diffusion-weighted (DW and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images, high-intensity areas first appeared in the left frontal cortex, which was purely extra-temporal involvement, and extended into the basal ganglia, then the white matter, which are relatively spared in HSE. Antiviral therapy and immunosuppressive therapy did not suppress the progression of HSE, and finally severe cerebral edema developed into cerebral herniation, which required emergency decompressive craniectomy. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the white matter detected perivascular infiltration and destruction of basic structure, which confirmed non specific inflammatory change without obvious edema or demyelination. The present case shows both MR and pathological findings in the white matter in the acute stage of HSE.

  9. Effects of Aerobic Capacity on Thrombin-Induced Hydrocephalus and White Matter Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Mingzhe; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury is less in rats bred for high aerobic capacity (high capacity runners; HCR) compared with those bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runners; LCRs). Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, is produced after cerebral hemorrhage. Intraventricular injection of thrombin causes significant hydrocephalus and white matter damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of exercise capacity on thrombin-induced hydrocephalus and white matter damage. Mid-aged (13-month-old) female LCRs (n = 13) and HCRs (n = 12) rats were used in this study. Rats received an intraventricular injection of thrombin (3 U, 50 μl). All rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h and were then euthanized for brain histology and Western blot. The mortalities were 20 % in LCRs and 33 % in HCRs after thrombin injection (p > 0.05). No rats died after saline injection. Intraventricular thrombin injection resulted in hydrocephalus and periventricular white matter damage as determined on MRI. In LCR rats, thrombin induced significant ventricle enlargement (23.0 ± 2.3 vs12.8 ± 1.9 mm(3) in LCR saline group; p hydrocephalus in rats with low aerobic capacity. A differential effect of thrombin may contribute to differences in the effects of cerebral hemorrhage with aerobic capacity.

  10. Asymptomatic changes in white matter following CNS prophylaxis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Arana, E.; Castell, V.; Verdequer, A.

    1995-01-01

    Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can present early white matter changes related to central nervous system prophylaxis. These changes are frequently reversible and have little neurological impact. Our aim is to assess the incidence of this finding and the influence of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on its development. We have reviewed the neuroradiological explorations performed between 3 and 7 months after meningeal prophylaxis in 32 children with ALL, 18 of whom presented standard risk and 14, high risk. In addition to intrathecal chemotherapy, the latter group underwent delayed cranial radiotherapy at the age of 3 years. All were neurologically asymptomatic at the time of the study. The CT study disclosed low attenuation of the periventricular white matter in 22% of cases (7/32), while 41% (9/22) present hyperintensity in MR (PD, T2-weighted and STIR images), there being very good agreement between the two techniques. This finding was more frequent and more widely extended among the cases of high-risk ALL (50%) than in those presenting standard risk (11%). Three patients exhibited the tendency to reverse this anomaly at one-year follow-up. We consider that cranial radiotherapy plays a major role in the development of asymptomatic changes in the white matter. The iatrogenic origin is probably potentiated by previous methotrexate administration. 15 refs

  11. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in alveolar and white matter developmental failure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Vadim S

    2017-02-01

    At birth, some organs in premature infants are not developed enough to meet challenges of the extra-uterine life. Although growth and maturation continues after premature birth, postnatal organ development may become sluggish or even arrested, leading to organ dysfunction. There is no clear mechanistic concept of this postnatal organ developmental failure in premature neonates. This review introduces a concept-forming hypothesis: Mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction is a fundamental mechanism of organs maturation failure in premature infants. Data collected in support of this hypothesis are relevant to two major diseases of prematurity: white matter injury and broncho-pulmonary dysplasia. In these diseases, totally different clinical manifestations are defined by the same biological process, developmental failure of the main functional units-alveoli in the lungs and axonal myelination in the brain. Although molecular pathways regulating alveolar and white matter maturation differ, proper bioenergetic support of growth and maturation remains critical biological requirement for any actively developing organ. Literature analysis suggests that successful postnatal pulmonary and white matter development highly depends on mitochondrial function which can be inhibited by sublethal postnatal stress. In premature infants, sublethal stress results mostly in organ maturation failure without excessive cellular demise.

  13. Changes in White-Matter Connectivity in Late Second Language Learners: Evidence from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Rossi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological brain changes as a consequence of new learning have been widely established. Learning a second language (L2 is one such experience that can lead to rapid structural neural changes. However, still relatively little is known about how levels of proficiency in the L2 and the age at which the L2 is learned influence brain neuroplasticity. The goal of this study is to provide novel evidence for the effect of bilingualism on white matter structure in relatively proficient but late L2 learners who acquired the second language after early childhood. Overall, the results demonstrate a significant effect on white matter fractional anisotropy (FA as a function of L2 learning. Higher FA values were found in a broad white matter network including the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF, the Uncinate Fasciculus (UF, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF. Moreover, FA values were correlated with age of L2 acquisition, suggesting that learning an L2, even past childhood, induces neural changes. Finally, these results provide some initial evidence that variability in the age of L2 acquisition has important consequences for neural plasticity.

  14. Insight and white matter fractional anisotropy in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmal, Laila; du Plessis, Stefan; Vink, Matthijs; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin

    2017-05-01

    Impaired insight is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia. Structural studies implicate predominantly prefrontal, cingulate, cuneus/precuneus, and inferior temporal brain regions. The cortical midline structures (CMS) are also implicated in functional studies primarily through self-reflective processing tasks. However, few studies have explored the relationship between white matter tracts and insight in schizophrenia, and none in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Here, we examined for fractional anisotropy (FA) differences in 89 minimally treated FES patients and 98 matched controls, and identified those FA differences associated with impaired clinical insight in patients. We found widespread FA reduction in FES patients compared to controls. Poorer insight in patients was predicted by lower FA values in a number of white matter tracts with a predilection for tracts associated with cortical midline structures (fronto-occipital, cingulate, cingulate hippocampus, uncinate, anterior corona radiata), and more severe depressive symptoms. The association between FA abnormalities and insight was most robust for the awareness of symptoms and illness awareness domains. Our study implicates a network of tracts involved in impaired insight in schizophrenia with a predilection for the CMS. This study is a first step in delineating the white matter tracts involved in insight impairment in schizophrenia prior to chronicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Correlation between white matter alterations and cognitive function decline in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Hongyan; Qi Ji; Wang Mingshi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter (WM) integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its relationship with cognitive function decline. Methods: DTI was performed in 32 subjects, including 14 early AD patients and 18 elder controls (ON) with a 1.5 T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (b) values were computed and compared for 9 regions of interest (ROI). Eight standard neuropsychological tests were performed and compared between AD and ON to evaluate basic cognitive capacities of AD. Correlation analysis was applied between FA, D values and scores of neuropsychological tests for all subjects. Results: FA significantly decreased in splenium of the corpus callosum and the posterior parietal-temporal region (S2), and (D)-bar significantly increased in the splenium in AD patients (P<0.05). AD patients showed lower scores compared with ON in all neuropsychological tests (P<0.05). FA of the splenium and S2 positively correlated with several tests scores, while D of multiple ROIs negatively correlated with several tests scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: In the early stage of AD, neuropathology has effect not only on cognitive function, but also on white matter structure, and they have strong relationship. AD patients show white matter changes in specific regions, which reflect loss in cortico-cortical connections. (authors)

  16. White matter alterations in the internal capsule and psychomotor impairment in melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Matthew P; Perry, Alistair; Breakspear, Michael; Wen, Wei; Parker, Gordon B

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants. Voxel-wise fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were derived for anterior, posterior, and retrolenticular limbs of the internal capsule and compared between groups. Neuropsychological (reaction time) and psychomotor functioning were assessed and correlated against FA. Fractional anisotropy was distinctly increased, whilst RD was decreased, in the right anterior internal capsule in those with melancholia, compared to controls. The right anterior limb of the internal capsule correlated with clinical ratings of psychomotor disturbance, and reduced psychomotor speed was associated with increased FA values in the right retrolenticular limb in those with melancholia. Our findings highlight a distinct disturbance in the local white matter arrangement in specific regions of the internal capsule in melancholia, which in turn is associated with psychomotor dysfunction. This study clarifies the contribution of structural brain integrity to the phenomenology of melancholia, and may assist future efforts seeking to integrate neurobiological markers into depression subtyping.

  17. ROLE OF MRI IN WHITE MATTER DISEASES- CLINICO-RADIOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranath Reddy Kamireddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The diagnostic process is difficult as there are many different white matter disorders (inherited and acquired. MRI has high diagnostic specificity to study the pattern of brain structures. MRI is more useful in demonstrating abnormalities of myelination. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study developed a practical algorithm that relies mainly on the characteristics of brain MRI. Our study included clinicallysuspected patients with demyelination during a period of one year. RESULTS Our study included 25 clinically-suspected patients (out of total of 400 patients with demyelination during a period of one year (February 2016 to January 2017.  Multiple sclerosis accounted for the majority of cases (36.0% followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (20%.  In multiple sclerosis, majority of the patients presented in the third decade of life with a definite female preponderance (M:F-1:2.  The most common symptom and site of involvement were visual impairment (73.3% and periventricular area (80%, respectively.  Other causes like PML, PVL, CPM, reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy, leukodystrophies and motor neuron disease comprised the remainder of the cases. CONCLUSION MRI due to its excellent grey white matter resolution is very sensitive in detecting subtle demyelination, the sensitivity being still further enhanced by FLAIR sequences. MRI in correlation with the clinical signs and symptoms is an ideal modality in early diagnosis of white matter diseases.

  18. White matter tracts in first-episode psychosis: A DTI tractography study of the uncinate fasciculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gary; Cercignani, Mara; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Barnes, Thomas R.E.; Barker, Gareth J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Ron, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the symptoms and cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail, and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We studied the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the largest white matter tract that connects the frontal and temporal lobes, two brain regions significantly implicated in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 23 controls were studied using a probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and probability of connection were obtained for every voxel in the tract, and the group means and distributions of these variables were compared. The spread of the FA distribution in the upper tail, as measured by the squared coefficient of variance (SCV), was reduced in the left UF in the patient group, indicating that the number of voxels with high FA values was reduced in the core of the tract and suggesting the presence of changes in fibre alignment and tract coherence in the patient group. The SCV of FA was lower in females across both groups and there was no correlation between the SCV of FA and clinical ratings. PMID:17988894

  19. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  20. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayabas, Uner; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis

  1. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  2. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the White Sea snow-ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of the White Sea snow-ice cover was estimated by examining the distribution of organic compounds, including oil and pyrogenic hydrocarbons. Ice and snow cores were taken from Chupa Bay and the Kandalaksha Gulf in the Cape Kartesh area in the spring of 2004 and from the mouth of the Severnaya Dvina River in the spring of 2005, 2006, and 2007. This paper presented data on the lipid content, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and suspended particulate matter in snow, ice and under-ice water. This paper focused on organic compounds and suspended matter (SM) concentrations in the sea snow-ice cover and described the ice forming conditions and interactions of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The amount of particulate matter and organic compounds in the snow increased sharply near industrial centres. The concentration of compounds decreased further away from these centres, suggesting that most pollutants are deposited locally. The study revealed that organic compounds concentrate in barrier zones, such as snow-ice and water-ice, depending on the source of pollution. There was no obvious evidence of petrogenic sources of PAHs in particulate matter from the White Sea snow-ice cover. The SM and organic compounds accumulated in layers characterized by local depositional processes. The zones remained biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions, but the accumulation of both SM and organic compounds was at its highest during the initial stage of ice formation. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Metric to quantify white matter damage on brain magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Anblagan, Devasuda; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Chappell, Francesca M.; Morris, Zoe; Sakka, Eleni; Dickie, David Alexander; Royle, Natalie A.; Armitage, Paul A.; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. It is important to harmonise results from different software tools considering not only the volume but also the signal intensity. Here we propose and evaluate a metric of white matter (WM) damage that addresses this need. We obtained WMH and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes from brain structural MRI from community dwelling older individuals and stroke patients enrolled in three different studies, using two automatic methods followed by manual editing by two to four observers blind to each other. We calculated the average intensity values on brain structural fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for the NAWM and WMH. The white matter damage metric is calculated as the proportion of WMH in brain tissue weighted by the relative image contrast of the WMH-to-NAWM. The new metric was evaluated using tissue microstructure parameters and visual ratings of small vessel disease burden and WMH: Fazekas score for WMH burden and Prins scale for WMH change. The correlation between the WM damage metric and the visual rating scores (Spearman ρ > =0.74, p =0.72, p < 0.0001). The repeatability of the WM damage metric was better than WM volume (average median difference between measurements 3.26% (IQR 2.76%) and 5.88% (IQR 5.32%) respectively). The follow-up WM damage was highly related to total Prins score even when adjusted for baseline WM damage (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001), which was not always the case for WMH volume, as total Prins was highly associated with the change in the intense WMH volume (p = 0.0079, increase of 4.42 ml per unit change in total Prins, 95%CI [1.17 7.67]), but not with the change in less-intense, subtle WMH, which determined the volumetric change. The new metric is practical and simple to calculate. It is robust to variations in image processing methods and scanning protocols, and sensitive to subtle and severe white

  4. Mapping Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropies of White Matter in vivo in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance phase- or frequency- shift images acquired at high field show contrast related to magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues. Such contrast varies with the orientation of the organ in the field, but the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has made it possible to reproducibly image the intrinsic tissue susceptibility contrast. However, recent studies indicate that magnetic susceptibility is anisotropic in brain white matter and, as such, needs to be described by a symmetric second-rank tensor (χ¯¯). To fully determine the elements of this tensor, it would be necessary to acquire frequency data at six or more orientations. Assuming cylindrical symmetry of the susceptibility tensor in myelinated white matter fibers, we propose a simplified method to reconstruct the susceptibility tensor in terms of a mean magnetic susceptibility, MMS = (χ∥ + 2χ⊥)/3 and a magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, MSA = χ∥ − χ⊥, where χ∥ and χ⊥ are susceptibility parallel and perpendicular to the white matter fiber direction, respectively. Computer simulations show that with a practical head rotation angle of around 20°–30°, four head orientations suffice to reproducibly reconstruct the tensor with good accuracy. We tested this approach on whole brain 1×1×1 mm3 frequency data acquired from five healthy subjects at 7 T. The frequency information from phase images collected at four head orientations was combined with the fiber direction information extracted from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to map the white matter susceptibility tensor. The MMS and MSA were quantified for regions in several large white matter fiber structures, including the corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. MMS ranged from −0.037 to −0.053 ppm (referenced to CSF being about zero). MSA values could be quantified without the need for a reference and ranged between 0.004 and 0.029 ppm, in line with

  5. Changes in the white-gray matter density difference in computed tomography associated with maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Setsuko; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kazuko

    1980-01-01

    The attenuation of the x-ray beam in infantile brain tissue is markedly lower than in adults, so the CT image in infants, particularly in the newborn, seems to indicate demyelinating diseases. Therefore, the evaluation of nonpathological scans of infants and adults was performed in order to establish baseline numerical data on white and gray matter differentiation associated with maturation. One hundred and nine normal cases with no motion artifacts were selected. The age distribution was from 39 weeks to 40 years, as shown in Fig. 1. The Hitachi CT-H 250 tomograph was used for all the patient scans. The x-ray tube was operated at 120 kV and 30 mA. The thickness of each slice was 10 mm. The patients were scanned parallel with the canthomeatal line. The CT numbers are displayed on the EMI scale, in which water is zero and bone is +500. The mean CT numbers and the standard deviation were calculated by means of a computer on a horizontal plane through the pineal body; the following regions were selected for computation: White matter: preventricular frontal area. 44 mm 2 (36 pixels). Gray matter: head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. 24 mm 2 (20 pixels). The mean CT number for white matter was 13.5 +- 0.5 in the newborn and 16.8 +- 0.4 in adults. These numbers increased very rapidly during the 2nd month after birth and reached the adult value by 13 years. On the other hand, the mean CT number for gray matter was 15.6 +- 0.6 in the newborn and 19.7 +- 0.4 in adults. These numbers increased only gradually after birth and reached maximum value at 20 years, These results are probably due to a decrease in the water content per unit of volume and an increase in brain solids (protein, RNA and myelin) rather than to a decrease in the extracellular space associated with maturation. The difference between the average white and gray value was also studied. The white-gray difference was lowest (1.6 units) at 2 months and highest (2.9 units) in adults. (author)

  6. Metric to quantify white matter damage on brain magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Anblagan, Devasuda; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); UK Dementia Research Institute, Edinburgh Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Chappell, Francesca M.; Morris, Zoe; Sakka, Eleni [University of Edinburgh, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); UK Dementia Research Institute, Edinburgh Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Dickie, David Alexander; Royle, Natalie A. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Deary, Ian J. [University of Edinburgh, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, Department of Psychology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    Quantitative assessment of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. It is important to harmonise results from different software tools considering not only the volume but also the signal intensity. Here we propose and evaluate a metric of white matter (WM) damage that addresses this need. We obtained WMH and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) volumes from brain structural MRI from community dwelling older individuals and stroke patients enrolled in three different studies, using two automatic methods followed by manual editing by two to four observers blind to each other. We calculated the average intensity values on brain structural fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI for the NAWM and WMH. The white matter damage metric is calculated as the proportion of WMH in brain tissue weighted by the relative image contrast of the WMH-to-NAWM. The new metric was evaluated using tissue microstructure parameters and visual ratings of small vessel disease burden and WMH: Fazekas score for WMH burden and Prins scale for WMH change. The correlation between the WM damage metric and the visual rating scores (Spearman ρ > =0.74, p < 0.0001) was slightly stronger than between the latter and WMH volumes (Spearman ρ > =0.72, p < 0.0001). The repeatability of the WM damage metric was better than WM volume (average median difference between measurements 3.26% (IQR 2.76%) and 5.88% (IQR 5.32%) respectively). The follow-up WM damage was highly related to total Prins score even when adjusted for baseline WM damage (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001), which was not always the case for WMH volume, as total Prins was highly associated with the change in the intense WMH volume (p = 0.0079, increase of 4.42 ml per unit change in total Prins, 95%CI [1.17 7.67]), but not with the change in less-intense, subtle WMH, which determined the volumetric change. The new metric is practical and simple to calculate. It is robust to variations in

  7. The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Pangelinan, Melissa M; Bogulski, Cari; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Luk, Gigi; Grady, Cheryl L; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    Lifelong bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age. The current study investigated structural differences in the brain of lifelong bilingual older adults (n=14, mean age=70.4) compared with older monolinguals (n=14, mean age=70.6). We employed two analytic approaches: 1) we examined global differences in grey and white matter volumes; and, 2) we examined local differences in volume and cortical thickness of specific regions of interest previously implicated in bilingual/monolingual comparisons (temporal pole) or in aging (entorhinal cortex and hippocampus). We expected bilinguals would exhibit greater volume of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe (grey and white matter), given the importance of these regions in executive and language functions, respectively. We further hypothesized that regions in the medial temporal lobe, which demonstrate early changes in aging and exhibit neural pathology in dementia, would be more preserved in the bilingual group. As predicted, bilinguals exhibit greater frontal lobe white matter compared with monolinguals. Moreover, increasing age was related to decreasing temporal pole cortical thickness in the monolingual group, but no such relationship was observed for bilinguals. Finally, Stroop task performance was positively correlated with frontal lobe white

  8. Incidental white matter lesions identified on magnetic resonance images of normal Japanese individuals; Correlation with age and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takanori; Niwa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    Incidental white matter high-intensity lesions are frequently seen on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain in older people. The incidence increases with advancing age or hypertension. Brain MR images of 59 normal individuals were examined to analyze this phenomenon. The total number of white matter high-intensity lesions correlated significantly with age (p=0.004) or systolic blood pressure (p=0.03). The 60- to 69-year-old group demonstrated a very close correlation of white matter lesions with systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01), in contrast to the 50- to 59-year-old group. Hypertensive subjects in their 60s are thought to develop more white matter lesions than subjects in their 50s. (author).

  9. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Krabbe, K

    2000-01-01

    , but no participant scored more than 75% of maximum for deep white-matter hyperintensities. Neither type was related to the WAIS IQs of the 80-year assessment, but both were significantly associated with decline in performance IQ from age 50 to age 80 years (bivariate correlation coefficients 0.32, p=0.0087, and 0......, and they agreed to further WAIS testing at age 80, and cerebral MRI at age 80-82 (mean age 82.3 years). We scored separately the numbers of periventricular and deep white-matter hyperintensities. FINDINGS: Scores for periventricular hyperintensities in this sample included all possible degrees of severity.......28, p=0.0227, respectively). An analysis based on two WAIS subtests showed that the association between white-matter hyperintensities and cognitive impairment was significant only for cognitive decline in the decade 70-80 years. INTERPRETATION: Both periventricular and deep white-matter hyperintensities...

  10. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  11. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  12. A radiological study of cerebral white matter lesions in patients with dementia using diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Hiroaki; Hanyu, Haruo; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the changes in water diffusion in the cerebral white matter and the corpus callosum in 12 patients with Binswanger's disease (BD), and 19 patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), including 12 without (AD-) and 7 with periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) lesions (AD+), using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the anterior and posterior white matter were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD than in 12 age-matched controls. The ADCs were significantly higher in AD (+) than in AD (-) patients. Anisotropic ratios (ARs), defined as diffusion restricted perpendicular to the direction of the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in BD and AD (+) patients, and even in AD (-) patients, than in the controls. ARs in the anterior white matter were significantly higher in BD than in AD (+), while in the posterior white matter the ratios were significantly higher in AD (+) rather than BD patients. The ADCs and ARs in the genu of the corpus callosum were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD (+) compared to the control subjects, while ADCs and ARs in the splenium were significantly higher in patients with AD (+) and AD (-) than in those with BD. These results suggest that mild myelin loss occurs in AD patients even in apparently normal white matter and in the splenium of the corpus callosum. A definite loss of myelin and axons, including incomplete infarction, occurs preferentially in anterior white matter in BD, while in posterior white matter in AD (+), as seen on T2-weighted images as PVH. Studies with diffusion-weighted MRI may allow the characterization of different pathological processes and enable the demonstration of underlying white matter lesion in patients with dementia that cannot be visualized by conventional MRI. (author)

  13. Measurements of mechanical anisotropy in brain tissue and implications for transversely isotropic material models of white matter

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuan; Okamoto, Ruth J.; Namani, Ravi; Genin, Guy M.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    White matter in the brain is structurally anisotropic, consisting largely of bundles of aligned, myelin-sheathed axonal fibers. White matter is believed to be mechanically anisotropic as well. Specifically, transverse isotropy is expected locally, with the plane of isotropy normal to the local mean fiber direction. Suitable material models involve strain energy density functions that depend on the I4 and I5 pseudo-invariants of the Cauchy–Green strain tensor to account for the effects of rela...

  14. Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Behrouz; Hammel, Evelyn L; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2017-09-01

    In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal application of glutamate induced sodium transients in SR101-positive astrocytes. These were largely unaltered in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors blockers, but strongly dampened upon pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake. Sodium signals induced in individual astrocytes readily spread into neighboring SR101-positive cells with peak amplitudes decaying monoexponentially with distance from the stimulated cell. In addition, spread of sodium was largely unaltered during pharmacological inhibition of purinergic and glutamate receptors, indicating gap junction-mediated, passive diffusion of sodium between astrocytes. Using cell-type-specific, transgenic reporter mice, we found that sodium signals also propagated, albeit less effectively, from astrocytes to neighboring oligodendrocytes and NG2 cells. Again, panglial spread was unaltered with purinergic and glutamate receptors blocked. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters induces sodium signals in white matter astrocytes, which spread within the astrocyte syncytium. In addition, we found a panglial passage of sodium signals from astrocytes to NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes, indicating functional coupling between these macroglial cells in white matter.

  15. White noise from dark matter: 21 cm observations of early baryon collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, Kathryn M.; Hogan, Craig J.

    2007-01-01

    In concordance cosmology, dark matter density perturbations generated by inflation lead to nonlinear, virialized minihalos, into which baryons collapse at redshift z∼20. We survey here novel baryon evolution produced by a modification of the power spectrum from white noise density perturbations at scales below k∼10h Mpc -1 (the smallest scales currently measured with the Lyman-α forest). Exotic dark matter dynamics, such as would arise from scalar dark matter with a late phase transition (similar to an axion, but with lower mass), or primordial black hole dark matter, create such an amplification of small scale power. The dark matter produced in such a phase transition collapses into minihalos, with a size given by the dark matter mass within the horizon at the phase transition. If the mass of the initial minihalos is larger than ∼10 -3 M · , the modified power spectrum is found to cause widespread baryon collapse earlier than standard ΛCDM, leading to earlier gas heating. It also results in higher spin temperature of the baryons in the 21 cm line relative to ΛCDM at redshifts z>20 if the mass of the minihalo is larger than 1M · . It is estimated that experiments probing 21 cm radiation at high redshift will contribute a significant constraint on dark matter models of this type for initial minihalos larger than ∼10M · . These experiments may also detect (or rule out) primordial black holes as the dark matter in the window 30M · H 3 M · still left open by strong microlensing experiments and other astrophysical constraints. Early experiments reaching to z≅15 will constrain minihalos down to ∼10 3 M ·

  16. Radiation dose reduction using 100-kVp and a sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction algorithm in adolescent head CT: Impact on grey-white matter contrast and image noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yasunori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akinori; Urata, Joji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Yuki, Hideaki; Hirarta, Kenichiro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of 100-kVp scans with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (IR) for unenhanced head CT in adolescents. Sixty-nine patients aged 12-17 years underwent head CT under 120- (n = 34) or 100-kVp (n = 35) protocols. The 120-kVp images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP), 100-kVp images with FBP (100-kVp-F) and sinogram-affirmed IR (100-kVp-S). We compared the effective dose (ED), grey-white matter (GM-WM) contrast, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between protocols in supratentorial (ST) and posterior fossa (PS). We also assessed GM-WM contrast, image noise, sharpness, artifacts, and overall image quality on a four-point scale. ED was 46% lower with 100- than 120-kVp (p < 0.001). GM-WM contrast was higher, and image noise was lower, on 100-kVp-S than 120-kVp at ST (p < 0.001). CNR of 100-kVp-S was higher than of 120-kVp (p < 0.001). GM-WM contrast of 100-kVp-S was subjectively rated as better than of 120-kVp (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the other criteria between 100-kVp-S and 120-kVp (p = 0.072-0.966). The 100-kVp with sinogram-affirmed IR facilitated dramatic radiation reduction and better GM-WM contrast without increasing image noise in adolescent head CT. • 100-kVp head CT provides 46% radiation dose reduction compared with 120-kVp. • 100-kVp scanning improves subjective and objective GM-WM contrast. • Sinogram-affirmed IR decreases head CT image noise, especially in supratentorial region. • 100-kVp protocol with sinogram-affirmed IR is suited for adolescent head CT.

  17. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon I. Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001. Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05, with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  18. White matter integrity in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury: associations with executive function and loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Scott F; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Luc, Norman; Schiehser, Dawn M; Hanson, Karen L; Nation, Daniel A; Lanni, Elisa; Jak, Amy J; Lu, Kun; Meloy, M J; Frank, Lawrence R; Lohr, James B; Bondi, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    We investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the association between white matter integrity and executive function (EF) performance in postacute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In addition, we examined whether injury severity, as measured by loss of consciousness (LOC) versus alterations in consciousness (AOC), is related to white matter microstructural alterations and neuropsychological outcome. Thirty Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans with a history of mTBI and 15 healthy veteran control participants. There were no significant overall group differences between control and mTBI participants on DTI measures. However, a subgroup of mTBI participants with EF decrements (n = 13) demonstrated significantly decreased fractional anisotropy of prefrontal white matter, corpus callosum, and cingulum bundle structures compared with mTBI participants without EF decrements (n = 17) and control participants. Participants having mTBI with LOC were more likely to evidence reduced EF performances and disrupted ventral prefrontal white matter integrity when compared with either mTBI participants without LOC or control participants. Findings suggest that altered white matter integrity contributes to reduced EF in subgroups of veterans with a history of mTBI and that LOC may be a risk factor for reduced EF as well as associated changes to ventral prefrontal white matter.

  19. White-matter microstructure and hearing acuity in older adults: a population-based cross-sectional DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigters, Stephanie C; Cremers, Lotte G M; Ikram, M Arfan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; de Groot, Marius; Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Niessen, Wiro J N; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Goedegebure, André; Vernooij, Meike W

    2018-01-01

    To study the relation between the microstructure of white matter in the brain and hearing function in older adults we carried out a population-based, cross-sectional study. In 2562 participants of the Rotterdam Study, we conducted diffusion tensor imaging to determine the microstructure of the white-matter tracts. We performed pure-tone audiogram and digit-in-noise tests to quantify hearing acuity. Poorer white-matter microstructure, especially in the association tracts, was related to poorer hearing acuity. After differentiating the separate white-matter tracts in the left and right hemisphere, poorer white-matter microstructure in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus and the right uncinate fasciculus remained significantly associated with worse hearing. These associations did not significantly differ between middle-aged (51-69 years old) and older (70-100 years old) participants. Progressing age was thus not found to be an effect modifier. In a voxel-based analysis no voxels in the white matter were significantly associated with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Magistro

    Full Text Available Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in the task has never been clearly evaluated in healthy people. In this study, we used various tests of processing speed and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses, it is involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local volume of gray and white, to assess the relationship between processing speed and regional WMV (rWMV. We examined the association between processing speed and WMV in 887 healthy young adults (504 men and 383 women; mean age, 20.7 years, SD, 1.85. We performed three different multiple regression analyses: we evaluated rWMV associated with individual differences in the simple processing speed task, word-colour and colour-word tasks (processing speed tasks with words and the simple arithmetic task, after adjusting for age and sex. The results showed a positive relationship at the whole-brain level between rWMV and processing speed performance. In contrast, the processing speed performance did not correlate with rWMV in any of the regions examined. Our results support the idea that WMV is associated globally with processing speed performance regardless of the type of processing speed task.

  1. Global and regional associations of smaller cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait in older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L Callisaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. METHODS: In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. RESULTS: There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9 years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22 m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001 and step length (p<0.001, but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were in