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Sample records for supramolecular polymers formed

  1. Supramolecular coordination polymer formed from artificial light-harvesting dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hosoowi; Jeong, Young-Hwan; Kim, Joo-Ho; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Eunji; Jang, Woo-Dong

    2015-09-30

    We report the formation of supramolecular coordination polymers formed from multiporphyrin dendrimers (PZnPM; M = FB or Cu), composed of the focal freebase porphyrin (PFB) or cupper porphyrin (PCu) with eight zinc porphyrin (PZn) wings, and multipyridyl porphyrins (PyPM; M = FB or Cu), PFB or PCu with eight pyridyl groups, through multiple axial coordination interactions of pyridyl groups to PZns. UV-vis absorption spectra were recorded upon titration of PyPFB to PZnPFB. Differential spectra, obtained by subtracting the absorption of PZnPFB without guest addition as well as the absorption of PyPFB, exhibited clear isosbestic points with saturation binding at 1 equiv addition of PyPFB to PZnPFB. Job's plot analysis also indicated 1:1 stoichiometry for the saturation binding. The apparent association constant between PZnPFB and PyPFB (2.91 × 10(6) M(-1)), estimated by isothermal titration calorimetry, was high enough for fibrous assemblies to form at micromolar concentrations. The formation of a fibrous assembly from PZnPFB and PyPFB was visualized by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When a 1:1 mixture solution of PZnPFB and PyPFB (20 μM) in toluene was cast onto mica, fibrous assemblies with regular height (ca. 2 nm) were observed. TEM images obtained from 1:1 mixture solution of PZnPFB and PyPFB (0.1 wt %) in toluene clearly showed the formation of nanofibers with a regular diameter of ca. 6 nm. Fluorescence emission measurement of PZnPM indicated efficient intramolecular energy transfer from PZn to the focal PFB or PCu. By the formation of supramolecular coordination polymers, the intramolecular energy transfer changed to intermolecular energy transfer from PZnPM to PyPM. When the nonfluorescent PyPCu was titrated to fluorescent PZnPFB, fluorescence emission from the focal PFB was gradually decreased. By the titration of fluorescent PyPFB to nonfluorescent PZnPCu, fluorescence emission from PFB in PyPFB was gradually increased

  2. Reversible networks in supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans - van Beek, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Non–covalent interactions between low molecular weight polymers form the basis of supramolecular polymers. The material properties of such polymers are determined by the strength and lifetime of the non–covalent reversible interactions. Due to the reversibility of the interactions between the low

  3. Rheology of Supramolecular Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    Supramolecular polymers are a broad class of materials that include all polymerscapable of associating via secondary interactions. These materials represent an emerging class of systems with superior versatility compared to classical polymers with applications in food stuff, coatings, cost...... efficient processes or biomedical areas. Design and development of supramolecular polymers using ionic, hydrogen bonding or transition metal complexes with tailored properties requires deep understanding of dynamics both in linear and non-linear deformations. While linear rheology is important to understand...... the dynamics under equilibrium conditions, extensional rheology is relevant during the processing or in the usage of polymers utilizing supramolecular associations for example, acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives are subjected to extensional deformations during the peeling where strain hardening...

  4. Supramolecular luminescence from oligofluorenol-based supramolecular polymer semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Wei; Wang, Long; Xie, Ling-Hai; Lin, Jin-Yi; Huang, Wei

    2013-11-13

    Supramolecular luminescence stems from non-covalent exciton behaviors of active π-segments in supramolecular entities or aggregates via intermolecular forces. Herein, a π-conjugated oligofluorenol, containing self-complementary double hydrogen bonds, was synthesized using Suzuki coupling as a supramolecular semiconductor. Terfluorenol-based random supramolecular polymers were confirmed via concentration-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The photoluminescent spectra of the TFOH-1 solution exhibit a green emission band (g-band) at approximately ~520 nm with reversible features, as confirmed through titration experiments. Supramolecular luminescence of TFOH-1 thin films serves as robust evidence for the aggregates of g-band. Our results suggest that the presence of polyfluorene ketone defects is a sufficient condition, rather than a sufficient-necessary condition for the g-band. Supramolecular electroluminescence will push organic devices into the fields of supramolecular optoelectronics, spintronics, and mechatronics.

  5. Supramolecular Luminescence from Oligofluorenol-Based Supramolecular Polymer Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Wei Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular luminescence stems from non-covalent exciton behaviors of active π-segments in supramolecular entities or aggregates via intermolecular forces. Herein, a π-conjugated oligofluorenol, containing self-complementary double hydrogen bonds, was synthesized using Suzuki coupling as a supramolecular semiconductor. Terfluorenol-based random supramolecular polymers were confirmed via concentration-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The photoluminescent spectra of the TFOH-1 solution exhibit a green emission band (g-band at approximately ~520 nm with reversible features, as confirmed through titration experiments. Supramolecular luminescence of TFOH-1 thin films serves as robust evidence for the aggregates of g-band. Our results suggest that the presence of polyfluorene ketone defects is a sufficient condition, rather than a sufficient-necessary condition for the g-band. Supramolecular electroluminescence will push organic devices into the fields of supramolecular optoelectronics, spintronics, and mechatronics.

  6. Monomers capable of forming four hydrogen bridges and supramolecular polymers formed by copolymerization of these monomers with regular monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers containing self-complementary quadruple hydrogen groups by copolymerizing monomers containing a quadruple hydrogen bonding group with one or more monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of

  7. Enhanced intermolecular forces in supramolecular polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ureido-pyrimidone (Upy can dimerize in a self-complementary array of quadruple hydrogen bonds. In this paper, supramolecular polymer composites were prepared by blending Upy functionalized nanosilica with Upy end-capped polycarbonatediol. Surface characteristics of Upy functionalized nanosilica and influences of supramolecular forces on interfacial binding were researched. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and Gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize the synthesized molecules. Grafting ratio of Upy segments on the surface of nanosilica was analysed by Thermogravimetic analysis (TGA. Hydrophobicity and morphology of Upy modified nanosilica were analysed by Contact angle tester and Scanning electron microscope (SEM. Furthermore, dynamic thermo mechanical properties, mechanical properties and distribution of nanosilica in supramolecular polymer composites were also researched. Compared with the matrix resin, tensile stress and young's modulus of supramolecular polymer composites containing 5 wt% modified nanosilica were increased by 292 and 198% respectively.

  8. Functional supramolecular polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Lu, Yunfeng; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-21

    As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structural aspects, thermal behavior, and stability of a self-assembled supramolecular polymer derived from flunixin-meglumine supramolecular adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassimiro, Douglas L.; Kobelnik, Marcelo [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, Clovis A., E-mail: ribeiroc@iq.unesp.br [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Crespi, Marisa S.; Boralle, Nivaldo [Institute of Chemistry, Paulista State University, Av. Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, 14800-900 Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of flunixin-meglumine, a potent NSAID, was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This supramolecular adduct self-assembled resulting in a polymer-like material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular polymer showed a high molecular weight around 290 {+-} 88 MDa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR and FT-IR showed that hydrogen bonding can be responsible for the self-assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stability of the supramolecular polymer was also studied and presented here. - Abstract: Flunixin-meglumine, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor for Veterinary use, is a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular adduct. Two monotropically related crystalline modifications (Forms I and II) were observed for a flunixin-meglumine sample. During the melt of form I, flunixin-meglumine adducts self-assembled by hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups from meglumine, resulting in an amorphous rigid glassy supramolecular polymer, which showed a high molecular weight around 290 {+-} 88 MDa and a glass transition around 49.5 Degree-Sign C. Both the adduct and the resulting supramolecular polymer were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and weight-average molecular weight determination by light scattering. The chemical stability and morphological changes of the depolymerization process were also investigated for the supramolecular polymer, by DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively.

  10. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    polymerizations and main-chain supramolecular polymers . Macromolecules. 2009;42:6823–6835. 17. Wojtecki RJ, Meador MA, Rowan SJ. Using the dynamic bond...ARL-TR-7687 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer by...Laboratory Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer by Alice M Savage Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education

  12. Coherent states field theory in supramolecular polymer physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Delaney, Kris T.

    2018-05-01

    In 1970, Edwards and Freed presented an elegant representation of interacting branched polymers that resembles the coherent states (CS) formulation of second-quantized field theory. This CS polymer field theory has been largely overlooked during the intervening period in favor of more conventional "auxiliary field" (AF) interacting polymer representations that form the basis of modern self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and field-theoretic simulation approaches. Here we argue that the CS representation provides a simpler and computationally more efficient framework than the AF approach for broad classes of reversibly bonding polymers encountered in supramolecular polymer science. The CS formalism is reviewed, initially for a simple homopolymer solution, and then extended to supramolecular polymers capable of forming reversible linkages and networks. In the context of the Edwards model of a non-reacting homopolymer solution and one and two-component models of telechelic reacting polymers, we discuss the structure of CS mean-field theory, including the equivalence to SCFT, and show how weak-amplitude expansions (random phase approximations) can be readily developed without explicit enumeration of all reaction products in a mixture. We further illustrate how to analyze CS field theories beyond SCFT at the level of Gaussian field fluctuations and provide a perspective on direct numerical simulations using a recently developed complex Langevin technique.

  13. Supramolecular materials based on hydrogen-bonded polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, Gerrit; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli; Binder, W

    2007-01-01

    Combining supramolecular principles with block copolymer self-assembly offers unique possibilities to create materials with responsive and/or tunable properties. The present chapter focuses on supramolecular materials based on hydrogen bonding and (block co-) polymers. Several cases will be

  14. 3D Printing Polymers with Supramolecular Functionality for Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Mondschein, Ryan J; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-09-11

    Supramolecular chemistry continues to experience widespread growth, as fine-tuned chemical structures lead to well-defined bulk materials. Previous literature described the roles of hydrogen bonding, ionic aggregation, guest/host interactions, and π-π stacking to tune mechanical, viscoelastic, and processing performance. The versatility of reversible interactions enables the more facile manufacturing of molded parts with tailored hierarchical structures such as tissue engineered scaffolds for biological applications. Recently, supramolecular polymers and additive manufacturing processes merged to provide parts with control of the molecular, macromolecular, and feature length scales. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, generates customizable constructs desirable for many applications, and the introduction of supramolecular interactions will potentially increase production speed, offer a tunable surface structure for controlling cell/scaffold interactions, and impart desired mechanical properties through reinforcing interlayer adhesion and introducing gradients or self-assembled structures. This review details the synthesis and characterization of supramolecular polymers suitable for additive manufacture and biomedical applications as well as the use of supramolecular polymers in additive manufacturing for drug delivery and complex tissue scaffold formation. The effect of supramolecular assembly and its dynamic behavior offers potential for controlling the anisotropy of the printed objects with exquisite geometrical control. The potential for supramolecular polymers to generate well-defined parts, hierarchical structures, and scaffolds with gradient properties/tuned surfaces provides an avenue for developing next-generation biomedical devices and tissue scaffolds.

  15. Side-Chain Supramolecular Polymers Employing Conformer Independent Triple Hydrogen Bonding Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Gooch, Adam; Murphy, Natasha S.; Thomson, Neil H.; Wilson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Derivatives of thymine have been extensively used to promote supramolecular materials assembly. Such derivatives can be synthetically challenging to access and may be susceptible to degradation. The current article uses a conformer-independent acceptor-donor-acceptor array (ureidopyrimidine) which forms moderate affinity interactions with diamidopyridine derivatives to effect supramolecular blend formation between polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers obtained by RAFT which have ...

  16. Double Dynamic Supramolecular Polymers of Covalent Oligo-Dynamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, Gaël; Buhler, Eric; Candau, Sauveur Jean; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Double-dynamic polymers, incorporating both molecular and supramolecular dynamic features (“double dynamers”) have been generated, where these functions are present in a nonstoichiometric ratio in the main chain of the polymer. It has been achieved by (1) the formation of covalent oligo-dynamers in

  17. Integration of molecular machines into supramolecular materials: actuation between equilibrium polymers and crystal-like gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Goujon, Antoine; Moulin, Emilie; Rawiso, Michel; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Buhler, Eric

    2017-11-30

    In this article, the dynamic structure of complex supramolecular polymers composed of bistable [c2]daisy chain rotaxanes as molecular machines that are linked by ureidopyrimidinones (Upy) as recognition moieties was studied. pH actuation of the integrated mechanically active rotaxanes controls the contraction/extension of the polymer chains as well as their physical reticulation. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering were used to study in-depth the nanostructure of the contracted and extended polymer aggregates in toluene solution. The supramolecular polymers comprising contracted nanomachines were found to be equilibrium polymers with a mass that is concentration dependent in dilute and semidilute regimes. Surprisingly, the extended polymers form a gel network with a crystal-like internal structure that is independent of concentration and reminiscent of a pearl-necklace network.

  18. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  19. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  20. Molecular and supramolecular orientation in conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropy in electrical and optical properties of conducting polymers constitutes a unique aspect that derives π-electron delocalization along the polymer backbone and from the weak inter-chain interaction. To acquire such an intrinsic property, conducting polymers have to be oriented macroscopically and microscopically (at the chain level). A review of the various techniques, including stretch-alignment of the polymer and of precursor polymers, polymerization in ordered media, i.e., in a liquid crystal solvent, and synthesis of liquid crystalline conducting polymers will be given. 29 refs

  1. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Olga J G M; Hendrikse, Simone I S; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Meijer, E W

    2017-10-30

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The complexity of the ECM taking care of many essential properties has inspired synthetic chemists to mimic these properties in artificial one-dimensional fibrous structures with the aim to arrive at multi-component biomaterials. Due to the dynamic character required for interaction with natural tissue, supramolecular biomaterials are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. Depending on the application area, and thereby the design criteria of these multi-component fibrous biomaterials, they are used as elastomeric materials or hydrogel systems. Elastomeric materials are designed to have load bearing properties whereas hydrogels are proposed to support in vitro cell culture. Although the chemical structures and systems designed and studied today are rather simple compared to the complexity of the ECM, the first examples of these functional supramolecular biomaterials reaching the clinic have been reported. The basic concept of many of these supramolecular biomaterials is based on their ability to adapt to cell behavior as a result of dynamic non-covalent interactions. In this review, we show the translation of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers into multi-component functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.

  2. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, M.B.; Albertazzi, L.; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, C.M.A.; Palmans, A.R.A.; Pavan, G.M.; Meijer, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers:

  3. Dynamic and bio-orthogonal protein assembly along a supramolecular polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic protein assembly along supramolecular columnar polymers has been achieved through the site-specific covalent attachment of different SNAP-tag fusion proteins to self-assembled benzylguanine-decorated discotics. The self-assembly of monovalent discotics into supramolecular polymers creates a

  4. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew B; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K; Leenders, Christianus M A; Palmans, Anja R A; Pavan, Giovanni M; Meijer, E W

    2015-02-20

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers.

  5. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew B.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Meijer, E. W.

    2015-02-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers.

  6. Protein-based polymers that bond to DNA : design of virus-like particles and supramolecular nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Garcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis it is demonstrated that it is possible to use Protein-based Polymers (PbPs) as synthetic binders of DNA (or any other negatively charged polyelectrolyte). The PbPs co-assemble with their DNA templates to form highly organized virus-like particles and supramolecular structures. A

  7. Hierarchical assembly of branched supramolecular polymers from (cyclic Peptide)-polymer conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Liang; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Perrier, Sébastien

    2014-11-10

    We report the synthesis and assembly of (N-methylated cyclic peptide)-polymer conjugates for which the cyclic peptide is attached to either the α- or both α- and ω- end groups of a polymer. A combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and scattering techniques reveals that the assembly of the conjugates follows a two-level hierarchy, initially driven by H-bond formation between two N-methylated cyclic peptides, followed by unspecific, noncovalent aggregation of this peptide into small domains that behave as branching points and lead to the formation of branched supramolecular polymers.

  8. Solid structures of the stepwise self-assembled copillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeon Sil; Hwang, Seong Min; Shin, Jae Yeon; Paek, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Development of supramolecular polymer has attracted much interest because of their interesting properties such as stimuli-responsiveness, recycling, self-healing and degradability, and their consequential applications. The essential feature of this class of polymers is the self-assembly of discrete monomeric subunits via non-covalent interactions or dynamic covalent bonds. Among the many monomeric subunits, pillar[n]arenes have been ideal building blocks for the fabrication of polymeric supramolecules because of their intrinsic characteristics. The ring-shaped morphologies in supramolecular polymer P are probably due to the tendency of the end-to-end connection in the solid state of long flexible supramolecular chains. The size increase of nano-rings as the stepwise addition increases might be due to the fact that the linear supramolecular polymer P in solution seems to be maintained until the nano-ring formation by solidification.

  9. Solid structures of the stepwise self-assembled copillar[5]arene-based supramolecular polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeon Sil; Hwang, Seong Min; Shin, Jae Yeon; Paek, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Development of supramolecular polymer has attracted much interest because of their interesting properties such as stimuli-responsiveness, recycling, self-healing and degradability, and their consequential applications. The essential feature of this class of polymers is the self-assembly of discrete monomeric subunits via non-covalent interactions or dynamic covalent bonds. Among the many monomeric subunits, pillar[n]arenes have been ideal building blocks for the fabrication of polymeric supramolecules because of their intrinsic characteristics. The ring-shaped morphologies in supramolecular polymer P are probably due to the tendency of the end-to-end connection in the solid state of long flexible supramolecular chains. The size increase of nano-rings as the stepwise addition increases might be due to the fact that the linear supramolecular polymer P in solution seems to be maintained until the nano-ring formation by solidification

  10. Rational design of fiber forming supramolecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benjamin K; Kanahara, Satoko M

    2016-01-01

    Recent strides in the development of multifunctional synthetic biomimetic materials through the self-assembly of multi-domain peptides and proteins over the past decade have been realized. Such engineered systems have wide-ranging application in bioengineering and medicine. This review focuses on fundamental fiber forming α-helical coiled-coil peptides, peptide amphiphiles, and amyloid-based self-assembling peptides; followed by higher order collagen- and elastin-mimetic peptides with an emphasis on chemical / biological characterization and biomimicry. PMID:27022140

  11. Thermoresponsive Supramolecular Chemotherapy by "V"-Shaped Armed β-Cyclodextrin Star Polymer to Overcome Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoshan; Cheng, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Ye, Enyi; Loh, Xian Jun; Wu, Yun-Long; Li, Zibiao

    2018-04-01

    Pump mediated drug efflux is the key reason to result in the failure of chemotherapy. Herein, a novel star polymer β-CD-v-(PEG-β-PNIPAAm) 7 consisting of a β-CD core, grafted with thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the multiple "V"-shaped arms is designed and further fabricated into supramolecular nanocarriers for drug resistant cancer therapy. The star polymer could encapsulate chemotherapeutics between β-cyclodextrin and anti-cancer drug via inclusion complex (IC). Furthermore, the temperature induced chain association of PNIPAAm segments facilitated the IC to form supramolecular nanoparticles at 37 °C, whereas the presence of PEG impart great stability to the self-assemblies. When incubated with MDR-1 membrane pump regulated drug resistant tumor cells, much higher and faster cellular uptake of the supramolecular nanoparticles were detected, and the enhanced intracellular retention of drugs could lead to significant inhibition of cell growth. Further in vivo evaluation showed high therapeutic efficacy in suppressing drug resistant tumor growth without a significant impact on the normal functions of main organs. This work signifies thermo-responsive supramolecular chemotherapy is promising in combating pump mediated drug resistance in both in vitro and in vivo models, which may be encouraging for the advanced drug delivery platform design to overcome drug resistant cancer. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of metallo-supramolecular polymers from thiophene-based unimers bearing pybox ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladysh, S.; Václavková, D.; Vrbata, D.; Bondarev, D.; Havlíček, D.; Svoboda, Jan; Zedník, J.; Vohlídal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 18 (2017), s. 10718-10728 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : metallo-supramolecular polymers * XPS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  13. A supramolecular miktoarm star polymer based on porphyrin metal complexation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhanyao; Dehaen, Wim; Lyskawa, Joël; Woisel, Patrice; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2017-07-25

    A novel supramolecular miktoarm star polymer was successfully constructed in water from a pyridine end-decorated polymer (Py-PmDEGA) and a metalloporphyrin based star polymer (ZnTPP-(PEG) 4 ) via metal-ligand coordination. The Py-PmDEGA moiety was prepared via a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and subsequent aminolysis and Michael addition reactions to introduce the pyridine end-group. The ZnTPP(PEG) 4 star-polymer was synthesized by the reaction between tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin and toluenesulfonyl-PEG, followed by insertion of a zinc ion into the porphyrin core. The formation of a well-defined supramolecular AB 4 -type miktoarm star polymer was unambiguously demonstrated via UV-Vis spectroscopic titration, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY).

  14. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Amplification of chirality in helical supramolecular polymers: the majority-rules principle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestel, van J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Amplification of chirality, being a strongly nonlinear response of the optical activity of helical polymers to a small (net) amount of optically active material, has recently been discovered in supramolecular copolymers. Apart from the sergeants-and-soldiers type we discussed in earlier work,

  16. On the kinetics of body versus end evaporation and addition of supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, Nitin S.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.: The kinetics of the self-assembly of supramolecular polymers is dictated by how monomers, dimers, trimers etc., attach to and detach from each other. It is for this reasons that researchers have proposed a plethora of pathways to explain the kinetics of various self-assembling

  17. On the kinetics of body versus end evaporation and addition of supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, N.; van der Schoot, P.P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of the self-assembly of supramolecular polymers is dictated by how monomers, dimers, trimers etc., attach to and detach from each other. It is for this reasons that researchers have proposed a plethora of pathways to explain the kinetics of various self-assembling supramolecules,

  18. Supramolecular Complexes Formed in Systems Bile Salt-Bilirubin-Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Severinovskaya, O. V.; Golovkova, L. P.

    The formation of supramolecular complexes between bilirubin and primary micelles of bile salts has been studied. The association constants of bile salts and binding of bilirubin with these associates have been determined. The adsorption of bilirubin and bile salts from individual and mixed aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic silica surfaces has been investigated. The interaction of bilirubin with primary bile salt micelles and the strong retention in mixed micelles, which are supramolecular complexes, result in the adsorption of bilirubin in free state only.

  19. Formation and thermodynamic stability of (polymer + porphyrin) supramolecular structures in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Viviana C.P. da; Hwang, Barrington J.; Eggen, Spencer E.; Wallace, Megan J.; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic stability of a (polymer + porphyrin) supramolecular structure was characterized. • Isothermal titration calorimetry provided two ways to determine reaction enthalpies. • Exothermic (polymer + porphyrin) binding competes with porphyrin self-association. • (Polymer + porphyrin) binding is entropically favored with respect to porphyrin self-association. • Spectral shifts show importance of porphyrin central hydrogens in polymer binding. - Abstract: Optical properties of porphyrins can be tuned through (polymer + porphyrin) (host + guest) binding in solution. This gives rise to the formation of supramolecular structures. In this paper, the formation, thermodynamic stability and spectroscopic properties of (polymer + porphyrin) supramolecular structures and their competition with porphyrin self-association were investigated by both isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and absorption spectroscopy. Specifically, reaction enthalpies and equilibrium constants were measured for meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS) self-association and TPPS binding to the polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP, 40 kg/mol) in aqueous solutions at pH 7 and three different temperatures (12, 25 and 37 °C). ITC, compared to spectroscopic techniques, provides two independent means to determine reaction enthalpies: direct measurements and Van’t Hoff plot. This was used as a criterion to assess that (1) self-association of TPPS is limited to the formation of dimers and (2) TPPS binds to PVP in its monomeric state only. The formation of TPPS dimers and (PVP + TPPS) supramolecular structures are both enthalpically driven. However, (polymer + porphyrin) binding was found to be entropically favored compared to dimerization. Furthermore, the reaction enthalpies of these two processes significantly depend on temperature. This behavior was attributed to hydrophobic interactions. Finally, the limiting absorption spectra of monomeric, dimeric and polymer

  20. Painting Supramolecular Polymers in Organic Solvents by Super-resolution Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Despite the rapid development of complex functional supramolecular systems, visualization of these architectures under native conditions at high resolution has remained a challenging endeavor. Super-resolution microscopy was recently proposed as an effective tool to unveil one-dimensional nanoscale structures in aqueous media upon chemical functionalization with suitable fluorescent probes. Building upon our previous work, which enabled photoactivation localization microscopy in organic solvents, herein, we present the imaging of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers in their native environment by interface point accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (iPAINT). The noncovalent staining, typical of iPAINT, allows the investigation of supramolecular polymers’ structure in situ without any chemical modification. The quasi-permanent adsorption of the dye to the polymer is exploited to identify block-like arrangements within supramolecular fibers, which were obtained upon mixing homopolymers that were prestained with different colors. The staining of the blocks, maintained by the lack of exchange of the dyes, permits the imaging of complex structures for multiple days. This study showcases the potential of PAINT-like strategies such as iPAINT to visualize multicomponent dynamic systems in their native environment with an easy, synthesis-free approach and high spatial resolution. PMID:29697958

  1. A two-dimensional Zn coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuhong; Ding, Yan; Li, Qiuyu; Zhang, Liping

    2017-10-01

    The title compound, poly[bis-{μ 2 -4,4'-bis-[(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]biphenyl-κ 2 N 4 : N 4' }bis-(nitrato-κ O )zinc(II)], [Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (C 18 H 16 N 6 ) 2 ] n , is a two-dimensional zinc coordination polymer constructed from 4,4'-bis-[(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1,1'-biphenyl units. It was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Zn II cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two O atoms from two symmetry-related nitrate groups and four N atoms from four symmetry-related 4,4'-bis-[(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1,1'-biphenyl ligands, forming a distorted octa-hedral {ZnN 4 O 2 } coordination geometry. The linear 4,4'-bis-[(1 H -1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1,1'-biphenyl ligand links two Zn II cations, generating two-dimensional layers parallel to the crystallographic (132) plane. The parallel layers are connected by C-H⋯O, C-H⋯N, C-H⋯π and π-π stacking inter-actions, resulting in a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  2. A two-dimensional Zn coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[bis{μ2-4,4′-bis[(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]biphenyl-κ2N4:N4′}bis(nitrato-κOzinc(II], [Zn(NO32(C18H16N62]n, is a two-dimensional zinc coordination polymer constructed from 4,4′-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]-1,1′-biphenyl units. It was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The ZnII cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two O atoms from two symmetry-related nitrate groups and four N atoms from four symmetry-related 4,4′-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]-1,1′-biphenyl ligands, forming a distorted octahedral {ZnN4O2} coordination geometry. The linear 4,4′-bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]-1,1′-biphenyl ligand links two ZnII cations, generating two-dimensional layers parallel to the crystallographic (132 plane. The parallel layers are connected by C—H...O, C—H...N, C—H...π and π–π stacking interactions, resulting in a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  3. An AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded complex easily accessible for supramolecular polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi-Fei; Chen, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Yuan, Ying-Xue; Wu, Na-Na; Song, Xiang-Zhi; Yang, Lan

    2014-12-15

    For a complementary hydrogen-bonded complex, when every hydrogen-bond acceptor is on one side and every hydrogen-bond donor is on the other, all secondary interactions are attractive and the complex is highly stable. AAA-DDD (A=acceptor, D=donor) is considered to be the most stable among triply hydrogen-bonded sequences. The easily synthesized and further derivatized AAA-DDD system is very desirable for hydrogen-bonded functional materials. In this case, AAA and DDD, starting from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, were synthesized with the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and Friedländer annulation reaction. The association constant determined by fluorescence titration in chloroform at room temperature is 2.09×10(7)  M(-1) . The AAA and DDD components are not coplanar, but form a V shape in the solid state. Supramolecular polymers based on AAA-DDD triply hydrogen bonded have also been developed. This work may make AAA-DDD triply hydrogen-bonded sequences easily accessible for stimuli-responsive materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Revealing the Supramolecular Nature of Side-Chain Terpyridine-Functionalized Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Brassinne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, finely controlling the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is possible by incorporating supramolecular motifs into their architecture. In this context, the synthesis of a side-chain terpyridine-functionalized poly(2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate is reported via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. By addition of transition metal ions, concentrated aqueous solutions of this polymer turn into metallo-supramolecular hydrogels whose dynamic mechanical properties are investigated by rotational rheometry. Hence, the possibility for the material to relax mechanical constrains via dissociation of transient cross-links is brought into light. In addition, the complex phenomena occurring under large oscillatory shear are interpreted in the context of transient networks.

  5. Self-assembling supramolecular systems of different symmetry formed by wedged macromolecular dendrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbina, M. A., E-mail: shcherbina@ispm.ru; Bakirov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials (Russian Federation); Yakunin, A. N. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Federation); Percec, V. [University of Pennsylvania (United States); Beginn, U. [Universitaet Osnabrueck, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Moeller, M. [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry (Germany); Chvalun, S. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    The main stages of the self-assembling of supramolecular ensembles have been revealed by studying different functional wedged macromolecules: polymethacrylates with tapered side chains based on gallic acid, their macromonomers, and salts of 2,3,4- and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzenesulphonic acid. The first stage is the formation of individual supramolecular aggregates (long cylinders or spherical micelles) due to the weak noncovalent interactions of mesogenic groups and the subsequent ordering in these aggregates, which is accompanied by a decrease in the free energy of the system. Supramolecular aggregates, in turn, form 2D or 3D lattices. The shape of supramolecular aggregates and its change with temperature are delicate functions of the mesogen chemical structure; this circumstance makes it possible to rationally design complex self-assembling systems with the ability to respond smartly to external stimuli. X-ray diffraction analysis allows one to study the structure of supramolecular systems with different degrees of order, determine the type of mesophases formed by these systems, and reveal the phase behavior of the material. Particular attention has been paid to the method for reconstruction of electron density distribution from the relative reflection intensity. The application of a suite of experimental methods, including wide- and small-angle X-ray diffraction, molecular modeling, differential scanning calorimetry, and polarization optical microscopy, allows one to establish the relationship between the shape of the structural unit (molecule or molecular aggregate), the nature of the interaction, and the phase behavior of the material.

  6. Self-assembling supramolecular systems of different symmetry formed by wedged macromolecular dendrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbina, M. A.; Bakirov, A. V.; Yakunin, A. N.; Percec, V.; Beginn, U.; Möller, M.; Chvalun, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The main stages of the self-assembling of supramolecular ensembles have been revealed by studying different functional wedged macromolecules: polymethacrylates with tapered side chains based on gallic acid, their macromonomers, and salts of 2,3,4- and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzenesulphonic acid. The first stage is the formation of individual supramolecular aggregates (long cylinders or spherical micelles) due to the weak noncovalent interactions of mesogenic groups and the subsequent ordering in these aggregates, which is accompanied by a decrease in the free energy of the system. Supramolecular aggregates, in turn, form 2D or 3D lattices. The shape of supramolecular aggregates and its change with temperature are delicate functions of the mesogen chemical structure; this circumstance makes it possible to rationally design complex self-assembling systems with the ability to respond smartly to external stimuli. X-ray diffraction analysis allows one to study the structure of supramolecular systems with different degrees of order, determine the type of mesophases formed by these systems, and reveal the phase behavior of the material. Particular attention has been paid to the method for reconstruction of electron density distribution from the relative reflection intensity. The application of a suite of experimental methods, including wide- and small-angle X-ray diffraction, molecular modeling, differential scanning calorimetry, and polarization optical microscopy, allows one to establish the relationship between the shape of the structural unit (molecule or molecular aggregate), the nature of the interaction, and the phase behavior of the material.

  7. Supramolecular ionics: electric charge partition within polymers and other non-conducting solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO GALEMBECK

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic phenomena in insulators have been known for the past four centuries, but many related questions are still unanswered, for instance: which are the charge-bearing species in an electrified organic polymer, how are the charges spatially distributed and which is the contribution of the electrically charged domains to the overall polymer properties? New scanning probe microscopies were recently introduced, and these are suitable for the mapping of electric potentials across a solid sample thus providing some answers for the previous questions. In this work, we report results obtained with two of these techniques: scanning electric potential (SEPM and electric force microscopy (EFM. These results were associated to images acquired by using analytical electron microscopy (energy-loss spectroscopy imaging in the transmission electron microscope, ESI-TEM for colloid polymer samples. Together, they show domains with excess electric charges (and potentials extending up to hundreds of nanometers and formed by large clusters of cations or anions, reaching supramolecular dimensions. Domains with excess electric charge were also observed in thermoplastics as well as in silica, polyphosphate and titanium oxide particles. In the case of thermoplastics, the origin of the charges is tentatively assigned to their tribochemistry, oxidation followed by segregation or the Mawell-Wagner-Sillars and Costa Ribeiro effects.A eletrificação de sólidos é conhecida há quatro séculos, mas há muitas questões importantes sobre este assunto, ainda não respondidas: por exemplo, quais são as espécies portadoras de cargas em um polímero isolante eletrificado, como estas cargas estão espacialmente distribuídas e qual é a contribuição destas cargas para as propriedades do polímero? Técnicas microscópicas introduzidas recentemente são apropriadas para o mapeamento de potenciais elétricos ao longo de uma superfície sólida, portanto podem responder a

  8. Enzymatic Dissolution of Biocomposite Solids Consisting of Phosphopeptides to Form Supramolecular Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Junfeng; Yuan, Dan; Haburcak, Richard; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Xixiang; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed dephosphorylation is essential for biomineralization and bone metabolism. Here we report the exploration of using enzymatic reaction to transform biocomposites of phosphopeptides and calcium (or strontium) ions to supramolecular hydrogels as a mimic of enzymatic dissolution of biominerals. 31P NMR shows that strong affinity between the phosphopeptides and alkaline metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ or Sr2+) induces the formation of biocomposites as precipitates. Electron microscopy reveals that the enzymatic reaction regulates the morphological transition from particles to nanofibers. Rheology confirms the formation of a rigid hydrogel. As the first example of enzyme-instructed dissolution of a solid to form supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels, this work provides an approach to generate soft materials with desired properties, expands the application of supramolecular hydrogelators, and offers insights to control the demineralization of calcified soft tissues.

  9. Enzymatic Dissolution of Biocomposite Solids Consisting of Phosphopeptides to Form Supramolecular Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Junfeng

    2015-10-14

    Enzyme-catalyzed dephosphorylation is essential for biomineralization and bone metabolism. Here we report the exploration of using enzymatic reaction to transform biocomposites of phosphopeptides and calcium (or strontium) ions to supramolecular hydrogels as a mimic of enzymatic dissolution of biominerals. 31P NMR shows that strong affinity between the phosphopeptides and alkaline metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ or Sr2+) induces the formation of biocomposites as precipitates. Electron microscopy reveals that the enzymatic reaction regulates the morphological transition from particles to nanofibers. Rheology confirms the formation of a rigid hydrogel. As the first example of enzyme-instructed dissolution of a solid to form supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels, this work provides an approach to generate soft materials with desired properties, expands the application of supramolecular hydrogelators, and offers insights to control the demineralization of calcified soft tissues.

  10. Supramolecular Chirality: Solvent Chirality Transfer in Molecular Chemistry and Polymer Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Fujiki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlled mirror symmetry breaking arising from chemical and physical origin is currently one of the hottest issues in the field of supramolecular chirality. The dynamic twisting abilities of solvent molecules are often ignored and unknown, although the targeted molecules and polymers in a fluid solution are surrounded by solvent molecules. We should pay more attention to the facts that mostly all of the chemical and physical properties of these molecules and polymers in the ground and photoexcited states are significantly influenced by the surrounding solvent molecules with much conformational freedom through non-covalent supramolecular interactions between these substances and solvent molecules. This review highlights a series of studies that include: (i historical background, covering chiral NaClO3 crystallization in the presence of d-sugars in the late 19th century; (ii early solvent chirality effects for optically inactive chromophores/fluorophores in the 1960s–1980s; and (iii the recent development of mirror symmetry breaking from the corresponding achiral or optically inactive molecules and polymers with the help of molecular chirality as the solvent use quantity.

  11. Hierarchically Ordered Supramolecular Protein-Polymer Composites with Thermoresponsive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Välimäki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic macromolecules that can bind and co-assemble with proteins are important for the future development of biohybrid materials. Active systems are further required to create materials that can respond and change their behavior in response to external stimuli. Here we report that stimuli-responsive linear-branched diblock copolymers consisting of a cationic multivalent dendron with a linear thermoresponsive polymer tail at the focal point, can bind and complex Pyrococcus furiosus ferritin protein cages into crystalline arrays. The multivalent dendron structure utilizes cationic spermine units to bind electrostatically on the surface of the negatively charged ferritin cage and the in situ polymerized poly(di(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate linear block enables control with temperature. Cloud point of the final product was determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS, and it was shown to be approximately 31 °C at a concentration of 150 mg/L. Complexation of the polymer binder and apoferritin was studied with DLS, small-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, which showed the presence of crystalline arrays of ferritin cages with a face-centered cubic (fcc, \\( Fm\\overline{3}m \\ Bravais lattice where lattice parameter a = 18.6 nm. The complexation process was not temperature dependent but the final complexes had thermoresponsive characteristics with negative thermal expansion.

  12. A pH-responsive supramolecular polymer gel as an enteric elastomer for use in gastric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyi; Bellinger, Andrew M.; Glettig, Dean L.; Barman, Ross; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhu, Jiahua; Cleveland, Cody; Montgomery, Veronica A.; Gu, Li; Nash, Landon D.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Devices resident in the stomach--used for a variety of clinical applications including nutritional modulation for bariatrics, ingestible electronics for diagnosis and monitoring, and gastric-retentive dosage forms for prolonged drug delivery--typically incorporate elastic polymers to compress the devices during delivery through the oesophagus and other narrow orifices in the digestive system. However, in the event of accidental device fracture or migration, the non-degradable nature of these materials risks intestinal obstruction. Here, we show that an elastic, pH-responsive supramolecular gel remains stable and elastic in the acidic environment of the stomach but can be dissolved in the neutral-pH environment of the small and large intestines. In a large animal model, prototype devices with these materials as the key component demonstrated prolonged gastric retention and safe passage. These enteric elastomers should increase the safety profile for a wide range of gastric-retentive devices.

  13. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  14. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  15. Multi-functionalized side-chain supramolecular polymers: A methodology towards tunable functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kamlesh Prabhakaran

    Even as we see a significant growth in the field of supramolecular polymers in the last ten years, multi-functionalized systems have been scarcely studied. Noncovalent multi-functionalization provides unique advantages such as rapid materials optimization via reversible functionalization as well as for the tuning of materials properties by exploiting the differences in the nature of these reversible interactions. This thesis involves the design principles, synthesis & methodology of supramolecular side-chain multi-functionalized polymers. The combination of a functionally tolerant & controlled polymerization technique such as ROMP with multiple noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination and ionic interactions has been successfully used to synthesize these polymers. Furthermore, the orthogonality between the above interactions in block/random copolymers has been studied in detail. It has been found that the studied interactions were orthogonal to each other. To validate the viability of this methodology using multiple orthogonal interactions towards materials design noncovalent crosslinking of polymers has been used as a potential application. Three classes of networks have been studied: complementary multiple hydrogen bonded networks, metal crosslinked networks, & multi-functionalized hydrogen bonded and metal coordinated networks. The first room temperature decrosslinking by exclusive complementary hydrogen bonded interactions has been successfully achieved. Furthermore network properties have been successfully tuned by varying the network micro-structure which in turn was tuned by the hydrogen bonding motifs used for inter-chain crosslinking. By combining two different noncovalent interactions used for inter-chain crosslinking, it was possible to make multi-functionalized materials whose properties could be controlled by varying the crosslinking strategy. Hence by employing multi-functionalization methodology, important materials

  16. Facile modification of nanodiamonds with hyperbranched polymers based on supramolecular chemistry and their potential for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongye; Liu, Meiying; Jiang, Ruming; Chen, Junyu; Mao, Liucheng; Wen, Yuanqing; Tian, Jianwen; Zhou, Naigen; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2018-03-01

    Due to their excellent chemical stability and remarkable biocompatibility, nanodiamonds (NDs) have received widespread research attention by the biomedical field. The excellent water dispersibility of NDs has significant importance for biomedical applications. Therefore, surface modification of NDs with hydrophilic polymers has been extensively investigated over the past few decades. In this study, we synthesize β-CD containing hyperbranched polymer functionalized ND (ND-β-CD-HPG) composites with high water dispersibility via supramolecular chemistry based on the host-guest interactions between β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) and adamantine (Ad). The hydroxyl groups of NDs first reacted with 1, 1-adamantanecarbonyl chloride to obtain ND-Ad, which was further functionalized with β-CD containing hyperbranched polymers to form the final ND-β-CD-HPG composites. The successful preparation of ND-β-CD-HPG composites was confirmed by several characterization techniques. Furthermore, the loading and release of the anticancer agent doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) on ND-β-CD-HPG composites was also examined to explore its potential in drug delivery. When compared with traditional methods of surface modification of NDs, this method was convenient, fast and efficient. We demonstrated that ND-β-CD-HPG composites have great water dispersibility, low toxicity, high drug-loading capacity and controlled drug-release behavior. Based on these characteristics, ND-β-CD-HPG composites are expected to have high potential for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solvent Clathrate Driven Dynamic Stereomutation of a Supramolecular Polymer with Molecular Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chidambar; Korevaar, Peter A; Bejagam, Karteek K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W; George, Subi J

    2017-10-04

    Control over the helical organization of synthetic supramolecular systems is intensively pursued to manifest chirality in a wide range of applications ranging from electron spin filters to artificial enzymes. Typically, switching the helicity of supramolecular assemblies involves external stimuli or kinetic traps. However, efforts to achieve helix reversal under thermodynamic control and to understand the phenomena at a molecular level are scarce. Here we present a unique example of helix reversal (stereomutation) under thermodynamic control in the self-assembly of a coronene bisimide that has a 3,5-dialkoxy substitution on the imide phenyl groups (CBI-35CH), leading to "molecular pockets" in the assembly. The stereomutation was observed only if the CBI monomer possesses molecular pockets. Detailed chiroptical studies performed in alkane solvents with different molecular structures reveal that solvent molecules intercalate or form clathrates within the molecular pockets of CBI-35CH at low temperature (263 K), thereby triggering the stereomutation. The interplay among the helical assembly, molecular pockets, and solvent molecules is further unraveled by explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate how the molecular design of self-assembling building blocks can orchestrate the organization of surrounding solvent molecules, which in turn dictates the helical organization of the resulting supramolecular assembly.

  18. Water-soluble building blocks for terpyridine-containing supramolecular polymers : synthesis, complexation, and pH stability studies of poly(ethylene oxide) moieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeijer, B.G.G.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) of various molecular weights ([bar M ]n = 3 000, 5 200, 10 000, 16 500 g · mol-1) has been modified with terpyridine end groups as building blocks for water-soluble metallo-supramolecular polymers. Metallo-supramolecular A-A homopolymers have been prepared and characterized by

  19. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. On the kinetics of body versus end evaporation and addition of supramolecular polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nitin S; van der Schoot, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The kinetics of the self-assembly of supramolecular polymers is dictated by how monomers, dimers, trimers etc., attach to and detach from each other. It is for this reasons that researchers have proposed a plethora of pathways to explain the kinetics of various self-assembling supramolecules, including sulfur, linear micelles, living polymers and protein fibrils. Recent observations hint at the importance of a hitherto ignored molecular aggregation pathway that we refer to as "body evaporation and addition". In this pathway, monomers can enter at or dissociate from any point along the backbone of the polymer. In this paper, we compare predictions for the well-established end evaporation and addition pathway with those that we obtained for the newly proposed body evaporation and addition model. We quantify the lag time, characteristic of nucleated reversible polymerisation, in terms of the time it takes to obtain half of the steady-state polymerised fraction and the apparent growth rate at that point, and obtain power laws for both as a function of the total monomer concentration. We find, perhaps not entirely unexpectedly, that the body evaporation and addition pathway speeds up the relaxation of the polymerised monomeric mass relative to that of the end evaporation and addition. However, the presence of the body evaporation and addition pathway does not affect the dependence of the lag time on the total monomer concentration and it remains the same as that for the case of end evaporation and addition. The scaling of the lag time with the forward rate is different for the two models, suggesting that they may be distinguished experimentally.

  1. A novel self-assembly with zinc porphyrin coordination polymer for enhanced photocurrent conversion in supramolecular solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jing; Liu, Jia-Cheng; Deng, Wen-Ting; Li, Ren-Zhi; Jin, Neng-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative type of self-assembly based on acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin coordination polymer has been prepared in supramolecular solar cells. - Highlights: • A novel assembly with acetohydrazide porphyrin coordination polymer. • The assembly based on porphyrin is prepared as parallel sample. • Coordination polymer-based assembly shows enhanced photoelectronic behavior. • A series of different organic acid ligands as anchoring groups are prepared. - Abstract: In this work, a novel acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin-based coordination polymer (CP)-isonicotinic acid self-assembly by metal-ligand axial coordination to modify the nano-structured TiO 2 electrode surface has been investigated in photoelectrochemical device. Compared to the assembly based on corresponding zinc porphyrin combined with isonicotinic acid by metal-ligand axial coordination, CP-isonicotinic acid assembly exhibits a significantly enhanced photoelectronic behavior. In addition, a series of different organic acid ligands were prepared to probe the impact of their structures on the photoelectronic performances of their corresponding assemblies-sensitized cells. This study affords a novel type of self-assembly to functionalize the nanostructured TiO 2 electrode surface in supramolecular solar cells

  2. Synergy in supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Synergy and Cooperativity in Multi-metal Supramolecular Systems, T. NabeshimaHierarchically Assembled Titanium Helicates, Markus AlbrechtSupramolecular Hosts and Catalysts Formed by Self-assembly of Multinuclear Zinc Complexes in Aqueous Solution, Shin AokiSupramolecular Assemblies Based on Interionic Interactions, H. MaedaSupramolecular Synergy in the Formation and Function of Guanosine Quadruplexes, Jeffery T. DavisOn-Surface Chirality in Porous Self-Assembled Monolayers at Liquid-Solid Interface, Kazukuni Tahar

  3. Synthesis and Properties of the Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer Hydrogel Poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]∙AgNO3

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Dossary, Mona S.

    2014-05-01

    Gels are a special class of materials which are composed of 3D networks of crosslinked polymer chains that encapsulate liquid/air in the matrix. They can be classified into organogels or hydrogels (organic solvent for organogel and water for hydrogel). For hydrogels that contain metallic elements in the form of ions, the term of metallo-supramolecular polymer hydrogel (MSPHG) is often used. The aim of this project is to develop a kind of new MSPHG and investigate its properties and possible applications. The commercial polymeric anhydride poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) is converted by reaction with NaOH to give poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-monosodium maleate) (PVM/Na-MA). By addition of AgNO3-solution, the formation of the silver(I) supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]∙AgNO3 is obtained. Freeze-dried samples of the hydrogel show a mesoporous network of polycarboxylate ligands that are crosslinked by silver(I) cations. The supercritical CO2 dried silver(I) hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM-EDAX, TEM, TGA and Physical adsorption (BET) measurements. The intact silver(I) hydrogel was characterized by cryo-SEM. In the intact hydrogel, ion-exchange studies are reported and it is shown that Ag+ ions can be exchanged by copper(II) cations without disintegration of the hydrogel. The silver(I) hydrogel shows effective antibacterial activity and potential application as burn wound dressing.

  4. Self assembling nanocomposites for protein delivery: supramolecular interactions of soluble polymers with protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Caliceti, Paolo

    2013-01-02

    Translation of therapeutic proteins to pharmaceutical products is often encumbered by their inadequate physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, namely low stability and poor bioavailability. Over the last decades, several academic and industrial research programs have been focused on development of biocompatible polymers to produce appropriate formulations that provide for enhanced therapeutic performance. According to their physicochemical properties, polymers have been exploited to obtain a variety of formulations including biodegradable microparticles, 3-dimensional hydrogels, bioconjugates and soluble nanocomposites. Several soluble polymers bearing charges or hydrophobic moieties along the macromolecular backbone have been found to physically associate with proteins to form soluble nanocomplexes. Physical complexation is deemed a valuable alternative tool to the chemical bioconjugation. Soluble protein/polymer nanocomplexes formed by physical specific or unspecific interactions have been found in fact to possess peculiar physicochemical, and biopharmaceutical properties. Accordingly, soluble polymeric systems have been developed to increase the protein stability, enhance the bioavailability, promote the absorption across the biological barriers, and prolong the protein residence in the bloodstream. Furthermore, a few polymers have been found to favour the protein internalisation into cells or boost their immunogenic potential by acting as immunoadjuvant in vaccination protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualization of Stereoselective Supramolecular Polymers by Chirality-Controlled Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aritra; Dhiman, Shikha; Chalishazar, Aditya; George, Subi J

    2017-10-23

    Chirality-driven self-sorting is envisaged to efficiently control functional properties in supramolecular materials. However, the challenge arises because of a lack of analytical methods to directly monitor the enantioselectivity of the resulting supramolecular assemblies. Presented herein are two fluorescent core-substituted naphthalene-diimide-based donor and acceptor molecules with minimal structural mismatch and they comprise strong self-recognizing chiral motifs to determine the self-sorting process. As a consequence, stereoselective supramolecular polymerization with an unprecedented chirality control over energy transfer has been achieved. This chirality-controlled energy transfer has been further exploited as an efficient probe to visualize microscopically the chirality driven self-sorting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Time-resolved transient optical absorption study of bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes and their metallo-supramolecular polymers with Zn(II) ion couplers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rais, David; Menšík, Miroslav; Štenclová-Bláhová, P.; Svoboda, J.; Vohlídal, J.; Pfleger, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 24 (2015), s. 6203-6214 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1143 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conjugated polymers * supramolecular structures * structure-property relations Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.883, year: 2015

  7. Macromolecules containing bipyridine and terpyridine metal complexes: towards metallo-supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, U.S.; Eschbaumer, C.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a broad range of N-heterocycles to act as very effective and stable complexation agents for several transition metal ions, such as cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and ruthenium(II), has long been known in analytical chemistry. This behavior was later utilized in supramolecular

  8. Self-assembling multivalency : supramolecular polymers assembled from monovalent mannose-labelled discotic molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular synthesis, the "bottom-up" construction of higher-order structures from monomeric building blocks, represents a flexible approach for the generation of multivalent materials. Here, monovalent building blocks decorated with a single bioactive ligand were synthesized. In water, these

  9. Construction of Supramolecular Architectures via Self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeharu; Haino

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In this paper we report supramolecular polymeric nano networks formed by the molecular-recognition-directed self-assembly between a calix[5]arene and C60[1]. Covalently-linked double-calix[5]arenes take up C60 into their cavities[2]. This complementary interaction creates a strong non-covalent bonding; thus,the iterative self-assembly between dumbbell fullerene 1 and ditopic host 2 can produce the supramolecular polymer networks (See Fig.1).

  10. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (Di......COOH-PEG), are reported in this paper. All supramolecular ionic polymers and networks exhibit very high relative dielectric permittivities ( 3 0 )( 10 2 – 10 6 ) at low frequencies, and signi fi cantly lower values (from 1 up to 26) at high frequencies. Additionally, the dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic......), are investigated. Here the relative dielectric permittivities of the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the multifunctional carboxylic acids were lower than those from the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the two carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s....

  11. Cd (II) and holodirected lead (II) 3D-supramolecular coordination polymers based on nicotinic acid: Structure, fluorescence property and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abd El-Aziz, Dina M.; Marie, Hassan; Ali, Elham

    2018-05-01

    Two new supramolecular coordination polymers namely {[Cd(NA)2(H2O)]}, SCP 1 and {[Pb(NA)2]}, SCP 2, (NA = nicotinate ligand) were synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by different analytical and spectroscopic methods. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that SCP 1 extend in three dimensions containing bore structure where the 3D- network is constructed via interweaving zigzag chains. The Cd atom coordinates to (O4N2) atoms forming distorted-octahedral configuration. The structure of SCP 2 extend down the projection of the b-axis creating parallel zigzag 1D-chains connected by μ2-O2 atoms and H-bonds forming a holodirected lead (II) hexagonal bi-pyramid configuration. SCP 2 extend to 3D-network via coordinate and hydrogen bonds. The thermal stability, photoluminescence properties, photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye (MB) under UV-irradiation and sunlight irradiation were also studied.

  12. Preparation of supramolecular polymers by copolymerization of monomers containing quadruple hydrogen bonding units with regular monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers containing self-complementary quadruple hydrogen groups by copolymerizing monomers containing a quadruple hydrogen bonding group with one or more monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of

  13. Preparation of supramolecular polymers by copolymerization of monomers containing quadruple hydrogen bonding units with regular monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers contg. self-complementary quadruple H groups by copolymg. monomers contg. a quadruple H bonding group with ³1 monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of addnl. phys. interactions between the

  14. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  15. Hydrogen Bonded Supramolecular Polymers in Both Apolar and Aqueous Media: Self-Assembly and Reversible Conversion of Vesicles and Gels%Hydrogen Bonded Supramolecular Polymers in Both Apolar and Aqueous Media: Self-Assembly and Reversible Conversion of Vesicles and Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜平; 孔军; 王贵涛; 赵新; 李光玉; 蒋锡夔; 黎占亭

    2011-01-01

    In a preliminary letter (Tetrahedron Lett. 2010, 51, 188), we reported two new hydrazide-based quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs, this is, two monopodal (la and lb) and five dipodal (2a, 2b and 3a--3c) aromatic hydrazide derivatives, and the formation of supramolecular polymers and vesicles from the dipodal motifs in hydrocarbons. In this paper, we present a full picture on the properties of these hydrogen-bonding motifs with an emphasis on their self-assembling behaviors in aqueous media. SEM, AFM, TEM and fluorescent micrographs indicate that all the dipodal compounds also form vesicles in polar methanol and water-methanol (up to 50% of water) mixtures. Control experiments show that lb does not form vesicles in same media. Addition of lb to the solution of the dipodal compounds inhibits the latter's capacity of forming vesicles. At high concentrations, 3b and 3c also gelate discrete solvents, including hydrocarbons, esters, methanol, and methanol-water mixture. Concentration-dependent SEM investigations reveal that the vesicles of 3b and 3c fuse to form gels and the gel of 3c can de-aggregate to form the vesicles reversibly.

  16. Time-Resolved Transient Optical Absorption Study of Bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes and Their Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers with Zn(II) Ion Couplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, David; Menšík, Miroslav; Štenclová-Bláhová, Pavla; Svoboda, Jan; Vohlídal, Jiří; Pfleger, Jiří

    2015-06-18

    α,ω-Bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes spontaneously assemble with Zn(II) ions giving conjugated constitutional dynamic polymers (dynamers) of the metallo-supramolecular class, which potentially might be utilized in optoelectronics. Their photophysical properties, which are of great importance in this field of application, are strongly influenced by the dynamic morphology. It was assessed in this study by using ultrafast pump-probe optical absorption spectroscopy. We identified and characterized relaxation processes running in photoexcited molecules of these oligomers and dynamers and show impacts of disturbed coplanarity of adjacent rings (twisting the thiophene-thiophene and thiophene-terpyridyl bonds by attached hexyl side groups) and Zn(II) ion couplers on these processes. Major effects are seen in the time constants of rotational relaxation, intersystem crossing, and de-excitation lifetimes. The photoexcited states formed on different repeating units within the same dynamer chain do not interact with each other even at very high excitation density. The method is presented that allows determining the equilibrium fraction of unbound oligothiophene species in a dynamer solution, from which otherwise hardly accessible values of the average degree of polymerization of constitutionally dynamic chains in solution can be estimated.

  17. The Orange Side of Disperse Red 1: Humidity-Driven Color Switching in Supramolecular Azo-Polymer Materials Based on Reversible Dye Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelch, Simon; Vapaavuori, Jaana; Rollet, Frédéric-Guillaume; Barrett, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Humidity detection, and the quest for low-cost facile humidity-sensitive indicator materials is of great interest for many fields, including semi-conductor processing, food transport and storage, and pharmaceuticals. Ideal humidity-detection materials for a these applications might be based on simple clear optical readout with no power supply, i.e.: a clear color change observed by the naked eye of any untrained observer, since it doesn't require any extra instrumentation or interpretation. Here, the introduction of a synthesis-free one-step procedure, based on physical mixing of easily available commercial materials, for producing a humidity memory material which can be easily painted onto a wide variety of surfaces and undergoes a remarkable color change (approximately 100 nm blue-shift of λ MAX ) upon exposure to various thresholds of levels of ambient humidity is reported. This strong color change, easily visible to as a red-to-orange color switch, is locked in until inspection, but can then be restored reversibly if desired, after moderate heating. By taking advantage of spontaneously-forming reversible 'soft' supramolecular bonds between a red-colored azo dye and a host polymer matrix, a reversible dye 'migration' aggregation appearing orange, and dis-aggregation back to red can be achieved, to function as the sensor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Advances in supramolecular polymer chemistry : well-defined terpyridine-functionalized materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, C.

    2008-01-01

    Controlled/"living" polymerization techniques have attracted enormous attention in the field of polymer science since they have opened an avenue to the preparation of well-defined materials with precisely designed molecular architectures like random, block, graft and comb copolymers. These

  19. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical

  20. Epoxy resin-inspired reconfigurable supramolecular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Balkenende Diederik; Olson Rebecca; Balog Sandor; Weder Christoph; Montero de Espinosa Lucas

    2016-01-01

    With the goal to push the mechanical properties of reconfigurable supramolecular polymers toward those of thermoset resins we prepared and investigated a new family of hydrogen bonded polymer networks that are assembled from isophthalic acid terminated oligo(bisphenol A co epichlorohydrin) and different bipyridines. These materials display high storage moduli of up to 3.9 GPa can be disassembled upon heating to form melts with a viscosity of as low as 2.1 Pa·s and fully reassemble upon coolin...

  1. Imulation of polymer forming processes - addressing industrial needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, F.; DiRaddo, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development of simulation and design optimization capabilities, for polymer forming processes, in the context of addressing industrial needs. Accomplishments generated from close to twenty years of research in this field, at the National Research Council (NRC), are presented. Polymer forming processes such as extrusion blow moulding, stretch blow moulding and thermoforming have been the focus of the work, yet the research is extendable to similar polymer forming operations such as micro-blow moulding, sheet blow moulding and composites stamping. The research considers material models, process sequence integration and design optimization, derivative processes and 3D finite elements with multi-body contact.

  2. Inorganic and organic structures as interleavers among [bis(1-methyl-3-(p-carboxylatephenyl)triazenide 1-oxide)Ni(II)] complexes to form supramolecular arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Aline Joana Rolina Wohlmuth Alves; dos Santos Hackbart, Helen Cristina; Giacomini, Gabriela Xavier; Bersch, Patrícia; Paraginski, Gustavo Luiz; Hörner, Manfredo

    2016-12-01

    Alternative compounds to capture metal ions are triazenes 1-oxide since they are basic compounds O(N) with negative charge in the deprotonated form. The proximity of both coordination sites (O and N) enables these compounds to have good chelating ability and a tendency to stabilize in the formation of rings with soft and hard transition metal ions. The structure analysis by single crystal X-ray diffraction of compounds (1) and (2) demonstrate the formation of 3D supramolecular arrangements through ion-ion, ion-dipolo and dipolo-dipolo interactions. In one of them, there are [(H2O)2(CH3CH3SO)K2]2+ as linkers of polymerization and, in another complex, there are [(H2O)(CH3CH3SO)Ni(H2O)6]2+ as a linker of polymerization. These linkers act in the polymerization of the novel mononuclear complex [bis(1-methyl (p-carboxylatephenyl) triazenide 1-oxide) NiII] (3). The crystallography analysis of (1) and (2) showed distorted quadratic geometry for Ni (II), thus, there are two axial positions available in Ni (II) to be used in catalysis studies and as sensor or biosensor. In addition, this study shows the support of this novel mononuclear complex of Ni (II) (3) on protonated chitosan chains (4). The compounds (3) and (4) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis, infrared (IR) and energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), and by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC). The specificity of ligand 1-methyl (p-carboxyphenyl) triazene 1-oxide to capture potassium and nickel ions will be tested at different pH values, as well as the capacity of the triazenide 1-oxide of Ni (II) complex, supported on chitosan polymer, or not, to act as a catalyst for organic reactions and biomimetic organic reactions.

  3. Nitroxide radicals formed in situ as polymer chain growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolyakina, Elena V; Grishin, Dmitry F

    2009-01-01

    Published data on controlled synthesis of macromolecules using nitroxide radicals, formed in situ during polymerization, as polymer chain growth regulators are systematized and generalized. The attention is focused on the mechanism of polymer chain growth control during reversibly inhibited radical homopolymerization and the effect of structure of precursors and regulating additives on the polymerization kinetics of monomers of different nature and the molecular-mass characteristics of the polymers thus formed. The key methods for generation of nitroxide radicals directly during polymerization are considered. The prospects for development and practical use of these approaches for the synthesis of new polymeric materials are evaluated.

  4. Effect of H-bonding on order amplification in the growth of a supramolecular polymer in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzoni, M.; Baker, M.B.; Leenders, C.M.A.; Voets, I.K.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Palmans, A.R.A.; Meijer, E.W.; Pavan, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of knowledge on the roles of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity in proteins has resulted in the creation of rationally designed and functional peptidic structures, the roles of these forces on purely synthetic supramolecular architectures in water have proven difficult to

  5. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical properties. Therefore, a detailed understanding of such organisation processes is essential for the optimisation of the performance of these materials as applied in optoelectronic devices. In order to...

  6. A new configurational bias scheme for sampling supramolecular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gernier, Robin; Mognetti, Bortolo M., E-mail: bmognett@ulb.ac.be [Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Code Postal 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Curk, Tine [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Dubacheva, Galina V. [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Paseo Miramon 182, 20009 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Richter, Ralf P. [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Paseo Miramon 182, 20009 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Université Grenoble Alpes, DCM, 38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, DCM, 38000 Grenoble (France); Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-12-28

    We present a new simulation scheme which allows an efficient sampling of reconfigurable supramolecular structures made of polymeric constructs functionalized by reactive binding sites. The algorithm is based on the configurational bias scheme of Siepmann and Frenkel and is powered by the possibility of changing the topology of the supramolecular network by a non-local Monte Carlo algorithm. Such a plan is accomplished by a multi-scale modelling that merges coarse-grained simulations, describing the typical polymer conformations, with experimental results accounting for free energy terms involved in the reactions of the active sites. We test the new algorithm for a system of DNA coated colloids for which we compute the hybridisation free energy cost associated to the binding of tethered single stranded DNAs terminated by short sequences of complementary nucleotides. In order to demonstrate the versatility of our method, we also consider polymers functionalized by receptors that bind a surface decorated by ligands. In particular, we compute the density of states of adsorbed polymers as a function of the number of ligand–receptor complexes formed. Such a quantity can be used to study the conformational properties of adsorbed polymers useful when engineering adsorption with tailored properties. We successfully compare the results with the predictions of a mean field theory. We believe that the proposed method will be a useful tool to investigate supramolecular structures resulting from direct interactions between functionalized polymers for which efficient numerical methodologies of investigation are still lacking.

  7. Plastic scintillators based on polymers with eliminated excimer forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.u [Institute for Scintillating Materials NAN of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Yelyseev, D.A.; Titskaya, V.D.; Lebedev, V.N.; Zhmurin, P.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials NAN of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Ave, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-05-15

    Plastic scintillators (PS) were made based on benzyl methacrylate and methyl-methacrylate P(BzMA + MMA) copolymer in which the excimer forming rate is by two order lesser than that in polystyrene-based polymer matrix. Studying of these PS light yield demonstrates the importance of migration processes comparing to excimer formation. It is found that to obtain PS with high scintillation efficiency it is necessary to use the polymer base (matrix) in which excimer forming is eliminated but the migration process along the chromophores is maximally favored. To explain the accelerated energy transfer between phenyl chromophores it is proposed to use a mechanism of exchange of that virtual excitons that can propagate along a one-dimensional back-bone of polymer molecule. Clearing the details of mechanism of interaction between chromophores of polymer molecules which is responsible for accelerated radiationless energy transfer enable will determine in future the way of effective plastic scintillators designing.

  8. Diverse supramolecular structures formed by self‐assembling proteins of the B acillus subtilis spore coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuo; Wan, Qiang; Krajcikova, Daniela; Tang, Jilin; Tzokov, Svetomir B.; Barak, Imrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacterial spores (endospores), such as those of the pathogens C lostridium difficile and B acillus anthracis, are uniquely stable cell forms, highly resistant to harsh environmental insults. B acillus subtilis is the best studied spore‐former and we have used it to address the question of how the spore coat is assembled from multiple components to form a robust, protective superstructure. B . subtilis coat proteins (CotY, CotE, CotV and CotW) expressed in E scherichia coli can arrange intracellularly into highly stable macro‐structures through processes of self‐assembly. Using electron microscopy, we demonstrate the capacity of these proteins to generate ordered one‐dimensional fibres, two‐dimensional sheets and three‐dimensional stacks. In one case (CotY), the high degree of order favours strong, cooperative intracellular disulfide cross‐linking. Assemblies of this kind could form exquisitely adapted building blocks for higher‐order assembly across all spore‐formers. These physically robust arrayed units could also have novel applications in nano‐biotechnology processes. PMID:25872412

  9. The design and fabrication of supramolecular semiconductor nanowires formed by benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT)-conjugated peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Mohammad Aref; Usta, Hakan; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Bakan, Gokhan; Dikecoglu, F Begum; Edwards-Gayle, Charlotte; Hutchinson, Jessica A; Hamley, Ian W; Dana, Aykutlu; Guler, Mustafa O

    2018-05-18

    π-Conjugated small molecules based on a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) unit are of great research interest in the development of solution-processable semiconducting materials owing to their excellent charge-transport characteristics. However, the BTBT π-core has yet to be demonstrated in the form of electro-active one-dimensional (1D) nanowires that are self-assembled in aqueous media for potential use in bioelectronics and tissue engineering. Here we report the design, synthesis, and self-assembly of benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT)-peptide conjugates, the BTBT-peptide (BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am) and the C8-BTBT-peptide (C8-BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am), as β-sheet forming amphiphilic molecules, which self-assemble into highly uniform nanofibers in water with diameters of 11-13(±1) nm and micron-size lengths. Spectroscopic characterization studies demonstrate the J-type π-π interactions among the BTBT molecules within the hydrophobic core of the self-assembled nanofibers yielding an electrical conductivity as high as 6.0 × 10-6 S cm-1. The BTBT π-core is demonstrated, for the first time, in the formation of self-assembled peptide 1D nanostructures in aqueous media for potential use in tissue engineering, bioelectronics and (opto)electronics. The conductivity achieved here is one of the highest reported to date in a non-doped state.

  10. Black-to-Transmissive Electrochromism with Visible-to-Near-Infrared Switching of a Co(II)-Based Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer for Smart Window and Digital Signage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Sato, Takashi; Moriyama, Satoshi; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2015-08-26

    Black-to-transmissive electrochromism has been obtained with a Co(II)-based metallo-supramolecular polymer (polyCo). Thin films of polyCo, based on bisterpyridine ligand assembled with Co(II) metal ion, were constructed by spray casting the polymer onto ITO glass. With such simple fabricating means to form good-quality films, polyCo films show stable switching at the central metal ion of the Co(II)/Co(I) redox reaction when immersed in aqueous solution. With an increase in the pH of the aqueous electrolyte solution from neutral, the film exhibits a color response due to the interaction between the d-orbital electron and hydroxide ions affecting the d-d* transition. As a result, a nearly transparent-to-black electrochromic performance can be achieved with a transmittance difference at 550 nm of 74.3% (81.9-7.6%) in pH 13 solution. The light absorption of the film can be tuned over light regions from visible to near-infrared with a large attenuation.

  11. A two-dimensional layered Cd(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Su, Ming-Yang; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2015-06-01

    The combination of N-heterocyclic and multicarboxylate ligands is a good choice for the construction of metal-organic frameworks. In the title coordination polymer, poly[bis{μ2-1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole-κ(2)N(3):N(4)}(μ4-butanedioato-κ(4)O(1):O(1'):O(4):O(4'))(μ2-butanedioato-κ(2)O(1):O(4))dicadmium], [Cd(C4H4O4)(C9H8N6)]n, each Cd(II) ion exhibits an irregular octahedral CdO4N2 coordination geometry and is coordinated by four O atoms from three carboxylate groups of three succinate (butanedioate) ligands and two N atoms from two 1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole (bimt) ligands. Cd(II) ions are connected by two kinds of crystallographically independent succinate ligands to generate a two-dimensional layered structure with bimt ligands located on each side of the layer. Adjacent layers are further connected by hydrogen bonding, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture in the solid state. Thermogravimetric analysis of the title polymer shows that it is stable up to 529 K and then loses weight from 529 to 918 K, corresponding to the decomposition of the bimt ligands and succinate groups. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  12. Hierarchical self-assembly, coassembly, and self-organization of novel liquid crystalline lattices and superlattices from a twin-tapered dendritic benzamide and its four-cylinder-bundle supramolecular polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Bera, Tushar K; Glodde, Martin; Fu, Qiongying; Balagurusamy, Venkatachalapathy S K; Heiney, Paul A

    2003-02-17

    The synthesis and structural analysis of the twin-dendritic benzamide 10, based on the first-generation, self-assembling, tapered dendrons 3,4,5-tris(4'-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid and 3,4,5-tris(4'-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)-1-aminobenzene, and the polymethacrylate, 20, which contains 10 as side groups, are presented. Benzamide 10 self-assembles into a supramolecular cylindrical dendrimer that self-organizes into a columnar hexagonal (Phi(h)) liquid crystalline (LC) phase. Polymer 20 self-assembles into an imperfect four-cylinder-bundle supramolecular dendrimer, and creates a giant vesicular supercylinder that self-organizes into a columnar nematic (N(c)) LC phase which displays short-range hexagonal order. In mixtures of 20 and 10, 10 acts as a guest and 20 as a host to create a perfect four-cylinder-bundle host-guest supramolecular dendrimer that coorganizes with 10. A diversity of Phi(h), simple rectangular columnar (Phi(r-s)) and centered rectangular columnar (Phi(r-c)), superlattices are produced at different ratios between 20 and 10. This diversity of LC lattices and superlattices is facilitated by the architecture of the twin-dendritic building block, polymethacrylate, the host-guest supramolecular assembly, and by hydrogen bonding along the center of the supramolecular cylinders generated from 10 and 20.

  13. Supramolecular tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed

  14. Supramolecular systems chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattia, Elio; Otto, Sijbren

    The field of supramolecular chemistry focuses on the non-covalent interactions between molecules that give rise to molecular recognition and self-assembly processes. Since most non-covalent interactions are relatively weak and form and break without significant activation barriers, many

  15. Structural and morphological changes in supramolecular-structured polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell on addition of phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrana, S.; Pryliana, R. F.; Natanael, C. L.; Rahayu, I.

    2018-03-01

    Phosphoric acid is one agents used in membrane fuel cell to modify ionic conductivity. Therefore, its distribution in membrane is a key parameter to gain expected conductivity. Efforts have been made to distribute phosphoric acid in a supramolecular-structured membrane prepared with a matrix. To achieve even distribution across bulk of the membrane, the inclusion of the polyacid is carried out under pressurized chamber. Image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows better phosphoric acid distribution for one prepared in pressurized state. It also leads in better performing in ionic conductivity. Moreover, data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicate that the addition of phosphoric acid is prominent in the change of membrane structure, while morphological changes are captured in SEM images.

  16. Solid-phase based synthesis of ureidopyrimidinone-peptide conjugates for supramolecular biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijter, de I.; Goor, O.J.G.M.; Hendrikse, S.I.S.; Comellas Aragones, M.; Sontjens, S.H.M.; Zaccaria, S.; Fransen, P.P.K.H.; Peeters, J.W.; Milroy, L.G.; Dankers, P.Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular polymers have shown to be powerful scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Supramolecular biomaterials functionalized with ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) moieties, which dimerize via quadruple hydrogen-bond formation, are eminently suitable for this purpose. The conjugation of the

  17. The effects of gamma radiation on polymer matrix waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Burnay, S.G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    A study has been made of the volume and weight changes, mechanical properties, and radiolytic gas production of polymer matrix waste forms during γ irradiation in open containers. The work has been commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme. The materials included polyester, vinyl ester, epoxide and polystyrene resins containing ion exchangers; and polyester and epoxide resins containing a PWR evaporator concentrate. (author)

  18. A new one-dimensional NiII coordination polymer with a two-dimensional supramolecular architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new one-dimensional NiII coordination polymer of 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene, namely catena-poly[[aqua(sulfato-κOhemi(μ-ethane-1,2-diol-κ2O:O′[μ3-1,3,5-tris(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene-κ3N3,N3′,N3′′]nickel(II] ethane-1,2-diol monosolvate monohydrate], {[Ni(SO4(C18H18N6(C2H6O20.5(H2O]·C2H6O2·H2O}n, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The NiII cation is coordinated by three N atoms of three different 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene ligands, one O atom of an ethane-1,2-diol molecule, by a sulfate anion and a water molecule, forming a distorted octahedral NiN3O3 coordination geometry. The tripodal 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene ligands link the NiII cations, generating metal–organic chains running along the [100] direction. Adjacent chains are further connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a two-dimensional supermolecular architecture running parallel to the (001 plane. Another water molecule and a second ethane-1,2-diol molecule are non-coordinating and are linked to the coordinating sulfate ions via O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Compliance of the Stokes-Einstein model and breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model for a urea-based supramolecular polymer of high viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świergiel, Jolanta; Bouteiller, Laurent; Jadżyn, Jan

    2014-11-14

    Impedance spectroscopy was used for the study of the static and dynamic behavior of the electrical conductivity of a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymer of high viscosity. The experimental data are discussed in the frame of the Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye models. It was found that the translational movement of the ions is due to normal Brownian diffusion, which was revealed by a fulfillment of Ohm's law by the electric current and a strictly exponential decay of the current after removing the electric stimulus. The dependence of the dc conductivity on the viscosity of the medium fulfills the Stokes-Einstein model quite well. An extension of the model, by including in it the conductivity relaxation time, is proposed in this paper. A breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model is revealed by the relations of the dipolar relaxation time to the viscosity and to the dc ionic conductivity. The importance of the C=O···H-N hydrogen bonds in that breakdown is discussed.

  20. Singlet fission in thin films of metallo-supramolecular polymers with ditopic thiophene-bridged terpyridine ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rais, David; Pfleger, Jiří; Menšík, Miroslav; Zhigunov, Alexander; Štenclová, P.; Svoboda, Jan; Vohlídal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 32 (2017), s. 8041-8051 ISSN 2050-7526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1143; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : triplet exciton * excimer * zinc Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  1. Construction of diverse supramolecular assemblies of dimetal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presence or absence of the lattice water molecules are the keys to forming the diverse supramolecular assem- blies. In 1 and 3, ... Supramolecular; hydrogen bonding; flexible ligand; dicarboxylates. 1. ... The reaction mixture was stirred for another 3 to 4 hours at room ..... Funding for this work was provided by IISER, Mohali.

  2. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Crosslinked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Controlling Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved or in different phases of clinical trials or under rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger the various components of the immune system, unintentionally, and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers to predict the effect of biotherapeutics on modulating the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, and were found recently to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse and experiments are usually conducted using different assays and under specific conditions, making direct comparisons nearly impossible and, thus, tailoring properties of nanomaterials based on the available data is challenging. In this account, the effects of chemical structure, crosslinking, degradability, morphology, concentration and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with focus being given on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized, uniquely, to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple and easy way to compare the immunotoxicity of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate-well with published data. Based on the investigated polymeric systems in this study, valuable information has been collected that aids in the

  3. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Cross-Linked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Control of Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L

    2015-06-16

    The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved, in different phases of clinical trials, or undergoing rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger various components of the immune system unintentionally and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers for predicting the effect of biotherapeutics on modulation of the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and they were recently found to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for the construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse, and experiments are usually conducted using different assays under specific conditions. As a result, making direct comparisons nearly impossible, and thus, tailoring the properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the available data is challenging. In this Account, the effects of chemical structure, cross-linking, degradability, morphology, concentration, and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with a focus on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized uniquely to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple way to compare the immunotoxicities of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate well with published data. On the basis of the polymeric systems investigated in this study, valuable information has been collected that

  4. Programming supramolecular biohybrids as precision therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David Yuen Wah; Wu, Yuzhou; Kuan, Seah Ling; Weil, Tanja

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Chemical programming of macromolecular structures to instill a set of defined chemical properties designed to behave in a sequential and precise manner is a characteristic vision for creating next generation nanomaterials. In this context, biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids provide an attractive platform for the integration of complex chemical design due to their sequence specificity and geometric definition, which allows accurate translation of chemical functionalities to biological activity. Coupled with the advent of amino acid specific modification techniques, "programmable" areas of a protein chain become exclusively available for any synthetic customization. We envision that chemically reprogrammed hybrid proteins will bridge the vital link to overcome the limitations of synthetic and biological materials, providing a unique strategy for tailoring precision therapeutics. In this Account, we present our work toward the chemical design of protein- derived hybrid polymers and their supramolecular responsiveness, while summarizing their impact and the advancement in biomedicine. Proteins, in their native form, represent the central framework of all biological processes and are an unrivaled class of macromolecular drugs with immense specificity. Nonetheless, the route of administration of protein therapeutics is often vastly different from Nature's biosynthesis. Therefore, it is imperative to chemically reprogram these biopolymers to direct their entry and activity toward the designated target. As a consequence of the innate structural regularity of proteins, we show that supramolecular interactions facilitated by stimulus responsive chemistry can be intricately designed as a powerful tool to customize their functions, stability, activity profiles, and transportation capabilities. From another perspective, a protein in its denatured, unfolded form serves as a monodispersed, biodegradable polymer scaffold decorated with functional side

  5. Resorbable fiber-forming polymers for biotextile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gajjar, Chirag R

    2014-01-01

    This book summarizes the properties and applications of conventional and commercially available fiber-forming, bioresorbable polymers, as well as those currently under study, for use as biotextiles. Factors affecting the performance of these biomaterials are presented, and precautionary measures to reduce premature, hydrolytic degradation during manufacturing and processing are discussed. Because of the structural requirements of medical devices and the technological advancements in synthetic fibers and textile technology, the new field of "Biotextiles" has evolved to exploit the potential of various woven, knitted, braided and non-woven textile structures for biomedical applications. Textile substrates provide certain unique mechanical properties to the medical device and because of an inherently high level of porosity, they can encourage cell growth and promote migration and proliferation. Bioresorbable devices that assist in the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues have in recent years replaced many ...

  6. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  7. Supramolecular biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webber, Matthew J.; Appel, Eric A.; Meijer, E. W.; Langer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Polymers, ceramics and metals have historically dominated the application of materials in medicine. Yet rationally designed materials that exploit specific, directional, tunable and reversible non-covalent interactions offer unprecedented advantages: they enable modular and generalizable platforms

  8. Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    supramolecular polymers and liquid crystals, and provide an original approach to nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, the spontaneous but controlled generation of well-defined, functional supramolecular architectures of nanometric size through self-organization represents a means of performing programmed engineering and processing of nanomaterials. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry, in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when a molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibly, so as to make possible a continuous change in constitution and structure by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. This behaviour defines a constitutional dynamic chemistry that allows self-organization by selection as well as by design at both the molecular and supramolecular levels. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization by selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation in a Darwinistic fashion. The merging of the features, information and programmability, dynamics and reversibility, constitution and structural diversity, points towards the emergence of adaptative and evolutionary chemistry. Together with the corresponding fields of physics and biology, it constitutes a science of informed matter, of organized, adaptative complex matter

  9. MLKL forms disulfide bond-dependent amyloid-like polymers to induce necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhen; Liu, Hua; Johnston, Andrea; Hanna-Addams, Sarah; Reynoso, Eduardo; Xiang, Yougui; Wang, Zhigao

    2017-09-05

    Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) is essential for TNF-α-induced necroptosis. How MLKL promotes cell death is still under debate. Here we report that MLKL forms SDS-resistant, disulfide bond-dependent polymers during necroptosis in both human and mouse cells. MLKL polymers are independent of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1/RIPK3) fibers. Large MLKL polymers are more than 2 million Da and are resistant to proteinase K digestion. MLKL polymers are fibers 5 nm in diameter under electron microscopy. Furthermore, the recombinant N-terminal domain of MLKL forms amyloid-like fibers and binds Congo red dye. MLKL mutants that cannot form polymers also fail to induce necroptosis efficiently. Finally, the compound necrosulfonamide conjugates cysteine 86 of human MLKL and blocks MLKL polymer formation and subsequent cell death. These results demonstrate that disulfide bond-dependent, amyloid-like MLKL polymers are necessary and sufficient to induce necroptosis.

  10. Fixation of tritium in a highly stable polymer form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Colombo, P.; Pruzansky, J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the fixation of tritium comprises reacting tritiated water with calcium carbide to produce calcium hydroxide and tritiated acetylene, polymerizing the acetylene, and then incorporating the polymer in a solidifying matrix. 2 claims

  11. Review of Synthetic Methods to Form Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Madeline T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Syntactic foams have grown in interest due to the widened range of applications because of their mechanical strength and high damage tolerance. In the past, hollow glass or ceramic particles were used to create the pores. This paper reviews literature focused on the controlled synthesis of hollow polymer spheres with diameters ranging from 100 –200 nm. By using hollow polymer spheres, syntactic foams could reach ultra-low densities.

  12. Synthesis and properties of the metallo-supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]·AgNO3: Ag+/Cu2+ ion exchange and effective antibacterial activity

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The commercial polymeric anhydride poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) is converted by reaction with NaOH to give poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate) (PVM/Na-MA). By addition of AgNO 3-solution, the formation of the silver(i) supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]·AgNO 3 is reported. Freeze-dried samples of the hydrogel show a mesoporous network of polycarboxylate ligands that are crosslinked by silver(i) cations. In the intact hydrogel, ion-exchange studies are reported and it is shown that Ag+ ions can be exchanged by copper(ii) cations without disintegration of the hydrogel. The silver(i) hydrogel shows effective antibacterial activity and potential application as burn wound dressing. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  13. A supramolecular ''Double-cable'' structure with a 129{sub 44} helix in a columnar porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad and its application in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Lung [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Hao-Jan; Van Horn, Ryan M.; Kulkarni, Rahul R.; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Gong, Xiong; Cheng, Stephen Z.D. [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Hsu, Chain-Shu [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lotz, Bernard [Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-11-15

    A novel porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad (PCD1) is designed and synthesized to investigate and manipulate the supramolecular structure where geometrically isotropic [such as [60]fullerene (C{sub 60})] and anisotropic [such as porphyrin (Por)] units coexist. It is observed that PCD1 possesses an enantiomeric phase behavior. The melting temperature of the stable PCD1 thermotropic phase is 160 C with a latent heat ({Delta}H) of 18.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. The phase formation is majorly driven by the cooperative intermolecular Por-Por and C{sub 60}-C{sub 60} interactions. Structural analysis reveals that this stable phase possesses a supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure with one p-type Por core columnar channel and three helical n-type C{sub 60} peripheral channels. These ''double-cable'' columns further pack into a hexagonal lattice with a = b = 4.65 nm, c = 41.3 nm, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 , and {gamma} = 120 . The column repeat unit is determined to possess a 129{sub 44} helix. With both donor (D; Pro) and acceptor (A; C{sub 60}) units having their own connecting channels as well as the large D/A interface within the supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure, PCD1 has photogenerated carriers with longer lifetimes compared to the conventional electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. A phase-separated columnar morphology is observed in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) material made by the physical blend of a low band-gap conjugated polymer, poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothia-diazole)] (PCPDTBT), and PCD1. With a specific phase structure in the solid state and in the blend, PCD1 is shown to be a promising candidate as a new electron acceptor in high performance BHJ polymer solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Method of forming electronically conducting polymers on conducting and nonconducting substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Clarke, Eric T. (Inventor); Miller, David L. (Inventor); Parker, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides electronically conducting polymer films formed from photosensitive formulations of pyrrole and an electron acceptor that have been selectively exposed to UV light, laser light, or electron beams. The formulations may include photoinitiators, flexibilizers, solvents and the like. These solutions can be used in applications including printed circuit boards and through-hole plating and enable direct metallization processes on non-conducting substrates. After forming the conductive polymer patterns, a printed wiring board can be formed by sensitizing the polymer with palladium and electrolytically depositing copper.

  15. Local dynamics and deformation of glass-forming polymers : modelling and atomistic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorselaars, B.

    2008-01-01

    The research described in the present thesis is about glassy phenomena and mechanical properties in vitrifiable polymer materials. Glasses are solid materials, but, in contrast to crystals, the structure is disordered. Polymers are macromolecular chains formed by covalently linking a very large

  16. Minimalistic peptide supramolecular co-assembly: expanding the conformational space for nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makam, Pandeeswar; Gazit, Ehud

    2018-05-21

    Molecular self-assembly is a ubiquitous process in nature and central to bottom-up nanotechnology. In particular, the organization of peptide building blocks into ordered supramolecular structures has gained much interest due to the unique properties of the products, including biocompatibility, chemical and structural diversity, robustness and ease of large-scale synthesis. In addition, peptides, as short as dipeptides, contain all the molecular information needed to spontaneously form well-ordered structures at both the nano- and the micro-scale. Therefore, peptide supramolecular assembly has been effectively utilized to produce novel materials with tailored properties for various applications in the fields of material science, engineering, medicine, and biology. To further expand the conformational space of peptide assemblies in terms of structural and functional complexity, multicomponent (two or more) peptide supramolecular co-assembly has recently evolved as a promising extended approach, similar to the structural diversity of natural sequence-defined biopolymers (proteins) as well as of synthetic covalent co-polymers. The use of this methodology was recently demonstrated in various applications, such as nanostructure physical dimension control, the creation of non-canonical complex topologies, mechanical strength modulation, the design of light harvesting soft materials, fabrication of electrically conducting devices, induced fluorescence, enzymatic catalysis and tissue engineering. In light of these significant advancements in the field of peptide supramolecular co-assembly in the last few years, in this tutorial review, we provide an updated overview and future prospects of this emerging subject.

  17. Recent aspects of self-oscillating polymeric materials: designing self-oscillating polymers coupled with supramolecular chemistry and ionic liquid science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo

    2014-06-14

    Herein, we summarise the recent developments in self-oscillating polymeric materials based on the concepts of supramolecular chemistry, where aggregates of molecular building blocks with non-covalent bonds evolve the temporal or spatiotemporal structure. By utilising the rhythmic oscillation of the association/dissociation of molecular aggregates coupled with the redox oscillation by the BZ reaction, novel soft materials that express similar functions as those of living matter will be achieved. Further, from the viewpoint of materials science, our recent approach to prepare self-oscillating materials that operate long-term under mild conditions will be introduced.

  18. Production in Pichia pastoris of complementary protein-based polymers with heterodimer-forming WW and PPxY domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeradzka, Natalia E; Werten, Marc W T; de Vries, Renko; de Wolf, Frits A

    2016-06-10

    Specific coupling of de novo designed recombinant protein polymers for the construction of precisely structured nanomaterials is of interest for applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutics and diagnostics. An attractive coupling strategy is to incorporate specifically interacting peptides into the genetic design of the protein polymers. An example of such interaction is the binding of particular proline-rich ligands by so-called WW-domains. In this study, we investigated whether these domains can be produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris as part of otherwise non-interacting protein polymers, and whether they bring about polymer coupling upon mixing. We constructed two variants of a highly hydrophilic protein-based polymer that differ only in their C-terminal extensions. One carries a C-terminal WW domain, and the other a C-terminal proline-rich ligand (PPxY). Both polymers were produced in P. pastoris with a purified protein yield of more than 2 g L(-1) of cell-free broth. The proline-rich module was found to be O-glycosylated, and uncommonly a large portion of the attached oligosaccharides was phosphorylated. Glycosylation was overcome by introducing a Ser → Ala mutation in the PPxY peptide. Tryptophan fluorescence monitored during titration of the polymer containing the WW domain with either the glycosylated or nonglycosylated PPxY-containing polymer revealed binding. The complementary polymers associated with a Kd of ~3 µM, regardless of glycosylation state of the PPxY domain. Binding was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry, with a Kd of ~9 µM. This article presents a blueprint for the production in P. pastoris of protein polymers that can be coupled using the noncovalent interaction between WW domains and proline-rich ligands. The availability of this highly specific coupling tool will hereafter allow us to construct various supramolecular structures and biomaterials.

  19. Supra-molecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the N(9)-H protonated and N(7)-H tautomeric form of an N(6) -benzoyl-adenine salt: N (6)-benzoyl-adeninium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Jeeva Jasmine, Nithianantham; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-02-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H10N5O(+)·NO3 (-), the adenine unit has an N (9)-protonated N(7)-H tautomeric form with non-protonated N(1) and N(3) atoms. The dihedral angle between the adenine ring system and the phenyl ring is 51.10 (10)°. The typical intra-molecular N(7)-H⋯O hydrogen bond with an S(7) graph-set motif is also present. The benzoyl-adeninium cations also form base pairs through N-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the Watson-Crick face of the adenine ring and the C and O atoms of the benzoyl ring of an adjacent cation, forming a supra-molecular ribbon with R 2 (2)(9) rings. Benzoyl-adeninum cations are also bridged by one of the oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion, which acts as a double acceptor, forming a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to generate a second ribbon motif. These ribbons together with π-π stacking inter-actions between the phenyl ring and the five- and six-membered adenine rings of adjacent mol-ecules generate a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  20. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment

  1. Selective hydrolysis of phosphate monoester by a supramolecular phosphatase formed by the self-assembly of a bis(Zn(2+)-cyclen) complex, cyanuric acid, and copper in an aqueous solution (cyclen = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkefeli, Mohd; Suzuki, Asami; Shiro, Motoo; Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Kimura, Eiichi; Aoki, Shin

    2011-10-17

    In Nature, organized nanoscale structures such as proteins and enzymes are formed in aqueous media via intermolecular interactions between multicomponents. Supramolecular and self-assembling strategies provide versatile methods for the construction of artificial chemical architectures for controlling reaction rates and the specificities of chemical reactions, but most are designed in hydrophobic environments. The preparation of artificial catalysts that have potential in aqueous media mimicking natural enzymes such as hydrolases remains a great challenge in the fields of supramolecular chemistry. Herein, we describe that a dimeric Zn(2+) complex having a 2,2'-bipyridyl linker, cyanuric acid, and a Cu(2+) ion automatically assembles in an aqueous solution to form a 4:4:4 complex, which is stabilized by metal-ligand coordination bonds, π-π-stacking interactions, and hydrogen bonding and contains μ-Cu(2)(OH)(2) cores analogous to the catalytic centers of phosphatase, a dinuclear metalloenzyme. The 4:4:4 complex selectively accelerates the hydrolysis of a phosphate monoester, mono(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate, at neutral pH.

  2. The role of supramolecular chemistry in stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured functional organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Debije, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this review, we show the important role of supramolecular chemistry in the fabrication of stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured liquid crystalline polymer networks. Supramolecular interactions can be used to create three dimensional order or as molecular triggers in materials

  3. Supramolecular Photodimerization of Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Tanaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselective photodimerization of coumarin and its derivatives in supra-molecular systems is reviewed. The enantioselective photodimerization of coumarin and thiocoumarin in inclusion crystals with optically active host compounds is also described.

  4. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  5. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  6. Polymer complexes.. XXXX. Supramolecular assembly on coordination models of mixed-valence-ligand poly[1-acrylamido-2-(2-pyridyl)ethane] complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Diab, M. A.

    2003-02-01

    The build-up of polymer metallic supramolecules based on homopolymer (1-acrylamido-2-(2-pyridyl)ethane (AEPH)) and ruthenium, rhodium, palladium as well as platinum complexes has been pursued with great interest. The homopolymer shows three types of coordination behaviour. In the mixed valence paramagnetic trinuclear polymer complexes [( 11)+( 12)] in the paper and in mononuclear polymer complexes ( 1)-( 5) it acts as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinating through the N-pyridine and NH-imino atoms, while in the mixed ligand diamagnetic poly-chelates, which are obtained from the reaction of AEPH with PdX 2 and KPtCl 4 in the presence of N-heterocyclic base consisting of polymer complexes ( 9)+( 10), and in monouclear compounds ( 6)-( 8), it behaves as a monobasic bidentate ligand coordinating through the same donor atoms. In mononuclear compounds ( 13)+( 14) it acts as a monobasic and neutral bidentate ligand coordinating only through the same donor atoms. Monomeric distorted octahedral or trimeric chlorine-bridged, approximately octahedral structures are proposed for these polymer complexes. The poly-chelates are of 1:1, 1:2 and 3:2 (metal-homopolymer) stoichiometry and exhibit six coordination. The values of ligand field parameters were calculated. The homopolymer and their polymer complexes have been characterized physicochemically.

  7. A new supramolecular route for using Rod-Coil block copolymers in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sary, Nicolas [Department of Physics and FRIMAT Center for Nanomaterials, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Richard, Fanny; Brochon, Cyril; Leclerc, Nicolas; Hadziioannou, Georges [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Polymeres pour les Hautes Technologies Universite de Strasbourg, Ecole Europeenne de Chimie Polymeres et Materiaux (France); Leveque, Patrick; Heiser, Thomas [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Strasbourg (France); Audinot, Jean-Nicolas [Science and Analysis of Materials Department Public Research Centre Gabriel Lippmann, Belvaux (Luxembourg); Berson, Solenn [Laboratoire des Composants Solaires, Institut de l' Energie Solaire Commissariat a l' energie atomique, Le Bourget Du Lac (France); Mezzenga, Raffaele [Department of Physics and FRIMAT Center for Nanomaterials, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Nestle Research Center, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-09

    A new polymer blend formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene)-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P3HT- P4VP) block copolymers and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is reported. The P4VP and PCBM are mixed together by weak supramolecular interactions, and the resulting materials exhibit microphase separated morphologies of electron-donor and electron-acceptor rich domains. The properties of the blend, used in photovoltaic devices as active layers, are also discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Applications of Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients in Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debotton, Nir; Dahan, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, polymers have been extensively used as pharmaceutical excipients in drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical polymers evolved from being simply used as gelatin shells comprising capsule to offering great formulation advantages including enabling controlled/slow release and specific targeting of drugs to the site(s) of action (the "magic bullets" concept), hence hold a significant clinical promise. Oral administration of solid dosage forms (e.g., tablets and capsules) is the most common and convenient route of drug administration. When formulating challenging molecules into solid oral dosage forms, polymeric pharmaceutical excipients permit masking undesired physicochemical properties of drugs and consequently, altering their pharmacokinetic profiles to improve the therapeutic effect. As a result, the number of synthetic and natural polymers available commercially as pharmaceutical excipients has increased dramatically, offering potential solutions to various difficulties. For instance, the different polymers may allow increased solubility, swellability, viscosity, biodegradability, advanced coatings, pH dependency, mucodhesion, and inhibition of crystallization. The aim of this article is to provide a wide angle prospect of the different uses of pharmaceutical polymers in solid oral dosage forms. The various types of polymeric excipients are presented, and their distinctive role in oral drug delivery is emphasized. The comprehensive know-how provided in this article may allow scientists to use these polymeric excipients rationally, to fully exploit their different features and potential influence on drug delivery, with the overall aim of making better drug products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Application of the principle of supramolecular chemistry in the fields of radiochemistry and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xinghai; Chen Qingde; Gao Hongcheng

    2008-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry, one of the front fields in chemistry, is defined as 'chemistry beyond the molecule', bearing on the organized entities of higher complexity that result from the association of two or more chemical species held together by intermolecular forces. This article focuses on the application of the principle of supramolecular chemistry in the fields of radiochemistry and radiation chemistry. The following aspects are concerned: (1) the recent progress of supramolecular chemistry; (2) the application of the principle of supramolecular chemistry and the functions of supramolecular system, i.e., recognition, assembly and translocation, in the extraction of nuclides; (3) the application of microemulsion, ionic imprinted polymers, ionic liquids and cloud point extraction in the enrichment of nuclides; (4) the radiation effect of supramolecular systems. (authors)

  10. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Petkau - Milroy, K.; Brunsveld, L.

    2010-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic

  11. Supercooled dynamics of glass-forming liquids and polymers under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, C M [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Hensel-Bielowka, S [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Casalini, R [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States); Chemistry Department, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2005-06-01

    An intriguing problem in condensed matter physics is understanding the glass transition, in particular the dynamics in the equilibrium liquid close to vitrification. Recent advances have been made by using hydrostatic pressure as an experimental variable. These results are reviewed, with an emphasis in the insight provided into the mechanisms underlying the relaxation properties of glass-forming liquids and polymers.

  12. Cationic polymers in water treatment: Part 2: Filterability of CPE-formed suspension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, P.; Mutl, Silvestr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2002), s. 83-88 ISSN 0378-4738 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : cationic polymers * water treatment * filterability of CPE-formed suspension Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.481, year: 2002

  13. Supramolecular polymeric materials via cyclodextrin-guest interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Akira; Takashima, Yoshinori; Nakahata, Masaki

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Cyclodextrins (CDs) have many attractive functions, including molecular recognition, hydrolysis, catalysis, and polymerization. One of the most important uses of CDs is for the molecular recognition of hydrophobic organic guest molecules in aqueous solutions. CDs are desirable host molecules because they are environmentally benign and offer diverse functions. This Account demonstrates some of the great advances in the development of supramolecular materials through host-guest interactions within the last 10 years. In 1990, we developed topological supramolecular complexes with CDs, polyrotaxane, and CD tubes, and these preparation methods take advantage of self-organization between the CDs and the polymers. The combination of polyrotaxane with αCD forms a hydrogel through the interaction of αCDs with the OH groups on poly(ethylene glycol). We categorized these polyrotaxane chemistries within main chain type complexes. At the same time, we studied the interactions of side chain type supramolecular complexes with CDs. In these systems the guest molecules modified the polymers and selectively formed inclusion complexes with CDs. The systems that used low molecular weight compounds did not show such selectivity with CDs. The multivalency available within the complex cooperatively enhances the selective binding of CD with guest molecules via the polymer side chains, a phenomenon that is analogous to binding patterns observed in antigen-antibody complexes. To incorporate the molecular recognition properties of CDs within the polymer side chains, we first prepared stimuli-responsive sol-gel switching materials through host-guest interactions. We chose azobenzene derivatives for their response to light and ferrocene derivatives for their response to redox conditions. The supramolecular materials were both redox-responsive and self-healing, and these properties resulted from host-guest interactions. These sol-gels with built in switches gave us insight for

  14. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  15. Light-controlled supramolecular helicity of a liquid crystalline phase using a helical polymer functionalized with a single chiroptical molecular switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, Dirk; Jongejan, Mahthild G. M.; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Control over the preferred helical sense of a poly(n-hexyl isocyanate) (PHIC) by using a single light-driven molecular motor, covalently attached at the polymer's terminus, has been accomplished in solution via a combination of photochemical and thermal isomerizations. Here, we report that after

  16. All-fiber maskless lithographic technology to form microcircular interference pattern on Azo polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junki; Jung, Yongmin; Oh, Kyunghwan; Chun, Chaemin; Hong, Jeachul; Kim, Dongyu

    2005-03-01

    We report a novel all-fiber, maskless lithograpic technology to form various concentric grating patterns for micro zone plate on azo polymer film. The proposed technology is based on the interference pattern out of the cleaved end of a coreless silica fiber (CSF)-single mode fiber (SMF) composite. The light guided along SMF expands into the CSF segment to generate various circular interference patterns depending on the length of CSF. Interference patterns are experimentally observed when the CSF length is over a certain length and the finer spacing between the concentric rings are obtained for a longer CSF. By using beam propagation method (BPM) package, we could further investigated the concentric interference patterns in terms of intensity distribution and fringe spacing as a function of CSF length. These intereference patterns are directly projected over azo polymer film and their intensity distrubution formed surface relief grating (SRG) patterns. Compared to photoresist films azo polymer layers produce surface relief grating (SRG), where the actual mass of layer is modulated rather than refractive index. The geometric parameters of the CSF length as well as diameter and the spacing between the cleaved end of a CSF and azo polymer film, were found to play a major role to generate various concentric structures. With the demonstration of the circular SRG patterns, we confirmed that the proposed technique do have an ample potential to fabricate micro fresnel zone plate, that could find applications in lens arrays for optical beam formings as well as compact photonic devices.

  17. Supramolecular polyaniline hydrogel as a support for urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Słoniewska, Anna; Pałys, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels of conducting polymers are successfully used in bioelectrochemistry because of their mechanical and swelling properties of gels added to the specific electron transport properties of conducting polymers. We have studied polyaniline-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PANI–PSS) hydrogel as a substrate for the urease. The hydrogels were synthesized at pH = 0 and pH = 5. PANI–PSS hydrogel is a supramolecular self-assembly material consisting of positively-charged PANI chains and negatively-charged PSS chains. The hydrogel was studied by cyclic voltammetry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Raman spectra revealed presence of phenazine rings in the hydrogel structure. Phenazine rings form covalent cross-linkers contributing to the hydrogel mechanical stability. The covalent cross-linkers influence the cyclic voltammetry responses of the hydrogel in acidic media. We tested the activity of urease immobilized in the PANI–PSS hydrogel by the physical adsorption or by the covalent bonding with the carbodiimide reaction. The enzyme immobilized in hydrogels prepared at higher pH value reveals significantly higher sensitivity. The method of the enzyme immobilization has smaller impact on the sensitivity. All hydrogel sensors reveal largely higher sensitivity to urea comparing to urease immobilized in the typical electrochemically deposited PANI films. The sensitivity of urease covalently bond to the hydrogel obtained at pH = 5 was as high as 1693 μA/(mol dm 3 ). The sensor response was linear in the urea concentration range from 10 −4 to 7 × 10 −2 mol/dm 3

  18. Magnetism: a supramolecular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decurtins, S.; Pellaux, R.; Schmalle, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    The field of molecule-based magnetism has developed tremendously in the last few years. Two different extended molecular - hence supramolecular -systems are presented. The Prussian-blue analogues show some of the highest magnetic ordering temperature of any class of molecular magnets, T c = 315 K, whereas the class of transition-metal oxalate-bridged compounds exhibits a diversity of magnetic phenomena. Especially for the latter compounds, the elastic neutron scattering technique has successfully been proven to trace the magnetic structure of these supramolecular and chiral compounds. (author) 18 figs., 25 refs

  19. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  20. Magnetism: a supramolecular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S; Pellaux, R; Schmalle, H W [Zurich Univ., Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The field of molecule-based magnetism has developed tremendously in the last few years. Two different extended molecular - hence supramolecular -systems are presented. The Prussian-blue analogues show some of the highest magnetic ordering temperature of any class of molecular magnets, T{sub c} = 315 K, whereas the class of transition-metal oxalate-bridged compounds exhibits a diversity of magnetic phenomena. Especially for the latter compounds, the elastic neutron scattering technique has successfully been proven to trace the magnetic structure of these supramolecular and chiral compounds. (author) 18 figs., 25 refs.

  1. Effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin polymer on release of drugs from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yotaro; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) polymer on in vitro release of two drugs with different lipophilicities (i.e., lidocaine and ketoprofen) from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms. When beta-CyD polymer was added to hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA) film dosage forms, the release of lidocaine into artificial saliva (pH 5.7) was reduced by 40% of the control. In contrast, the release of ketoprofen from the polymer film was enhanced by addition of beta-CyD polymer to the vehicle. When lidocaine and ketoprofen was incubated with beta-CyD polymer in the artificial saliva, concentration of free lidocaine molecules decreased in a beta-CyD polymer concentration-dependent manner. The association constant with beta-CyD polymer was 6.9+/-0.6 and 520+/-90 M(-1) for lidocaine and ketoprofen, respectively. Retarded release of the hydrophilic lidocaine by beta-CyD polymer might be due to the decrease in thermodynamic activity by inclusion complex formation, whereas enhanced release of the lipophilic ketoprofen by the beta-CyD polymer might be due to prevention of recrystallization occurring after contacting the film with aqueous solution. Thus, effects of low-molecular-weight beta-CyD polymer to the drug release rate from film dosage forms would vary according to the strength of interaction with and the solubility of active ingredient.

  2. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  3. A two-dimensional bilayered Cd(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethene and 2,2'-(diazenediyl)dibenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei-Lei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Ping; Tian, Jiang-Ya

    2014-02-01

    In poly[[μ2-1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethene-κ(2)N:N'][μ2-2,2'-(diazenediyl)dibenzoato-κ(3)O,O':O'']cadmium(II)], [Cd(C14H8N2O4)(C12H10N2)]n, the asymmetric unit contains one Cd(II) cation, one 2,2'-(diazenediyl)dibenzoate anion (denoted L(2-)) and one 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethene ligand (denoted bpe). Each Cd(II) centre is six-coordinated by four O atoms of bridging/chelating carboxylate groups from three L(2-) ligands and by two N atoms from two bpe ligands, forming a distorted octahedron. The Cd(II) cations are bridged by L(2-) and bpe ligands to give a two-dimensional (4,4) layer. The layers are interlinked through bridging carboxylate O atoms from L(2-) ligands, generating a two-dimensional bilayered structure with a 3(6)4(13)6(2) topology. The bilayered structures are further extended to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture via a combination of hydrogen-bonding and aromatic stacking interactions.

  4. Design of Molecular Materials: Supramolecular Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacques; Bassoul, Pierre

    2001-02-01

    This timely and fascinating book is destined to be recognised as THE book on supramolecular engineering protocols. It covers this sometimes difficult subject in an approachable form, gathering together information from many sources. Supramolecular chemistry, which links organic chemistry to materials science, is one of the fastest growth areas of chemistry research. This book creates a correlation between the structure of single molecules and the physical and chemical properties of the resulting materials. By making systematic changes to the component molecules, the resulting solid can be engineered for optimum performance. There is a clearly written development from synthesis of designer molecules to properties of solids and further on to devices and complex materials systems, providing guidelines for mastering the organisation of these systems. Topics covered include: Systemic chemistry Molecular assemblies Notions of symmetry Supramolecular engineering Principe de Curie Organisation in molecular media Molecular semiconductors Industrial applications of molecular materials This superb book will be invaluable to researchers in the field of supramolecular materials and also to students and teachers of the subject.

  5. Different Supramolecular Coordination Polymers of [N,N'-di(pyrazin-2-yl-pyridine-2,6-diamine]Ni(II with Anions and Solvent Molecules as a Result of Hydrogen Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ta Wang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ni(II complexes of N,N'–di(pyrazin–2–ylpyridine–2,6–diamine (H2dpzpda with different anions were synthesized and their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. Hydrogen bonds between the amino groups and anions assembled the mononuclear molecules into different architectures. The perchlorate complex had a 1-D chain structure, whereas switching the anion from perchlorate to nitrate resulted in a corresponding change of the supramolecular structure from 1-D to 3-D. When the nitrate complex packed with the co-crystallized water, a double chain structure was formed through hydrogen bonding. The magnetic studies revealed values of g = 2.14 and D = 3.11 cm-1 for [Ni(H2dpzpda2](ClO42 (1 and g = 2.18 and D = 2.19 cm-1 for [Ni(H2dpzpda2](NO32 (2, respectively.

  6. Mechanically Strong Aerogels Formed by Templated Growth of Polymer Cross- Linkers on Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Johnston, Chris; Meador, Maryann

    2004-01-01

    In the search for materials with better mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, it is becoming evident that oftentimes dispersing ceramic nanoparticles in plastics improves performance. Along these lines, chemical bonding (both covalent and noncovalent) between a filler and a polymer improves their compatibility, and thus enhances certain properties of the polymeric matrix above and beyond what is accomplished by simple doping with the filler. When a similarly sized dopant and matrix are used, elementary building blocks may also have certain distinct advantages (e.g., in catalysis). In this context, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center reasoned that in the extreme case, where the dopant and the matrix (e.g., a filler and a polymer) are not only sized similarly, but their relative amounts are comparable, the relative roles of the dopant and matrix can be reversed. Then, if the "filler," or a certain form thereof, possesses desirable properties of its own, such properties could be magnified by cross-linking with a polymer. We at Glenn have identified silica as such a filler in its lowest-density form, namely the silica aerogel.

  7. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  8. Numerical studies of the polymer melt flow in the extruder screw channel and the forming tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, S. V.; Trufanova, N. M.

    2017-06-01

    To date, polymer compositions based on polyethylene or PVC is widely used as insulating materials. These materials processing conjugate with a number of problems during selection of the rational extrusion regimes. To minimize the time and cost when determining the technological regime uses mathematical modeling techniques. The paper discusses heat and mass transfer processes in the extruder screw channel, output adapter and the cable head. During the study were determined coefficients for three rheological models based on obtained viscosity vs. shear rate experimental data. Also a comparative analysis of this viscosimetric laws application possibility for studying polymer melt flow during its processing on the extrusion equipment was held. As a result of numerical study the temperature, viscosity and shear rate fields in the extruder screw channel and forming tool were obtained.

  9. Triboelectricity: macroscopic charge patterns formed by self-arraying ions on polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Ducati, Telma R D; Francisco, Kelly R; Clinckspoor, Karl J; Galembeck, Fernando; Galembeck, Sergio E

    2012-05-15

    Tribocharged polymers display macroscopically patterned positive and negative domains, verifying the fractal geometry of electrostatic mosaics previously detected by electric probe microscopy. Excess charge on contacting polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) follows the triboelectric series but with one caveat: net charge is the arithmetic sum of patterned positive and negative charges, as opposed to the usual assumption of uniform but opposite signal charging on each surface. Extraction with n-hexane preferentially removes positive charges from PTFE, while 1,1-difluoroethane and ethanol largely remove both positive and negative charges. Using suitable analytical techniques (electron energy-loss spectral imaging, infrared microspectrophotometry and carbonization/colorimetry) and theoretical calculations, the positive species were identified as hydrocarbocations and the negative species were identified as fluorocarbanions. A comprehensive model is presented for PTFE tribocharging with PE: mechanochemical chain homolytic rupture is followed by electron transfer from hydrocarbon free radicals to the more electronegative fluorocarbon radicals. Polymer ions self-assemble according to Flory-Huggins theory, thus forming the experimentally observed macroscopic patterns. These results show that tribocharging can only be understood by considering the complex chemical events triggered by mechanical action, coupled to well-established physicochemical concepts. Patterned polymers can be cut and mounted to make macroscopic electrets and multipoles.

  10. Linear Viscoelastic and Dielectric Relaxation Response of Unentangled UPy-Based Supramolecular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Cerveny, Silvina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular polymers possess versatile mechanical properties and a unique ability to respond to external stimuli. Understanding the rich dynamics of such associative polymers is essential for tailoring user-defined properties in many products. Linear copolymers of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA)...

  11. Intelligent Chiral Sensing Based on Supramolecular and Interfacial Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Izawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the known intelligently-operating systems, the majority can undoubtedly be classed as being of biological origin. One of the notable differences between biological and artificial systems is the important fact that biological materials consist mostly of chiral molecules. While most biochemical processes routinely discriminate chiral molecules, differentiation between chiral molecules in artificial systems is currently one of the challenging subjects in the field of molecular recognition. Therefore, one of the important challenges for intelligent man-made sensors is to prepare a sensing system that can discriminate chiral molecules. Because intermolecular interactions and detection at surfaces are respectively parts of supramolecular chemistry and interfacial science, chiral sensing based on supramolecular and interfacial concepts is a significant topic. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in these fields, including supramolecular hosts for color detection on chiral sensing, indicator-displacement assays, kinetic resolution in supramolecular reactions with analyses by mass spectrometry, use of chiral shape-defined polymers, such as dynamic helical polymers, molecular imprinting, thin films on surfaces of devices such as QCM, functional electrodes, FET, and SPR, the combined technique of magnetic resonance imaging and immunoassay, and chiral detection using scanning tunneling microscopy and cantilever technology. In addition, we will discuss novel concepts in recent research including the use of achiral reagents for chiral sensing with NMR, and mechanical control of chiral sensing. The importance of integration of chiral sensing systems with rapidly developing nanotechnology and nanomaterials is also emphasized.

  12. The btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] binding motif: a new versatile terdentate ligand for supramolecular and coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Joseph P; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2014-08-07

    Ligands containing the btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] motif have appeared with increasing regularity over the last decade. This class of ligands, formed in a one pot ‘click’ reaction, has been studied for various purposes, such as for generating d and f metal coordination complexes and supramolecular self-assemblies, and in the formation of dendritic and polymeric networks, etc. This review article introduces btp as a novel and highly versatile terdentate building block with huge potential in inorganic supramolecular chemistry. We will focus on the coordination chemistry of btp ligands with a wide range of metals, and how it compares with other classical pyridyl and polypyridyl based ligands, and then present a selection of applications including use in catalysis, enzyme inhibition, photochemistry, molecular logic and materials, e.g. polymers, dendrimers and gels. The photovoltaic potential of triazolium derivatives of btp and its interactions with anions will also be discussed.

  13. Single-Point Incremental Forming of Two Biocompatible Polymers: An Insight into Their Thermal and Structural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marcelo Lozano-Sánchez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheets of polycaprolactone (PCL and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE were fabricated and shaped by the Single-Point Incremental Forming process (SPIF. The performance of these biocompatible polymers in SPIF was assessed through the variation of four main parameters: the diameter of the forming tool, the spindle speed, the feed rate, and the step size based on a Box–Behnken design of experiments of four variables and three levels. The design of experiments allowed us to identify the parameters that most affect the forming of PCL and UHMWPE. The study was completed by means of a deep characterization of the thermal and structural properties of both polymers. These properties were correlated to the performance of the polymers observed in SPIF, and it was found that the polymer chains are oriented as a consequence of the SPIF processing. Moreover, by X-ray diffraction it was proved that polymer chains behave differently on each surface of the fabricated parts, since the chains on the surface in contact with the forming tool are oriented horizontally, while on the opposite surface they are oriented in the vertical direction. The unit cell of UHMWPE is distorted, passing from an orthorhombic cell to a monoclinic due to the slippage between crystallites. This slippage between crystallites was observed in both PCL and UHMWPE, and was identified as an alpha star thermal transition located in the rubbery region between the glass transition and the melting point of each polymer.

  14. Supramolecular architecture in a co-crystal of the N(7—H tautomeric form of N6-benzoyladenine with adipic acid (1/0.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Swinton Darious

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C12H9N5O·0.5C6H10O4, consists of one molecule of N6-benzoyladenine (BA and one half-molecule of adipic acid (AA, the other half being generated by inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the adenine and phenyl ring planes is 26.71 (7°. The N6-benzoyladenine molecule crystallizes in the N(7—H tautomeric form with three non-protonated N atoms. This tautomeric form is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl (C=O group and the N(7—H hydrogen atom on the Hoogsteen face of the purine ring, forming an S(7 ring motif. The two carboxyl groups of adipic acid interact with the Watson–Crick face of the BA molecules through O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 ring motif. The latter units are linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-5. A weak C—H...O hydrogen bond is also present, linking adipic acid molecules in neighbouring layers, enclosing R22(10 ring motifs and forming a three-dimensional structure. C=O...π and C—H...π interactions are also present in the structure.

  15. Supramolecular assembled three-dimensional graphene hybrids: Synthesis and applications in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Lubin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Wang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu (China); Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Zhen; Sun, Chunyu; Cai, Yin; Yang, Guang; Chen, Ming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu (China); Piao, Yuanzhe, E-mail: parkat9@snu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Diao, Guowang, E-mail: gwdiao@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Supramolecular assembled three-dimensdional graphene-based architectures were built by host-guest interactions of β-cyclodextrin polymers(β-CDPs) with adamantine end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) polymer linker (PEG-AD), exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performances of supercapacitor in terms of high specific capacitance, remarkable rate capability, and excellent cycling stability compared to pristine reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Supramolecular assembled three-Dimensional (3D) graphene was first fabricated by host-guest interactions of β-CDPs with PEG-AD linkers. • The incorporation of PEG-AD linker into rGO sheets can provide efficient 3D electron transfer pathways and ion diffusion channels. • The 3D self-assembled graphene exhibits high specific capacitance, remarkable rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. • This study shed new lights to design 3D self-assembled graphene materials and their urgent applications in energy storage. - Abstract: Graphene-based materials have received worldwide attention in the focus of forefront energy storage investigations. Currently, the design of novel three-dimensional (3D) graphene structures with high energy capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, and robust mechanical flexibility is still a great challenge. Herein, we have successfully demonstrated a novel approach to fabricate 3D assembled graphene through the supramolecular interactions of β-cyclodextrin polymers (β-CDP) with an adamantine end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) polymer linker (PEG-AD). The incorporation of PEG-AD linker into rGO sheets increased the interlayer spacing of rGO sheets to form 3D graphene materials, which can provide efficient 3D electron transfer pathways and ion diffusion channels, and facilitate the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The as-prepared 3D self-assembled graphene materials exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performances of supercapacitor in terms

  16. Supramolecular assembled three-dimensional graphene hybrids: Synthesis and applications in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Lubin; Zhang, Wang; Wu, Zhen; Sun, Chunyu; Cai, Yin; Yang, Guang; Chen, Ming; Piao, Yuanzhe; Diao, Guowang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Supramolecular assembled three-dimensdional graphene-based architectures were built by host-guest interactions of β-cyclodextrin polymers(β-CDPs) with adamantine end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) polymer linker (PEG-AD), exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performances of supercapacitor in terms of high specific capacitance, remarkable rate capability, and excellent cycling stability compared to pristine reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Supramolecular assembled three-Dimensional (3D) graphene was first fabricated by host-guest interactions of β-CDPs with PEG-AD linkers. • The incorporation of PEG-AD linker into rGO sheets can provide efficient 3D electron transfer pathways and ion diffusion channels. • The 3D self-assembled graphene exhibits high specific capacitance, remarkable rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. • This study shed new lights to design 3D self-assembled graphene materials and their urgent applications in energy storage. - Abstract: Graphene-based materials have received worldwide attention in the focus of forefront energy storage investigations. Currently, the design of novel three-dimensional (3D) graphene structures with high energy capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, and robust mechanical flexibility is still a great challenge. Herein, we have successfully demonstrated a novel approach to fabricate 3D assembled graphene through the supramolecular interactions of β-cyclodextrin polymers (β-CDP) with an adamantine end-capped poly(ethylene oxide) polymer linker (PEG-AD). The incorporation of PEG-AD linker into rGO sheets increased the interlayer spacing of rGO sheets to form 3D graphene materials, which can provide efficient 3D electron transfer pathways and ion diffusion channels, and facilitate the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The as-prepared 3D self-assembled graphene materials exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performances of supercapacitor in terms

  17. Uses of neutron scattering in supramolecular chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindoy, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A major thrust in recent chemical research has been the development of supramolecular chemistry 1 - broadly the chemistry of large multicomponent molecular assemblies in which the component structural units are held together by either covalent linkages or by a variety of weaker (non-covalent) interactions that include hydrogen bonding, dipole stacking, π-stacking, van der Waals q forces and favourable hydrophobic interactions. Much of the activity in the area has been motivated by the known behaviour of biological molecules (such as enzymes). Thus molecular assemblies are ubiquitous in natural systems but, with a limited number of exceptions, have only recently been the subject of increasing investigation by chemists. A feature of much of this recent work has been its focus on molecular design for achieving complementarity between single molecule hosts and guests. The use of single crystal neutron diffraction coupled with molecular modelling and a range of other techniques to investigate the nature of individual supramolecular systems will be discussed. By way of example, in one such study the supramolecular array formed by co-crystallisation of 1,2- diaminoethane and benzoic acid has been investigated; the system self-assembles into an unusual layered structure composed of two-dimensional hydrogen bonded networks sandwiched between layers of edge-to-face stacked aromatic systems. The number of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors is balanced in this structure

  18. Hybrid Polymer-Network Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Czarnecki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer-network gels built by both physical and covalent polymer crosslinking combine the advantages of both these crosslinking types: they exhibit high mechanical strength along with excellent fracture toughness and extensibility. If these materials are extensively deformed, their physical crosslinks can break such that strain energy is dissipated and irreversible fracturing is restricted to high strain only. This mechanism of energy dissipation is determined by the kinetics and thermodynamics of the physical crosslinking contribution. In this paper, we present a poly(ethylene glycol (PEG based material toolkit to control these contributions in a rational and custom fashion. We form well-defined covalent polymer-network gels with regularly distributed additional supramolecular mechanical fuse links, whose strength of connectivity can be tuned without affecting the primary polymer-network composition. This is possible because the supramolecular fuse links are based on terpyridine–metal complexation, such that the mere choice of the fuse-linking metal ion adjusts their kinetics and thermodynamics of complexation–decomplexation, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. We use oscillatory shear rheology to demonstrate this rational control and enhancement of the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. In addition, static light scattering reveals their highly regular and well-defined polymer-network structures. As a result of both, the present approach provides an easy and reliable concept for preparing hybrid polymer-network gels with rationally designed properties.

  19. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  20. Rationalising polymer selection for supersaturated film forming systems produced by an aerosol spray for the transdermal delivery of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A; Qi, S; Liu, F; Brown, M B; McAuley, W J

    2017-05-01

    Film forming systems offer a number of advantages for topical and transdermal drug delivery, in particular enabling production of a supersaturated state which can greatly improve drug absorption and bioavailability. However the suitability of individual film forming polymers to stabilise the supersaturated state and optimise delivery of drugs is not well understood. This study reports the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to measure the solubility of methylphenidate both as the free base and as the hydrochloride salt in two polymethacrylate copolymers, Eudragit RS (EuRS) and Eudragit E (EuE) and relates this to the ability of films formed using these polymers to deliver methylphenidate across a model membrane. EuRS provided greater methylphenidate delivery when the drug was formulated as the free base in comparison EuE because the lower solubility of the drug in EuRS provided a higher degree of drug saturation in the polymeric film. In contrast EuE provided greater delivery of methylphenidate hydrochloride as EuRS could not prevent its crystallisation from a supersaturated state. Methylphenidate flux across the membrane could be directly related to degree of saturation of the drug in the film formulation as estimated by the drug solubility in the individual polymers demonstrating the importance of drug solubility in the polymer included in film forming systems for topical/transdermal drug delivery. In addition DSC has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for determining the solubility of drugs in polymers used in film forming systems and the approaches outlined here are likely to be useful for predicting the suitability of polymers for particular drugs in film forming transdermal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Artificial muscle-like function from hierarchical supramolecular assembly of photoresponsive molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Leung, Franco King-Chi; Stuart, Marc C A; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; van der Giessen, Erik; Feringa, Ben L

    2018-02-01

    A striking feature of living systems is their ability to produce motility by amplification of collective molecular motion from the nanoscale up to macroscopic dimensions. Some of nature's protein motors, such as myosin in muscle tissue, consist of a hierarchical supramolecular assembly of very large proteins, in which mechanical stress induces a coordinated movement. However, artificial molecular muscles have often relied on covalent polymer-based actuators. Here, we describe the macroscopic contractile muscle-like motion of a supramolecular system (comprising 95% water) formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of a photoresponsive amphiphilic molecular motor. The molecular motor first assembles into nanofibres, which further assemble into aligned bundles that make up centimetre-long strings. Irradiation induces rotary motion of the molecular motors, and propagation and accumulation of this motion lead to contraction of the fibres towards the light source. This system supports large-amplitude motion, fast response, precise control over shape, as well as weight-lifting experiments in water and air.

  2. Artificial muscle-like function from hierarchical supramolecular assembly of photoresponsive molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Leung, Franco King-Chi; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; van der Giessen, Erik; Feringa, Ben L.

    2018-02-01

    A striking feature of living systems is their ability to produce motility by amplification of collective molecular motion from the nanoscale up to macroscopic dimensions. Some of nature's protein motors, such as myosin in muscle tissue, consist of a hierarchical supramolecular assembly of very large proteins, in which mechanical stress induces a coordinated movement. However, artificial molecular muscles have often relied on covalent polymer-based actuators. Here, we describe the macroscopic contractile muscle-like motion of a supramolecular system (comprising 95% water) formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of a photoresponsive amphiphilic molecular motor. The molecular motor first assembles into nanofibres, which further assemble into aligned bundles that make up centimetre-long strings. Irradiation induces rotary motion of the molecular motors, and propagation and accumulation of this motion lead to contraction of the fibres towards the light source. This system supports large-amplitude motion, fast response, precise control over shape, as well as weight-lifting experiments in water and air.

  3. Fabrication of supramolecular star-shaped amphiphilic copolymers for ROS-triggered drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Cai; Peng, Jinlei; Cong, Yong; Dai, Xianyin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Sijie; Zhang, Xianshuo; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Baoyan; Wei, Hua

    2018-03-15

    Star-shaped copolymers with branched structures can form unimolecular micelles with better stability than the micelles self-assembled from conventional linear copolymers. However, the synthesis of star-shaped copolymers with precisely controlled degree of branching (DB) suffers from complicated sequential polymerizations and multi-step purification procedures, as well as repeated optimizations of polymer compositions. The use of a supramolecular host-guest pair as the block junction would significantly simplify the preparation. Moreover, the star-shaped copolymer-based unimolecular micelle provides an elegant solution to the tradeoff between extracellular stability and intracellular high therapeutic efficacy if the association/dissociation of the supramolecular host-guest joint can be triggered by the biologically relevant stimuli. For this purpose, in this study, a panel of supramolecular star-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers with 9, 12, and 18 arms were designed and fabricated by host-guest complexations between the ring-opening polymerization (ROP)-synthesized star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with 3, 4, and 6 arms end-capped with ferrocene (Fc) (PCL-Fc) and the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)-produced 3-arm poly(oligo ethylene glycol) methacrylates (POEGMA) with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) of 24, 30, 47 initiated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (3Br-β-CD-POEGMA). The effect of DB and polymer composition on the self-assembled properties of the five star-shaped copolymers was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectrometery. Interestingly, the micelles self-assembled from 12-arm star-shaped copolymers exhibited greater stability than the 9- and 18-arm formulations. The potential of the resulting supramolecular star-shaped amphiphilic copolymers as drug carriers was evaluated by an in vitro drug release study, which confirmed the ROS-triggered accelerated drug

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Water Vapor Adsorption Properties of a Porous Supramolecular Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new complex, [Cu4(HL4(H2O14] (1, H3L·HCl = 5-((4-carboxypiperidin-1-ylmethylisophthalic acid hydrochloride, has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. The result of the X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complex crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c and three unique Cu(II atoms that are connected by partially deprotonated HL2− anion to form a cyclic structure. The rich hydrogen bonding and π-π non-covalent packing interactions extend cyclic units into a three-dimensional (3D supramolecular polymer. Moreover, the thermogravimetric (TG analysis and water vapor adsorption property of 1 were also discussed.

  5. Solubilization of Phenol Derivatives in Polymer Micelles Formed by Cationic Block Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of cationic block copolymers formed by polystyrene (PS and poly(ethyl-4-vinylpyridine (PS-b-PE4VP was studied in aqueous solution. Diblock copolymers of PS and poly(4-vinylpyridine were synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization using BuLi as initiator. Subsequently, the 4-vinylpyridine units were quaternized with ethyl bromide to obtain cationic PS-b-PE4VP block copolymers with different quaternization degree. The self-aggregation of cationic block copolymers was studied by fluorescence probing, whereas the morphology and size of polymer micelles were determined by transmission electronic microscopy. Results indicate that spherical micelles with sizes lower than 100 nm were formed, whereas their micropolarity decreases with increasing quaternization degree. The partition of phenols between the micellar and aqueous phase was studied by using the pseudo-phase model, and the results show that the partition coefficients increase with increasing length of the side alkyl chain and are larger for star micelles. These results are discussed in terms of three-region model.

  6. Collective dynamics of glass-forming polymers at intermediate length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenero, J.; Alvarez, F.; Arbe, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep understanding of the complex dynamics taking place in glass-forming systems could potentially be gained by exploiting the information provided by the collective response monitored by coherent neutron scattering. We have revisited the question of the characterization of the collective response of polyisobutylene at intermediate length scales observed by neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments. The model, generalized for sub-linear diffusion - as it is the case of glass-forming polymers - has been successfully applied by using the information on the total self-motions available from MD-simulations properly validated by direct comparison with experimental results. From the fits of the coherent NSE data, the collective time at Q → 0 has been extracted that agrees very well with compiled results from different experimental techniques directly accessing such relaxation time. We show that a unique temperature dependence governs both, the Q → 0 and Q → ∞ asymptotic characteristic times. The generalized model also gives account for the modulation of the apparent activation energy of the collective times with the static structure factor. It mainly results from changes of the short-range order at inter-molecular length scales

  7. Physicochemical characterization of in situ drug-polymer nanocomplex formed between zwitterionic drug and ionomeric material in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamanca, Constain H., E-mail: chsalamanca@icesi.edu.co [Pharmaceutical physical chemistry laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Natural Sciences, ICESI University, Cali (Colombia); Castillo, Duvan F.; Villada, Juan D. [Pharmaceutical physical chemistry laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Natural Sciences, ICESI University, Cali (Colombia); Rivera, Gustavo R. [SIT Biotech GmbH, BMZ 2 Otto-Hahn-Str. 15, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Biocompatible polymeric materials with the potential to form functional structures, in association with different therapeutic molecules, in physiological media, represent a great potential for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, here the formation of a nano-complex between a synthetic cationic polymer and model drug (ampicillin trihydrate) was studied. The formed complex was characterized by size and zeta potential measurements, using dynamic light scattering and capillary electrophoresis. Moreover, the chemical and thermodynamically stability of these complexes were studied. The ionomeric material, here referred as EuCl, was obtained by equimolar reaction between Eudragit E and HCl. The structural characterization was carried out by potentiometric titration, FTIR spectroscopy, and DSC. The effect of pH, time, polymer concentration and ampicillin/polymer molar ratio over the hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential were established. The results show that EuCl ionomer in aqueous media presents two different populations of nanoparticles; one of this tends to form flocculated aggregates in high pH and concentrations, by acquiring different conformations in solution by changing from a compact to an extended conformation. Moreover, the formation of an in situ interfacial polymer-drug complex was demonstrated, this could slightly reduce the hydrolytic degradation of the drug while affecting its solubility, mainly under acidic conditions. - Highlights: • The EuCl ionomer in aqueous media presents two different populations of nanoparticle, corresponding to proximally 15 nm and 150 nm. • The EuCl ionomer in aqueous media may form different structure depending on the pH and polymer concentration, which tends to form flocculated aggregates in high pH and concentrations. • The formation of an in situ interfacial polymer-drug complex was demonstrated, which could slightly reduce the hydrolytic degradation of the drug and affecting its solubility in

  8. The Long-Term Study of Some mechanical and Chemical Properties of Polymer Modified Cement Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatta, H.A.; Eskander, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is a new experimental trend to study the long-term durability of polymer/cement/borate waste forms in storage and disposal sites during the long period of time. The data obtained indicate that all the samples of polymer modified cement waste forms immersed in both distilled and ground water (for more than 2700 days) show a slight increase in the compressive strength values. The chemical stability of the immobilized borate waste forms in distilled and ground water was studied. The cumulative leach fraction in percentage, of Cs-137 isotope from the final solidified waste forms in case of using ground water was lower than that in distilled water for all samples used and the presence of polymer lowered the percent release of radioactive Cs-137 isotope in all samples studied . The leach coefficients (Lc) and the leach indices (Li) of radioactive cesium-137 isotope for cement borate and polymer modified cement waste forms were also calculated. It was found that the leach indices values greater than 6

  9. Two supramolecular complexes based on polyoxometalates and Co-EDTA units via covalent connection or non-covalent interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chunlin; Xiao, Hanxi [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule for Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Cai, Qing [Chemistry Department, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tang, Jianting; Cai, Tiejun [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule for Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Deng, Qian, E-mail: dengqian10502@163.com [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule for Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China)

    2016-11-15

    are linked by covalent or non-covalent interactions. • They are attributed to two representative models of supramolecule. • A rare multi-metal infinite supramolecular coordination polymer was formed. • They exhibit good catalytic activities for catalytic oxidation of methanol.

  10. Encoding complexity within supramolecular analogues of frustrated magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Andrew B.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Daisenberger, Dominik; Tucker, Matthew G.; Coudert, François-Xavier; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2016-05-01

    The solid phases of gold(I) and/or silver(I) cyanides are supramolecular assemblies of inorganic polymer chains in which the key structural degrees of freedom—namely, the relative vertical shifts of neighbouring chains—are mathematically equivalent to the phase angles of rotating planar (‘XY’) spins. Here, we show how the supramolecular interactions between chains can be tuned to mimic different magnetic interactions. In this way, the structures of gold(I) and/or silver(I) cyanides reflect the phase behaviour of triangular XY magnets. Complex magnetic states predicted for this family of magnets—including collective spin-vortices of relevance to data storage applications—are realized in the structural chemistry of these cyanide polymers. Our results demonstrate how chemically simple inorganic materials can behave as structural analogues of otherwise inaccessible ‘toy’ spin models and also how the theoretical understanding of those models allows control over collective (‘emergent’) phenomena in supramolecular systems.

  11. Size-controlled and redox-responsive supramolecular nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinhart-Mejia, R.; Kronig, G.A.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    Control over the assembly and disassembly of nanoparticles is pivotal for their use as drug delivery vehicles. Here, we aim to form supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) by combining advantages of the reversible assembly properties of SNPs using host–guest interactions and of a stimulus-responsive

  12. Thin Films Formed from Conjugated Polymers with Ionic, Water-Soluble Backbones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, Thomas P; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the morphologies of films of conjugated polymers in which the backbone (main chain) and pendant groups are varied between ionic/hydrophilic and aliphatic/hydrophobic. We observe that conjugated polymers in which the pendant groups and backbone are matched, either ionic-ionic or

  13. Supramolecular assembly/reassembly processes: molecular motors and dynamers operating at surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Among the many significant advances within the field of supramolecular chemistry over the past decades, the development of the so-called "dynamers" features a direct relevance to materials science. Defined as "combinatorial dynamic polymers", dynamers are constitutional dynamic systems and materials resulting from the application of the principles of supramolecular chemistry to polymer science. Like supramolecular materials in general, dynamers are reversible dynamic multifunctional architectures, capable of modifying their constitution by exchanging, recombining, incorporating components. They may exhibit a variety of novel properties and behave as adaptive materials. In this review we focus on the design of responsive switchable monolayers, i.e. monolayers capable to undergo significant changes in their physical or chemical properties as a result of external stimuli. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies provide direct evidence with a sub-nanometre resolution, on the formation and dynamic response of these self-assembled systems featuring controlled geometries and properties.

  14. Usefulness of radiatively obtained acrylamide polymers for production of drug forms with controlled release of the therapeutic component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosiniak, T.; Switek, W.

    1988-01-01

    Using 60 Co gamma radiation as a factor initiating polymerization and cross-linking of polymers, polyacrylamide matrices were formed with the following therapeutic agents: aspirin, amidopyrin, sodium salicylate. Gamma radiation doses ranged from 3.5 to 22.5 kGy, dose rate was 0.138 Gy x s -1 . Kinetics of the therapeutic agent release from the matrix polymers was determined by measurement of per cent of the drug release in the course of time and calculations of release rate constants. The preparations containing slowly released drugs were obtained. 12 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs. (author)

  15. Klucel™ EF and ELF polymers for immediate-release oral dosage forms prepared by melt extrusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.

  16. Terpyridine modified poly(vinyl chloride) : possibilities for supramolecular grafting and crosslinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was covalently modified with terpyridine supramolecular binding units in a two-step reaction. First, PVC was modified with aromatic thiols to introduce OH functionalities into the polymer backbone, which were subsequently reacted with an

  17. Photoluminescence Spectra of Self-Assembling Helical Supramolecular Assemblies: A Theoretical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Leon; Kersten, Sander P.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; van der Schoot, Paul; Bobbert, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The reversible assembly of helical supramolecular polymers of chiral molecular building blocks is known to be governed by the interplay between mass action and the competition between weakly and strongly bound states of these building blocks. The highly co-operative transition from free monomers at

  18. Small angle neutron scattering form polymer melts: structural investigation and phase behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertugrul, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) techniques have been used to study the structural properties and phase behavior of polymer melts. A model based on Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is proposed to predict the experimental data. By fitting the model to data we could be able to obtain radius of gyration (a measure of size of a polymer) and phase transition for the sample. (author)

  19. Supramolecular Allosteric Cofacial Porphyrin Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveri, Christopher G.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.; Nguyen, Son Binh T.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Pink, Maren

    2008-01-01

    Nature routinely uses cooperative interactions to regulate cellular activity. For years, chemists have designed synthetic systems that aim toward harnessing the reactivity common to natural biological systems. By learning how to control these interactions in situ, one begins to allow for the preparation of man-made biomimetic systems that can efficiently mimic the interactions found in Nature. To this end, we have designed a synthetic protocol for the preparation of flexible metal-directed supramolecular cofacial porphyrin complexes which are readily obtained in greater than 90% yield through the use of new hemilabile porphyrin ligands with bifunctional ether-phosphine or thioether-phosphine substituents at the 5 and 15 positions on the porphyrin ring. The resulting architectures contain two hemilabile ligand-metal domains (Rh I or Cu I sites) and two cofacially aligned porphyrins (Zn II sites), offering orthogonal functionalities and allowing these multimetallic complexes to exist in two states, 'condensed' or 'open'. Combining the ether-phosphine ligand with the appropriate Rh I or Cu I transition-metal precursors results in 'open' macrocyclic products. In contrast, reacting the thioether-phosphine ligand with RhI or CuI precursors yields condensed structures that can be converted into their 'open' macrocyclic forms via introduction of additional ancillary ligands. The change in cavity size that occurs allows these structures to function as allosteric catalysts for the acyl transfer reaction between X-pyridylcarbinol (where X = 2, 3, or 4) and 1-acetylimidazole. For 3- and 4-pyridylcarbinol, the 'open' macrocycle accelerates the acyl transfer reaction more than the condensed analogue and significantly more than the porphyrin monomer. In contrast, an allosteric effect was not observed for 2-pyridylcarbinol, which is expected to be a weaker binder and is unfavorably constrained inside the macrocyclic cavity.

  20. Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    supramolecular architectures, network structures, multi-component host–guest systems, cocrys- tals, and ... structures is illustrated by two important prototypes – the large unit cell of elusive saccharin hydrate ..... N––– H ··· π interaction is not seen in this view. (d) Infinite .... to atmospheric water vapor without color loss or.

  1. Progress in the Supramolecular Architecture-directed Synthesis of Perfect Ladder Polysiloxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C; C; Han

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Ladder polysiloxanes (LPSs) including organo-bridged ladder polyorganosiloxanes (R-OLPSs, R is side group) and ladder polyorganosilsesquioxanes (R-LPSQs) have intrigued polymer chemists for about 50 years due to their excellent resistance to all kinds of degradations. However, their synthesis has been a great challenge to polymer chemists. Here, we describe a new approach based on supramolecular concerted interactions as follows.2 Results2.1 Synthesis of Perfect R-OLPSsA series of real ...

  2. [Special impact of supramolecular chemistry on Chinese medicine theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fu-Yuan; Zhou, Yi-Qun; Deng, Kai-Wen; Deng, Jun-Lin; Shi, Ji-Lian; Liu, Wen-Long; Yang, Yan-Tao; Tang, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-04-01

    The paper aimed to elucidate the specific impact of supramolecular chemistry on the Chinese medicine theories (CMT) in their modernization, after had summarized up the research status of supramolecular chemistry and analyzed the possible supramolecular forms of Chinese medicine (CM), as well as considered the problems in modernization of CM theories. On comparison of the classical chemistry that delt with chemical bonds among atoms, the supramolecular chemistry was rather concerned with varietes of weak noncovalent bonds intermolecules, and reflected the macro-apparent chemical properties of each molecules, and was the most appropriate chemical theories to explain the CMT and microcosmic materials. The molecules in the human body and Chinese material medica (CMM) formed supramolecules by way of self-assembly, self-organization, self-recognition and self-replication, with themselves or with complexation, composition, chelation, inclusion, neutralization etc. Meridian and Zang-fu viscera in CMT might be a space channel structure continuously consisted of unique molecules cavity that was imprinted with the supramolecularly template inside and outside of cells, through which the molecules in CMM interacted with the meridian and Zang-fu viscera. When small molecules in human body imprinted with macromolecules in meridian and Zang-fu viscera, in other words, they migrated along within imprinting channels of meridian and Zang-fu viscera on behavior of "Qi chromatography" impulsed by the heart beat, finally showed up on macroscopic the anisotropy of tissue and organ, as described namely as visceral manifestation in Chinese medical science. When small molecules in CMM interacted with imprinting channel on meridian and Zang-fu viscera, the natural properties and efficacy regularities of CMM was reflected on macroscopic. Therefore, the special representation forms of basic CMT is based on the macroscopic expression of "Qi chromatography" abided by imprinting effect

  3. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  4. Thermoresponsive Interplay of Water Insoluble Poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazolines Composition and Supramolecular Host–Guest Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. de la Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of water insoluble poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline-ran-(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline] amphiphilic copolymers was synthesized and their solubility properties in the presence of different supramolecular host molecules were investigated. The resulting polymer-cavitand assemblies exhibited a thermoresponsive behavior that could be modulated by variation of the copolymer composition and length. Interestingly, the large number of hydrophobic nonyl units across the polymer chain induced the formation of kinetically-trapped nanoparticles in solution. These nanoparticles further agglomerate into larger aggregates at a temperature that is dependent on the polymer composition and the cavitand type and concentration. The present research expands the understanding on the supramolecular interactions between water insoluble copolymers and supramolecular host molecules.

  5. Star-shaped tetrathiafulvalene oligomers towards the construction of conducting supramolecular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The construction of redox-active supramolecular assemblies based on star-shaped and radially expanded tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) oligomers with divergent and extended conjugation is summarized. Star-shaped TTF oligomers easily self-aggregate with a nanophase separation to produce supramolecular structures, and their TTF units stack face-to-face to form columnar structures using the fastener effect. Based on redox-active self-organizing supramolecular structures, conducting nanoobjects are constructed by doping of TTF oligomers with oxidants after the formation of such nanostructures. Although radical cations derived from TTF oligomers strongly interact in solution to produce a mixed-valence dimer and π-dimer, it seems to be difficult to produce nanoobjects of radical cations different from those of neutral TTF oligomers. In some cases, however, radical cations form nanostructured fibers and rods by controlling the supramolecular assembly, oxidation states, and counter anions employed.

  6. Toward a versatile toolbox for cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular hydrogel networks through in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Soo Yun Tan, Cindy; Lan, Yang; Scherman, Oren A

    2017-09-15

    The success of exploiting cucurbit[ n ]uril (CB[ n ])-based molecular recognition in self-assembled systems has sparked a tremendous interest in polymer and materials chemistry. In this study, polymerization in the presence of host-guest complexes is applied as a modular synthetic approach toward a diverse set of CB[8]-based supramolecular hydrogels with desirable properties, such as mechanical strength, toughness, energy dissipation, self-healing, and shear-thinning. A range of vinyl monomers, including acrylamide-, acrylate-, and imidazolium-based hydrophilic monomers, could be easily incorporated as the polymer backbones, leading to a library of CB[8] hydrogel networks. This versatile strategy explores new horizons for the construction of supramolecular hydrogel networks and materials with emergent properties in wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors, and structural biomaterials. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017 , 55 , 3105-3109.

  7. The formation of dissipative structures in polymers as a model of synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanchich Oleg A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergetic is an interdisciplinary area and describes the emergence of various kinds of structures, using the representation of the natural sciences. In this paper we studied the conditions for the appearance of thermodynamically stable amorphous-crystalline supramolecular structures on the basis of practical importance for the production of heat-resistant high-strength polymer fibers semi-rigid systems. It is found that in the process of structure formation in the coagulation of the polymer from solutions having supramolecular structures area a definite geometric shape and dimensions. Pattern formation in such systems can simulate the processes studied synergy. This is occurring in the process of self-organization of dissipative structures, transitions from one structure to another. This most discussed matter of self-organization on the “optical” scale level, are observed spherulites have a “correct” form and certain geometric dimensions comparable to the wavelength of visible light. Previously, this polymer does not crystallize at all considered. It is shown that for the study of supramolecular structures are the most convenient and informative experimental approaches are polarization-optical methods, which are directly “tuned” to the optical anisotropy of the structure and morphology. The great advantage of these methods is also possible to study the kinetics of structure formation processes without interfering the system under study.

  8. Porphyrinic supramolecular daisy chains incorporating pillar[5]arene-viologen host-guest interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fathalla, Maher; Strutt, Nathan; Srinivasan, Sampath; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Hartlieb, Karel J.; Bakr, Osman; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-01-01

    A porphyrin functionalised with pillar[5]arene and a viologen at its 5- and 15-meso positions assembles in a head-to-tail manner, producing linear supramolecular daisy chains in dichloromethane. At high concentrations, it forms an organogel which has been investigated by electron microscopy and rheological measurements, paving the way for the preparation of other functional supramolecular assemblies which harness viologen"⊂" pillararene host-guest interactions.

  9. Porphyrinic supramolecular daisy chains incorporating pillar[5]arene-viologen host-guest interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fathalla, Maher

    2015-05-18

    A porphyrin functionalised with pillar[5]arene and a viologen at its 5- and 15-meso positions assembles in a head-to-tail manner, producing linear supramolecular daisy chains in dichloromethane. At high concentrations, it forms an organogel which has been investigated by electron microscopy and rheological measurements, paving the way for the preparation of other functional supramolecular assemblies which harness viologen"⊂" pillararene host-guest interactions.

  10. Failure prediction for the optimization of stretch forming aluminium-polymer laminate foils used for pharmaceutical packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Simon; Weygand, Sabine M.

    2018-05-01

    Axisymmetric stretch forming processes of aluminium-polymer laminate foils (e.g. consisting of PA-Al-PVC layers) are analyzed numerically by finite element modeling of the multi-layer material as well as experimentally in order to identify a suitable damage initiation criterion. A simple ductile fracture criterion is proposed to predict the forming limits. The corresponding material constants are determined from tensile tests and then applied in forming simulations with different punch geometries. A comparison between the simulations and the experimental results shows that the determined failure constants are not applicable. Therefore, one forming experiment was selected and in the corresponding simulation the failure constant was fitted to its measured maximum stretch. With this approach it is possible to predict the forming limit of the laminate foil with satisfying accuracy for different punch geometries.

  11. Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on Cyclodextrin and Poly(ethylene oxide: Syntheses, Structural Characterizations and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs have been extensively studied as drug delivery carriers through host–guest interactions. CD-based poly(pseudorotaxanes, which are composed of one or more CD rings threading on the polymer chain with or without bulky groups (or stoppers, have attracted great interest in the development of supramolecular biomaterials. Poly(ethylene oxide (PEO is a water-soluble, biocompatible polymer. Depending on the molecular weight, PEO can be used as a plasticizer or as a toughening agent. Moreover, the hydrogels of PEO are also extensively studied because of their outstanding characteristics in biological drug delivery systems. These biomaterials based on CD and PEO for controlled drug delivery have received increasing attention in recent years. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in supramolecular architectures, focusing on poly(pseudorotaxanes, vesicles and supramolecular hydrogels based on CDs and PEO for drug delivery. Particular focus will be devoted to the structures and properties of supramolecular copolymers based on these materials as well as their use for the design and synthesis of supramolecular hydrogels. Moreover, the various applications of drug delivery techniques such as drug absorption, controlled release and drug targeting based CD/PEO supramolecular complexes, are also discussed.

  12. Pad printing as a film forming technique for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-04-15

    Pad printing as a technique for preparing the active layer in polymer solar cells is presented. The technique employs a silicone rubber stamp to pick up the motif from a gravure plate and transfer it to the substrate. The strengths and limitations of pad printing are discussed and polymer solar cells prepared by pad printing are presented. Devices were prepared on indium tin oxide substrates but in principle the entire photovoltaic device comprising front and back electrodes, barrier layers and active layer could be printed with no need for vacuum steps. The device geometry comprises a spin coated transparent zinc oxide front electrode, a pad printed active layer based on a bulk heterojunction of the thermocleavable polymer poly(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)thiophene-co-thiopene) (P3MHOCT) and zinc oxide nanoparticles, spin coated PEDOT:PSS and finally a manually cast thermally cured silver paste back electrode. The P3MHOCT was converted to poly(3-carboxy-dithiophene) (P3CT) in situ by heating the film to 200 C for a brief period. The entire printing and device preparation was carried out in the ambient atmosphere and the devices obtained had a good stability in air during storage and operation. (author)

  13. A novel surface modification technique for forming porous polymer monoliths in poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey M; Smela, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    A new method of surface modification is described for enabling the in situ formation of homogenous porous polymer monoliths (PPMs) within poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channels that uses 365 nm UV illumination for polymerization. Porous polymer monolith formation in PDMS can be challenging because PDMS readily absorbs the monomers and solvents, changing the final monolith morphology, and because PDMS absorbs oxygen, which inhibits free-radical polymerization. The new approach is based on sequentially absorbing a non-hydrogen-abstracting photoinitiator and the monomers methyl methacrylate and ethylene diacrylate within the walls of the microchannel, and then polymerizing the surface treatment polymer within the PDMS, entangled with it but not covalently bound. Four different monolith compositions were tested, all of which yielded monoliths that were securely anchored and could withstand pressures exceeding the bonding strength of PDMS (40 psi) without dislodging. One was a recipe that was optimized to give a larger average pore size, required for low back pressure. This monolith was used to concentrate and subsequently mechanical lyse B lymphocytes.

  14. Topological dynamics in supramolecular rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Carlos-Andres; Björk, Jonas; Rao, Francesco; Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V

    2014-08-13

    Artificial molecular switches, rotors, and machines are set to establish design rules and applications beyond their biological counterparts. Herein we exemplify the role of noncovalent interactions and transient rearrangements in the complex behavior of supramolecular rotors caged in a 2D metal-organic coordination network. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and molecular dynamics modeling of a supramolecular rotor with respective rotation rates matching with 0.2 kcal mol(-1) (9 meV) precision, identify key steps in collective rotation events and reconfigurations. We notably reveal that stereoisomerization of the chiral trimeric units entails topological isomerization whereas rotation occurs in a topology conserving, two-step asynchronous process. In supramolecular constructs, distinct displacements of subunits occur inducing a markedly lower rotation barrier as compared to synchronous mechanisms of rigid rotors. Moreover, the chemical environment can be instructed to control the system dynamics. Our observations allow for a definition of mechanical cooperativity based on a significant reduction of free energy barriers in supramolecules compared to rigid molecules.

  15. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  16. Micelles Formed by Polypeptide Containing Polymers Synthesized Via N-Carboxy Anhydrides and Their Application for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Skoulas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of multifunctional polymeric materials for biological applications is mainly guided by the goal of achieving the encapsulation of pharmaceutical compounds through a self-assembly process to form nanoconstructs that control the biodistribution of the active compounds, and therefore minimize systemic side effects. Micelles are formed from amphiphilic polymers in a selective solvent. In biological applications, micelles are formed in water, and their cores are loaded with hydrophobic pharmaceutics, where they are solubilized and are usually delivered through the blood compartment. Even though a large number of polymeric materials that form nanocarrier delivery systems has been investigated, a surprisingly small subset of these technologies has demonstrated potentially curative preclinical results, and fewer have progressed towards commercialization. One of the most promising classes of polymeric materials for drug delivery applications is polypeptides, which combine the properties of the conventional polymers with the 3D structure of natural proteins, i.e., α-helices and β-sheets. In this article, the synthetic pathways followed to develop well-defined polymeric micelles based on polypeptides prepared through ring-opening polymerization (ROP of N-carboxy anhydrides are reviewed. Among these works, we focus on studies performed on micellar delivery systems to treat cancer. The review is limited to systems presented from 2000–2017.

  17. Supramolecular photochemistry of drugs in biomolecular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Sandra; Manet, Ilse

    2014-06-21

    In this tutorial review we illustrate how the interaction of photoactive drugs/potential drugs with proteins or DNA in supramolecular complexes can determine the course of the reactions initiated by the drug absorbed photons, evidencing the mechanistic differences with respect to the solution conditions. We focus on photoprocesses, independent of oxygen, that lead to chemical modification of the biomolecules, with formation of new covalent bonds or cleavage of existing bonds. Representative systems are mainly selected from the literature of the last decade. The photoreactivity of some aryl propionic acids, (fluoro)quinolones, furocoumarins, metal coordination complexes, quinine-like compounds, naphthaleneimides and pyrenyl-peptides with proteins or DNA is discussed. The use of light for biomolecule photomodification, historically relevant to biological photosensitization processes and some forms of photochemotherapy, is nowadays becoming more and more important in the development of innovative methods in nanomedicine and biotechnology.

  18. Control over Structure and Function of Peptide Amphiphile Supramolecular Assemblies through Molecular Design and Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantakitti, Faifan

    Supramolecular chemistry is a powerful tool to create a material of a defined structure with tunable properties. This strategy has led to catalytically active, bioactive, and environment-responsive materials, among others, that are valuable in applications ranging from sensor technology to energy and medicine. Supramolecular polymers formed by peptide amphiphiles (PAs) have been especially relevant in tissue regeneration due to their ability to form biocompatible structures and mimic many important signaling molecules in biology. These supramolecular polymers can form nanofibers that create networks which mimic natural extracellular matrices. PA materials have been shown to induce growth of blood vessels, bone, cartilage, and nervous tissue, among others. The work described in this thesis not only studied the relationship between molecular structure and functions of PA assemblies, but also uncovered a powerful link between the energy landscape of their supramolecular self-assembly and the ability of PA materials to interact with cells. In chapter 2, it is argued that fabricating fibrous nanostructures with defined mechanical properties and decoration with bioactive molecules is not sufficient to create a material that can effectively communicate with cells. By systemically placing the fibronectin-derived RGDS epitope at increasing distances from the surface of PA nanofibers through a linker of one to five glycine residues, integrin-mediated RGDS signaling was enhanced. The results suggested that the spatial presentation of an epitope on PA nanofibers strongly influences the bioactivity of the PA substrates. In further improving functionality of a PA-based scaffold to effectively direct cell growth and differentiation, chapter 3 explored the use of a cell microcarrier to compartmentalize and simultaneously tune insoluble and soluble signals in a single matrix. PA nanofibers were incorporated at the surface of the microcarrier in order to promote cell adhesion, while

  19. A polythreaded Ag(I) coordination polymer: A rare three-dimensional Pseudo-polyrotaxana constructed from the same components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Han Su; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Shim Sung; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Ki Min [Research Institute of Natural Science and Dept. of Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Suk Hee [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam College of Information and Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In supramolecular chemistry, a lot of mechanically poly-threaded coordination polymers, such as polyrotaxanes, based on self-assembly of organic ligands and transition metal ions have attracted great attention over the past two decades because of their fascinating architectures as well as their potential application in material science. Among them, 1D + 2D → 3D pseudo-polyrotaxane constructed by the penetration of 1D coordination polymer chains into 1D channels formed by parallel stacking of 2D porous coordination layers is a quite rare topology. Until now, only a few examples of 1D + 2D → 3D pseudo-polyrotaxanes have been reported.

  20. A polythreaded Ag(I) coordination polymer: A rare three-dimensional Pseudo-polyrotaxana constructed from the same components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Han Su; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Shim Sung; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Ki Min; Moon, Suk Hee

    2017-01-01

    In supramolecular chemistry, a lot of mechanically poly-threaded coordination polymers, such as polyrotaxanes, based on self-assembly of organic ligands and transition metal ions have attracted great attention over the past two decades because of their fascinating architectures as well as their potential application in material science. Among them, 1D + 2D → 3D pseudo-polyrotaxane constructed by the penetration of 1D coordination polymer chains into 1D channels formed by parallel stacking of 2D porous coordination layers is a quite rare topology. Until now, only a few examples of 1D + 2D → 3D pseudo-polyrotaxanes have been reported

  1. Bioactivity of freeze-dried platelet-rich plasma in an adsorbed form on a biodegradable polymer material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yu; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Mito; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the necessity for the immediate preparation from patients' blood, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) limits its clinical applicability. To address this concern and respond to emergency care and other unpredictable uses, we have developed a freeze-dried PRP in an adsorbed form on a biodegradable polymer material (Polyglactin 910). On the polymer filaments of PRP mesh, which was prepared by coating the polymer mesh with human fresh PRP and subsequent freeze-drying, platelets were incorporated, and related growth factors were preserved at high levels. This new PRP mesh preparation significantly and reproducibly stimulated the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells in vitro and neovascularization in a chorioallantoic membrane assay. A full-thickness skin defect model in a diabetic mouse demonstrated the PRP mesh, although prepared from human blood, substantially facilitated angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation, and re-epithelialization without inducing severe inflammation in vivo. These data demonstrate that our new PRP mesh preparation functions as a bioactive material to facilitate tissue repair/regeneration. Therefore, we suggest that this bioactive material, composed of allogeneic PRP, could be clinically used as a promising alternative in emergency care or at times when autologous PRP is not prepared immediately before application.

  2. PEG-bis phosphonic acid based ionic supramolecular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    . The resulting ionic assemblies are very comprehensively characterized by ATR-FTIR, proton, and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy that unequivocally demonstrate the ionic network formation through ammonium phophonates. The resulting salt and ionic networks are additionally analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry...... and thermogravimetric analysis. The conclusion is that mixing the virgin components at room temperature spontaneously form either a salt or ionic supramolecular networks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  3. Dual responsive supramolecular hydrogel with electrochemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Liu, Jianghua; Chen, Guosong; Jiang, Ming

    2011-08-02

    Supramolecular materials with reversible responsiveness to environmental changes are of particular research interest in recent years. Inclusion complexation between cyclodextrin (CD) and ferrocene (Fc) is well-known and extensively studied because of its reversible association-dissociation controlled by the redox state of Fc. Although there are quite a few reported nanoscale materials incorporating this host-guest pair, polymeric hydrogels with electrochemical activity based on this interactive pair are still rare. Taking advantage of our previous reported hybrid inclusion complex (HIC) hydrogel structure, a new Fc-HIC was designed and obtained with β-CD-modified quantum dots as the core and Fc-ended diblock co-polymer p(DMA-b-NIPAM) as the shell, to achieve an electrochemically active hydrogel at elevated temperatures. Considering the two independent cross-linking strategies in the network structure, i.e., the interchain aggregation of pNIPAM and inclusion complexation between CD and Fc on the surface of the quantum dots, the hydrogel was fully thermo-reversible and its gel-sol transition was achieved after the addition of either an oxidizing agent or a competitive guest to Fc.

  4. Pad printing as a film forming technique for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    coated transparent zinc oxide front electrode, a pad printed active layer based on a bulk heterojunction of the thermocleavable polymer poly(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)thiophene-co-thiopene) (P3MHOCT) and zinc oxide nanoparticles, spin coated PEDOT:PSS and finally a manually cast thermally cured silver...... cells prepared by pad printing are presented. Devices were prepared on indium tin oxide substrates but in principle the entire photovoltaic device comprising front and back electrodes, barrier layers and active layer could be printed with no need for vacuum steps. The device geometry comprises a spin...

  5. Preparation and biocompatibility study of in situ forming polymer implants in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasongkla, Norased; Boongird, Atthaporn; Hongeng, Suradej; Manaspon, Chawan; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol

    2012-02-01

    We describe the development of polymer implants that were designed to solidify once injected into rat brains. These implants comprised of glycofurol and copolymers of D: ,L: -lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone and poly(ethylene glycol) (PLECs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed that the extent of implant degradation was increased with LA: content in copolymers. SEM analysis revealed the formation of porosity on implant surface as the degradation proceeds. PLEC with 19.3% mole of LA: was chosen to inject in rat brains at the volume of 10, 25 and 40 μl. Body weights, hematological and histopathological data of rats treated with implants were evaluated on day 3, 6, 14, 30 and 45 after the injection. Polymer solution at the injection volume of 10 μl were tolerated relatively well compared to those of 25 and 40 μl as confirmed by higher body weight and healing action (fibrosis tissue) 30 days after treatment. The results from this study suggest a possible application as drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood brain barrier.

  6. Multivalency in supramolecular chemistry and nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    Multivalency is a powerful and versatile self-assembly pathway that confers unique thermodynamic and kinetic behavior onto supramolecular complexes. The diversity of the examples of supramolecular multivalent systems discussed in this perspective shows that the concept of multivalency is a general

  7. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymer micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years in the search for new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers in which metal-ligand complexes are introduced in block copolymer architectures, have known important progress,

  8. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-08-16

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Hooghan, Bobby; Sougrat, Rachid; He, Haoze; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Self-assembly behavior of a linear-star supramolecular amphiphile based on host-guest complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Xing; Yang, Fei; Shen, Hong; You, Yezi; Wu, Decheng

    2014-11-04

    A star polymer, β-cyclodextrin-poly(l-lactide) (β-CD-PLLA), and a linear polymer, azobenzene-poly(ethylene glycol) (Azo-PEG), could self-assemble into a supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer (β-CD-PLLA@Azo-PEG) based on the host-guest interaction between β-CD and azobenzene moieties. This linear-star supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer further self-assembled into a variety of morphologies, including sphere-like micelle, carambola-like micelle, naan-like micelle, shuttle-like lamellae, tube-like fiber, and random curled-up lamellae, by tuning the length of hydrophilic or hydrophobic chains. The variation of morphology was closely related to the topological structure and block ratio of the supramolecular amphiphiles. These self-assembly structures could disassemble upon an ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation.

  11. Quantum-Chemical Insights into the Self-Assembly of Carbon-Based Supramolecular Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Calbo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how molecular systems self-assemble to form well-organized superstructures governed by noncovalent interactions is essential in the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the nanoscience context, the self-assembly of different carbon-based nanoforms (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene with, in general, electron-donor molecular systems, has received increasing attention as a means of generating potential candidates for technological applications. In these carbon-based systems, a deep characterization of the supramolecular organization is crucial to establish an intimate relation between supramolecular structure and functionality. Detailed structural information on the self-assembly of these carbon-based nanoforms is however not always accessible from experimental techniques. In this regard, quantum chemistry has demonstrated to be key to gain a deep insight into the supramolecular organization of molecular systems of high interest. In this review, we intend to highlight the fundamental role that quantum-chemical calculations can play to understand the supramolecular self-assembly of carbon-based nanoforms through a limited selection of supramolecular assemblies involving fullerene, fullerene fragments, nanotubes and graphene with several electron-rich π-conjugated systems.

  12. Langmuir-Blodgett films prepared from pre-formed cholestanic liquid-crystalline polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, P.; Hodge, P.; Valli, L.; Davis, F. (Venice Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    A series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and a-olefins functionalized through different alkyl chains with cholestanic groups were synthetised and derivatives prepared by reactions of the anhydride residues with methanol, water, dimethylamine and morpholine, respectively. The same starting functionalized a-olefins were used to prepare other suitable compounds in order to correlate the features of the liquid-crystalline behaviour of the mesogenic cholestanic group with the stability of the forthcoming polymeric or not polymeric Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For some copolymers surface pressure against area per molecule isotherms are reported. In some multilayer (LB) films, the spacings between the layers were determined by the detection of BRAGG peaks by X-ray diffraction. The (LB) films of these polymers are closed packed, owing to either the polymeric skeleton or liquid-crystalline interaction.

  13. Supramolecular Structure and Function 9

    CERN Document Server

    Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta

    2007-01-01

    The book is based on International Summer Schools on Biophysics held in Croatia which, contrary to other workshops centered mainly on one topic or technique, has very broad scope providing advanced training in areas related to biophysics. This volume is presenting papers in the field of biophysics for studying biological phenomena by using physical methods (NMR, EPR, FTIR, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) and/or concepts (predictions of protein-protein interactions, virtual ligand screening etc.). The interrelationship of supramolecular structures and there functions is enlightened by applications of principals of these physical methods in the biophysical and molecular biology context.

  14. Dimensional Control and Morphological Transformations of Supramolecular Polymeric Nanofibers Based on Cofacially-Stacked Planar Amphiphilic Platinum(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew E; Nazemi, Ali; Lunn, David J; Hayward, Dominic W; Boott, Charlotte E; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Harniman, Robert L; Davis, Sean A; Whittell, George R; Richardson, Robert M; De Cola, Luisa; Manners, Ian

    2017-09-26

    Square-planar platinum(II) complexes often stack cofacially to yield supramolecular fiber-like structures with interesting photophysical properties. However, control over fiber dimensions and the resulting colloidal stability is limited. We report the self-assembly of amphiphilic Pt(II) complexes with solubilizing ancillary ligands based on polyethylene glycol [PEG n , where n = 16, 12, 7]. The complex with the longest solubilizing PEG ligand, Pt-PEG 16 , self-assembled to form polydisperse one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers (diameters fibers of length up to ca. 400 nm. The fiber lengths were dependent on the Pt-PEG 16 complex to seed mass ratio in a manner analogous to a living covalent polymerization of molecular monomers. Moreover, the fiber lengths were unchanged in solution after 1 week and were therefore "static" with respect to interfiber exchange processes on this time scale. In contrast, similarly formed near-uniform fibers of Pt-PEG 12 exhibited dynamic behavior that led to broadening of the length distribution within 48 h. After aging for 4 weeks in solution, Pt-PEG 12 fibers partially evolved into 2D platelets. Furthermore, self-assembly of Pt-PEG 7 yielded only transient fibers which rapidly evolved into 2D platelets. On addition of further fiber-forming Pt complex (Pt-PEG 16 ), the platelets formed assemblies via the growth of fibers selectively from their short edges. Our studies demonstrate that when interfiber dynamic exchange is suppressed, dimensional control and hierarchical structure formation are possible for supramolecular polymers through the use of kinetically controlled seeded growth methods.

  15. Simulated glass-forming polymer melts: dynamic scattering functions, chain length effects, and mode-coupling theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S; Weysser, F; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Fuchs, M; Baschnagel, J

    2015-02-01

    We present molecular-dynamics simulations for a fully flexible model of polymer melts with different chain length N ranging from short oligomers (N = 4) to values near the entanglement length (N = 64). For these systems we explore the structural relaxation of the supercooled melt near the critical temperature T c of mode-coupling theory (MCT). Coherent and incoherent scattering functions are analyzed in terms of the idealized MCT. For temperatures T > T c we provide evidence for the space-time factorization property of the β relaxation and for the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) of the α relaxation, and we also discuss deviations from these predictions for T ≈ T c. For T larger than the smallest temperature where the TTSP holds we perform a quantitative analysis of the dynamics with the asymptotic MCT predictions for the late β regime. Within MCT a key quantity, in addition to T c, is the exponent parameter λ. For the fully flexible polymer models studied we find that λ is independent of N and has a value (λ = 0.735 ) typical of simple glass-forming liquids. On the other hand, the critical temperature increases with chain length toward an asymptotic value T c (∞) . This increase can be described by T c (∞) - T c(N) ∼ 1/N and may be interpreted in terms of the N dependence of the monomer density ρ, if we assume that the MCT glass transition is ruled by a soft-sphere-like constant coupling parameter Γ c = ρ c T c (-1/4), where ρ c is the monomer density at T c. In addition, we also estimate T c from a Hansen-Verlet-like criterion and MCT calculations based on structural input from the simulation. For our polymer model both the Hansen-Verlet criterion and the MCT calculations suggest T c to decrease with increasing chain length, in contrast to the direct analysis of the simulation data.

  16. Shape forming by thermal expansion mismatch and shape memory locking in polymer/elastomer laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Ding, Zhen; Wang, T. J.; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) structure from 2D thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP)/elastomer bilayer laminate. In this method, the shape change is actuated by the thermal mismatch strain between the SMP and the elastomer layers upon heating. However, the glass transition behavior of the SMP locks the material into a new 3D shape that is stable even upon cooling. Therefore, the second shape becomes a new permanent shape of the laminate. A theoretical model that accounts for the temperature-dependent thermomechanical behavior of the SMP material and thermal mismatch strain between the two layers is developed to better understand the underlying physics. Model predictions and experiments show good agreement and indicate that the theoretical model can well predict the bending behavior of the bilayer laminate. The model is then used in the optimal design of geometrical configuration and material selection. The latter also illustrates the requirement of thermomechanical behaviors of the SMP to lock the shape. Based on the fundamental understandings, several self-folding structures are demonstrated by the bilayer laminate design.

  17. YIELD FORMING EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF COMPOSTS CONTAINING POLYMER MATERIALS ENRICHED IN BIOCOMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Gambuś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment the impact of composts containing polymeric materials modified with biocomponents on the diversity of crops of oats and mustard was examined. The composts used in the study were produced in the laboratory from wheat and rape straw, and pea seed cleaning waste with 8-percent addition of chopped biopolymer materials (films which were prepared in the Central Mining Institute (GIG in Katowice. Three polymers differing in content of starch and density were selected for the composting. The pot experiment was conducted on three substrates: light and medium soil and on the sediment obtained after flotation of zinc and lead ores, coming from the landfill ZGH “Boleslaw” S.A. in Bukowno. The need for using such materials and substrates results from the conditions of processing some morphological fractions of municipal waste and from improving methods of reclamation. Yield enhancing effect of composts depends on the substrate on which the compost was used, cultivated plants and crop succession. Application of composts prepared with 8% of polymeric materials based on polyethylene, modified with starch as biocomponent, resulted in significantly lower yields in sandy (light soil in case of oats and, in some cases, in medium soil. Subsequent plant yield did not differ significantly between the objects fertilized with compost.

  18. Effects of solvent evaporation conditions on solvent vapor annealed cylinder-forming block polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Meagan; Jakubowski, William; Nelson, Gunnar; Drapes, Chloe; Baruth, A.

    Solvent vapor annealing is a less time and energy intensive method compared to thermal annealing, to direct the self-assembly of block polymer thin films. Periodic nanostructures have applications in ultrafiltration, magnetic arrays, or other structures with nanometer dimensions, driving its continued interest. Our goal is to create thin films with hexagonally packed, perpendicular aligned cylinders of poly(lactide) in a poly(styrene) matrix that span the thickness of the film with low anneal times and low defect densities, all with high reproducibility, where the latter is paramount. Through the use of our computer-controlled, pneumatically-actuated, purpose-built solvent vapor annealing chamber, we have the ability to monitor and control vapor pressure, solvent concentration within the film, and solvent evaporation rate with unprecedented precision and reliability. Focusing on evaporation, we report on two previously unexplored areas, chamber pressure during solvent evaporation and the flow rate of purging gas aiding the evaporation. We will report our exhaustive results following atomic force microscopy analysis of films exposed to a wide range of pressures and flow rates. Reliably achieving well-ordered films, while occurring within a large section of this parameter space, was correlated with high-flow evaporation rates and low chamber pressures. These results have significant implications on other methods of solvent annealing, including ``jar'' techniques.

  19. Supramolecular Architectures and Mimics of Complex Natural Folds Derived from Rationally Designed alpha-Helical Protein Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavenor, Nathan Albert

    Protein-based supramolecular polymers (SMPs) are a class of biomaterials which draw inspiration from and expand upon the many examples of complex protein quaternary structures observed in nature: collagen, microtubules, viral capsids, etc. Designing synthetic supramolecular protein scaffolds both increases our understanding of natural superstructures and allows for the creation of novel materials. Similar to small-molecule SMPs, protein-based SMPs form due to self-assembly driven by intermolecular interactions between monomers, and monomer structure determines the properties of the overall material. Using protein-based monomers takes advantage of the self-assembly and highly specific molecular recognition properties encodable in polypeptide sequences to rationally design SMP architectures. The central hypothesis underlying our work is that alpha-helical coiled coils, a well-studied protein quaternary folding motif, are well-suited to SMP design through the addition of synthetic linkers at solvent-exposed sites. Through small changes in the structures of the cross-links and/or peptide sequence, we have been able to control both the nanoscale organization and the macroscopic properties of the SMPs. Changes to the linker and hydrophobic core of the peptide can be used to control polymer rigidity, stability, and dimensionality. The gaps in knowledge that this thesis sought to fill on this project were 1) the relationship between the molecular structure of the cross-linked polypeptides and the macroscopic properties of the SMPs and 2) a means of creating materials exhibiting multi-dimensional net or framework topologies. Separate from the above efforts on supramolecular architectures was work on improving backbone modification strategies for an alpha-helix in the context of a complex protein tertiary fold. Earlier work in our lab had successfully incorporated unnatural building blocks into every major secondary structure (beta-sheet, alpha-helix, loops and beta

  20. Mixed waste solidification testing on polymer and cement-based waste forms in support of Hanford's WRAP 2A facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based, thermosetting polymer, and thermoplastic polymer solidification media to substantiate the technology approach for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate materials representing each of the eight waste types were prepared in the laboratory. These surrogates were then solidified with the selected immobilization media and subjected to a battery of standard performance tests. Detailed discussion of the laboratory work and results are contained in this report

  1. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  2. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min.

  3. The use of supramolecular chemistry in dye delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckel, Daniel Andrew Sturton

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports an investigation into supramolecular recognition of the sulfate/ sulfonate oxoanionic group, a moiety present in the majority of reactive dyes. In the first section the problems associated with the use of reactive dyes in dyeing cotton fabrics together with a literature review of supramolecular approaches to anion recognition are discussed. Drawing on the current literature concerning anion recognition (in particular the recognition of phosphates), the main body of the thesis concerns the design and synthesis of several series ofC-shaped (tweezer) and tripodal potential sulfate/ sulfonate receptors. These receptors incorporate the H-bond donor groups guanidine and thiourea and to a lesser extent urea and amide functionalities. In addition the behaviour of potential tweezer-like receptor molecules based on s-triazine (derived from cyanuric chloride) has also been investigated. The sulfate/ sulfonate and related phosphonate association properties of these potential receptors have been studied. Particular emphasis has been placed on the solid-state supramolecular structures formed by these complexes as determined by single crystal X-ray structural studies, and several novel and revealing examples have been analysed in detail. NMR titration binding studies have also been undertaken in order to investigate the complexation behaviour of several receptors with ''model dye'' phosphonates and sulfonates in solution. In addition a number of single crystal X-ray crystallographic studies were undertaken for other members of the Grossel research group during the course of this work, and the results of these structural studies are also reported. (author)

  4. Evaluation of sulfur polymer cement as a waste form for the immobilization of low-level radioactive or mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC), also called modified sulphur cements, is a relatively new material in the waste immobilization field, although it was developed in the late seventies by the Bureau of Mines. The physical and chemical properties of SPC are interesting (e.g., development of high mechanical strength in a short time and high resistance to many corrosive environments). Because of its very low permeability and porosity, SPC is especially impervious to water, which, in turn, has led to its consideration for immobilization of hazardous or radioactive waste. Because it is a thermosetting process, the waste is encapsulated by the sulfur matrix; therefore, very little interaction occurs between the waste species and the sulfur (as there can be when waste prevents the set of portland cement-based waste forms)

  5. Light-switchable polymer from cationic to zwitterionic form: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with DNA and bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolčiak, Patrik; Spírek, Mário; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Peter; Lacík, Igor; Kasák, Peter

    2013-04-25

    A novel cationic polymer poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(methacroylamino) propyl]-N-[2-[(2-nitrophenyl)methoxy]-2-oxo-ethyl]ammonium chloride) is synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide and subsequent quaternization with o-nitrobenzyl 2-chloroacetate. The photolabile o-nitrobenzyl carboxymethyl pendant moiety is transformed to the zwitterionic carboxybetaine form upon the irradiation at 365 nm. This feature is used to condense and, upon the light irradiation, to release double-strand DNA tested by gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance experiments as well as to switch the antibacterial activity to non-toxic character demonstrated for Escherichia coli bacterial cells in solution and at the surface using the self-assembled monolayers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Cadmium Anionic 1-D Coordination Polymer {[Cd(H2O6][Cd2(atr2(μ2-btc2(H2O4] 2H2O}n within a 3-D Supramolecular Charge-Assisted Hydrogen-Bonded and π-Stacking Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Tahli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal reaction of 4,4′-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl (btr and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3btc with Cd(OAc2·2H2O at 125 °C in situ forms 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole (atr from btr, which crystallizes to a mixed-ligand, poly-anionic chain of [Cd2(atr2(µ2-btc2(H2O4]2–. Together with a hexaaquacadmium(II cation and water molecules the anionic coordination-polymeric forms a 3-D supramolecular network of hexaaquacadmium(II-catena-[bis(4-amino-1,2,4-triazoletetraaquabis(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylatodicadmate(II] dihydrate, 1-D-{[Cd(H2O6][Cd2(atr2(µ2-btc2(H2O4] 2H2O}n which is based on hydrogen bonds (in part charge-assisted and π–π interactions.

  7. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael A., E-mail: mroger09@uoguelph.ca [Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N3C3X9 (Canada); Corradini, Maria G. [Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Emge, Thomas [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  8. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Michael A.; Corradini, Maria G.; Emge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  9. Supramolecular protein immobilization on lipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, R.P.G.; Hendriksen, W.E.; Verheijden, Mark Lloyd; Eelkema, R.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; van Esch, J.H.; Brunsveld, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Protein immobilization on surfaces, and on lipid bilayers specifically, has great potential in biomolecular and biotechnological research. Of current special interest is the immobilization of proteins using supramolecular noncovalent interactions. This allows for a reversible immobilization and

  10. Supramolecular chemistry - interdisciplinary branch of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radecka-Paryzek, W.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific problems connected with supramolecular chemistry have been reviewed. The basic concepts have been defined as well as rules governed of macromolecules formation. The special emphasize has been put on present and possible in future application of such systems

  11. Supramolecular core-shell nanoparticles for photoconductive device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Jem-Kun; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-08-01

    We report a breakthrough discovery involving supramolecular-based strategies to construct novel core-shell heterojunction nanoparticles with hydrophilic adenine-functionalized polythiophene (PAT) as the core and hydrophobic phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the shell, which enables the conception of new functional supramolecular assemblies for constructing functional nanomaterials for applications in optoelectronic devices. The generated nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape, well-controlled tuning of particle size with narrow size distributions, and excellent electrochemical stability in solution and the solid state owing to highly efficient energy transfer from PAT to PCBM. When the PAT/PCBM nanoparticles were fabricated into a photoconducting layer in an electronic device, the resulting device showed excellent electric conduction characteristics, including an electrically-tunable voltage-controlled switch, and high short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. These observations demonstrate how the self-assembly of PAT/PCBM into specific nanostructures may help to promote efficient charge generation and transport processes, suggesting potential for a wide variety of applications as a promising candidate material for bulk heterojunction polymer devices.

  12. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration: II. Comparison of preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hirokazu; Nakamori, Takahiko; Arakawa, Yotaro; Iida, Kotaro; Danjo, Kazumi

    2002-11-01

    In previous studies, we prepared film dosage forms of lidocaine (LC) with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base using the solvent evaporation (SE) method. However, from the viewpoint of environmental issues, a reduction in organic solvent use in pharmaceutical and other industries is required. In this study, we prepared the LC films by direct compression of the physical mixture (DCPM method) and direct compression of the spray dried powder (DCSD method). Magnesium stearate, which was required as a lubricant for direct compression, showed no effect on the LC release rate. The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the compression pressure, but a higher pressure was preferable to easily remove the film from the punches. An increase in the film weight decreased the LC release rate expressed in %/h, whereas no significant effect of film weight was observed on the LC release rate from unit surface area expressed in mg/h/cm(2). The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the LC content, suggesting that the LC release rate (mg/h) can be quantitatively controlled by changing the LC content in the formulation. The LC release rate and penetration rate were affected by the preparation method; that is, DCPM method dosage form. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2424-2432, 2002

  13. Form measurements in an industrial CT scanner investigated using a polymer step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, J.; Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    . The present investigation concerns the measurement of flatness at different positions in the CT measurement volume using a milled miniature step gauge. The artifact is a 42 mm long step gauge with 11 grooves at 2 mm steps, made of polyphenylene sulphide PPS (? = 1.650 g/cm3), with limited form...... error and good surface finish. A total of 132 flatness measurements were performed on the left step gauge grooves. The linear distribution of the grooves pointed out a non-uniform CT performance over the step gauge length with max deviation up to 25 μm. However, an appropriate choice of parameters...... yielded a reduction of the max deviation along the step gauge length by approximately 13 μm....

  14. Facile preparation of luminescent and intelligent gold nanodots based on supramolecular self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yunfeng; Li Sujuan; Zhou Yahui; Zhai Qingpan; Hu Mengyue; Cai Fensha; Du Jimin; Liang Jiamiao; Zhu Xinyuan

    2012-01-01

    A new strategy for preparing luminescent and intelligent gold nanodots based on supramolecular self-assembly is described in this paper. The supramolecular self-assembly was initiated through electrostatic interactions and ion pairing between palmitic acid and hyperbranched poly(ethylenimine). The resulting structures not only have the dynamic reversible properties of supramolecules but also possess torispherical and highly branched architectures. Thus they can be regarded as a new kind of ideal nanoreactor for preparing intelligent Au nanodots. By preparing Au nanodots within this kind of supramolecular self-assembly, the environmental sensitivity of intelligent polymers and the optical, electrical properties of Au nanodots can be combined, endowing the Au nanodots with intelligence. In this paper, a supramolecular self-assembly process based on dendritic poly(ethylenimine) and palmitic acid was designed and then applied to prepare fluorescent and size-controlled Au nanodots. The pH response of Au nanodots embodied by phase transfer from oil phase to water phase was also investigated. (paper)

  15. Fabrication of CO2 Facilitated Transport Channels in Block Copolymer through Supramolecular Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the molecule 12-amidine dodecanoic acid (M with ending groups of carboxyl and amidine groups respectively was designed and synthesized as CO2-responsive guest molecules. The block copolymer polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO was chosen as the host polymer to fabricate a composite membrane through H-bonding assembly with guest molecule M. We attempted to tune the phase separation structure of the annealed film by varying the amount of M added, and investigated the nanostructures via transmission electron microscope (TEM, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR etc. As a result, a reverse worm-like morphology in TEM image of bright PS phase in dark PEO/M matrix was observed for PS-b-PEO/M1 membrane in which the molar ratio of EO unit to M was 1:1. The following gas permeation measurement indicated that the gas flux of the annealed membranes dramatically increased due to the forming of ordered phase separation structure. As we expected, the obtained composite membrane PS-b-PEO/M1 with EO:M mole ratio of 1:1 presented an evident selectivity for moist CO2 permeance, which is identical with our initial proposal that the guest molecule M in the membranes will play the key role for CO2 facilitated transportation since the amidine groups of M could react reversibly with CO2 molecules in membranes. This work provides a supramolecular approach to fabricating CO2 facilitated transport membranes.

  16. Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogels Based on Reversible Physical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Strandman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and reversible polymer networks capable of self-healing, i.e., restoring their mechanical properties after deformation and failure, are gaining increasing research interest, as there is a continuous need towards extending the lifetime and improving the safety and performance of materials particularly in biomedical applications. Hydrogels are versatile materials that may allow self-healing through a variety of covalent and non-covalent bonding strategies. The structural recovery of physical gels has long been a topic of interest in soft materials physics and various supramolecular interactions can induce this kind of recovery. This review highlights the non-covalent strategies of building self-repairing hydrogels and the characterization of their mechanical properties. Potential applications and future prospects of these materials are also discussed.

  17. Dynamic peptide libraries for the discovery of supramolecular nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Charalampos G.; Shafi, Ramim; Sasselli, Ivan R.; Siccardi, Henry; Wang, Tong; Narang, Vishal; Abzalimov, Rinat; Wijerathne, Nadeesha; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2016-11-01

    Sequence-specific polymers, such as oligonucleotides and peptides, can be used as building blocks for functional supramolecular nanomaterials. The design and selection of suitable self-assembling sequences is, however, challenging because of the vast combinatorial space available. Here we report a methodology that allows the peptide sequence space to be searched for self-assembling structures. In this approach, unprotected homo- and heterodipeptides (including aromatic, aliphatic, polar and charged amino acids) are subjected to continuous enzymatic condensation, hydrolysis and sequence exchange to create a dynamic combinatorial peptide library. The free-energy change associated with the assembly process itself gives rise to selective amplification of self-assembling candidates. By changing the environmental conditions during the selection process, different sequences and consequent nanoscale morphologies are selected.

  18. Nanoparticles functionalized with supramolecular host-guest systems for nanomedicine and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilong; Song, Nan; Menz, Ryan; Pingali, Bharadwaj; Yang, Ying-Wei; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic macrocyclic host compounds can interact with suitable guest molecules via noncovalent interactions to form functional supramolecular systems. With the synergistic integration of the response of molecules and the unique properties at the nanoscale, nanoparticles functionalized with the host-guest supramolecular systems have shown great potentials for a broad range of applications in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this review article, we focus on the applications of the nanoparticles functionalized with supramolecular host-guest systems in nanomedicine and healthcare, including therapeutic delivery, imaging, sensing and removal of harmful substances. A large number of examples are included to elucidate the working mechanisms, advantages, limitations and future developments of the nanoparticle-supramolecule systems in these applications.

  19. Supra-molecular Association and Polymorphic Behaviour In Systems Containing Bile Acid Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo La Mesa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide number of supra-molecular association modes are observed in mixtures containing water and bile salts, BS, (with, eventually, other components. Molecular or micellar solutions transform into hydrated solids, fibres, lyotropic liquid crystals and/or gels by raising the concentration, the temperature, adding electrolytes, surfactants, lipids and proteins. Amorphous or ordered phases may be formed accordingly. The forces responsible for this very rich polymorphism presumably arise from the unusual combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond contributions to the system stability, with subsequent control of the supra-molecular organisation modes. The stabilising effect due to hydrogen bonds does not occur in almost all surfactants or lipids and is peculiar to bile acids and salts. Some supra-molecular organisation modes, supposed to be related to malfunctions and dis-metabolic diseases in vivo, are briefly reported and discussed.

  20. Polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) phases of calcium carbonate formed in the presence of synthetic acidic polypeptides - relevance to biomineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, A.S.; Zope, H.; Kim, Y.; Kros, A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Meldrum, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) phases of calcium carbonate have attracted significant interest due to possible applications in materials synthesis, and their resemblance to intermediates seen in biogenic mineralisation processes. Further, these PILP phases have been formed in vitro using

  1. The fifth solvatomorph of gallic acid with a supramolecular channel structure: Structural complexity and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sajesh P.; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaur, Jassjot; Sankolli, Ravish; Nayak, Susanta K.; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2013-01-01

    A new solvatomorph of gallic acid was generated using chiral additive technique and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, C-13 NMR, IR spectroscopic techniques and thermal analysis. The supramolecular channels formed by hexameric motifs of gallic acid and solvent molecules contain highly disordered solvent molecules with fractional occupancies.

  2. Photoresponsive Molecular Recognition and Adhesion of Vesicles in a Competitive Ternary Supramolecular System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Bultema, Jelle B.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    A competitive photoresponsive supramolecular system is formed in a dilute aqueous solution of three components: vesicles of amphiphilic alpha-cyclodextrin host 1a, divalent p-methylphenyl guest 2 or divalent p-methylbenzamide guest 3, and photoresponsive azobenzene monovalent guest 5. Guests 2 and 3

  3. Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Samai, Suman

    2016-02-15

    The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.

  4. Light Responsive Two-Component Supramolecular Hydrogel: A Sensitive Platform for Humidity Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Samai, Suman; Sapsanis, Christos; Patil, Sachin; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Moosa, Basem; Omran, Hesham; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Salama, Khaled N.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of anionic azobenzene dicarboxylate and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) formed a stimuli responsive hydrogel with a critical gelation concentration (CGC) of 0.33 wt%. This self-sustainable two-component system was able to repair damage upon light irradiation. Moreover, it was successfully employed in the fabrication of highly sensitive humidity sensors for the first time.

  5. Supramolecular oligothiophene microfibers spontaneously assembled on surfaces or coassembled with proteins inside live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, Giovanna; Di Maria, Francesca

    2015-08-18

    During the last few decades, multifunctional nano- and microfibers made of semiconducting π-conjugated oligomers and polymers have generated much interest because of a broad range of applications extending from sensing to bioelectronic devices and (opto)electronics. The simplest technique for the fabrication of these anisotropic supramolecular structures is to let the molecules do the work by spontaneous organization driven by the information encoded in their molecular structure. Oligothiophenes-semiconducting and fluorescent compounds that have been extensively investigated for applications in thin-film field-effect transistors and solar cells and to a lesser extent as dyes for fluorescent labeling of proteins, DNA, and live cells-are particularly suited as building blocks for supramolecular architectures because of the peculiar properties of the thiophene ring. Because of the great polarizability of sulfur outer-shell electrons and the consequent facile geometric deformability and adaptability of the ring to the environment, thiophene can generate multiple nonbonding interactions to promote non-covalent connections between blocks. Furthermore, sulfur can be hypervalent, i.e., it can accommodate more than the eight electrons normally associated with s and p shells. Hypervalent oligothiophene-S,S-dioxides whose oxygen atoms can be involved in hydrogen bonding have been synthesized. These compounds are amphiphilic, and some of them are able to spontaneously cross the membrane of live cells. Hypervalent nonbonding interactions of divalent sulfur, defined as weak coordination to a proximate nitrogen or oxygen, have also been invoked in the solid-state packing of many organic molecules and in the architecture of proteins. In this Account, we describe two different types of thiophene-based building blocks that can induce the spontaneous formation of nanostructured microfibers in very different environments. The first, based on the synthesis of "sulfur

  6. Supramolecular architectures constructed using angular bipyridyl ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Sarah Ann

    2003-01-01

    This work details the synthesis and characterization of a series of coordination frameworks that are formed using bidentate angular N-donor ligands. Pyrimidine was reacted with metal(ll) nitrate salts. Reactions using Cd(NO 3 ) 2 receive particular focus and the analogous reactions using the linear ligand, pyrazine, were studied for comparison. In all cases, two-dimensional coordination networks were prepared. Structural diversity is observed for the Cd(ll) centres including metal-nitrate bridging. In contrast, first row transition metal nitrates form isostructural one-dimensional chains with only the bridging N-donor ligands generating polymeric propagation. The angular ligand, 2,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (dpt), was reacted with Cd(NO 3 ) 2 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 . Whereas Zn(NO 3 ) 2 compounds exhibit solvent mediated polymorphism, a range of structures were obtained for the reactions with Cd(NO 3 ) 2 , including the first example of a doubly parallel interpenetrated 4.8 2 net. 4,7-phenanthroline, was reacted with various metal(ll) nitrates as well as cobalt(ll) and copper(ll) halides. The ability of 4,7-phenanthroline to act as both a N-donor ligand and a hydrogen bond acceptor has been discussed. Reactions of CuSCN with pyrimidine yield an unusual three-dimensional structure in which polymeric propagation is not a result of ligand bridging. The reaction of CuSCN with dpt yielded structural supramolecular isomers. (author)

  7. Fabrication of Supramolecular Chirality from Achiral Molecules at the Liquid/Liquid Interface Studied by Second Harmonic Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Yuan; Liu, Minghua

    2018-01-09

    We present the investigation into the supramolecular chirality of 5-octadecyloxy-2-(2-pyridylazo)phenol (PARC18) at water/1,2-dichloroethane interface by second harmonic generation (SHG). We observe that PARC18 molecules form supramolecular chirality through self-assembly at the liquid/liquid interface although they are achiral molecules. The bulk concentration of PARC18 in the organic phase has profound effects on the supramolecular chirality. By increasing bulk concentration, the enantiomeric excess at the interface first grows and then decreases until it eventually vanishes. Further analysis reveals that the enantiomeric excess is determined by the twist angle of PARC18 molecules at the interface rather than their orientational angle. At lower and higher bulk concentrations, the average twist angle of PARC18 molecules approaches zero, and the assemblies are achiral; whereas at medium bulk concentrations, the average twist angle is nonzero, so that the assemblies show supramolecular chirality. We also estimate the coverage of PARC18 molecules at the interface versus the bulk concentration and fit it to Langmuir adsorption model. The result indicates that PARC18 assemblies show strongest supramolecular chirality in a half-full monolayer. These findings highlight the opportunities for precise control of supramolecular chirality at liquid/liquid interfaces by manipulating the bulk concentration.

  8. Solvent polarity effects on supramolecular chirality of a polyfluorene-thiophene copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, Takashi; Yoshizawa-Fujita, Masahiro; Takeoka, Yuko; Rikukawa, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    This study demonstrates the supramolecular chirality control of a conjugated polymer via solvent polarity. We designed and synthesized a chiral polyfluorene-thiophene copolymer having two different chiral side chains at the 9-position of the fluorene unit. Chiral cyclic and alkyl ethers with different polarities were selected as the chiral side chains. The sign of the circular dichroism spectra in the visible wavelength region was affected by the solvent system, resulting from the change of supramolecular structure. The estimation of the solubility parameter revealed that the solubility difference of the side chains contributed to the change of the circular dichroism sign, which was also observed in spin-coated films prepared from good solvents having different polarities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Analysis of supramolecular surface nanostructures using secondary ion mass spectrometry (poster)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszova, S.; Velic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our system consists of host molecules β-cyclodextrin (C 42 H 70 O 35 ), of implemented Iron nanoparticles (guest). Whole supramolecular complex is placed on a gold substrate. In our project we work with monotiolated β-cyclodextrin (C 42 H 70 O 34 S), consisting of seven α-D-1-4 glucopyranose units. Cyclodextrins have been selected deliberately because of their ability to form inclusion complexes .They are also capable of forming structures similar to self-assembly monolayers. To study the formation of these supramolecular surface nanostructures mass secondary ion spectrometry is used. With this technique fragmentation of monotiolated β-cyclodextrin and the presence of the supramolecular complex on a gold surface can be examined. The observed fragments of monotiolated cyclodextrines films can be divided into three groups: Au X H Y S Z , fragments originating from cyclodextrin molecules associated with Au. Fragments as (C 42 H 70 O 34 S)Na + , (C 42 H 70 O 35 )Na + and (AuC 42 H 69 O 34 S)Na + were identified as well as fragments thereof in cationized form with K + . The main objective of the project is a detailed study and preparation of supramolecular nanostructures consisting of complex guest-host monotiolated β-cyclodextrin host-iron), and a gold substrate. (Authors)

  10. Supramolecular nanofibers of triamcinolone acetonide for uveitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyi; Wang, Yuqin; Yang, Chengbiao; Shi, Shuai; Jin, Ling; Luo, Zichao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Yang, Zhimou; Chen, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Supramolecular nanofibers of prodrugs hold advantages for drug release due to their high drug payload, sustained and constant drug release behavior, and stimuli responsiveness. In this study, we report on a supramolecular hydrogel mainly formed by a clinically used drug triamcinolone acetonide (TA). Such a hydrogel could only be prepared via an ester bond hydrolysis process from its prodrug of succinated triamcinolone acetonide (STA). The resulting hydrogel could constantly release TA in the in vitro release experiment. The TA hydrogel possessed an excellent transscleral penetration ability, as evaluated by the in vitro transscleral transport study. The developed TA hydrogel also exhibited a great ocular compatibility in rats, as indicated by the optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, HE observation, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin immuno-staining assays of the retinas. Our TA hydrogel showed a decreased efficacy to inhibit ocular inflammation in the rat's experiment autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model compared to the commercial TA suspension (Transton®), but without causing complications such as high intraocular pressure and cataracts. These promising properties of the hydrogel indicated its great potential for the treatment of eye diseases.Supramolecular nanofibers of prodrugs hold advantages for drug release due to their high drug payload, sustained and constant drug release behavior, and stimuli responsiveness. In this study, we report on a supramolecular hydrogel mainly formed by a clinically used drug triamcinolone acetonide (TA). Such a hydrogel could only be prepared via an ester bond hydrolysis process from its prodrug of succinated triamcinolone acetonide (STA). The resulting hydrogel could constantly release TA in the in vitro release experiment. The TA hydrogel possessed an excellent transscleral penetration ability, as evaluated by the in vitro transscleral transport study. The developed TA hydrogel also exhibited a great ocular

  11. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  12. A Sub-Microanalysis Approach in Chemical Characterisation of Gold Nanorods Formed by a Novel Polymer-Immobilised Gold Seeds Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kazemian Abyaneh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs have been fabricated by a novel polymer-immobilised seed mediated method using ultraviolet (UV photoreduced gold-polymethylmethacrylate (Au–PMMA nanocomposites as a seed platform and characterised at sub-micron scale regime with synchrotron-based techniques; near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF mapping. In this report, it is shown that investigating polymer nanocomposites using combination of XRF mapping and NEXAFS spectromicroscopy can help to see the growth phenomenon from different perspective than conventional characterisation techniques. XRF maps are used to explore distribution of the constituent elements and showing how polymer matrix making stripe patterns along with regions where GNRs are formed. NEXAFS carbon (C K-edge spectra have been taken at three different stages of synthesis: (1 on Au–PMMA nanocomposites before UV irradiation, (2 after gold nanoparticles formation, and (3 after GNRs formation. It reveals how polymer matrix has been degraded during GNRs formation and avoiding chemically or physically damage to polymer matrix is crucial to control the formation of GNRs.

  13. Supramolecular Properties of Triazole-containing Two Armed Peptidomimetics: From Organogelators to Nucleotide-binding Tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Tin Ki

    This thesis described the development of a new type of branched peptidomimetics using a class of previously reported triazole-containing peptidomimetics as the structural motif. The propensity of these new branched peptiomimetics in being an organogelator, forming supramolecular assemblies and recognizing anions and biomolecules was investigated. The quest began with the preparation of two different series of branched peptidomimetics, namely 69-K-aa3 (aa = V or L) and 70-B-aa3. The former series made use of the flexible L-lysine (K) as the branching unit while the latter series was composed of the relatively rigid 3,5-diminobenzoate (B). In each series, the peptidomimetic arms were composed of solely valine (V) or leucine (L). The effects of the identity of the amino acids and the branching units on the gelation and self-assembling properties of these branched bis(tripeptidomimetic)s were investigated. The 69-K-aa3 series was found to exhibit poor solubility in common organic solvents yet it was able to form strong and stable gels in aromatic solvents. The 70-B-aa3 series, on the other hand, was a poor organogelator despite its excellent solubility. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the ability of the former to form a hyperbranched 3D network whereas the latter was only capable of forming isolated spherical lumps. Nevertheless, the latter displayed the ability in forming supramolecular polymers as shown from viscometric studies. Solution-to-gel transition temperature measurement of the gels formed by the 69-K-aa3 series and association constants determination by 1H NMR titration experiments for the supramolecular polymerization of the 70-B-aa3 series both suggested that peptidomimetic arms comprised of valine performed better than those made up of leucine in terms of association strength, and such a difference was attributed to the bulkier nature of the leucine side chain. In order to

  14. Production in Pichia pastoris of complementary protein-based polymers with heterodimer-forming WW and PPxY domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domeradzka, Natalia E.; Werten, Marc W.T.; Vries, de Renko; Wolf, de Frits A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific coupling of de novo designed recombinant protein polymers for the construction of precisely structured nanomaterials is of interest for applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutics and diagnostics. An attractive coupling strategy is to incorporate specifically interacting

  15. Supramolecular Cocrystals of Gliclazide: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Renu; Rani, Dimpy; Goyal, Parnika

    2017-03-01

    To prepare the supramolecular cocrystals of gliclazide (GL, a BCS class II drug molecule) via mechanochemical route, with the goal of improving physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties. Two cocrystals of GL with GRAS status coformers, sebacic acid (GL-SB; 1:1) and α-hydroxyacetic acid (GL-HA; 1:1) were screened out using liquid assisted grinding. The prepared cocrystals were characterized using thermal and analytical techniques followed by evaluation of antidiabetic activity and pharmacokinetic parameters. The generation of new, single and pure crystal forms was characterized by DSC and PXRD. The crystal structure determination from PXRD revealed the existence of both cocrystals in triclinic (P-1) crystal system. The hydrogen bonded network, determined by material studio was well supported by shifts in FTIR and SSNMR. Both the new solid forms displayed improved solubility, IDR, antidiabetic activity and pharmacokinetic parameters as compared to GL. The improvement in these physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties corroborated the fact that the supramolecular cocrystallization may be useful in the development of pharmaceutical crystalline materials with interesting network and properties.

  16. Supramolecular nano-sniffers for ultrasensitive detection of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshath, Uchangi Satyaprasad; Bhatt, Praveena

    2018-02-15

    Supramolecular nanoparticle hybrids for biosensing of analytes have been a major focus due to their tunable optical and surface properties. Quantum dots-Gold nanoparticle (QDs-GNP) based FRET probes involving turn on/off principles have gained immense interest due to their specificity and sensitivity. Recent focus is on applying these supramolecular hybrids for enzyme operated biosensors that can specifically turn-on fluorescence induced by co-factor or product formed from enzymatic reaction. The present study focuses on locking and unlocking the interaction between QD-GNP pair leading to differential fluorescent properties. Cationic GNPs efficiently quenched the anionic QD fluorescence by forming nanoparticle hybrid. Quenching interaction between QD-GNP pair was unlocked by NADH leading to QD fluorescence turn-on. This phenomenon was applied for the successful detection of formaldehyde using NAD + dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase. The proposed nano-sniffer could successfully detect formaldehyde from 0.001 to 100000ng/mL (R 2 = 0.9339) by the turn off-turn on principle. It could also detect formaldehyde in fruit juice and wine samples indicating its stability and sensitivity in real samples. The proposed nanoprobe can have wide applications in developing enzyme biosensors in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteins evolve on the edge of supramolecular self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Seisdedos, Hector; Empereur-Mot, Charly; Elad, Nadav; Levy, Emmanuel D.

    2017-08-01

    The self-association of proteins into symmetric complexes is ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life. Symmetric complexes possess unique geometric and functional properties, but their internal symmetry can pose a risk. In sickle-cell disease, the symmetry of haemoglobin exacerbates the effect of a mutation, triggering assembly into harmful fibrils. Here we examine the universality of this mechanism and its relation to protein structure geometry. We introduced point mutations solely designed to increase surface hydrophobicity among 12 distinct symmetric complexes from Escherichia coli. Notably, all responded by forming supramolecular assemblies in vitro, as well as in vivo upon heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Remarkably, in four cases, micrometre-long fibrils formed in vivo in response to a single point mutation. Biophysical measurements and electron microscopy revealed that mutants self-assembled in their folded states and so were not amyloid-like. Structural examination of 73 mutants identified supramolecular assembly hot spots predictable by geometry. A subsequent structural analysis of 7,471 symmetric complexes showed that geometric hot spots were buffered chemically by hydrophilic residues, suggesting a mechanism preventing mis-assembly of these regions. Thus, point mutations can frequently trigger folded proteins to self-assemble into higher-order structures. This potential is counterbalanced by negative selection and can be exploited to design nanomaterials in living cells.

  18. Supra-molecular architecture in a co-crystal of the N(7)-H tautomeric form of N (6)-benzoyl-adenine with adipic acid (1/0.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton Darious, Robert; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C12H9N5O·0.5C6H10O4, consists of one mol-ecule of N (6)-benzoyl-adenine (BA) and one half-mol-ecule of adipic acid (AA), the other half being generated by inversion symmetry. The dihedral angle between the adenine and phenyl ring planes is 26.71 (7)°. The N (6)-benzoyl-adenine mol-ecule crystallizes in the N(7)-H tautomeric form with three non-protonated N atoms. This tautomeric form is stabilized by intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl (C=O) group and the N(7)-H hydrogen atom on the Hoogsteen face of the purine ring, forming an S(7) ring motif. The two carboxyl groups of adipic acid inter-act with the Watson-Crick face of the BA mol-ecules through O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. The latter units are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-5). A weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present, linking adipic acid mol-ecules in neighbouring layers, enclosing R (2) 2(10) ring motifs and forming a three-dimensional structure. C=O⋯π and C-H⋯π inter-actions are also present in the structure.

  19. Self-organization of a self-assembled supramolecular rectangle, square, and three-dimensional cage on Au111 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qun-Hui; Wan, Li-Jun; Jude, Hershel; Stang, Peter J

    2005-11-23

    The structure and conformation of three self-assembled supramolecular species, a rectangle, a square, and a three-dimensional cage, on Au111 surfaces were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. These supramolecular assemblies adsorb on Au111 surfaces and self-organize to form highly ordered adlayers with distinct conformations that are consistent with their chemical structures. The faces of the supramolecular rectangle and square lie flat on the surface, preserving their rectangle and square conformations, respectively. The three-dimensional cage also forms well-ordered adlayers on the gold surface, forming regular molecular rows of assemblies. When the rectangle and cage were mixed together, the assemblies separated into individual domains, and no mixed adlayers were observed. These results provide direct evidence of the noncrystalline solid-state structures of these assemblies and information about how they self-organize on Au111 surfaces, which is of importance in the potential manufacturing of functional nanostructures and devices.

  20. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  1. Supramolecular Liquid Crystal Displays Construction and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogboom, J.T.V.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and post-LCD construction. In addition, the thesis describes the application of LCD technology in biosensors.

  2. Engineering responsive supramolecular biomaterials: Toward smart therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    Engineering materials using supramolecular principles enables generalizable and modular platforms that have tunable chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. Applying this bottom-up, molecular engineering-based approach to therapeutic design affords unmatched control of emergent properties and functionalities. In preparing responsive materials for biomedical applications, the dynamic character of typical supramolecular interactions facilitates systems that can more rapidly sense and respond to specific stimuli through a fundamental change in material properties or characteristics, as compared to cases where covalent bonds must be overcome. Several supramolecular motifs have been evaluated toward the preparation of "smart" materials capable of sensing and responding to stimuli. Triggers of interest in designing materials for therapeutic use include applied external fields, environmental changes, biological actuators, applied mechanical loading, and modulation of relative binding affinities. In addition, multistimuli-responsive routes can be realized that capture combinations of triggers for increased functionality. In sum, supramolecular engineering offers a highly functional strategy to prepare responsive materials. Future development and refinement of these approaches will improve precision in material formation and responsiveness, seek dynamic reciprocity in interactions with living biological systems, and improve spatiotemporal sensing of disease for better therapeutic deployment.

  3. Enhancing SERS by Means of Supramolecular Charge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric; Flood, Amar; Morales, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed method of sensing small quantities of molecules of interest, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy would be further enhanced by means of intermolecular or supramolecular charge transfer. There is a very large potential market for sensors based on this method for rapid detection of chemical and biological hazards. In SERS, the Raman signals (vibrational spectra) of target molecules become enhanced by factors of the order of 108 when those molecules are in the vicinities of nanostructured substrate surfaces that have been engineered to have plasmon resonances that enhance local electric fields. SERS, as reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and elsewhere, has remained a research tool and has not yet been developed into a practical technique for sensing of target molecules: this is because the short range (5 to 20 nm) of the field enhancement necessitates engineering of receptor molecules to attract target molecules to the nanostructured substrate surfaces and to enable reliable identification of the target molecules in the presence of interferants. Intermolecular charge-transfer complexes have been used in fluorescence-, photoluminescence-, and electrochemistry-based techniques for sensing target molecules, but, until now, have not been considered for use in SERS-based sensing. The basic idea of the proposed method is to engineer receptor molecules that would be attached to nanostructured SERS substrates and that would interact with the target molecules to form receptor-target supramolecular charge-transfer complexes wherein the charge transfer could be photoexcited.

  4. Printable optical sensors based on H-bonded supramolecular cholesteric liquid crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Nicole; Guneysu, Hilal; Davies, Dylan J D; Yildirim, Derya; Vaccaro, Antonio R; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2012-05-09

    A printable H-bonded cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) polymer film has been fabricated that, after conversion to a hygroscopic polymer salt film, responds to temperature and humidity by changing its reflection color. Fast-responding humidity sensors have been made in which the reflection color changes between green and yellow depending on the relative humidity. The change in reflection band is a result of a change in helix pitch in the film due to absorption and desorption of water, resulting in swelling/deswelling of the film material. When the polymer salt was saturated with water, a red-reflecting film was obtained that can potentially act as a time/temperature integrator. Finally, the films were printed on a foil, showing the potential application of supramolecular CLC materials as low-cost, printable, battery-free optical sensors.

  5. Neutral coordination polymers based on a metal-mono(dithiolene) complex: synthesis, crystal structure and supramolecular chemistry of [Zn(dmit)(4,4'-bpy)]n, [Zn(dmit)(4,4'-bpe)]n and [Zn(dmit)(bix)]n (4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, 4,4'-bpe = trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene, bix = 1,4-bis(imidazole-1-ylmethyl)-benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Vedichi; Das, Samar K

    2011-12-28

    This article describes a unique synthetic route that enables a neutral mono(dithiolene)metal unit, {Zn(dmit)}, to link with three different organic molecules, resulting in the isolation of a new class of neutral coordination polymers. The species {Zn(dmit)} coordinates with 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bpy), trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene (4,4'-bpe) and 1,4-bis(imidazole-1-ylmethyl)-benzene (bix) as linkers giving rise to the formation of coordination polymers [Zn(dmit)(4,4'-bpy)](n) (1), [Zn(dmit)(4,4'-bpe)](n) (2) and [Zn(dmit)(bix)](n) (3) respectively. Compounds 1-3 were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1 and 3 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, whereby compound 2 crystallizes in triclinic space group P1[combining macron]. In the present study, we chose three linkers 4,4'-bpy, 4,4'-bpe and bix (see , respectively, for their structural drawings), that differ in terms of their molecular dimensions. The crystal structures of compounds 1-3 are described here in terms of their supramolecular diversities that include π-π interactions, not only among aromatic stacking (compounds 1 and 3), but also between an aromatic ring and an ethylenic double bond (compound 2). The electronic absorption spectroscopy of compounds 1-3 support these intermolecular π-π interactions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  6. Supramolecular Complexes Formed by the Self-assembly of Hydrophobic Bis(Zn(2+)-cyclen) Complexes, Copper, and Di- or Triimide Units for the Hydrolysis of Phosphate Mono- and Diesters in Two-Phase Solvent Systems (Cyclen=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yuya; Yoneda, Kakeru; Miyauchi, Miki; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Aoki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported on supramolecular complexes 4 and 5, formed by the 4 : 4 : 4 or 2 : 2 : 2 assembly of a dimeric zinc(II) complex (Zn2L(1)) having 2,2'-bipyridyl linker, dianion of cyanuric acid (CA) or 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (Bar), and copper(II) ion (Cu(2+)) in an aqueous solution. The supermolecule 4 possesses Cu2(μ-OH)2 centers and catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphate monoester dianion, mono(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (MNP), at neutral pH. In this manuscript, we report on design and synthesis of hydrophobic supermolecules 9 and 10 by 4 : 4 : 4 and 2 : 2 : 2 self-assembly of hydrophobic Zn2L(2) and Zn2L(3) containing long alkyl chains, CA or Bar, and Cu(2+) and their phosphatase activity for the hydrolysis of MNP and bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNP) in two-phase solvent systems. We assumed that the Cu2(μ-OH)2 active sites of 9 and 10 would be more stable in organic solvent than in aqueous solution and that product inhibition of the supermolecules might be avoided by the release of HPO4(2-) into the aqueous layer. The findings indicate that 9 and 10 exhibit phosphatase activity in the two-phase solvent system, although catalytic turnover was not observed. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of BNP catalyzed by the hydrophobic 2 : 2 : 2 supermolecules in the two-phase solvent system is described.

  7. Understanding Toughness in Bioinspired Cellulose Nanofibril/Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Alejandro J; Lossada, Francisco; Zhu, Baolei; Rudolph, Tobias; Walther, Andreas

    2016-07-11

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are considered next generation, renewable reinforcements for sustainable, high-performance bioinspired nanocomposites uniting high stiffness, strength and toughness. However, the challenges associated with making well-defined CNF/polymer nanopaper hybrid structures with well-controlled polymer properties have so far hampered to deduce a quantitative picture of the mechanical properties space and deformation mechanisms, and limits the ability to tune and control the mechanical properties by rational design criteria. Here, we discuss detailed insights on how the thermo-mechanical properties of tailor-made copolymers govern the tensile properties in bioinspired CNF/polymer settings, hence at high fractions of reinforcements and under nanoconfinement conditions for the polymers. To this end, we synthesize a series of fully water-soluble and nonionic copolymers, whose glass transition temperatures (Tg) are varied from -60 to 130 °C. We demonstrate that well-defined polymer-coated core/shell nanofibrils form at intermediate stages and that well-defined nanopaper structures with tunable nanostructure arise. The systematic correlation between the thermal transitions in the (co)polymers, as well as its fraction, on the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of the nanocomposites is underscored by tensile tests, SEM imaging of fracture surfaces and dynamic mechanical analysis. An optimum toughness is obtained for copolymers with a Tg close to the testing temperature, where the soft phase possesses the best combination of high molecular mobility and cohesive strength. New deformation modes are activated for the toughest compositions. Our study establishes quantitative structure/property relationships in CNF/(co)polymer nanopapers and opens the design space for future, rational molecular engineering using reversible supramolecular bonds or covalent cross-linking.

  8. Supramolecular structures and self-association processes in polymer systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Filippov, Sergey K.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S165-S178 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : copolymers * nanoparticles * phase separation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S165.pdf

  9. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, O.J.G.M.; Hendrikse, S.I.S.; Dankers, P.Y.W.; Meijer, E.W.

    2017-01-01

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The

  10. Supramolecular assembly affording a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent nanoprobe for quantitative detection and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hong-Wen; Xiong, Mengyi; Yin, Sheng-Yan; Yang, Yue; Hu, Xiao-Xiao; Yin, Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence quantitative analyses for vital biomolecules are in great demand in biomedical science owing to their unique detection advantages with rapid, sensitive, non-damaging and specific identification. However, available fluorescence strategies for quantitative detection are usually hard to design and achieve. Inspired by supramolecular chemistry, a two-photon-excited fluorescent supramolecular nanoplatform ( TPSNP ) was designed for quantitative analysis with three parts: host molecules (β-CD polymers), a guest fluorophore of sensing probes (Np-Ad) and a guest internal reference (NpRh-Ad). In this strategy, the TPSNP possesses the merits of (i) improved water-solubility and biocompatibility; (ii) increased tissue penetration depth for bioimaging by two-photon excitation; (iii) quantitative and tunable assembly of functional guest molecules to obtain optimized detection conditions; (iv) a common approach to avoid the limitation of complicated design by adjustment of sensing probes; and (v) accurate quantitative analysis by virtue of reference molecules. As a proof-of-concept, we utilized the two-photon fluorescent probe NHS-Ad-based TPSNP-1 to realize accurate quantitative analysis of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), with high sensitivity and good selectivity in live cells, deep tissues and ex vivo -dissected organs, suggesting that the TPSNP is an ideal quantitative indicator for clinical samples. What's more, TPSNP will pave the way for designing and preparing advanced supramolecular sensors for biosensing and biomedicine.

  11. Adsorption of Cr (III from aqueous solution by two forms of a superabsorbant polymer : parametric study and effect of activation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouass A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of chromium ions Cr3+ using two forms of a superabsorbant polymer PANa from aqueous solution was investigated. On one hand the equilibrium pH with the distilled water and the pH of point of zero charge have been studied in order to characterize the acid-base behavior of both of PANa forms. On the other hand, the effect of contact time between PANa and the metallic solution and stirring speed of aqueous solution on the adsorption rate were established to highlight the importance of PANa as an efficient adsorbent of chromium ions Cr3+.

  12. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  13. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  14. An integrated system for dissolution studies and magnetic resonance imaging of controlled release, polymer-based dosage forms-a tool for quantitative assessment of hydrogel formation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Dorozyński, Przemysław; Jachowicz, Renata; Weglarz, Władysław P

    2008-11-04

    Controlled release (CR) dosage forms are often based on polymeric matrices, e.g., sustained-release tablets and capsules. It is crucial to visualise and quantify processes of the hydrogel formation during the standard dissolution study. A method for imaging of CR, polymer-based dosage forms during dissolution study in vitro is presented. Imaging was performed in a non-invasive way by means of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to simulate in vivo conditions regarding temperature, volume, state and composition of dissolution media. Two formulations of hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS) were chosen as model CR dosage forms. HBS release active substance in stomach while floating on the surface of the gastric content. Time evolutions of the diffusion region, hydrogel formation region and "dry core" region were obtained during a dissolution study of L-dopa as a model drug in two simulated gastric fluids (i.e. in fed and fasted state). This method seems to be a very promising tool for examining properties of new formulations of CR, polymer-based dosage forms or for comparison of generic and originator dosage forms before carrying out bioequivalence studies.

  15. Design of supramolecular ordered systems for mesoscopic colloids and molecular composites. Progress report, November 10, 1993--June 10, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    During this reporting period, the authors group has been active in five areas of research: (1) improvements on their x-ray instrumentation at the SUNY Beamline, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) so that they can perform new experiments which are not accessible otherwise; (2) characterization of functionalized hairy rod polymers designed for studying the macromolecular structures in molecular composites; (3) investigation of supramolecular ordered systems composed mainly of block copolymers from dilute to concentrated solutions, including the gel state; (4) evolution of crystalline structures in polymer blends and melts; and (5) multiphase structure of segment polyurethanes.

  16. A chiroptical switch based on supramolecular chirality transfer through alkyl chain entanglement and dynamic covalent bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Kai; Qin, Long; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2013-12-14

    Chirality transfer is an interesting phenomenon in Nature, which represents an important step to understand the evolution of chiral bias and the amplification of the chirality. In this paper, we report the chirality transfer via the entanglement of the alkyl chains between chiral gelator molecules and achiral amphiphilic Schiff base. We have found that although an achiral Schiff base amphiphile could not form organogels in any kind of organic solvents, it formed co-organogels when mixed with a chiral gelator molecule. Interestingly, the chirality of the gelator molecules was transferred to the Schiff base chromophore in the mixed co-gels and there was a maximum mixing ratio for the chirality transfer. Furthermore, the supramolecular chirality was also produced based on a dynamic covalent chemistry of an imine formed by the reaction between an aldehyde and an amine. Such a covalent bond of imine was formed reversibly depending on the pH variation. When the covalent bond was formed the chirality transfer occurred, when it was destroyed, the transfer stopped. Thus, a supramolecular chiroptical switch is obtained based on supramolecular chirality transfer and dynamic covalent chemistry.

  17. Atomic motions in the αβ-region of glass-forming polymers: molecular versus mode coupling theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenero, Juan; Narros, Arturo; Alvarez, Fernando; Arbe, Arantxa; Moreno, Angel J

    2007-01-01

    We present fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulation results on a main-chain polymer, 1,4-polybutadiene, in the merging region of the α- and β-relaxations. A real-space analysis reveals the occurrence of localized motions ('β-like') in addition to the diffusive structural relaxation. A molecular approach provides a direct connection between the local conformational changes reflected in the atomic motions and the secondary relaxations in this polymer. Such local processes occur just in the time window where the β-process of the mode coupling theory is expected. We show that the application of this theory is still possible and yields an unusually large value of the exponent parameter. This result might originate from the competition between two mechanisms for dynamic arrest: intermolecular packing and intramolecular barriers for local conformational changes ('β-like')

  18. Hybrid polymer-CdS solar cell active layers formed by in situ growth of CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, S.; Del Gobbo, S.; Borriello, C.; Bizzarro, V.; La Ferrara, V.; Re, M.; Pesce, E.; Minarini, C.; De Crescenzi, M.; Di Luccio, T.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymeric matrix has the potential to enhance the performance of polymer-based solar cells taking advantage of the physical properties of NPs and polymers. We synthesize a new class of CdS-NPs-based active layer employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based on the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a cadmium thiolate precursor in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The casted P3HT:precursor solid foils were heated up from 200 to 300 °C to allow the precursor decomposition and the CdS-NP formation within the polymer matrix. The CdS-NP growth was controlled by varying the annealing temperature. The polymer:precursor weight ratio was also varied to investigate the effects of increasing the NP volume fraction on the solar cell performances. The optical properties were studied by using UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at room temperature. To investigate the photocurrent response of P3HT:CdS nanocomposites, ITO/P3HT:CdS/Al solar cell devices were realized. We measured the external quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of the wavelength. The photovoltaic response of the devices containing CdS-NPs showed a variation compared with the devices with P3HT only. By changing the annealing temperature the EQE is enhanced in the 400–600 nm spectral region. By increasing the NPs volume fraction remarkable changes in the EQE spectra were observed. The data are discussed also in relation to morphological features of the interfaces studied by Focused Ion Beam technique.

  19. Preparation of supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibiting biomolecule-responsive gel degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Fujisaku, Takahiro; Onogi, Shoji; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogelators are small, self-assembling molecules that form supramolecular nanofiber networks that exhibit unique dynamic properties. Development of supramolecular hydrogels that degrade in response to various biomolecules could potentially be used for applications in areas such as drug delivery and diagnostics. Here we provide a synthetic procedure for preparing redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogelators that are used to create hydrogels that degrade in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. The synthesis takes ∼2-4 d, and it can potentially be carried out in parallel to prepare multiple hydrogelator candidates. This described solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol can be used to produce previously described hydrogelators or to construct a focused molecular library to efficiently discover and optimize new hydrogelators. In addition, we describe the preparation of redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids that are created by mixing aqueous solutions of hydrogelators and enzymes, which requires 2 h for completion. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibit gel degradation in response to various biomolecules, and can be rationally designed by connecting the chemical reactions of the hydrogelators with enzymatic reactions. Gel degradation in response to biomolecules as triggers occurs within a few hours. We also describe the preparation of hydrogel-enzyme hybrids arrayed on flat glass slides, enabling high-throughput analysis of biomolecules such as glucose, uric acid, lactate and so on by gel degradation, which is detectable by the naked eye. The protocol requires ∼6 h to prepare the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid array and to complete the biomolecule assay.

  20. Supramolecular gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyoshi, Takanori; Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a frequent technique used to separate exceptionally large DNA fragments. In a typical continuous field electrophoresis, it is challenging to separate DNA fragments larger than 20 kbp because they migrate at a comparable rate. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to develop a novel matrix for the electrophoresis. Here, we describe the electrophoresis of large DNA fragments up to 166 kbp using a supramolecular gel matrix and a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. C 3 -symmetric tris-urea self-assembled into a supramolecular hydrogel in tris-boric acid-EDTA buffer, a typical buffer for DNA electrophoresis, and the supramolecular hydrogel was used as a matrix for electrophoresis to separate large DNA fragments. Three types of DNA marker, the λ-Hind III digest (2 to 23 kbp), Lambda DNA-Mono Cut Mix (10 to 49 kbp), and Marker 7 GT (10 to 165 kbp), were analyzed in this study. Large DNA fragments of greater than 100 kbp showed distinct mobility using a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Narrowing the diversification of supramolecular assemblies by preorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyan; Liang, Chunhui; Shang, Yuna; He, Shuangshuang; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2018-03-13

    We designed and synthesized three phosphorylated peptides as precursors of the same peptide Nap-YYY. We found that different precursors led to different materials with almost identical chemical compositions at the final stages. Only Nap-YpYY could form very uniform nanofibers in a stable supramolecular hydrogel by enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) at the physiological temperature (37 °C). In contrast, de-phosphorylation of the other two precursors (Nap-pYYY and Nap-YYpY) resulted in diverse nanostructures in metastable hydrogels with precipitates. The formation of uniform nanomaterials in the stable hydrogels was due to the preorganization property of the precursor Nap-YpYY, which facilitated rapid folding and accelerated the kinetics of hydrogelation of the resulting peptide Nap-YYY generated by the EISA process. Our study demonstrated the importance of the precursor for the self-assembly of nanomaterials and provided a useful strategy to manipulate them.

  2. Study of optical shuttering action in supramolecular hydrogen bonded nematogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Pongali Sathya Prabu, N.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.

    2012-11-01

    Supramolecular hydrogen bonded mesogens are formed between p-n-undecyloxy benzoic acid (11BAO) and p-n-alkyl benzoic acids (nBA, where n = 2-8). The isolated mesogens are characterized by distinct techniques in order to appreciate the optical, thermal, electrical, and dielectric properties. The optical tilt angle measurement is studied for all the members of this homologous series and is found to concur with the mean field theory predicted value. An interesting factor to notice is the observation of optical shuttering action in nematic phase of the entire series which privilege these materials to be used as light modulators. Dielectric measurements were carried out and the dispersion curves were discussed in terms of relaxation frequency and activation energies.

  3. Chiroptical studies on supramolecular chirality of molecular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hisako; Yajima, Tomoko; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    The attempts of applying chiroptical spectroscopy to supramolecular chirality are reviewed with a focus on vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Examples were taken from gels, solids, and monolayers formed by low-molecular mass weight chiral gelators. Particular attention was paid to a group of gelators with perfluoroalkyl chains. The effects of the helical conformation of the perfluoroalkyl chains on the formation of chiral architectures are reported. It is described how the conformation of a chiral gelator was determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical VCD spectra together with a model proposed for the molecular aggregation in fibrils. The results demonstrate the potential utility of the chiroptical method in analyzing organized chiral aggregates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Friction mediated by redox-active supramolecular connector molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozna, B L; Blass, J; Albrecht, M; Hausen, F; Wenz, G; Bennewitz, R

    2015-10-06

    We report on a friction study at the nanometer scale using atomic force microscopy under electrochemical control. Friction arises from the interaction between two surfaces functionalized with cyclodextrin molecules. The interaction is mediated by connector molecules with (ferrocenylmethyl)ammonium end groups forming supramolecular complexes with the cyclodextrin molecules. With ferrocene connector molecules in solution, the friction increases by a factor of up to 12 compared to control experiments without connector molecules. The electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene to ferrocenium causes a decrease in friction owing to the lower stability of ferrocenium-cyclodextrin complex. Upon switching between oxidative and reduction potentials, a change in friction by a factor of 1.2-1.8 is observed. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals fast dissociation and rebinding kinetics and thus an equilibrium regime for the friction experiments.

  5. Supramolecular effects in dendritic systems containing photoactive groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANLUCA CAMILLO AZZELLINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article are described dendritic structures containing photoactive groups at the surface or in the core. The observed supramolecular effects can be attributed to the nature of the photoactive group and their location in the dendritic architecture. The peripheric azobenzene groups in these dendrimeric compounds can be regarded as single residues that retain the spectroscopic and photochemical properties of free azobenzene moiety. The E and Z forms of higher generation dendrimer, functionalized with azobenzene groups, show different host ability towards eosin dye, suggesting the possibility of using such dendrimer in photocontrolled host-guest systems. The photophysical properties of many dendritic-bipyridine ruthenium complexes have been investigated. Particularly in aerated medium more intense emission and a longer excited-state lifetime are observed as compared to the parent unsubstituted bipyridine ruthenium complexes. These differences can be attributed to a shielding effect towards dioxygen quenching originated by the dendritic branches.

  6. Supramolecular Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Novel Concept Combining Pharmaceutical Sciences and Supramolecular Chemistry with a Focus on Cyclodextrin-Based Supermolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Taishi; Iohara, Daisuke; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is an extremely useful and important domain for understanding pharmaceutical sciences because various physiological reactions and drug activities are based on supramolecular chemistry. However, it is not a major domain in the pharmaceutical field. In this review, we propose a new concept in pharmaceutical sciences termed "supramolecular pharmaceutical sciences," which combines pharmaceutical sciences and supramolecular chemistry. This concept could be useful for developing new ideas, methods, hypotheses, strategies, materials, and mechanisms in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, we focus on cyclodextrin (CyD)-based supermolecules, because CyDs have been used not only as pharmaceutical excipients or active pharmaceutical ingredients but also as components of supermolecules.

  7. Metal-driven and covalent synthesis of supramolecular grids from racks: a convergent approach to heterometallic and heteroleptic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittel, Michael; Kalsani, Venkateshwarlu; Bats, Jan W

    2005-06-13

    Supramolecular nanogrids were prepared from dynamic supramolecular racks through the coupling of terminal alkynes using either a covalent (with CuCl/O(2)) or a coordinative (with [trans-(PEt(3))(2)PtCl(2)]) approach. Because of the rapid equilibration of the racks (as tested by exchange reactions), oligomeric adducts potentially formed in the coupling process will selectively furnish the nanogrids through an entropically driven self-repair mechanism. To ascertain the structural assignment, the nanogrids were also synthesized by an independent strategy.

  8. Transfer and Dynamic Inversion of Coassembled Supramolecular Chirality through 2D-Sheet to Rolled-Up Tubular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heekyoung; Cho, Kang Jin; Seo, Hyowon; Ahn, Junho; Liu, Jinying; Lee, Shim Sung; Kim, Hyungjun; Feng, Chuanliang; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2017-12-13

    Transfer and inversion of supramolecular chirality from chiral calix[4]arene analogs (3D and 3L) with an alanine moiety to an achiral bipyridine derivative (1) with glycine moieties in a coassembled hydrogel are demonstrated. Molecular chirality of 3D and 3L could transfer supramolecular chirality to an achiral bipyridine derivative 1. Moreover, addition of 0.6 equiv of 3D or 3L to 1 induced supramolecular chirality inversion of 1. More interestingly, the 2D-sheet structure of the coassembled hydrogels formed with 0.2 equiv of 3D or 3L changed to a rolled-up tubular structure in the presence of 0.6 equiv of 3D or 3L. The chirality inversion and morphology change are mainly mediated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions between the achiral and chiral molecules, which might be induced by reorientations of the assembled molecules, confirmed by density functional theory calculations.

  9. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Paolantoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  10. Intracellular Environment-Responsive Stabilization of Polymer Vesicles Formed from Head-Tail Type Polycations Composed of a Polyamidoamine Dendron and Poly(L-lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of effective drug carriers, nanocapsules that respond to micro-environmental changes including a decrease in pH and a reductive environment were prepared by the stabilization of polymer vesicles formed from head-tail type polycations, composed of a polyamidoamine dendron head and a poly(L-lysine tail (PAMAM dendron-PLL, through the introduction of disulfide bonds between the PLL tails. Disulfide bonds were successfully introduced through the reaction of Lys residues in the PAMAM dendron-PLL polymer vesicles with 2-iminothiolane. The stabilization of PAMAM dendron-PLL polymer vesicles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering measurements. In acid-base titration experiments, nanocapsules cross-linked by disulfide bonds had a buffering effect during the cellular uptake process. The PAMAM dendron-PLL nanocapsules were used to incorporate the fluorescent dyes rhodamine 6G and fluorescein as a drug model. Cationic rhodamine 6G was generally not released from the nanocapsules because of the electrostatic barrier of the PLL membrane. However, the nanocapsules were destabilized at high glutathione concentrations corresponding to intracellular concentrations. Rhodamine 6G was immediately released from the nanocapsules because of destabilization upon the cleavage of disulfide bonds. This release of rhodamine 6G from the nanocapsules was also observed in HeLa cells by laser confocal microscopy.

  11. Reaction of carbon tetrachloride with methane in a non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, and characterisation of the polymer thus formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Vaibhav [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kennedy, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Kennedy@newcastle.edu.au [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Mackie, John [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holdsworth, Clovia [Centre for Organic Electronics, Chemistry Building, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Molloy, Scott; Kundu, Sazal; Stockenhuber, Michael [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dlugogorski, Bogdan [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CCl{sub 4} remediation using non-equilibrium plasma and non-oxidative conditions is proposed. • The reaction mechanism relies on experimental data and quantum chemical analysis. • Comprehensive mass balance for the reaction is provided. • CCl{sub 4} is converted to an environmentally benign and potentially useful polymer. • Characterisation of the polymer structure based on NMR and FTIR analyses is presented. - Abstract: In this paper we focus on the development of a methodology for treatment of carbon tetrachloride utilising a non-equilibrium plasma operating at atmospheric pressure, which is not singularly aimed at destroying carbon tetrachloride but rather at converting it to a non-hazardous, potentially valuable commodity. This method encompasses the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and methane, with argon as a carrier gas, in a quartz dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reaction is performed under non-oxidative conditions. Possible pathways for formation of major products based on experimental results and supported by quantum chemical calculations are outlined in the paper. We elucidate important parameters such as carbon tetrachloride conversion, product distribution, mass balance and characterise the chlorinated polymer formed in the process.

  12. Molecular and supramolecular speciation of monoamide extractant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferru, G.

    2012-01-01

    DEHiBA (N,N-di-(ethyl-2-hexyl)isobutyramide, a monoamide, was chosen as selective extractant for the recovery of uranium in the first cycle of the GANEX process, which aims to realize the grouped extraction of actinides in the second step of the process. The aim of this work is an improved description of monoamide organic solutions in alkane diluent after solutes extraction: water, nitric acid and uranyl nitrate. A parametric study was undertaken to characterize species at molecular scale (by IR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and electro-spray ionisation mass spectrometry) and at supramolecular scale (by vapor pressure osmometry and small angle X-ray scattering coupled to molecular dynamic simulations). Extraction isotherms were modelled taking into account the molecular and supramolecular speciation. These works showed that the organization of the organic solution depends on the amide concentration, the nature and the concentration of the extracted solute. Three regimes can be distinguished. 1/For extractant concentration less than 0.5 mol/L, monomers are predominate species. 2/ For extractant concentrations between 0.5 and 1 mol/L, small aggregates are formed containing 2 to 4 molecules of monoamide. 3/ For more concentrated solutions (greater than 1 mol/L), slightly larger species can be formed after water or nitric acid extraction. Concerning uranyl nitrate extraction, an important and strong organization of the organic phase is observed, which no longer allows the formation of well spherical defined aggregates. At molecular scale, complexes are not sensitive to the organization of the solution: the same species are observed, regardless of the solute and extractant concentrations in organic phase. (author) [fr

  13. Supramolecular Nanoparticles for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju

    Over the past decades, significant efforts have been devoted to explore the use of various nanoparticle-based systems in the field of nanomedicine, including molecular imaging and therapy. Supramolecular synthetic approaches have attracted lots of attention due to their flexibility, convenience, and modularity for producing nanoparticles. In this dissertation, the developmental story of our size-controllable supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) will be discussed, as well as their use in specific biomedical applications. To achieve the self-assembly of SNPs, the well-characterized molecular recognition system (i.e., cyclodextrin/adamantane recognition) was employed. The resulting SNPs, which were assembled from three molecular building blocks, possess incredible stability in various physiological conditions, reversible size-controllability and dynamic disassembly that were exploited for various in vitro and in vivo applications. An advantage of using the supramolecular approach is that it enables the convenient incorporation of functional ligands onto SNP surface that confers functionality ( e.g., targeting, cell penetration) to SNPs. We utilized SNPs for molecular imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) by introducing reporter systems (i.e., radio-isotopes, MR contrast agents, and fluorophores) into SNPs. On the other hand, the incorporation of various payloads, including drugs, genes and proteins, into SNPs showed improved delivery performance and enhanced therapeutic efficacy for these therapeutic agents. Leveraging the powers of (i) a combinatorial synthetic approach based on supramolecular assembly and (ii) a digital microreactor, a rapid developmental pathway was developed that is capable of screening SNP candidates for the ideal structural and functional properties that deliver optimal performance. Moreover, SNP-based theranostic delivery systems that combine reporter systems and therapeutic payloads into a

  14. Vortex-Induced Alignment of a Water Soluble Supramolecular Nanofiber Composed of an Amphiphilic Dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized a novel amphiphilic naphthalene imide bearing a cationic dendrimer wedge (NID. NID molecules in water self-assemble to form a two-dimensional ribbon, which further coils to give a linear supramolecular nanofiber. The sample solution showed linear dichroism (LD upon stirring of the solution, where NID nanofibers dominantly align at the center of vortex by hydrodynamic interaction with the downward torsional flows.

  15. The influence of aquaporin-4 isoform interaction on supramolecular water channel assembly in astrocytoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often complicated by the development of brain edema. Despite its clinical importance, the underlying pathological mechanisms are poorly understood. Nevertheless, a central role for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been suggested. AQP4 is the predominant water channel of the central nervous system, where it forms supramolecular structures named orthogonal arrays of particles (OAP). This organization is essential for channel opening. OAP formation is regulated by the diffe...

  16. Engineering a pharmacologically superior form of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor by fusion with gelatin-like-protein polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Shan; Wen, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Yi-Liang; Wang, Ye-Fei; Fan, Min; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lin-Fu

    2010-03-01

    The plasma half-life of therapeutic proteins is a critical factor in many clinical applications. Therefore, new strategies to prolong plasma half-life of long-acting peptides and protein drugs are in high demand. Here, we designed an artificial gelatin-like protein (GLK) and fused this hydrophilic GLK polymer to granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to generate a chimeric GLK/G-CSF fusion protein. The genetically engineered recombinant GLK/G-CSF (rGLK/G-CSF) fusion protein was purified from Pichia pastoris. In vitro studies demonstrated that rGLK/G-CSF possessed an enlarged hydrodynamic radius, improved thermal stability and retained full bioactivity compared to unfused G-CSF. Following a single subcutaneous administration to rats, the rGLK/G-CSF fusion protein displayed a slower plasma clearance rate and stimulated greater and longer lasting increases in circulating white blood cells than G-CSF. Our findings indicate that fusion with this artificial, hydrophilic, GLK polymer provides many advantages in the construction of a potent hematopoietic factor with extended plasma half-life. This approach could be easily applied to other therapeutic proteins and have important clinical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Supramolecular architectures in layer-by-layer films of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and cobalt (II) phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Luz, Roberto A. de; Martins, Marccus Victor A.; Magalhaes, Janildo L.; Siqueira, Jose R.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Cantanhede da Silva, Welter

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Platforms were assembled from cobalt phthalocyanine, chitosan and carbon nanotubes. → Supramolecular organization of multilayer films was investigated. → Increase of the supramolecular charge transfer after carbon nanotube incorporation. → Functional modulation based on constitutional dynamic chemistry was achieved. - Abstract: The building of supramolecular structures in nanostructured films has been exploited for a number of applications, with the film properties being controlled at the molecular level. In this study, we report on the layer-by-layer (LbL) films combining cobalt (II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTsPc), chitosan (Chit) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in two architectures, {Chit/CoTsPc} n and {Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc} n (n = 1-10). The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated and the multilayer formation was monitored with microgravimetry measurements using a quartz microbalance crystal and an electrochemical technique. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the incorporation of SWCNTs caused the films to be thicker, with a thickness ca. 3 fold that of a 2-bilayer LbL film with no SWCNTs. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a quasi-reversible, one electron process with E 1/2 at -0.65 V (vs SCE) and an irreversible oxidation process at 0.80 V in a physiological medium for both systems, which can be attributed to [CoTsPc(I)] 5- /[CoTsPc(II)] 4- and CoTsPc(II) to CoTsPc(III), respectively. The {Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc} 5 multilayer film exhibited an increased faradaic current, probably associated with the supramolecular charge transfer interaction between cobalt phthalocyanine and SWCNTs. The results demonstrate that an intimate contact at the supramolecular level between functional SWCNTs immobilized into biocompatible chitosan polymer and CoTsPc improves the electron flow from CoTsPc redox sites to the electrode surface.

  18. Temperature-Induced, Selective Assembly of Supramolecular Colloids in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravensteijn, Bas G.P.; Vilanova, Neus; De Feijter, Isja; Kegel, Willem K.; Voets, Ilja K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis and physical characterization of colloidal polystyrene particles that carry water-soluble supramolecular N,N′,N″,-trialkyl-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs) on their surface. These molecules are known to assemble into one-dimensional supramolecular

  19. Directed supramolecular surface assembly of SNAP-tag fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, H.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, J.; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Brunsveld, L.

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  20. Supramolecular biomaterials : a modular approach towards tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, P.Y.W.; Meijer, E.W.

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is an exciting area of science that plays a central role in bringing different disciplines together, ranging from molecular medicine to nanotechnology. Materials science based on supramolecular interactions is an emerging field, which has made important steps forward in the

  1. Dynamic reciprocity in bio-inspired supramolecular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastings, M.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic reciprocity, the spatio-temporal bidirectional process between evolving partners in a functional system is not only found in nature, but also applies to supramolecularly assembling architectures. In this thesis, the focus was on the understanding of nature-inspired supramolecular

  2. Directed Supramolecular Surface Assembly of SNAP-tag Fusion Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  3. Is Supramolecular Filament Chirality the Underlying Cause of Major Morphology Differences in Amyloid Fibrils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The unique enhanced sensitivity of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) to the formation and development of amyloid fibrils in solution is extended to four additional fibril-forming proteins or peptides where it is shown that the sign of the fibril VCD pattern correlates with the sense of supramolecular filament chirality and, without exception, to the dominant fibril morphology as observed in AFM or SEM images. Previously for insulin, it has been demonstrated that the sign of the VCD band pattern from filament chirality can be controlled by adjusting the pH of the incubating solution, above pH 2 for “normal” left-hand-helical filaments and below pH 2 for “reversed” right-hand-helical filaments. From AFM or SEM images, left-helical filaments form multifilament braids of left-twisted fibrils while the right-helical filaments form parallel filament rows of fibrils with a flat tape-like morphology, the two major classes of fibril morphology that from deep UV resonance Raman scattering exhibit the same cross-β-core secondary structure. Here we investigate whether fibril supramolecular chirality is the underlying cause of the major morphology differences in all amyloid fibrils by showing that the morphology (twisted versus flat) of fibrils of lysozyme, apo-α-lactalbumin, HET-s (218–289) prion, and a short polypeptide fragment of transthyretin, TTR (105–115), directly correlates to their supramolecular chirality as revealed by VCD. The result is strong evidence that the chiral supramolecular organization of filaments is the principal underlying cause of the morphological heterogeneity of amyloid fibrils. Because fibril morphology is linked to cell toxicity, the chirality of amyloid aggregates should be explored in the widely used in vitro models of amyloid-associated diseases. PMID:24484302

  4. Is supramolecular filament chirality the underlying cause of major morphology differences in amyloid fibrils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Lu, Xuefang; Popova, Ludmila; Wan, William; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; Stubbs, Gerald; Dukor, Rina K; Lednev, Igor K; Nafie, Laurence A

    2014-02-12

    The unique enhanced sensitivity of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) to the formation and development of amyloid fibrils in solution is extended to four additional fibril-forming proteins or peptides where it is shown that the sign of the fibril VCD pattern correlates with the sense of supramolecular filament chirality and, without exception, to the dominant fibril morphology as observed in AFM or SEM images. Previously for insulin, it has been demonstrated that the sign of the VCD band pattern from filament chirality can be controlled by adjusting the pH of the incubating solution, above pH 2 for "normal" left-hand-helical filaments and below pH 2 for "reversed" right-hand-helical filaments. From AFM or SEM images, left-helical filaments form multifilament braids of left-twisted fibrils while the right-helical filaments form parallel filament rows of fibrils with a flat tape-like morphology, the two major classes of fibril morphology that from deep UV resonance Raman scattering exhibit the same cross-β-core secondary structure. Here we investigate whether fibril supramolecular chirality is the underlying cause of the major morphology differences in all amyloid fibrils by showing that the morphology (twisted versus flat) of fibrils of lysozyme, apo-α-lactalbumin, HET-s (218-289) prion, and a short polypeptide fragment of transthyretin, TTR (105-115), directly correlates to their supramolecular chirality as revealed by VCD. The result is strong evidence that the chiral supramolecular organization of filaments is the principal underlying cause of the morphological heterogeneity of amyloid fibrils. Because fibril morphology is linked to cell toxicity, the chirality of amyloid aggregates should be explored in the widely used in vitro models of amyloid-associated diseases.

  5. Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-08-14

    Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.

  6. Effect of Polymer Form and its Consolidation on Mechanical Properties and Quality of Glass/PBT Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Pillai, Saju; Charca, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    different material systems included in this study; Glass/CBT (CBT160 powder based resin), Glass/PBT (prepreg tapes), and Glass/PBT (commingled yarns). The different types of thermoplastic polymer resin systems used for the manufacturing of the composite UD laminate dictate the differences in final......The aim of this study was to understand the role of the processing in determining the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced polybutylene terephthalate composites (Glass/PBT). Unidirectional (UD) composite laminates were manufactured by the vacuum consolidation technique using three...... mechanical properties which were evaluated by through compression, flexural and short beam transverse bending tests. Microscopy was used to evaluate the quality of the processed laminates, and fractography was used to characterize the observed failure modes. The study provides an improved understanding...

  7. Effect of Polymer Form and its Consolidation on Mechanical Properties and Quality of Glass/PBT Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai Prabhakaran, R. T.; Pillai, Saju; Charca, Samuel; Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Knudsen, Hans; Andersen, Tom Løgstrup; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Lilholt, Hans

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of the processing in determining the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced polybutylene terephthalate composites (Glass/PBT). Unidirectional (UD) composite laminates were manufactured by the vacuum consolidation technique using three different material systems included in this study; Glass/CBT (CBT160 powder based resin), Glass/PBT (prepreg tapes), and Glass/PBT (commingled yarns). The different types of thermoplastic polymer resin systems used for the manufacturing of the composite UD laminate dictate the differences in final mechanical properties which were evaluated by through compression, flexural and short beam transverse bending tests. Microscopy was used to evaluate the quality of the processed laminates, and fractography was used to characterize the observed failure modes. The study provides an improved understanding of the relationships between processing methods, resin characteristics, and mechanical performance of thermoplastic resin composite materials.

  8. Supramolecular Organocatalysis in Water Mediated by Macrocyclic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita De Rosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades many efforts have been devoted to design supramolecular organocatalysts able to work in water as the reaction medium. The use of water as solvent provides promising benefits with respect to environmental impact. In this context, macrocyclic compounds played a role of primary importance thanks to their ease of synthesis and their molecular recognition abilities toward the reactants. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent advances in the field of supramolecular organocatalysis in water, focusing the attention on calixarene and cyclodextrins derivatives. Calixarenes and cyclodextrins, thanks to their hydrophobic cavities, are able to host selectively the substrates isolating they from the reaction environment. In addition, the synthetic versatilities of these macrocycles permits to introduce useful functional groups in close proximity of the hydrophobic binding sites. Regarding the cyclodextrins (CDs, we have here reviewed the their most recent uses as organocatalysts for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, in multi-component reactions and in carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. Examples have been reported in which CD catalysts are able to drive the regiochemistry of common organic reactions. In addition, cyclodextrins bearing catalytically active chiral groups, have shown excellent enantioselectivity in the catalysis of organic reactions. Recently reported results have shown that calixarene derivatives are able to accelerate organic reaction under “on-water” conditions with a significant selectivity toward the reactants. Under “on-water conditions” the hydrophobic effect, induced by insoluble calixarene derivatives, forces the reactants and the catalyst to aggregate and thus accelerating the reaction between them thanks to an amplification of weak secondary interactions. Regarding the use of water-soluble calixarene organocatalysts, we have here reviewed their role in the acceleration of

  9. Supramolecular Organocatalysis in Water Mediated by Macrocyclic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Margherita; La Manna, Pellegrino; Talotta, Carmen; Soriente, Annunziata; Gaeta, Carmine; Neri, Placido

    2018-04-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been devoted to design supramolecular organocatalysts able to work in water as the reaction medium. The use of water as solvent provides promising benefits with respect to environmental impact. In this context, macrocyclic compounds played a role of primary importance thanks to their ease of synthesis and their molecular recognition abilities toward the reactants. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent advances in the field of supramolecular organocatalysis in water, focusing the attention on calixarene and cyclodextrins derivatives. Calixarenes and cyclodextrins, thanks to their hydrophobic cavities, are able to host selectively the substrates isolating they from the reaction environment. In addition, the synthetic versatilities of these macrocycles permits to introduce useful functional groups in close proximity of the hydrophobic binding sites. Regarding the cyclodextrins (CDs), we have here reviewed the their most recent uses as organocatalysts for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, in multi-component reactions and in carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. Examples have been reported in which CD catalysts are able to drive the regiochemistry of common organic reactions. In addition, cyclodextrins bearing catalytically active chiral groups, have shown excellent enantioselectivity in the catalysis of organic reactions. Recently reported results have shown that calixarene derivatives are able to accelerate organic reaction under "on-water" conditions with a significant selectivity toward the reactants. Under "on-water conditions" the hydrophobic effect, induced by insoluble calixarene derivatives, forces the reactants and the catalyst to aggregate and thus accelerating the reaction between them thanks to an amplification of weak secondary interactions. Regarding the use of water-soluble calixarene organocatalysts, we have here reviewed their role in the acceleration of common organic reactions.

  10. Self-motion and the α-relaxation in glass-forming polymers. Molecular dynamic simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering results in polyisoprene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenero, Juan; Arbe, Arantxa; Alvarez, Fernando; Monkenbusch, Michael; Richter, Dieter; Farago, Bela; Frick, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    The momentum transfer dependence of the self-motion of main chain hydrogens in the α-relaxation regime of a glass forming polymer, polyisoprene, has been thoroughly investigated by a combined effort involving fully atomistic molecular dynamic simulations and quasielastic neutron scattering measurements. In this way, we have established the existence of a crossover from a Gaussian regime of sublinear diffusion to a strongly non-Gaussian regime at short distances. We show that an anomalous jump diffusion model with a distribution of jump lengths gives rise to such a crossover. This model leads to a time-dependent non-Gaussian parameter exhibiting all features revealed so far from various simulations of different glass forming systems

  11. Reversible Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Vesicles and Nanofibers Driven by Chalcogen-Bonding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Xiang, Jun; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Chalcogen-bonding interactions have been viewed as new noncovalent forces in supramolecular chemistry. However, harnessing chalcogen bonds to drive molecular self-assembly processes is still unexplored. Here we report for the first time a novel class of supra-amphiphiles formed by Te···O or Se···O chalcogen-bonding interactions, and their self-assembly into supramolecular vesicles and nanofibers. A quasi-calix[4]chalcogenadiazole (C4Ch) as macrocyclic donor and a tailed pyridine N-oxide surfactant as molecular acceptor are designed to construct the donor-acceptor complex via chalcogen-chalcogen connection between the chalcogenadiazole moieties and oxide anion. The affinity of such chalcogen-bonding can dictate the geometry of supra-amphiphiles, driving diverse self-assembled morphologies. Furthermore, the reversible disassembly of these nanostructures can be promoted by introducing competing anions, such as halide ions, or by decreasing the systemic pH value.

  12. Supramolecular Complexation of Carbohydrates for the Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae; Jung, Seunho

    2015-10-27

    In this review, a comprehensive overview of advances in the supramolecular complexes of carbohydrates and poorly soluble drugs is presented. Through the complexation process, poorly soluble drugs could be efficiently delivered to their desired destinations. Carbohydrates, the most abundant biomolecules, have diverse physicochemical properties owing to their inherent three-dimensional structures, hydrogen bonding, and molecular recognition abilities. In this regard, oligosaccharides and their derivatives have been utilized for the bioavailability enhancement of hydrophobic drugs via increasing the solubility or stability. By extension, polysaccharides and their derivatives can form self-assembled architectures with poorly soluble drugs and have shown increased bioavailability in terms of the sustained or controlled drug release. These supramolecular systems using carbohydrate will be developed consistently in the field of pharmaceutical and medical application.

  13. Supramolecular structure of a perylene derivative in thin films deposited by physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jose D.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.J.; Junior, Wagner D.M.; Teixeira, Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Thin films of a perylene derivative, the bis butylimido perylene (BuPTCD), were produced using thermal evaporation (PVD, physical vapor deposition). The main objective is to investigate the supramolecular structure of the BuPTCD in these PVD films, which implies to control the thickness and to determine the molecular organization, morphology at micro and nanometer scales and crystallinity. This supramolecular structure is a key factor in the optical and electrical properties of the film. The ultraviolet-visible absorption revealed an uniform growth of the PVD films. The optical and atomic force microscopy images showed a homogeneous surface of the film at micro and nanometer scales. A preferential orientation of the molecules in the PVD films was determined via infrared absorption. The X-ray diffraction showed that both powder and PVD film are in the crystalline form. (author)

  14. A redox responsive, fluorescent supramolecular metallohydrogel consists of nanofibers with single-molecule width

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ye

    2013-04-03

    The integration of a tripeptide derivative, which is a versatile self-assembly motif, with a ruthenium(II)tris(bipyridine) complex affords the first supramolecular metallo-hydrogelator that not only self assembles in water to form a hydrogel but also exhibits gel-sol transition upon oxidation of the metal center. Surprisingly, the incorporation of the metal complex in the hydrogelator results in the nanofibers, formed by the self-assembly of the hydrogelator in water, to have the width of a single molecule of the hydrogelator. These results illustrate that metal complexes, besides being able to impart rich optical, electronic, redox, or magnetic properties to supramolecular hydrogels, also offer a unique geometrical control to prearrange the self-assembly motif prior to self-assembling. The use of metal complexes to modulate the dimensionality of intermolecular interactions may also help elucidate the interactions of the molecular nanofibers with other molecules, thus facilitating the development of supramolecular hydrogel materials for a wide range of applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopy, thermal studies and supramolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Synthesis, spectroscopy, thermal studies and supramolecular structures of two .... J = 9 Hz), 8∙13 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 7∙69 (s, 1H), 7∙04. (s, 2H). ... 1H NMR (D2O): δ (in ppm); 8∙05 (d, 2H, ..... 86∙33 (2). 86∙92(1). 87∙08(2). V (Ε3). 553∙1(6). 573∙71(5). 561∙56(14). 557∙5(3) .... Mn, Co and Ni complexes.28–30 The observed inter-.

  16. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (106 ~ 109 Ω/◻).

  17. Preparation and application of conducting polymer/Ag/clay composite nanoparticles formed by in situ UV-induced dispersion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Sakai, Eiichi

    2016-02-03

    In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (10(6)~ 10(9) Ω/◻).

  18. Supramolecular assembly of organic bicapped Keggin polyoxometalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhangang; Zhao Yulong; Peng Jun; Ma Huiyuan; Liu Qun; Wang Enbo; Hu Ninghai

    2004-01-01

    Two novel supramolecular assemblies of organic bicapped Keggin polyoxometalates (pbpy) 8 H 3 [PW 12 O 40 ]·2H 2 O (1) and (pbpy) 4 H[PMo 12 O 40 (VO)] (2) (pbpy=5-phenyl-2-(4-pyridinyl)pyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data for compound (1), C 128 H 103 N 16 O 42 PW 12 , triclinic, space group P1-bar: a=13.4759(8) A, b=14.6395(11) A, c=16.5743(10) A, α=95.764(2) deg., β=102.166(2) deg., γ=92.9870(10) deg., Z=1, V=3171.1(4) A 3 ; for compound (2), C 64 H 49 N 8 O 41 PMo 12 V, triclinic, space group P1-bar: a=11.5377(11) A, b=12.7552(8) A, c=14.9599(10) A, α=72.270(4) deg., β=88.916(2) deg., γ=67.865(4) deg., Z=1, V=1931.0(3) A 3 . X-ray analyses show that both 1 and 2 represent rare organic bicapped Keggin structures and are supported by supramolecular interactions to extend into a 3D framework. In particular, the unusual structure feature of compound 2 contains a simultaneously organic and inorganic capped structure

  19. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-04

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening.

  20. Mixed waste solidification testing on thermosetting polymer and cement based waste forms in support of Hanford's WRAP Module 2A Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Co. to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US DOE Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based and thermosetting polymer solidification media to confirm the baseline technologies selected for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate wastes representing each of the eight waste types were prepared for testing. Surrogates for polymer testing were sent to a vendor commissioned for that portion of the test work. Surrogates for the grout testing were used in the Westinghouse Hanford Co. laboratory responsible for the grout performance testing. Detailed discussion of the lab. work and results are contained in this report

  1. Polymer adhesion predictions for oral dosage forms to enhance drug administration safety. Part 2: In vitro approach using mechanical force methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Nélio; Stegemann, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Predicting the potential for unintended adhesion of solid oral dosage forms (SODF) to mucosal tissue is an important aspect that should be considered during drug product development. Previous investigations into low strength mucoadhesion based on particle interactions methods provided evidence that rheological measurements could be used to obtain valid predictions for the development of SODF coatings that can be safely swallowed. The aim of this second work was to estimate the low mucoadhesive strength properties of different polymers using in vitro methods based on mechanical forces and to identify which methods are more precise when measuring reduced mucoadhesion. Another aim was to compare the obtained results to the ones achieved with in vitro particle interaction methods in order to evaluate which methodology can provide stronger predictions. The combined results correlate between particle interaction methods and mechanical force measurements. The polyethylene glycol grades (PEG) and carnauba wax showed the lowest adhesive potential and are predicted to support safe swallowing. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) along with high molecular grades of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) exhibited strong in vitro mucoadhesive strength. The combination of rheological and force tensiometer measurements should be considered when assessing the reduced mucoadhesion of polymer coatings to support safe swallowing of SODF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recyclable Cu(II)-Coordination Crosslinked Poly(benzimidazolyl pyridine)s as High-Performance Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Li; Chang, Guanjun

    2018-03-01

    Crosslinked high-performance polymers have many industrial applications, but are difficult to recycle or rework. A novel class of recyclable crosslinking Cu(II)-metallo-supramolecular coordination polymers are successfully prepared, which possess outstanding thermal stability and mechanical property. More importantly, the Cu 2+ coordination interactions can be further removed via external pyrophosphate to recover the linear polymers, which endow the crosslinking polymers with recyclability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  4. Inversion of Supramolecular Chirality by Sonication-Induced Organogelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Sibaprasad; Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2015-01-01

    Natural helical structures have inspired the formation of well-ordered peptide-based chiral nanostructures in vitro. These structures have drawn much attention owing to their diverse applications in the area of asymmetric catalysts, chiral photonic materials, and nanoplasmonics. The self-assembly of two enantiomeric fluorinated aromatic dipeptides into ordered chiral fibrillar nanostructures upon sonication is described. These fibrils form organogels. Our results clearly indicate that fluorine-fluorine interactions play an important role in self-assembly. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that both peptides (peptides 1 and 2), containing two fluorines, depicted opposite cotton effects in their monomeric form compared with their aggregated form. This shows that supramolecular chirality inversion took place during the stimuli-responsive self-aggregation process. Conversely, peptide 3, containing one fluorine, did not exhibit chirality inversion in sonication-induced organogelation. Therefore, our results clearly indicate that fluorination plays an important role in the organogelation process of these aromatic dipeptides. Our findings may have broad implications regarding the design of chiral nanostructures for possible applications such as chiroptical switches, asymmetric catalysis, and chiral recognitions. PMID:26553508

  5. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  6. In situ forming hydrogels for intra-articular delivery of celecoxib: from polymer design to in vivo studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, A.

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis was the development and evaluation of an injectable in situ forming gel made of acylated PCLA-PEG-PLCA copolymers for the local and sustained release of celecoxib, which is to date the drug of choice for the treatment of OA (Chapter 1). As shown in this thesis, the

  7. Supramolecular solubilization of fullerenes and radio-fullerenes in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are dealing with the supramolecular complexation of fullerenes C 60 , C 70 , some functionalized fullerenes and of the dumbbell structured C 120 dimer, with two host molecules, namely γ-cyclo-dextrin (GCD), and sulfocalix[8]arene in order to make them soluble in water. Previous investigations by others have shown that the reactions of some mentioned fullerenes and cyclo-dextrins and calixarenes are very slow and tedious in liquid phase as a result of solvatation effects. That we have decided to pursue the supramolecular complexation as solid-solid reactions by using mechanochemical activation in a ball mill. A mechanochemical treatment was used to enhance chemical reactivity in solid-solid reactions in which GCD give a complex with the C 60 as 2:1 host-guest complex. The calix[8]arene complex with C 60 molecule has been prepared. The sulfonated form of the host is well soluble in water. Endohedral radio-fullerenes of the XandC60 type (where * X is a rare gas, e.g. Ar, Xe, Kr, radionuclide) were prepared by nuclear recoil after neutron irradiation, a method developed by the author The endohedrally labelled fullerenes were then mechanochemically complexed into a labelled supramolecular complex with cyclo-dextrin and calixarene hosts. (author)

  8. Physical vapor deposited films of a perylene derivative: supramolecular arrangement and thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jose Diego; Alessio, Priscila; Silva, Matheus Rodrigues Medeiros; Aroca, Ricardo Flavio; Souza, Agda Eunice de; Constantino, Carlos Jose Leopoldo, E-mail: case@fct.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    The analysis of supramolecular arrangement is essential to understand the role of this key factor on the optical and electrical properties of organic thin films. In this work, thin solid films of bis(phenethylimido) perylene (PhPTCD) fabricated using physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique (thermal evaporation), deposited simultaneously onto different substrates (Ag mirror, Ge, and quartz plates) contingent on the characterization technique. The main objective is to study the PhPTCD supramolecular arrangement and the thermal stability of this arrangement in PVD films. The ultraviolet-visible absorption reveals a controlled growth of the PVD films, and the micro-Raman scattering data show that the PhPTCD molecule is not thermally degraded in the conditions of these experiments. The microscopy also shows a homogeneous morphological surface of the PVD film at macro and micro scales, with molecular aggregates at nanoscale. Besides, the PVD film roughness does not follow substrate roughness. The X-ray diffraction indicates a crystalline structure for PhPTCD powder and an amorphous form for PhPTCD PVD film. The infrared absorption spectroscopy points to a preferential flat-on organization of the molecules in the PVD films. In addition, the annealing process (200 deg C for 20 minutes) does not affect the supramolecular arrangement of the PhPTCD PVD films. (author)

  9. Physical vapor deposited films of a perylene derivative: supramolecular arrangement and thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jose Diego; Alessio, Priscila; Silva, Matheus Rodrigues Medeiros; Aroca, Ricardo Flavio; Souza, Agda Eunice de; Constantino, Carlos Jose Leopoldo

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of supramolecular arrangement is essential to understand the role of this key factor on the optical and electrical properties of organic thin films. In this work, thin solid films of bis(phenethylimido) perylene (PhPTCD) fabricated using physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique (thermal evaporation), deposited simultaneously onto different substrates (Ag mirror, Ge, and quartz plates) contingent on the characterization technique. The main objective is to study the PhPTCD supramolecular arrangement and the thermal stability of this arrangement in PVD films. The ultraviolet-visible absorption reveals a controlled growth of the PVD films, and the micro-Raman scattering data show that the PhPTCD molecule is not thermally degraded in the conditions of these experiments. The microscopy also shows a homogeneous morphological surface of the PVD film at macro and micro scales, with molecular aggregates at nanoscale. Besides, the PVD film roughness does not follow substrate roughness. The X-ray diffraction indicates a crystalline structure for PhPTCD powder and an amorphous form for PhPTCD PVD film. The infrared absorption spectroscopy points to a preferential flat-on organization of the molecules in the PVD films. In addition, the annealing process (200 deg C for 20 minutes) does not affect the supramolecular arrangement of the PhPTCD PVD films. (author)

  10. Cross-Linked Fluorescent Supramolecular Nanoparticles as Finite Tattoo Pigments with Controllable Intradermal Retention Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Sil; Zhu, Yazhen; Li, Hongsheng; Peyda, Parham; Nguyen, Thuy Tien; Shen, Mo Yuan; Yang, Yang Michael; Zhu, Jingyi; Liu, Mei; Lee, Mandy M; Sun, Shih-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Kai; Chuang, Gary S; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2017-01-24

    Tattooing has been utilized by the medical community for precisely demarcating anatomic landmarks. This practice is especially important for identifying biopsy sites of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to the long interval (i.e., up to 3 months) between the initial diagnostic biopsy and surgical treatment. Commercially available tattoo pigments possess several issues, which include causing poor cosmesis, being mistaken for a melanocytic lesion, requiring additional removal procedures when no longer desired, and potentially inducing inflammatory responses. The ideal tattoo pigment for labeling of skin biopsy sites for NMSC requires (i) invisibility under ambient light, (ii) fluorescence under a selective light source, (iii) a finite intradermal retention time (ca. 3 months), and (iv) biocompatibility. Herein, we introduce cross-linked fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles (c-FSNPs) as a "finite tattoo" pigment, with optimized photophysical properties and intradermal retention time to achieve successful in vivo finite tattooing. Fluorescent supramolecular nanoparticles encapsulate a fluorescent conjugated polymer, poly[5-methoxy-2-(3-sulfopropoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MPS-PPV), into a core via a supramolecular synthetic approach. FSNPs which possess fluorescent properties superior to those of the free MPS-PPV are obtained through a combinatorial screening process. Covalent cross-linking of FSNPs results in micrometer-sized c-FSNPs, which exhibit a size-dependent intradermal retention. The 1456 nm sized c-FSNPs display an ideal intradermal retention time (ca. 3 months) for NMSC lesion labeling, as observed in an in vivo tattoo study. In addition, the c-FSNPs induce undetectable inflammatory responses after tattooing. We believe that the c-FSNPs can serve as a "finite tattoo" pigment to label potential malignant NMSC lesions.

  11. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  12. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  13. Micro-scale truss structures with three-fold and six-fold symmetry formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Alan J. [HRL Laboratories LLC, Sensors and Materials Laboratory, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265-4797 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: ajjacobsen@hrl.com; Barvosa-Carter, William [HRL Laboratories LLC, Sensors and Materials Laboratory, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265-4797 (United States); Nutt, Steven [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A process for interconnecting a three-dimensional pattern of self-propagating polymer waveguides was used to form micro-truss structures with two new unit cell architectures. The structures were formed using a two-dimensional mask with a hexagonal pattern of apertures. Distinct unit cell architectures were possible by exposing the mask to a different number of incident UV exposure beams, which are used to form the waveguides. One unit cell design featured three intersecting waveguides per node, resulting in a structure with three-fold symmetry. The second unit cell design had six-fold symmetry and was characterized by primary nodes with six intersecting waveguides and secondary nodes with two intersecting waveguides. Compression loading experiments were conducted on micro-truss samples with comparable relative density values ({rho}/{rho}{sub s} = 6.5%), but different unit cell architectures. The addition of secondary nodes in the structures based on the second design led to an increase in compressive modulus of up to 70% and an average increase in peak strength of 42%. The increase in compressive strength and modulus was attributed to a reduction in the truss-member slenderness ratio achieved through increased waveguide connectivity.

  14. Micro-scale truss structures with three-fold and six-fold symmetry formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Alan J.; Barvosa-Carter, William; Nutt, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A process for interconnecting a three-dimensional pattern of self-propagating polymer waveguides was used to form micro-truss structures with two new unit cell architectures. The structures were formed using a two-dimensional mask with a hexagonal pattern of apertures. Distinct unit cell architectures were possible by exposing the mask to a different number of incident UV exposure beams, which are used to form the waveguides. One unit cell design featured three intersecting waveguides per node, resulting in a structure with three-fold symmetry. The second unit cell design had six-fold symmetry and was characterized by primary nodes with six intersecting waveguides and secondary nodes with two intersecting waveguides. Compression loading experiments were conducted on micro-truss samples with comparable relative density values (ρ/ρ s = 6.5%), but different unit cell architectures. The addition of secondary nodes in the structures based on the second design led to an increase in compressive modulus of up to 70% and an average increase in peak strength of 42%. The increase in compressive strength and modulus was attributed to a reduction in the truss-member slenderness ratio achieved through increased waveguide connectivity

  15. Self-assembly of a supramolecular square between [Ni(dppe(TOF2] and 4,4'-Bipyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Torres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main interest of this research is to contribute to the development and understanding of supramolecular chemistry and molecular architectures, which are constructed by the self-assembly of supramolecular entities. Therefore, the synthesis and characterization (IR, UV, 1H NMR, 31P, 19F, 1H-1H COSY of a nickel (II supramolecular square [7] was performed through the synthesis between nickel chloride [1] and diphenylphosphinoethane (dppe [2] to form the precursor complex [Ni(dppeCl2] [3]. This was followed by the synthesis of the complex of interest, [Ni(dppe(TOF2] [5], using the precursor and silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (Ag-TOF. Finally, the self-assembly was performed between the complex [1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethanebistriflatonickel(II] [Ni(dppe(OSO2CF32] [5] and the organic ligand 4,4'-bipyridine [6], which act as vertex and edge, respectively.According to various analyses, it was found that the self-assembly generated only one supramolecular species; a square is the most probable thermodynamic structure.

  16. Zwitterionic supramolecular nanoparticles: self-assembly and responsive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffelen, C.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) are of high interest in both nanoscience and molecular diagnostics and therapeutics, because of their reversible and designable properties. To ensure colloidal stabilization and biocompatibility, most reported strategies require the use of hydrophilic long-chain

  17. Magnetic structure of two- and three-dimensional supramolecular compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Schmalle, H.W.; Pellaux, R. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Fischer, P.; Fauth, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Supramolecular chiral networks of oxalato-bridged transition metals show either two- or three-dimensional structural features. The magnetic structures of such compounds have been investigated by means of elastic neutron powder diffraction. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  18. Host-guest supramolecular nanosystems for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Li-li; Fan, Yun-shan; Wang, Hao

    2013-07-26

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the construction of functional supramolecular nanosystems for applications in catalysis, energy conversion, sensing and biomedicine. The applications of supramolecular nanosystems such as liposomes, micelles, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon materials for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics have been reviewed by other groups. Here, we will focus on the recent momentous advances in the implementation of typical supramolecular hosts (i.e., cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils and metallo-hosts) and their nanosystems in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss the evolutive process of supramolecular nanosystems from the structural control and characterization to their diagnostic and therapeutic function exploitation and even the future potentials for clinical translation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improved enzyme-mediated synthesis and supramolecular self-assembly of naturally occurring conjugates of beta-sitosterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wimmerová, Martina; Siglerová, Věra; Šaman, David; Šlouf, Miroslav; Kaletová, Eva; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, JAN (2017), s. 38-43 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15012; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : glycosides * esterification * resolution * sterols * esters * foods * l. * beta-Sitosterol * Acylated steryl glycoside * Lipase * Ionic liquid * Supramolecular self-assembly * Pharmacological activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry; Polymer science (UMCH-V); Organic chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  20. Chemistry of supramolecular systems containing porphyrins and metal complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Koiti; Toma, Henrique Eisi

    2002-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is expected to keep a high developing pace in the next years, giving support to the advancement of molecular devices and nanotechnology. In this sense, porphyrins and their analogues should play a significant role as a consequence of their catalytic, electrocatalytic, photochemical and photoelectrochemical properties. In this review we focused on our own strategy based on coordination chemistry for the design and build-up of supermolecules and supramolecular structure...

  1. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration. I. Penetration rate and release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, H; Taguchi, H; Iida, K; Danjo, K

    2001-12-13

    We examined the penetration rate of lidocaine (LC) through excised oral mucosa from hamster cheek pouch and the in vitro release rate of LC from film dosage forms with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base. Addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to the HPC films increased the LC release rate almost GL-content-dependently, while an optimum GL content was observed for the LC penetration rate. No LC penetration was observed from an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.4) of LC, suggesting only unionized LC can substantially penetrate through the mucosa. A significant relationship between the penetration rate of LC and the release rate of unionized LC was found, suggesting that the in vitro dissolution study is a useful tool to predict the penetration rate taking the unionized drug fraction into consideration.

  2. DNA-inspired hierarchical polymer design: electrostatics and hydrogen bonding in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Sean T; Long, Timothy E

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids and proteins, two of nature's biopolymers, assemble into complex structures to achieve desired biological functions and inspire the design of synthetic macromolecules containing a wide variety of noncovalent interactions including electrostatics and hydrogen bonding. Researchers have incorporated DNA nucleobases into a wide variety of synthetic monomers/polymers achieving stimuli-responsive materials, supramolecular assemblies, and well-controlled macromolecules. Recently, scientists utilized both electrostatics and complementary hydrogen bonding to orthogonally functionalize a polymer backbone through supramolecular assembly. Diverse macromolecules with noncovalent interactions will create materials with properties necessary for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamics of the α-relaxation in glass-forming polymers. Study by neutron scattering and relaxation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J.

    1993-12-01

    The dynamics of the α-relaxation in three different polymeric systems, poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(bisphenol A, 2-hydroxypropylether) (PH) has been studied by means of relaxation techniques and quasielastic neutron scattering (backscattering spectrometers IN10 and IN13 at the ILL-Grenoble). By using these techniques we have covered a wide time scale ranging from mesoscopic to macroscopic times (10 -10 -10 1 s). For analyzing the experimental data we have developed a phenomenological procedure in the frequency domain based on the Havriliak-Negami relaxation function, which in fact implies a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxation function in the time domain. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the α-relaxation in a wide time scale shows a clear non-Debye behaviour. The shape of the relaxation functions is found to be similar for the different techniques used and independent of temperature and momentum transfer ( Q). Moreover, the characteristic relaxation times deduced from the fitting of the experimental data can also be described using only one Vogel-Fulcher functional form. Besides we found that the Q-dependence of the relaxation times obtained by QENS is given by a power law, τ( Q) ∞ Q- n ( n>2), n being dependent on the system, and that the Q-behaviour and the non-Debye behaviour are directly correlated. In the case of PVC, time of flight (TOF) neutron scattering experiments confirm these results in a shorter time scale (2×10 -11 -2× 10 -12 s). Moreover, TOF results also suggest the possibility of interpreting the “fast process” usually detected in glass-forming systems as a Debye-like short regime of the α-relaxation.

  4. White polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells using emission from exciplexes with long intermolecular distances formed between polyfluorene and π-conjugated amine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikitani, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Nishide, H.; Uchida, S.; Yazaki, S.; Nishimura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The authors present white polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (PLECs) fabricated with polymer blend films of poly(9,9-di-n-dodecylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFD) and π-conjugated triphenylamine molecules. The PLECs have bulk heterojunction structures composed of van der Waals interfaces between the PFD segments and the amine molecules. White-light electroluminescence (EL) can be achieved via light-mixing of the blue exciton emission from PFD and long-wavelength exciplex emission from excited complexes consisting of PFD segments (acceptors (As)) and the amine molecules (donors (Ds)). Precise control of the distances between the PFD and the amine molecules, affected through proper choice of the concentrations of PFD, amine molecules, and polymeric solid electrolytes, is critical to realizing white emission. White PLECs can be fabricated with PFD and amine molecules whose highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels range from -5.3 eV to -5.0 eV. Meanwhile, PLECs fabricated with amine molecules whose HOMO levels are lower than -5.6 eV cannot produce exciplex emission. The distances between the PFD and amine molecules of the exciplexes appear to be larger than 0.4 nm. These experimental data are explained by perturbation theory using the charge-transfer state ( A - D + ), the locally excited state ( A * D ), which is assumed to be the locally excited acceptor state in which there is no interaction with the donor molecule; and the energy gap between the HOMO levels of the PFD and the amine molecules. Color-stable white PLECs were fabricated using 4,4',4″-tris[N-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-triphenylamine, which has a HOMO level of -5.2 eV, as the amine molecule, and the color stability of the device is a function of the fact that PFD forms exciplexes with these molecules.

  5. Conformation Control of a Conjugated Polymer through Complexation with Bile Acids Generates Its Novel Spectral and Morphological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Youichi; Noguchi, Takao; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Roy, Bappaditya; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Shinkai, Seiji

    2016-11-29

    Control of higher-order polymer structures attracts a great deal of interest for many researchers when they lead to the development of materials having various advanced functions. Among them, conjugated polymers that are useful as starting materials in the design of molecular wires are particularly attractive. However, an equilibrium existing between isolated chains and bundled aggregates is inevitable and has made their physical properties very complicated. As an attempt to simplify this situation, we previously reported that a polymer chain of a water-soluble polythiophene could be isolated through complexation with a helix-forming polysaccharide. More recently, a covalently self-threading polythiophene was reported, the main chain of which was physically protected from self-folding and chain-chain π-stacking. In this report, we wish to report a new strategy to isolate a water-soluble polythiophene and to control its higher-order structure by a supramolecular approach: that is, among a few bile acids, lithocholate can form stoichiometric complexes with cationic polythiophene to isolate the polymer chain, and the higher-order structure is changeable by the molar ratio. The optical and morphological studies have been thoroughly performed, and the resultant complex has been applied to the selective recognition of two AMP structural isomers.

  6. Finite strain anisotropic elasto-plastic model for the simulation of the forming and testing of metal/short fiber reinforced polymer clinch joints at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A.; Rolfes, R.; Behrens, A.; Bouguecha, A.; Hübner, S.; Bonk, C.; Grbic, N.

    2017-10-01

    There is a strong trend in the automotive industry to reduce car body-, chassis- and power-train mass in order to lower carbon emissions. More wide spread use of lightweight short fiber reinforced polymer (SFRP) is a promising approach to attain this goal. This poses the challenge of how to integrate new SFRP components by joining them to traditional sheet metal structures. Recently (1), the clinching technique has been successfully applied as a suitable joining method for dissimilar material such as SFRP and Aluminum. The material pairing PA6GF30 and EN AW 5754 is chosen for this purpose due to their common application in industry. The current contribution presents a verification and validation of a finite strain anisotropic material model for SFRP developed in (2) for the FE simulation of the hybrid clinching process. The finite fiber rotation during forming and separation, and thus the change of the preferential material direction, is represented in this model. Plastic deformations in SFRP are considered in this model via an invariant based non-associated plasticity formulation following the multiplicative decomposition approach of the deformation gradient where the stress-free intermediate configuration is introduced. The model allows for six independent characterization curves. The aforementioned material model allows for a detailed simulation of the forming process as well as a simulative prediction of the shear test strength of the produced joint at room temperature.

  7. Supramolecular packing and polymorph screening of N-isonicotinoyl arylketone hydrazones with phenol and amino modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Duane; Michael, Joseph P.; Lemmerer, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Thirteen structural variants based on the (E)-N‧-(1-arylethylidene)pyridohydrazide template were prepared, investigated and screened for possible polymorphic behaviour. Four variants showed from Differential Scanning Calorimetry Scans thermal events indicative of new solid-state phases. The thirteen variants included substituents R = sbnd OH or sbnd NH2 placed at ortho, meta and para positions on the phenyl ring; and shifting the pyridyl nitrogen between positions 4-, 3- and 2-. The crystal structures of twelve of the compounds were determined to explore their supramolecular structures. The outcomes of these modifications demonstrated that the pyridyl nitrogen at the 2- position is 'locked' by forming a hydrogen bond with the amide hydrogen; while placing the pyridyl nitrogen at positions 3- and 4- offers a greater opportunity for hydrogen bonding with neighbouring molecules. Such interactions include Osbnd H⋯N, Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯π, π⋯π stacking, as well as other weaker interactions such as Csbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N(pyridyl). When OH or NH2 donors are placed in the ortho position, an intramolecular hydrogen bond is formed between the acceptor hydrazone nitrogen and the respective donor. The meta- and para-positioned donors form an unpredictable array of supramolecular structures by forming hydrogen-bonded chains with the pyridyl nitrogen and carbonyl acceptors respectively. In addition to the intramolecular and chain hydrogen bond formation demonstrated throughout the crystal structures under investigation, larger order hydrogen-bonded rings were also observed in some of the supramolecular aggregations. The extent of the hydrogen-bonded ring formations range from two to six molecular participants depending on the specific crystal structure.

  8. Hydrogel-forming microneedles prepared from "super swelling" polymers combined with lyophilised wafers for transdermal drug delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Donnelly

    Full Text Available We describe, for the first time, hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays prepared from "super swelling" polymeric compositions. We produced a microneedle formulation with enhanced swelling capabilities from aqueous blends containing 20% w/w Gantrez S-97, 7.5% w/w PEG 10,000 and 3% w/w Na2CO3 and utilised a drug reservoir of a lyophilised wafer-like design. These microneedle-lyophilised wafer compositions were robust and effectively penetrated skin, swelling extensively, but being removed intact. In in vitro delivery experiments across excised neonatal porcine skin, approximately 44 mg of the model high dose small molecule drug ibuprofen sodium was delivered in 24 h, equating to 37% of the loading in the lyophilised reservoir. The super swelling microneedles delivered approximately 1.24 mg of the model protein ovalbumin over 24 h, equivalent to a delivery efficiency of approximately 49%. The integrated microneedle-lyophilised wafer delivery system produced a progressive increase in plasma concentrations of ibuprofen sodium in rats over 6 h, with a maximal concentration of approximately 179 µg/ml achieved in this time. The plasma concentration had fallen to 71±6.7 µg/ml by 24 h. Ovalbumin levels peaked in rat plasma after only 1 hour at 42.36±17.01 ng/ml. Ovalbumin plasma levels then remained almost constant up to 6 h, dropping somewhat at 24 h, when 23.61±4.84 ng/ml was detected. This work represents a significant advancement on conventional microneedle systems, which are presently only suitable for bolus delivery of very potent drugs and vaccines. Once fully developed, such technology may greatly expand the range of drugs that can be delivered transdermally, to the benefit of patients and industry. Accordingly, we are currently progressing towards clinical evaluations with a range of candidate molecules.

  9. Supramolecular Structure and Mechanical Characteristics of Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene-Inorganic Nanoparticle Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhlopkova, T. A.; Borisova, R. V.; Nikiforov, L. A.; Spiridonov, A. M.; Okhlopkova, A. A.; Cho, Jin-Ho; Jeong, Dae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties and structure of polymeric nanocomposites (PNCs) with anultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) matrix and aluminum and silicon oxide and nitride nanoparticle (NP) fillers. Mixing with a paddle mixer or by joint mechanical activation in a planetary mill was used for the PNC preparation. Joint mechanical activation afforded PNCs with better mechanical properties than paddle mixing. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that the poorer mechanical properties can be attributed to the disordered regions and imperfect spherulites in the PNC supramolecular structure arising from paddle mixing. The better mechanical properties observed with joint mechanical activation may derive from the uniform NP distribution in the polymer matrix and absence of disordered regions.

  10. Conductive Supramolecular Architecture Constructed from Polyoxovanadate Cluster and Heterocyclic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Misawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton-conductive solid electrolytes are significant for fuel-cell battery technology. Especially for use in motor vehicles, proton conductors which work at intermediate temperatures (373–673 K under an anhydrous atmosphere are desired to improve the fuel cell stability and efficiency. Inorganic–organic hybrid supramolecular architectures are a promising option for the realization of highly conductive proton conductors. Here, a hybrid layered crystal was synthesized for the first time by using an proton-containing decavanadate (V10 anion and a heterocyclic surfactant cation. A simple ion-exchange reaction led to the formation of an inorganic–organic hybrid of V10 by using dodecylpyridazinium (C12pda as the heterocyclic surfactant. Single crystal X-ray analyses revealed that four C12pda cations were associated with one V10 anion, which was a diprotonated species forming a one-dimensional infinite chain structure through hydrogen bonds. Anhydrous proton conductivity was investigated by alternating current (AC impedance spectroscopy in the range of 313–393 K, exhibiting a maximum value of 1.7 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 373 K.

  11. Supramolecular Affinity Chromatography for Methylation-Targeted Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Graham A E; Starke, Melissa J; Shaurya, Alok; Li, Janessa; Hof, Fraser

    2016-04-05

    Proteome-wide studies of post-translationally methylated species using mass spectrometry are complicated by high sample diversity, competition for ionization among peptides, and mass redundancies. Antibody-based enrichment has powered methylation proteomics until now, but the reliability, pan-specificity, polyclonal nature, and stability of the available pan-specific antibodies are problematic and do not provide a standard, reliable platform for investigators. We have invented an anionic supramolecular host that can form host-guest complexes selectively with methyllysine-containing peptides and used it to create a methylysine-affinity column. The column resolves peptides on the basis of methylation-a feat impossible with a comparable commercial cation-exchange column. A proteolyzed nuclear extract was separated on the methyl-affinity column prior to standard proteomics analysis. This experiment demonstrates that such chemical methyl-affinity columns are capable of enriching and improving the analysis of methyllysine residues from complex protein mixtures. We discuss the importance of this advance in the context of biomolecule-driven enrichment methods.

  12. Self assembly of amphiphilic C60 fullerene derivatives into nanoscale supramolecular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casscells S Ward

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiphilic fullerene monomer (AF-1 consists of a "buckyball" cage to which a Newkome-like dendrimer unit and five lipophilic C12 chains positioned octahedrally to the dendrimer unit are attached. In this study, we report a novel fullerene-based liposome termed 'buckysome' that is water soluble and forms stable spherical nanometer sized vesicles. Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS studies were used to characterize the different supra-molecular structures readily formed from the fullerene monomers under varying pH, aqueous solvents, and preparative conditions. Results Electron microscopy results indicate the formation of bilayer membranes with a width of ~6.5 nm, consistent with previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Cryo-EM indicates the formation of large (400 nm diameter multilamellar, liposome-like vesicles and unilamellar vesicles in the size range of 50–150 nm diameter. In addition, complex networks of cylindrical, tube-like aggregates with varying lengths and packing densities were observed. Under controlled experimental conditions, high concentrations of spherical vesicles could be formed. In vitro results suggest that these supra-molecular structures impose little to no toxicity. Cytotoxicity of 10–200 μM buckysomes were assessed in various cell lines. Ongoing studies are aimed at understanding cellular internalization of these nanoparticle aggregates. Conclusion In this current study, we have designed a core platform based on a novel amphiphilic fullerene nanostructure, which readily assembles into supra-molecular structures. This delivery vector might provide promising features such as ease of preparation, long-term stability and controlled release.

  13. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  14. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  15. Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate: polymer networks formed by sandwich layers of oxygen-coordinated thallium ions cores shielded by hydrogen L-glutamate counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Thomas; Wirnsberger, Bianca; Albering, Jörg; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2011-11-07

    Anhydrous thallium hydrogen L-glutamate [Tl(L-GluH)] crystallizes from water (space group P2(1)) with a layer structure in which the thallium ions are penta- and hexacoordinated exclusively by the oxygen atoms of the γ-carboxylate group of the hydrogen L-glutamate anions to form a two-dimensional coordination polymer. The thallium-oxygen layer is composed of Tl(2)O(2) and TlCO(2) quadrangles and is only 3 Å high. Only one hemisphere of the thallium ions participates in coordination, indicative of the presence of the 6s(2) lone pair of electrons. The thallium-oxygen assemblies are shielded by the hydrogen l-glutamate anions. Only the carbon atom of the α-carboxylate group deviates from the plane spanned by the thallium ions, the γ-carboxylate groups and the proton bearing carbon atoms, which are in trans conformation. Given the abundance of L-glutamic and L-aspartic acid in biological systems on the one hand and the high toxicity of thallium on the other hand, it is worth mentioning that the dominant structural motifs in the crystal structure of [Tl(L-GluH)] strongly resemble their corresponding analogues in the crystalline phase of [K(L-AspH)(H(2)O)(2)].

  16. Extension of the charge separated-state lifetime by supramolecular association of a tetrathiafulvalene electron donor to a zinc/gold bisporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boixel, Julien; Fortage, Jérôme; Blart, Errol; Pellegrin, Yann; Hammarström, Leif; Becker, Hans-Christian; Odobel, Fabrice

    2010-02-14

    Supramolecular triads were prepared by self-assembly of 4'-pyridyl-2-tetrathiafulvalene axially bound on ZnP-spacer-AuP(+) dyads; the lifetime of the charge separated state ((+)TTF-ZnP-Spacer-AuP ) formed upon light excitation of the triad is greatly increased with respect to that found in the parent dyad.

  17. Multifunctional, supramolecular, continuous artificial nacre fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2012-10-01

    Nature has created amazing materials during the process of evolution, inspiring scientists to studiously mimic them. Nacre is of particular interest, and it has been studied for more than half-century for its strong, stiff, and tough attributes resulting from the recognized ``brick-and-mortar'' (B&M) layered structure comprised of inorganic aragonite platelets and biomacromolecules. The past two decades have witnessed great advances in nacre-mimetic composites, but they are solely limited in films with finite size (centimetre-scale). To realize the adream target of continuous nacre-mimics with perfect structures is still a great challenge unresolved. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to produce bio-mimic continuous fibres with B&M structures of alternating graphene sheets and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) binders via wet-spinning assembly technology. The resulting macroscopic supramolecular fibres exhibit excellent mechanical properties comparable or even superior to nacre and bone, and possess fine electrical conductivity and outstanding corrosion-resistance.

  18. A multilayered supramolecular self-assembled structure from soybean oil by in situ polymerization and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Varadharajan; Gnanamani, Arumugam

    2013-05-01

    The present study emphasizes in situ transformation of soybean oil to self-assembled supramolecular multilayered biopolymer material. The said polymer material was characterized and the entrapment efficacy of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties was studied. In brief, soybean oil at varying concentration was mixed with mineral medium and incubated under agitation (200 rpm) at 37 degrees C for 240 h. Physical observations were made till 240 h and the transformed biopolymer was separated and subjected to physical, chemical and functional characterization. The maximum size of the polymer material was measured as 2 cm in diameter and the cross sectional view displayed the multilayered onion rings like structures. SEM analysis illustrated the presence of multilayered honeycomb channeled structures. Thermal analysis demonstrated the thermal stability (200 degrees C) and high heat enthalpy (1999 J/g). Further, this multilayered assembly was able to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components simultaneously, suggesting the potential industrial application of this material.

  19. Polytellurophenes provide imaging contrast towards unravelling the structure–property–function relationships in semiconductor:insulator polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Jahnke, Ashlee A.

    2015-02-27

    Polymer blends are broadly important in chemical science and chemical engineering and have led to a wide range of commercial products, however their precise structure and phase morphology is often not well understood. Here we show for the first time that π-conjugated polytellurophenes and high-density polyethylene form blends that can serve as active layers in field-effect transistor devices and can be characterized by a variety of element-specific imaging techniques such as STEM and EDX. Changing the hydrocarbon content and degree of branching on the polytellurophene side-chain leads to a variety of blend structures, and these variations can be readily visualized. Characterization by electron microscopy is complemented by topographic and X-ray methods to establish a nano- to micro-scale picture of these systems. We find that blends that possess microscale networks function best as electronic devices; however, contrary to previous notions a strong correlation between nanofiber formation and electrical performance is not observed. Our work demonstrates that use of organometallic polymers assists in clarifying relevant structure–property–function relationships in multicomponent systems such as semiconductor:insulator blends and sheds light on the structure development in polymer:polymer blends including crystallization, phase separation, and formation of supramolecular arrangements.

  20. Polytellurophenes provide imaging contrast towards unravelling the structure–property–function relationships in semiconductor:insulator polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Jahnke, Ashlee A.; Yu, Liyang; Coombs, Neil; Scaccabarozzi, Alberto D.; Tilley, Andrew J.; DiCarmine, Paul M.; Amassian, Aram; Stingelin, Natalie; Seferos, Dwight S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer blends are broadly important in chemical science and chemical engineering and have led to a wide range of commercial products, however their precise structure and phase morphology is often not well understood. Here we show for the first time that π-conjugated polytellurophenes and high-density polyethylene form blends that can serve as active layers in field-effect transistor devices and can be characterized by a variety of element-specific imaging techniques such as STEM and EDX. Changing the hydrocarbon content and degree of branching on the polytellurophene side-chain leads to a variety of blend structures, and these variations can be readily visualized. Characterization by electron microscopy is complemented by topographic and X-ray methods to establish a nano- to micro-scale picture of these systems. We find that blends that possess microscale networks function best as electronic devices; however, contrary to previous notions a strong correlation between nanofiber formation and electrical performance is not observed. Our work demonstrates that use of organometallic polymers assists in clarifying relevant structure–property–function relationships in multicomponent systems such as semiconductor:insulator blends and sheds light on the structure development in polymer:polymer blends including crystallization, phase separation, and formation of supramolecular arrangements.

  1. Supramolecular architectures in layer-by-layer films of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and cobalt (II) phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa Luz, Roberto A. de; Martins, Marccus Victor A.; Magalhaes, Janildo L. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina - PI, CEP 64049-550 (Brazil); Siqueira, Jose R. [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Naturais e Educacao, Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba - MG, CEP 38025-180, Brazil (Brazil); Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos - SP, CEP 13560-970 (Brazil); Crespilho, Frank N. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre - SP, CEP 09210-170 (Brazil); Cantanhede da Silva, Welter, E-mail: welter@ufpi.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina - PI, CEP 64049-550 (Brazil)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} Platforms were assembled from cobalt phthalocyanine, chitosan and carbon nanotubes. {yields} Supramolecular organization of multilayer films was investigated. {yields} Increase of the supramolecular charge transfer after carbon nanotube incorporation. {yields} Functional modulation based on constitutional dynamic chemistry was achieved. - Abstract: The building of supramolecular structures in nanostructured films has been exploited for a number of applications, with the film properties being controlled at the molecular level. In this study, we report on the layer-by-layer (LbL) films combining cobalt (II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTsPc), chitosan (Chit) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in two architectures, {l_brace}Chit/CoTsPc{r_brace}{sub n} and {l_brace}Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc{r_brace}{sub n} (n = 1-10). The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated and the multilayer formation was monitored with microgravimetry measurements using a quartz microbalance crystal and an electrochemical technique. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the incorporation of SWCNTs caused the films to be thicker, with a thickness ca. 3 fold that of a 2-bilayer LbL film with no SWCNTs. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a quasi-reversible, one electron process with E{sub 1/2} at -0.65 V (vs SCE) and an irreversible oxidation process at 0.80 V in a physiological medium for both systems, which can be attributed to [CoTsPc(I)]{sup 5-}/[CoTsPc(II)]{sup 4-} and CoTsPc(II) to CoTsPc(III), respectively. The {l_brace}Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc{r_brace}{sub 5} multilayer film exhibited an increased faradaic current, probably associated with the supramolecular charge transfer interaction between cobalt phthalocyanine and SWCNTs. The results demonstrate that an intimate contact at the supramolecular level between functional SWCNTs immobilized into biocompatible chitosan polymer and CoTsPc improves the electron flow from CoTsPc redox sites to the

  2. Reversible Guest Exchange Mechanisms in Supramolecular Host-GuestAssemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-09-01

    Synthetic chemists have provided a wide array of supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules. The scope of this tutorial review focuses on supramolecular host molecules capable of reversibly encapsulating polyatomic guests. Much work has been done to determine the mechanism of guest encapsulation and guest release. This review covers common methods of monitoring and characterizing guest exchange such as NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and calorimetry and also presents representative examples of guest exchange mechanisms. The guest exchange mechanisms of hemicarcerands, cucurbiturils, hydrogen-bonded assemblies, and metal-ligand assemblies are discussed. Special attention is given to systems which exhibit constrictive binding, a motif common in supramolecular guest exchange systems.

  3. Supramolecular interactions of oxidative stress biomarker glutathione with fluorone black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Maria; Stobiecka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    Oxidative stress biomarkers, including glutathione (GSH) and related compounds, are involved in a variety of interactions enabling redox potential maintenance in living cells and protection against radicals. Since the oxidative stress is promoting and, in many cases, inducing serious illnesses, monitoring of GSH levels can aid in diagnostics and disease prevention. Herein, we report on the discovery of the formation of a supramolecular ensemble of GSH with fluorone black (9-phenyl fluorone, FB) which is optically active and enables sensitive determination of GSH by resonance elastic light scattering (RELS). We have found that supramolecular interactions of GSH with FB can be probed with spectroscopic, RELS, and electrochemical methods. Our investigations show that RELS intensity for FB solutions increases with GSH concentration while fluorescence emission of FB is not affected, as quenching begins only above 0.8 mM GSH. The UV-Vis difference spectra show a positive peak at 383 nm and a negative peak at 458 nm, indicating a higher-energy absorbing complex in comparison to the non-bonded FB host. Supramolecular interactions of FB with GSH have also been corroborated by electrochemical measurements involving two configurations of FB-GSH ensembles on electrodes: (i) an inverted orientation on Au-coated quartz crystal piezoelectrode (Au@SG-FB), with strong thiolate bonding to gold, and (ii) a non-inverted orientation on glassy carbon electrode (GCE@FB-GS), with weak π-π stacking attachment and efficient charge mediation through the ensemble. The formation of a supramolecular ensemble with hydrogen bonding has also been confirmed by quantum mechanical calculations. The discovery of supramolecular FB-GSH ensemble formation enables elucidating the mechanisms of strong RELS responses, changes in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the electrochemical reactivity. Also, it provides new insights to the understanding of the efficient charge-transfer in redox potential homeostasis

  4. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  5. Fatigue strength of a hybrid joint formed between a PA6-GF60 polymer matrix and a S420MC steel insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklavec, M.; Klemenc, J.; Kostanjevec, A.; Fajdiga, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Presented is an innovative polymer-metal hybrid joint. • Durability curves and their scatter were calculated using the DASA procedure. • Specimens with the embossed steel insert outperformed in static and dynamic tests. - Abstract: A vehicle’s brake pedal is considered to be one of its most important safety components. In the past, vehicle weight-reduction initiatives resulted in a highly optimized design of steel brake pedal with an increased strength-to-weight ratio. However, any further reduction in the weight of the brake pedal is only possible by using combined, i.e., hybrid, materials. In this case the joint between the two different materials in the hybrid arrangement must be as strong as possible. Many methods for improving the joint between two highly dissimilar materials are known from the literature, but conventional joining techniques lack either the fatigue resistance, because of a poor notch-effect design (shape-based joints), or are unsuitable for low-cost serial production (material-based joints). This article presents an innovative approach to joining the reinforcing insert with a glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6-GF) base structure, where the reinforcing insert is molded into the PA6-GF. The improved shape of the reinforcing insert contributes the required strength, while the PA6-GF base structure provides the final form of the specimen/product. The innovative shape of the metal insert not only provides the strength of the component; it also ensures the proper joint between the two dissimilar materials. For different types of reinforcing inserts static durability tests as well as fatigue-life tests of the insert-PA6-GF-matrix joints were performed. Our experimental research shows that the most promising shape-based hybrid joints reported in the literature are not the best solution when the hybrid joint’s fatigue life is the decisive criterion for a product’s durability

  6. Molecular self-assembly approaches for supramolecular electronic and organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hin-Lap

    Molecular self-assembly represents an efficient bottom-up strategy to generate structurally well-defined aggregates of semiconducting pi-conjugated materials. The capability of tuning the chemical structures, intermolecular interactions and nanostructures through molecular engineering and novel materials processing renders it possible to tailor a large number of unprecedented properties such as charge transport, energy transfer and light harvesting. This approach does not only benefit traditional electronic devices based on bulk materials, but also generate a new research area so called "supramolecular electronics" in which electronic devices are built up with individual supramolecular nanostructures with size in the sub-hundred nanometers range. My work combined molecular self-assembly together with several novel materials processing techniques to control the nucleation and growth of organic semiconducting nanostructures from different type of pi-conjugated materials. By tailoring the interactions between the molecules using hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking, semiconducting nanoplatelets and nanowires with tunable sizes can be fabricated in solution. These supramolecular nanostructures were further patterned and aligned on solid substrates through printing and chemical templating methods. The capability to control the different hierarchies of organization on surface provides an important platform to study their structural-induced electronic properties. In addition to using molecular self-assembly to create different organic nanostructures, functional self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed by spontaneous chemisorption on surfaces was used to tune the interfacial property in organic solar cells. Devices showed dramatically improved performance when appropriate SAMs were applied to optimize the contact property for efficiency charge collection.

  7. Supramolecular nanoparticles generated by the self-assembly of polyrotaxanes for antitumor drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rong Liu,1,2,* Yusi Lai,1,* Bin He,1 Yuan Li,1 Gang Wang,1 Shuang Chang,1 Zhongwei Gu1 1National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 2Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China*These authors contributed equally to this paperAbstract: A new approach of fabricating supramolecular nanoparticles generated by self-assembly polyrotaxanes for antitumor drug delivery has been reported. Cinnamic-acid-modified poly(ethylene glycol chains were threaded in a-cyclodextrins to form polyrotaxanes. The polyrotaxanes self-assembled supramolecular nanoparticles. The morphology of the nanoparticles was changed from nanovesicle to micelle after the antitumor drug, doxorubicin, was loaded. The release profile of the drug-loaded nanoparticles was investigated, and it was found that the sustaining release time could last for 32 hours. The drug-loaded nanoparticles were co-cultured with mouse 4T1 breast cancer cells with a drug concentration of 10 µg/mL; the cell survival rate was 3.3% after a 72-hour incubation. In an in vivo study of breast cancer in a mouse model, the drug-loaded nanoparticles were injected in the tail veins of mice with a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. The tumor inhibition rate of drug-loaded nanoparticles was 53%, which was better than that of doxorubicin hydrochloride. The cardiac toxicity of doxorubicin was decreased greatly after the encapsulation into supramolecular polyrotaxane nanoparticles.Keywords: polyrotaxane, self-assembly, nanoparticle, doxorubicin, supermolecular

  8. Two new supramolecular compounds induced by novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Xiao

    2017-09-19

    Sep 19, 2017 ... N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms were studied by employ- ing NOVA 2000e .... in which the Cu centers are separated by a distance of 5.171(3) Å. Each inorganic .... and C is the concentration of the dye at any given time). As shown in Figures 5 .... new Ni(II) coordination polymers derived from two dif-.

  9. A Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin Supramolecular Hydrogel for liver tumor targeting therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqin; Li, Jinliang; Cai, Yanbin; Zhan, Jie; Gao, Jie; Song, Mingcai; Shi, Yang; Yang, Zhimou

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin (Cur), a phenolic anti-oxidant compound obtained from Curcuma longa plant, possesses a variety of therapeutic properties. However, it is suffered from its low water solubility and low bioavailability property, which seriously restricts its clinical application. In this study, we developed a glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) modified curcumin supramolecular pro-gelator (GA-Cur) and a control compound Nap-Cur by replacing GA with the naphthylacetic acid (Nap). Both compounds showed good water solubility and could form supramolecular gels by disulfide bond reduction triggered by glutathione (GSH) in vitro. Both formed gels could sustainedly release Cur in buffer solutions. We also investigated the cytotoxicity of pro-gelators to HepG2 cells by a MTT assay and determined the cellular uptake behaviours of them by fluorescence microscopy and LC-MS. Due to the over expression of GA receptor in liver cancer cells, our pro-gelator of GA-Cur showed an enhanced cellular uptake and better inhibition capacity to liver tumor cells than Nap-Cur. Therefore, the GA-Cur could significantly inhibit HepG2 cell growth. Our study provides a novel nanomaterial for liver tumor chemotherapy.

  10. Solvent induced synthesis, structure and properties of coordination polymers based on 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid as linker and 1,10-phenanthroline as auxiliary ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariem, Mukaddus; Yawer, Mohd; Sheikh, Haq Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    Three new coordination polymers [Mn(hip)(phen) (H_2O)]_n (1), [Co(hip)(phen) (H_2O)]_n (2), and [Cd(hip) (phen) (H_2O)]_n (3) (H_2hip=5-hydroxyisophthalic acid; phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized by solvo-hydrothermal method using diethyl formamide-water (DEF-H_2O) as solvent system. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all three coordination polymers 1, 2 and 3 crystallize in monoclinic space group P2/n. Metal ions are inter-connected by hydroxyisophthalate anions forming zig-zag 1D chain. 1D chains are further inter-connected by hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking interactions leading to 3D supramolecular architecture. Hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking provide thermal stability to polymers. Compounds 1 and 2 are paramagnetic at room temperature and variable temperature magnetic moment measurements revealed weak ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions at low temperature. Compound 3 exhibits excellent photoluminescence with large Stokes shift. - Graphical abstract: 1D helical chains of coordination polymers were synthesized by solvo-hydrothermal reaction of 5-hydroxyisopthalic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline with MnCl_2·4H_2O / CoCl_2·6H_2O / Cd(NO_3)_2·6H_2O. - Highlights: • Solvent induced synthesis of three coordination polymers with 1D zig-zag structure. • Crystal structures of coordination polymers are reported and discussed. • 1,10-Phenanthroline influences magnetic and luminescent properties of polymers. • Coordination polymer of Cd is luminescent exhibiting large Stokes shift.

  11. Solvent induced synthesis, structure and properties of coordination polymers based on 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid as linker and 1,10-phenanthroline as auxiliary ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariem, Mukaddus; Yawer, Mohd; Sheikh, Haq Nawaz, E-mail: hnsheikh@rediffmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Three new coordination polymers [Mn(hip)(phen) (H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Co(hip)(phen) (H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (2), and [Cd(hip) (phen) (H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3) (H{sub 2}hip=5-hydroxyisophthalic acid; phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized by solvo-hydrothermal method using diethyl formamide-water (DEF-H{sub 2}O) as solvent system. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all three coordination polymers 1, 2 and 3 crystallize in monoclinic space group P2/n. Metal ions are inter-connected by hydroxyisophthalate anions forming zig-zag 1D chain. 1D chains are further inter-connected by hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking interactions leading to 3D supramolecular architecture. Hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking provide thermal stability to polymers. Compounds 1 and 2 are paramagnetic at room temperature and variable temperature magnetic moment measurements revealed weak ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions at low temperature. Compound 3 exhibits excellent photoluminescence with large Stokes shift. - Graphical abstract: 1D helical chains of coordination polymers were synthesized by solvo-hydrothermal reaction of 5-hydroxyisopthalic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline with MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O / CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O / Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • Solvent induced synthesis of three coordination polymers with 1D zig-zag structure. • Crystal structures of coordination polymers are reported and discussed. • 1,10-Phenanthroline influences magnetic and luminescent properties of polymers. • Coordination polymer of Cd is luminescent exhibiting large Stokes shift.

  12. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  13. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  14. Supramolecular chemistry at interfaces: host-guest interactions for fabricating multifunctional biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Xi; Scherman, Oren A

    2014-07-15

    . We begin by reviewing the current state of stimuli-responsive supramolecular assemblies formed by host-guest interactions, discussing how to transfer host-guest chemistry from solution onto surfaces required for fabricating multifunctional biosurfaces and biointerfaces. Then, we present different stimuli-responsive biosurfaces and biointerfaces, which have been prepared through a combination of cyclodextrin- or cucurbituril-based host-guest chemistry and various surface technologies such as self-assembled monolayers or layer-by-layer assembly. Moreover, we discuss the applications of these biointerfaces and biosurfaces in the fields of drug release, reversible adsorption and release of some organic molecules, peptides, proteins, and cells, and photoswitchable bioelectrocatalysis. In addition, we summarize the merits and current limitations of these methods for fabricating multifunctional stimuli-responsive biointerfaces in a dynamic noncovalent manner. Finally, we present possible strategies for future designs of stimuli-responsive multifunctional biointerfaces and biosurfaces by combining host-guest chemistry with surface science, which will lead to further critical development of supramolecular chemistry at interfaces.

  15. The crystal structures of three pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamides: three-dimensional supramolecular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilovan S. Cati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complete molecules of the title compounds, N2,N5-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C18H16N6O2 (I, 3,6-dimethyl-N2,N5-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C20H20N6O2 (II, and N2,N5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylpyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C18H16N6O2 (III, are generated by inversion symmetry, with the pyrazine rings being located about centres of inversion. Each molecule has an extended conformation with the pyridine rings inclined to the pyrazine ring by 89.17 (7° in (I, 75.83 (8° in (II and by 82.71 (6° in (III. In the crystal of (I, molecules are linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. In the crystal of (II, molecules are also linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the (10-1 plane. As in (I, the layers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. In the crystal of (III, molecules are again linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, but here form corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. Within the sheets, neighbouring pyridine rings are linked by offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.739 (1 Å]. The sheets are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. Compound (I crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. Another monoclinic polymorph, space group C2/c, has been reported on by Cockriel et al. [Inorg. Chem. Commun. (2008, 11, 1–4]. The molecular structures of the two polymorphs are compared.

  16. Supramolecular structures constructed from three novel rare earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supramolecular structures constructed from three novel rare earth metal complexes. HUAZE DONGa,∗, XIAOJUN FENGb,∗, XIA LIUc, BIN ZHENGa, JIANHONG BIa, YAN XUEa,. SHAOHUA GOUd and YANPING WANGa. aDepartment of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061, China.

  17. From steroids to aqueous supramolecular chemistry: an autobiographical career review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The focus of my group's research is aqueous supramolecular chemistry; we try to understand how chemical entities interact with water and consequently how they interact with each other. This personal history recounts my career experiences that led to his involvement with this fascinating area of science.

  18. Fabrication of supramolecular frameworks by tuning the binding site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Fabrication of supramolecular frameworks by tuning the binding site of a tripodal ligand with d. 10 metal ions 803. Table 1. Crystal data and structure refinement parameters for 1 and 2. 1 .... e-mail: deposit@ccdc.cam.ac.uk web: http://www. ccdc. cam.ac.uk/deposit]. Supplementary figures and tables can be found in website ...

  19. Rotation of a single molecule within a supramolecular bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimzewski, J.K.; Joachim, C.; Schlittler, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental visualization and verification of a single-molecule rotor operating within a supramolecular bearing is reported. Using a scanning tunneling microscope, single molecules were observed to exist in one of two spatially defined states Laterally separated by 0.26 nanometers. One...

  20. Reversible optical transcription of supramolecular chirality into molecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jaap J.D. de; Lucas, Linda N.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Esch, Jan H. van; Feringa, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    In nature, key molecular processes such as communication, replication, and enzyme catalysis all rely on a delicate balance between molecular and supramolecular chirality. Here we report the design, synthesis, and operation of a reversible, photoresponsive, self-assembling molecular system in which

  1. Autoamplification of molecular chirality through the induction of supramolecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Beierle, John M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    The novel concept for the autoamplification of molecular chirality, wherein the amplification proceeds through the induction of supramolecular chirality, is presented. A solution of prochiral, ring-open diarylethenes is doped with a small amount of their chiral, ring-closed counterpart. The

  2. Switchable charge injection barrier in an organic supramolecular semiconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Haedler, A.T.; Putzeys, T.; Zha, R.H.; Schmidt, H.W.; Kivala, M.; Urbanavičiutec, I.; Wübbenhorst, M.; Meijer, E.W.; Kemerink, M.

    2016-01-01

    We disclose a supramolecular material that combines semiconducting and dipolar functionalities. The material consists of a discotic semiconducting carbonyl-bridged triarylamine core, which is surrounded by three dipolar amide groups. In thin films, the material self-organizes in a hexagonal columnar

  3. Evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shingo; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Koeckelberghs, Guy; Verbiest, Thierry; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality for the first time. P-type aggregates prepared by fast evaporation, and M-type aggregates prepared by slow evaporation are kinetic and thermodynamic products under dynamic reaction conditions, respectively. These findings provide a novel solution reaction chemistry under the dynamic reaction conditions.

  4. A Supramolecular Approach to Medicinal Chemistry: Medicine Beyond the Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David K.

    2005-03-01

    This article focuses on the essential roles played by intermolecular forces in mediating the interactions between chemical molecules and biological systems. Intermolecular forces constitute a key topic in chemistry programs, yet can sometimes seem disconnected from real-life applications. However, by taking a "supramolecular" view of medicinal chemistry and focusing on interactions between molecules, it is possible to come to a deeper understanding of recent developments in medicine. This allows us to gain a real insight into the interface between biology and chemistry—an interdisciplinary area that is crucial for the development of modern medicinal products. This article emphasizes a conceptual view of medicinal chemistry, which has important implications for the future, as the supramolecular approach to medicinal-chemistry products outlined here is rapidly allowing nanotechnology to converge with medicine. In particular, this article discusses recent developments including the rational design of drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, the mode of action of vancomycin, and the mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance, drug delivery using cyclodextrins, and the importance of supramolecular chemistry in understanding protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's and Creutzfield Jacob. The article also indicates how taking a supramolecular approach will enable the development of new nanoscale medicines.

  5. Synthesis and crystal structure of a wheel-shaped supramolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41-218/2012 (SR)), India for financial support. DG and BS thank the Council of Scientific and Indus- trial Research (CSIR) for Senior Research Fellowship. We are grateful to Perkin-Elmer for ESI-Mass analysis. References. 1. (a) Lehn J M 1995 In Supramolecular Chem- istry, Concepts and Perspectives (Weinheim: VCH);.

  6. Comparison of Cellulose Supramolecular Structures Between Nanocrystals of Different Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Christopher G. Hunt; Jeffery Catchmark; E. Johan Foster; Akira Isogai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphologies and supramolecular structures of CNCs from wood-pulp, cotton, bacteria, tunicate, and cladophora were investigated. TEM was used to study the morphological aspects of the nanocrystals whereas Raman spectroscopy provided information on the cellulose molecular structure and its organization within a CNC. Dimensional differences between the...

  7. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  8. Enzyme-Like Catalysis of the Nazarov Cyclization by Supramolecular Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Courtney; Pluth, Michael; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2010-03-29

    A primary goal in the design and synthesis of molecular hosts has been the selective recognition and binding of a variety of guests using non-covalent interactions. Supramolecular catalysis, which is the application of such hosts towards catalysis, has much in common with many enzymatic reactions, chiefly the use of both spatially appropriate binding pockets and precisely oriented functional groups to recognize and activate specific substrate molecules. Although there are now many examples which demonstrate how selective encapsulation in a host cavity can enhance the reactivity of a bound guest, all have failed to reach the degree of increased reactivity typical of enzymes. We now report the catalysis of the Nazarov cyclization by a self-assembled coordination cage, a carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction which proceeds under mild, aqueous conditions. The acceleration in this system is over a million-fold, and represents the first example of supramolecular catalysis that achieves the level of rate enhancement comparable to that observed in several enzymes. We explain the unprecedented degree of rate increase as due to the combination of (a) preorganization of the encapsulated substrate molecule, (b) stabilization of the transition state of the cyclization by constrictive binding, and (c) increase in the basicity of the complexed alcohol functionality.

  9. D-amino acid-containing supramolecular nanofibers for potential cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaimin; Feng, Zhaoqianqi; Xu, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructures formed by peptides that self-assemble in water through non-covalent interactions have attracted considerable attention because peptides possess several unique advantages, such as modular design and easiness of synthesis, convenient modification with known functional motifs, good biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity, inherent biodegradability, and fast responses to a wide range of external stimuli. After about two decades of development, peptide-based supramolecular nanostructures have already shown great potentials in the fields of biomedicine. Among a range of biomedical applications, using such nanostructures for cancer therapy has attracted increased interests since cancer remains the major threat for human health. Comparing with L-peptides, nanostructures containing peptides made of D-amino acid (i.e., D-peptides) bear a unique advantage, biostability (i.e., resistance towards most of endogenous enzymes). The exploration of nanostructures containing D-amino acids, especially their biomedical applications, is still in its infancy. Herein we review the recent progress of D-amino acid-containing supramolecular nanofibers as an emerging class of biomaterials that exhibit unique features for the development of cancer therapeutics. In addition, we give a brief perspective about the challenges and promises in this research direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Viscoelastic and fractal characteristics of a supramolecular hydrogel hybridized with clay nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Zhang, Li-Ming; Shi, Jun-Feng; Li, Nan-Nan

    2010-12-01

    The supramolecular hydrogels derived from low-molecular-mass gelators represent a unique class of soft matters and have important potential applications in biomedical fields, separation technology and cosmetic science. However, they suffer usually from weak mechanical and viscoelastic properties. In this work, we carry out the in situ hybridization of clay nanoparticles (Laponite RD) into the supramolecular hydrogel formed from a low-molecular-mass hydrogelator, 2,6-di[N-(carboxyethyl carbonyl)amino]pyridine (DAP), and investigate the viscoelastic and structural characteristics of resultant hybrid hydrogel. It was found that a small concentration of Laponite RD could lead to a significant increase in the storage modulus, loss modulus or complex viscosity. Compared with neat DAP hydrogel, the hybrid hydrogel has a greater hydrogel strength and a lower relaxation exponent. In particular, the enhancement of the clay nanoparticles to the viscoelastic properties of the DAP hydrogel is more effective in the case of higher DAP concentration. By relating its macroscopic elastic properties to a scaling fractal model, such a hybrid hydrogel was confirmed to be in the strong-link regime and to have a more complex network structure with a higher fractal dimension when compared with neat DAP hydrogel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An intelligent anticorrosion coating based on pH-responsive supramolecular nanocontainers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tao; Fu Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    The hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs), which have been used as the nanocontainers for the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole, were fabricated using the hard-template method. Alkaline-responsive HMSNs based on cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])/bisammonium supramolecular complex and acid-responsive HMSNs based on α-cyclodextrin (α-CD)/aniline supramolecular complex, which operate in water, have been achieved and characterized by solid-state NMR, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The two elaborately designed nanocontainers show the pH-controlled encapsulation/release behaviors for benzotriazole molecules. Equal amounts of the alkaline- and acid-responsive nanocontainers were uniformly distributed in the hybrid zirconia-silica sol–gel coating and thus formed the intelligent anticorrosion coating. The self-healing property of AA2024 alloy coated with the intelligent anticorrosion coating is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sol–gel coating doped with the pH-responsive nanocontainers clearly demonstrates long-term corrosion protection performances when compared to the undoped sol–gel coating, which is attributed to the release of corrosion inhibitor from the nanocontainers after feeling the changes of environmental pH values near the corroded areas. (paper)

  12. Induced helical backbone conformations of self-organizable dendronized polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudick, Jonathan G; Percec, Virgil

    2008-12-01

    Control of function through the primary structure of a molecule presents a significant challenge with valuable rewards for nanoscience. Dendritic building blocks encoded with information that defines their three-dimensional shape (e.g., flat-tapered or conical) and how they associate with each other are referred to as self-assembling dendrons. Self-organizable dendronized polymers possess a flat-tapered or conical self-assembling dendritic side chain on each repeat unit of a linear polymer backbone. When appended to a covalent polymer, the self-assembling dendrons direct a folding process (i.e., intramolecular self-assembly). Alternatively, intermolecular self-assembly of dendrons mediated by noncovalent interactions between apex groups can generate a supramolecular polymer backbone. Self-organization, as we refer to it, is the spontaneous formation of periodic and quasiperiodic arrays from supramolecular elements. Covalent and supramolecular polymers jacketed with self-assembling dendrons self-organize. The arrays are most often comprised of cylindrical or spherical objects. The shape of the object is determined by the primary structure of the dendronized polymer: the structure of the self-assembling dendron and the length of the polymer backbone. It is therefore possible to predictably generate building blocks for single-molecule nanotechnologies or arrays of supramolecules for bottom-up self-assembly. We exploit the self-organization of polymers jacketed with self-assembling dendrons to elucidate how primary structure determines the adopted conformation and fold (i.e., secondary and tertiary structure), how the supramolecules associate (i.e., quaternary structure), and their resulting functions. A combination of experimental techniques is employed to interrogate the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of the self-organizable dendronized polymers. We refer to the process by which we interpolate between the various levels of structural

  13. Mesoscopic self-organization of a self-assembled supramolecular rectangle on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Au(111) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian-Ru; Wan, Li-Jun; Yuan, Qun-Hui; Bai, Chun-Li; Jude, Hershel; Stang, Peter J

    2005-01-25

    A self-assembled supramolecular metallacyclic rectangle was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Au(111) surfaces. The rectangles spontaneously adsorb on both surfaces and self-organize into well ordered adlayers. On highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, the long edge of the rectangle stands on the surface, forming a 2D molecular network. In contrast, the face of the rectangle lays flat on the Au(111) surface, forming linear chains. The structures and intramolecular features obtained through high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging are discussed.

  14. Investigation of supramolecular synthons and structural characterisation of aminopyridine-carboxylic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemamalini, Madhukar; Loh, Wan-Sin; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    Co-crystal is a structurally homogeneous crystalline material that contains two or more neutral building blocks that are present in definite stoichiometric amounts. The main advantage of co-crystals is their ability to generate a variety of solid forms of a drug that have distinct physicochemical properties from the solid co-crystal components. In the present investigation, five co-crystals containing 2-amino-6-chloropyridine (AMPY) moiety were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of 2-amino-6-chloropyridine (AMPY) (I), and the robustness of pyridine-acid supramolecular synthon were discussed in four stoichiometry co-crystals of AMPY…BA (II), AMPY…2ABA (III), AMPY…3CLBA (IV) and AMPY…4NBA (V). The abbreviated designations used are benzoic acid (BA), 2-aminobenzoic acid (2ABA), 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3CLBA) and 4-nitrobenzoic acid (4NBA). All the crystalline materials have been characterized by (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR, IR, photoluminescence, TEM analysis and X-ray diffraction. The supramolecular assembly of each co-crystal is analyzed and discussed. Extensive N---H · · · N/N---H · · · O/O---H · · · N hydrogen bonds are found in (I-V), featuring different supramolecular synthons. In the crystal structure, for compound (I), the 2-amino-6-chloropyridine molecules are linked together into centrosymmetric dimers by hydrogen bonds to form homosynthon, whereas for compounds (II-V), the carboxylic group of the respective acids (benzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 3-chlorobenzoic acid and 4-nitrobenzoic acid) interacts with pyridine molecule in a linear fashion through a pair of N---H · · · O and O---H · · · N hydrogen bonds, generating cyclic hydrogen-bonded motifs with the graph-set notation [Formula: see text] , to form heterosynthon. In compound (II), another intermolecular N---H · · · O hydrogen bonds further link these heterosynthons into zig-zag chains. Whereas in compounds (IV) and (V

  15. Hierarchical self-assembly of a bow-shaped molecule bearing self-complementary hydrogen bonding sites into extended supramolecular assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Nobori, Tadahito; Schmutz, Marc; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-07

    The bow-shaped molecule 1 bearing a self-complementary DAAD-ADDA (D=donor A=acceptor) hydrogen-bonding array generates, in hydrocarbon solvents, highly ordered supramolecular sheet aggregates that subsequently give rise to gels by formation of an entangled network. The process of hierarchical self-assembly of compound 1 was investigated by the concentration and temperature dependence of UV-visible and (1)H NMR spectra, fluorescence spectra, and electron microscopy data. The temperature dependence of the UV-visible spectra indicates a highly cooperative process for the self-assembly of compound 1 in decaline. The electron micrograph of the decaline solution of compound 1 (1.0 mM) revealed supramolecular sheet aggregates forming an entangled network. The selected area electronic diffraction patterns of the supramolecular sheet aggregates were typical for single crystals, indicative of a highly ordered assembly. The results exemplify the generation, by hierarchical self-assembly, of highly organized supramolecular materials presenting novel collective properties at each level of organization.

  16. Syntheses and structures of three supramolecular complexes based on 2-(pyridine-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Xu, Jia-Ning; Luo, Yu-Hui

    2017-11-01

    Three new supramolecular compounds, [Cu(o-HPIDC)(bpy)(H2O)]·2H2O 1, [Cu(o-H2PIDC)(phen)Cl]·[Cu(phen)2Cl]·10H2O·Cl 2 and {[Cd(o-H2PIDC)(H2O)2Cl]·H2O}23 (o-H3PIDC = 2-(pyridine-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. In compound 1, the adjacent two supramolecular layers are constructed from different types of helical chains with the same pitch. In compound 2, the adjacent 2D water-chloride layers, {[(H2O)10Cl]-}n, are pillared by [Cu(o-H2PIDC)(phen)Cl] units to form the overall 3D supramolecular network with 1D channels through Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond interactions. In compound 3, two Cd(II) are linked into a binuclear [Cd2(o-H2PIDC)2(H2O)4Cl2] with a ten-membered ring by two o-H2PIDC- ligands. The three compounds self-assemble into 3D supramolecular structures via hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interactions. The fluorescence properties of compound 3 was also investigated.

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of an Unprecedented Supramolecular Complex[Co(μ2-ClO4)2(H2O)2]·2MA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Jing; BAI,Zhengshuai; SUN,Weiyin

    2009-01-01

    A new supramolecular framework[Co(μ2-C104)2(H2O)2]·2MA(1)[MA=melamine(C3H6N6)]has been syn-thesized by a hydrothermal method.Interestingly,there ale inorganic and organic building blocks with two different supramolecular synthons:(a)2D(4,4)network constructed by infinite inorganic 1D chains through interchain hy-drogen bonding interactions;(b)1D zigzag organic chains formed by hydrogen bonds, which further stack up through,ππ-interactions between the two adjacent MA molecules.The entire structure of 1 is a 3D supramolecular framework resulting from the presence of abundant hydrogen bonds between infinite[CO(μ2-C1O4)2(H2O)2]n chains and zigzag MA chains in different sheets.1 gives a nice example of supramolecular framework based on non-covalent interactions including hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions.

  18. Competitive Self-Assembly Manifests Supramolecular Darwinism in Soft-Oxometalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santu; Kumar, Saurabh; Mallick, Apabrita; Roy, Soumyajit

    2015-09-01

    Topological transformation manifested in inorganic materials shows manifold possibilities. In our present work, we show a clear topological transformation in a soft-oxometalate (SOM) system which was formed from its polyoxometalate (POM) precursor [PMo12@Mo72Fe30]. This topological transformation was observed due to time dependent competitive self-assembly of two different length scale soft-oxometalate moieties formed from this two-component host-guest reaction. We characterized different morphologies by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive scattering spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, horizontal attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The predominant structure is selected by its size in a sort of supramolecular Darwinian competition in this process and is described here.

  19. Synthesis, crystal and supramolecular structure of rac-N-acetyl-2- thiohydantoin-asparagine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzon E. Delgado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H9N3O3S, also known as rac-N-acetyl-5-propionamide-2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one, crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/n (Nº14, Z=4, and unit cell parameters a= 9.338 (7 Å, b= 7.545 (5 Å, c= 13.212 (10 Å, E= 97.10 (2°, V= 932.8 (12 Å3. The acetyl group and the mean plane of the ureido group form an angle of 81.0 (2°. In the supramolecular structure, the molecules are joined by N--H···O hydrogen bonds into cyclic structures with graph-set R2 2(14 and R2 2(16, forming a three-dimensional network.

  20. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery against cestode infection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Ivan A; Sadov, Konstantin M; Limova, Yulia V; Sadova, Alexandra K; Varlamova, Anastasiya I; Khalikov, Salavat S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Chistyachenko, Yulia S

    2017-11-15

    Niclosamide is an anthelmintic that is widely used to treat cestode infection of animals. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery was studied in hymenolepiosis of mice and monieziosis of sheep. The efficacy of new substances of niclosamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer in different ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:2) was determined by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestine of sheep and mice. Pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) were not significantly different (P>0.1) among groups. The controlled test was used to evaluate the efficacy. A high efficacy (>95% efficacy) of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide with PVP (SCoNwPVP) was shown in different ratios (1:10; 1:5 and 1:2) at a dose of 20mg/kg of body weight at oral administration against Hymenolepis nana in mice and Moniezia expansa in sheep. Whereas the basic drug - substance of niclosamide was effective at a dose of 100mg/kg of b/w. No adverse effects of the drugs on animal health were detected during the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective high capacity adsorption of Congo red, luminescence and antibacterial assessment of two new cadmium(II) coordination polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Azizolla; Nozarian, Kimia; Ghamari, Narges; Mayer, Peter; Motamedi, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    Coordination polymers [CdCl(NCS)L]n (1) and {[Cd2I4(L)2]·H2O·DMF}n (2) (where L = 1, 1-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(1,3-dihydro-3-methyl-1H-imidazole- 2-thione)) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 both possess a tetrahedral arrangement with CdS2NCl and CdS2I2 cores, respectively. In these structures, the flexible thione ligands adopt a μ- bridging coordination mode to form 1D chains along the b-axis. The 1D chains are join together by C-H--Cl hydrogen bonds (in 1) and water molecules (in 2) to create a 2D supramolecular framework with an ABAB…packing mode. Remarkably, compounds 1 and 2 in particular polymer 1 exhibit excellent capacity to adsorb Congo red (CR) with high selectivity. The experimental data demonstrate that the mechanism of sorption process can be described by the Elovich and pseudo second order kinetic models for 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CR absorption was investigated by UV-Vis and solid state fluorescence spectra for the title polymers. In addition, the antibacterial assessment of these compounds have also been studied.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of thermo/pH-responsive Supramolecular G-Quadruplexes for the Construction of Supramolecular Hacky Sacks for Biorelevant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron Rios, Luis M.

    The impact of size, shape, and distribution of lipophilic regions on the surfaces of nanoscopic objects that are amphiphilic or patchy (such as proteins) are yet to be fully understood. One of the reasons for this is the lack of an appropriate model systems in which to probe this question. Our group has previously reported 2'-deoxyguanosine (8ArG) derivatives that self-assemble in aqueous media into discrete supramolecular hexadecamers that show the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phenomenon. The LCST phenomenon is a convenient and rigorous strategy to measure the hydrophobicity of a system. Although these SGQs are potentially attractive for biomedical applications like drug-delivery, the narrow window of physiological temperatures complicates their implementation. This moved us to redesign the constituent 8ArG subunits to incorporate imidazole moieties that would lead to pH-responsive SGQs, working isothermally. Upon reaching a threshold temperature (Lower Critical Solution Temperature, LCST) at pH 7, these dual-responsive SGQs further self-assemble to form nano/micro hydrogel globules that we called them supramolecular hacky sacks (SHS). However, we can isolate kinetically stable versions of these SHS by lowering the ionic strength of the medium (i.e., from the molar to the millimolar range) in a process that we term "fixing the SHS", in which these SHS maintain their integrity (size and shape) and stability without the requirement of crosslinking agents. After structural characterization and in vitro studies of SHS, we performed encapsulation studies of DOX, rhodamine, dsDNA (F26T), thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) and dextran (3 kDa) Texas Red conjugate. Then we performed in vivo studies of cell internalization and drug delivery with neuroblastoma SY-SH5Y. The performed studies will bring new approaches for the development of new biotechnology for fundamental applications and the emerging of novel therapeutic agents for biomedical applications.

  3. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  4. Supramolecular interactions of oxidative stress biomarker glutathione with fluorone black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Maria; Stobiecka, Magdalena

    2018-03-05

    Oxidative stress biomarkers, including glutathione (GSH) and related compounds, are involved in a variety of interactions enabling redox potential maintenance in living cells and protection against radicals. Since the oxidative stress is promoting and, in many cases, inducing serious illnesses, monitoring of GSH levels can aid in diagnostics and disease prevention. Herein, we report on the discovery of the formation of a supramolecular ensemble of GSH with fluorone black (9-phenyl fluorone, FB) which is optically active and enables sensitive determination of GSH by resonance elastic light scattering (RELS). We have found that supramolecular interactions of GSH with FB can be probed with spectroscopic, RELS, and electrochemical methods. Our investigations show that RELS intensity for FB solutions increases with GSH concentration while fluorescence emission of FB is not affected, as quenching begins only above 0.8mM GSH. The UV-Vis difference spectra show a positive peak at 383nm and a negative peak at 458nm, indicating a higher-energy absorbing complex in comparison to the non-bonded FB host. Supramolecular interactions of FB with GSH have also been corroborated by electrochemical measurements involving two configurations of FB-GSH ensembles on electrodes: (i) an inverted orientation on Au-coated quartz crystal piezoelectrode (Au@SG-FB), with strong thiolate bonding to gold, and (ii) a non-inverted orientation on glassy carbon electrode (GCE@FB-GS), with weak π-π stacking attachment and efficient charge mediation through the ensemble. The formation of a supramolecular ensemble with hydrogen bonding has also been confirmed by quantum mechanical calculations. The discovery of supramolecular FB-GSH ensemble formation enables elucidating the mechanisms of strong RELS responses, changes in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the electrochemical reactivity. Also, it provides new insights to the understanding of the efficient charge-transfer in redox potential homeostasis

  5. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  6. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suryabhan; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-01

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H2O)(H2O)]n1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H2O)]n2 [where OBA=4,4'-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H2O)]n.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4'-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]n4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH4 at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  7. Estratégia supramolecular para a nanotecnologia Supramolecular approach to nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiti Araki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian science is evolving rapidly and steadly in the last 10 years, reaching the 15º place in the international ranking. Research in nanotechnology is following a similar way generating new scientific and technological knowledge in several frontiers but specially in the interfaces of two or more areas, where Chemistry is consolidating itself as a central science. In this context, the supramolecular approach is a very promissing one because it allows the build-up of a chemical inteligence using all the sistematized knowledge for the design and development of new nanomaterials and products. The great challenge of Chemistry is not decrease the dimensionality of the materials but instead find ways to increase the dimensionality and structural complexity keeping strict control on the interactions between the components, in order to generate materials with new properties and functionalities. Unfortunately, the current vigorous advancement of scientific research has not been followed by the transformation of such know-how into patents and produts. Therefore much efforts should be devoted to build a national science and technology program, joining all the segments of the society involved in the technological development (university, institutes of technological research, industry and government in order to promote the furtherance of the Brazilian technological base. Only in this way it is possible to evolve to a technological society capable to transform the scientific knowledge into wealthy, thus sustaining the socioeconomic development of the country.

  8. Two new coordination polymers with flexible alicyclic carboxylate and bipyridyl co-ligands bearing trinuclear [Ni3(COO)6] SBUs: Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian-Dong; Li, Yong; Gao, Jian-Gang; Wang, Fen-Hua; Li, Qing-Hai; Yang, Hong-Xun; Chen, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Two new coordination polymers generally formulated as [Ni3(Hchda)2(chda)2(bpy)2(H2O)2]n (1) and [Ni3(Hchda)2(chda)2(bpp)2(H2O)2]n (2) [H2chda = 1,1'-cyclohexanediacetic acid, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine and bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], have been successfully assembled through mixed-ligands synthetic strategy with flexible alicyclic carboxylate and bipyridyl ligands. There structures feature trinuclear nickel secondary building units connected via the bridging bipyridyl spacers to form two-dimensional (4,4) grid layer. The nature of the different N-donor auxiliary ligands leads to the discrepancy in supramolecular structure of the two compounds. Magnetic studies indicate the ferromagnetic intra-complex magnetic interaction in the molecule for 1 and 2.

  9. Synthesis, structure, and properties of supramolecular charge-transfer complexes between bis(18-crown-6)stilbene and ammonioalkyl derivatives of 4,4'-bipyridine and 2,7-diazapyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, Artem I; Ushakov, Evgeny N; Efremova, Asya A; Kuz'mina, Lyudmila G; Moiseeva, Anna A; Lobova, Natalia A; Churakov, Andrei V; Strelenko, Yuri A; Alfimov, Michael V; Howard, Judith A K; Gromov, Sergey P

    2011-08-19

    4,4'-Bipyridine and 2,7-diazapyrene derivatives (A) having two ammonioalkyl N-substituents were synthesized. The complex formation of these compounds with bis(18-crown-6)stilbene (D) was studied by spectrophotometry, cyclic voltammetry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. In MeCN, π-donor D and π-acceptors A form supramolecular 1:1 (D·A) and 2:1 (D·A·D) charge-transfer complexes. The D·A complexes have a pseudocyclic structure as a result of ditopic binding of the ammonium groups to the crown-ether fragments. The better the geometric matching between the components, the higher the stability of the D·A complexes (log K up to 9.39). A key driving force of the D·A·D complex formation is the excessive steric strain in the precursor D·A complexes. The pseudocyclic D·A complexes involving the ammoniopropyl derivative of 4,4'-bipyridine were obtained as single crystals. Crystallization of the related ammonioethyl derivative was accompanied by transition of the D·A complexes to a structure of the (D·A)(m) coordination polymer type.

  10. A polyamidoamine dendrimer-streptavidin supramolecular architecture for biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, N; Arotiba, O A

    2017-12-01

    A novel polyamidoamine dendrimer-streptavidin supramolecular architecture suitable as a versatile platform for biosensor development is reported. The dendrimer was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode via cyclic voltammetry. The dendrimer electrode was further modified with streptavidin by electrostatic attraction upon drop coating. The platform i.e. the dendrimer-streptavidin modified electrode was electrochemically interrogated in phosphate buffer, ferrocyanide and H 2 O 2 . The dendrimer-streptavidin platform was used in the preparation of a simple DNA biosensor as a proof of concept. The supramolecular architecture of dendrimer-streptavidin was stable, electroactive and thus lends itself as a versatile immobilisation layer for any biotinylated bioreceptors in biosensor development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Supramolecular Derivation of Graphene Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gunnar

    With properties such as high surface area, high conductivity, and low production cost with easy up-scaling, graphene-like materials provide a promising support for many applications, one of which is for chemical sensors. By functionalization with molecular receptors such as supramolecular moieties...... of 10−5 M. In the second approach Azido-RGO was prepared as a general platform for post reduction modification. GO was here functionalized with a short linker terminated in an alcohol. The intermediate material was then reduced effectively with NaBH4, followed by chemical transformation of the alcohol...... atoms or slightly more than one azide per nm2 of RGO-sheet. This Azido-RGO was used in successful functionalization with the large supramolecular receptor molecules TTF-calix[4]pyrrole which function as a sensor for Cl− and potentially for TNB. The coverage achieved was one molecule per 50 – 60 carbon...

  12. Drug delivery's quest for polymers: Where are the frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Hans P

    2015-11-01

    Since the legendary 1964 article of Folkman and Long entitled "The use of silicone rubber as a carrier for prolonged drug therapy" the role of polymers in controlled drug delivery has come a long way. Today it is evident that polymers play a crucial if not the prime role in this field. The latest boost owes to the interest in drug delivery for the purpose of tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. The focus of this commentary is on a selection of general and personal observations that are characteristic for the current state of polymer therapeutics and carriers. It briefly highlights selected examples for the long march of synthetic polymer-drug conjugates from bench to bedside, comments on the ambivalence of selected polymers as inert excipients versus biological response modifiers, and on the yet unsolved dilemma of cationic polymers for the delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics. Further subjects are the complex design of multifunctional polymeric carriers including recent concepts towards functional supramolecular polymers, as well as observations on stimuli-sensitive polymers and the currently ongoing trend towards natural and naturally-derived biopolymers. The final topic is the discovery and early development of a novel type of biodegradable polyesters for parenteral use. Altogether, it is not the basic and applied research in polymer therapeutics and carriers, but the translational process that is the key hurdle to proceed towards an authoritative approval of new polymer therapeutics and carriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Supramolecular Ferric Porphyrins as Cyanide Receptors in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    All fundamental data about binding of the cyanide to a supramolecular complex composed of a per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer having an imidazole linker (Im3CD) and an anionic ferric porphyrin (Fe(III)TPPS) indicate that the Fe(III)TPPS/Im3CD complex is much better as an cyanide receptor in vivo than hydroxocobalamin, whose cyanide binding ability is lowered by its strong binding to serum proteins in the blood. PMID:24900285

  14. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhong’ an; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Jang, Sei-Hum; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of structure–property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  15. Supramolecular Assembly of Complementary Cyanine Salt J-Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhong’an

    2015-09-09

    An understanding of structure–property relationships in cyanine dyes is critical for their design and application. Anionic and cationic cyanines can be organized into complementary cyanine salts, offering potential building blocks to modulate their intra/intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate how the structures of these complementary salts can be tuned to achieve highly ordered J-type supramolecular aggregate structures of heptamethine dyes in crystalline solids.

  16. Chemomechanical Polymers as Sensors and Actuators for Biological and Medicinal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Strongin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the chemical environment can trigger large motions in chemomechanical polymers. The unique feature of such intelligent materials, mostly in the form of hydrogels, is therefore, that they serve as sensors and actuators at the same time, and do not require any measuring devices, transducers or power supplies. Until recently the most often used of these materials responded to changes in pH. Chemists are now increasingly using supramolecular recognition sites in materials, which are covalently bound to the polymer backbone. This allows one to use a nearly unlimited variety of guest (or effector compounds in the environment for a selective response by automatically triggered size changes. This is illustrated with non-covalent interactions of effectors comprising of metal ions, isomeric organic compounds, including enantiomers, nucleotides, aminoacids, and peptides. Two different effector molecules can induce motions as functions of their concentration, thus representing a logical AND gate. This concept is particularly fruitful with effector compounds such as peptides, which only trigger size changes if, e.g. copper ions are present in the surroundings. Another principle relies on the fast formation of covalent bonds between an effector and the chemomechanical polymer. The most promising application is the selective interaction of covalently fixed boronic acid residues with glucose, which renders itself not only for sensing, but eventually also for delivery of drugs such as insulin. The speed of the responses can significantly increase by increasing the surface to volume ratio of the polymer particles. Of particular interest is the sensitivity increase which can be reached by downsizing the particle volume.

  17. Formation of Gd coordination polymer with 1D chains mediated by Bronsted acidic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Qianqian; Han, Ying [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Lin, Hechun, E-mail: hclin@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan; Duan, Chungang [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Peng, Hui, E-mail: hpeng@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2017-03-15

    One dimensional coordination polymer Gd[(SO{sub 4})(NO{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}SO){sub 2}] (1) is prepared through the mediation of Bronsted acid ionic liquid, which crystallized in the monoclinic space of C2/c. In this polymer, adjacent Gd atoms are linked by two SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions to generate a 1-D chain, and all oxygen atoms in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups are connected to three nearest Gd atoms in µ{sup 3}:η{sup 1}:η{sup 1}:η{sup 2} fashion. Gd, S and N from SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} are precisely coplanar. The planar is coordinated by a pair of DMSO molecules, which is parallel and linked by hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional supramolecular network. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of 1 reveals weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Gd (III) ions. It exhibits relatively large magneto-caloric effect with –ΔS{sub m}=28.8 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH=7 T. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polymer Gd[(SO{sub 4})(NO{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}SO){sub 2}] was obtained mediated by Bronsted acid Ionic Liquid, which presents a 1-D chains collected by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} groups. Magnetic susceptibility of the polymer reveals weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Gd(III) ions with the relatively large magneto-caloric effect of –ΔS{sub m}=28.8 J Kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for ΔH= 7T.

  18. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Ying-xia, E-mail: wangyx@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liao, Fu-hui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lin, Jian-hua, E-mail: jhlin@pku.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-04-15

    A new borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}(i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) N{sup +} cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents. - Graphical abstract: The new quaternary ammonium borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 17}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] contains a 3D supramolecular network formed by hydrogen bond linked [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions and shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, excitation light, and solvents. Highlights: ► A novel quaternary ammonium borate was synthesized. ► It possesses a supramolecular network fomed by H-bonded [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions. ► This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating treatment, excitation light, and solvents.

  19. Supramolecular photocatalyst of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Supramolecular photocatalyst of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 was achieved, which showed high photocatalytic activity and adsorption capacity. Highlights: •Supramolecular photocatalyst of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 was achieved. •β-CD molecules acted as linkers between RGO and monodisperse TiO 2 nanoparticles. •Reduction of GO and preparation of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 was simultaneous. •The prepared RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic activity and adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)/titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) supramolecular photocatalyst was synthesized with a one-pot hydrothermal method. The reducing process was accomplished with the attaching of β-CD and generation of TiO 2 . β-CD acted as a linker between RGO and monodisperse TiO 2 nanoparticles. The structure and composition of the hybrid had been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared RGO-CD-TiO 2 showed significant enhanced performance for phenol and Cr (VI) removal, due to the effective transfer of photo-generated electron from TiO2 to RGO and improved absorbance performance of the hybrid

  20. Glucosamine-Based Supramolecular Nanotubes for Human Mesenchymal Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talloj, Satish Kumar; Cheng, Bill; Weng, Jen-Po; Lin, Hsin-Chieh

    2018-04-23

    Herein, we demonstrate an example of glucosamine-based supramolecular hydrogels that can be used for human mesenchymal cell therapy. We designed and synthesized a series of amino acid derivatives based on a strategy of capping d-glucosamine moiety at the C-terminus and fluorinated benzyl group at the N-terminus. From a systematic study on chemical structures, we discovered that the glucosamine-based supramolecular hydrogel [pentafluorobenzyl (PFB)-F-Glu] self-assembled with one-dimensional nanotubular structures at physiological pH. The self-assembly of a newly discovered PFB-F-Glu motif is attributed to the synergistic effect of π-π stacking and extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in aqueous medium. Notably, PFB-F-Glu nanotubes are proven to be nontoxic to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and have been shown to enhance hMSC proliferation while maintaining their pluripotency. Retaining of pluripotency capabilities provides potentially unlimited source of undifferentiated cells for the treatment of future cell therapies. Furthermore, hMSCs cultured on PFB-F-Glu are able to secrete paracrine factors that downregulate profibrotic gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-treated human skin fibroblasts, which demonstrates that PFB-F-Glu nanotubes have the potential to be used for wound healing applications. Overall, this article addresses the importance of chemical design to generate supramolecular biomaterials for stem cell therapy.

  1. From supramolecular electrochemistry to molecular-level devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Credi, Alberto; Ferrer Ribera, Belen; Venturi, Margherita

    2004-09-15

    Supramolecular (multi-component) systems can perform complex functions which result from the cooperation of actions performed by suitably selected molecular components. Looking at supramolecular systems, from the viewpoint of the functions, shows that the concept of macroscopic device can be extended to molecular level. Nature exploits very complex molecular-level devices to substain life, and, in the last twenty years, the development of supramolecular chemistry has allowed the construction of simple molecular-level devices, that are of interest not only for basic research, but also for the growth of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Molecular-level devices operate via electronic and/or nuclear rearrangements, and like macroscopic devices, they need energy to operate and signals to communicate with the operator. Electrochemistry can provide the answer to this dual requirement, since electrons/holes, besides supplying the energy needed to make a devices work, can also be useful to 'read' the state of the system and thus to control and monitor the operation of the device. In this article, some examples of molecular-level devices investigated in our laboratory will be reviewed.

  2. Self-assembling graphene-anthraquinone-2-sulphonate supramolecular nanostructures with enhanced energy density for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lifang; Gan, Shiyu; Li, Hongyan; Han, Dongxue; Li, Fenghua; Bao, Yu; Niu, Li

    2017-07-01

    Boosting the energy density of capacitive energy storage devices remains a crucial issue for facilitating applications. Herein, we report a graphene-anthraquinone supramolecular nanostructure by self-assembly for supercapacitors. The sulfonated anthraquinone exhibits high water solubility, a π-conjugated structure and redox active features, which not only serve as a spacer to interact with and stabilize graphene but also introduce extra pseudocapacitance contributions. The formed nest-like three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure with further hydrothermal treatment enhances the accessibility of ion transfer and exposes the redox-active quinone groups in the electrolytes. A fabricated all-solid-state flexible symmetric device delivers a high specific capacitance of 398.5 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 (1.5 times higher than graphene), superior energy density (52.24 Wh kg-1 at about 1 kW kg-1) and good stability (82% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles).

  3. Three-dimensional supramolecular architecture in imidazolium hydrogen 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Li; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Qun

    2010-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt formed between 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (H(2)tfbdc) and imidazolium (ImH), C(3)H(5)N(2)(+).C(8)HF(4)O(4)(-), contains one Htfbdc(-) anion and one ImH(2)(+) cation, joined by a classical N-H...O hydrogen bond. The acid and base subunits are further linked by N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite two-dimensional layers with R(6)(5)(32) hydrogen-bond motifs. The resulting (4,4) network layers interpenetrate to produce an interlocked three-dimensional structure. The final three-dimensional supramolecular architecture is further stabilized by the linkages of two C-H...O interactions.

  4. Functional organic materials based on polymerized liquid-crystal monomers: supramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees M W; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2012-07-16

    Functional organic materials are of great interest for a variety of applications. To obtain precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals has proven to be an extremely useful tool in the development of well-defined nanostructured materials. We have chosen the illustrative example of photopolymerizable hydrogen-bonding mesogens to show that a wide variety of functional materials can be made from a relatively simple set of building blocks. Upon mixing these compounds with other reactive mesogens, nematic, chiral nematic, and smectic or columnar liquid-crystalline phases can be formed that can be applied as actuators, sensors and responsive reflectors, and nanoporous membranes, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Supramolecular Complex Antioxidant Consisting of Vitamins C, E and Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, I. V.; Kuzema, P. O.; Stavinskaya, O. N.; Kazakova, O. A.

    Samples with varied amount of surface trimethylsilyl groups were obtained via gas-phase chemical modification of silica nanoparticles. The biocompatibility tests conducted in erythrocyte suspension have shown that hydrophobization of silica decreases its damaging effect to the cells. Being wettable in aqueous media, partially silylated silicas have higher affinity to hydrophobic bioactive molecules in comparison with the initial silica. Novel antioxidant consisting of vitamins C and E and silica with 40% of surface trimethylsilyl groups was formulated. It was found that supramolecular complexes are formed on the silica surface due to the affinity of water- and fat-soluble antioxidants to hydrophilic silanol and hydrophobic trimethylsilyl groups, respectively. Test reactions (total phenolic index determination, DPPH test) and in vitro studies (spectral analysis of erythrocyte suspensions undergoing UV irradiation) revealed the correlation between antioxidant activity of the complex antioxidant and the vitamins’ content. The antioxidant remained active during long-term storage under standard conditions.

  6. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  7. Helical self-organization and hierarchical self-assembly of an oligoheterocyclic pyridine-pyridazine strand into extended supramolecular fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis A; Ruiz, Eliseo; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Homo, Jean-Claude; Schmutz, Marc

    2002-08-02

    The synthesis and characterization of an alternating pyridine-pyridazine strand comprising thirteen heterocycles are described. Spontaneous folding into a helical secondary structure is based on a general molecular self-organization process enforced by the conformational information encoded within the primary structure of the molecular strand itself. Conformational control based on heterocyclic "helicity codons" illustrates a strategy for designing folding properties into synthetic oligomers (foldamers). Strong intermolecular interactions of the highly ordered lock-washer subunits of compound 3 results in hierarchical supramolecular self-assembly into protofibrils and fibrils. Compound 3 also forms mechanically stable two-dimensional Langmuir-Blodgett and cast thin films.

  8. Luminescent lanthanide complexes with 4-acetamidobenzoate: Synthesis, supramolecular assembly via hydrogen bonds, crystal structures and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xia; Fan Jun; Wang Zhihong; Zheng Shengrun; Tan Jingbo; Zhang Weiguang

    2011-01-01

    Four new luminescent complexes, namely, [Eu(aba) 2 (NO 3 )(C 2 H 5 OH) 2 ] (1), [Eu(aba) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ].0.5 (4, 4'-bpy).2H 2 O (2), [Eu 2 (aba) 4 (2, 2'-bpy) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ].4H 2 O (3) and [Tb 2 (aba) 4 (phen) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ].2C 2 H 5 OH (4) were obtained by treating Ln(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O and 4-acetamidobenzoic acid (Haba) with different coligands (4, 4'-bpy=4, 4'-bipyridine, 2, 2'-bpy=2, 2'-bipyridine, and phen=1, 10-phenanthroline). They exhibit 1D chains (1-2) and dimeric structures (3-4), respectively. This structural variation is mainly attributed to the change of coligands and various coordination modes of aba molecules. Moreover, the coordination units are further connected via hydrogen bonds to form 2D even 3D supramolecular networks. These complexes show characteristic emissions in the visible region at room temperature. In addition, thermal behaviors of four complexes have been investigated under air atmosphere. The relationship between the structures and physical properties has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Structure variation of four complexes is attributed to the change of coligands and various coordination modes of aba molecules. Moreover, they show characteristic emissions in the visible region. Highlights: → Auxiliary ligands have played the crucial roles on the structures of the resulting complexes. → Isolated structure units are further assembled via H-bonds to form supramolecular networks. → These solid-state complexes exhibit strong, characteristic emissions in the visible region.

  9. Surface Nanostructures Formed by Phase Separation of Metal Salt-Polymer Nanocomposite Film for Anti-reflection and Super-hydrophobic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con, Celal; Cui, Bo

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a simple and low-cost fabrication method for multi-functional nanostructures with outstanding anti-reflective and super-hydrophobic properties. Our method employed phase separation of a metal salt-polymer nanocomposite film that leads to nanoisland formation after etching away the polymer matrix, and the metal salt island can then be utilized as a hard mask for dry etching the substrate or sublayer. Compared to many other methods for patterning metallic hard mask structures, such as the popular lift-off method, our approach involves only spin coating and thermal annealing, thus is more cost-efficient. Metal salts including aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) and chromium nitrate nonahydrate (CNN) can both be used, and high aspect ratio (1:30) and high-resolution (sub-50 nm) pillars etched into silicon can be achieved readily. With further control of the etching profile by adjusting the dry etching parameters, cone-like silicon structure with reflectivity in the visible region down to a remarkably low value of 2% was achieved. Lastly, by coating a hydrophobic surfactant layer, the pillar array demonstrated a super-hydrophobic property with an exceptionally high water contact angle of up to 165.7°.

  10. Radical polymerization by a supramolecular catalyst: cyclodextrin with a RAFT reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Koyanagi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular catalysts have received a great deal of attention because they improve the selectivity and efficiency of reactions. Catalysts with host molecules exhibit specific reaction properties and recognize substrates via host–guest interactions. Here, we examined radical polymerization reactions with a chain transfer agent (CTA that has α-cyclodextrin (α-CD as a host molecule (α-CD-CTA. Prior to the polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA, we investigated the complex formation of α-CD with DMA. Single X-ray analysis demonstrated that α-CD includes DMA inside its cavity. When DMA was polymerized in the presence of α-CD-CTA using 2,2'-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin-2-ylpropane dihydrochloride (VA-044 as an initiator in an aqueous solution, poly(DMA was obtained in good yield and with narrow molecular weight distribution. In contrast, the polymerization of DMA without α-CD-CTA produced more widely distributed polymers. In the presence of 1,6-hexanediol (C6 diol which works as a competitive molecule by being included in the α-CD cavity, the reaction yield was lower than that without C6 diol.

  11. Building inorganic supramolecular architectures using principles adopted from the organic solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Đaković

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop transferable and practical avenues for the assembly of coordination complexes into architectures with specific dimensionality, a strategy utilizing ligands capable of simultaneous metal coordination and self-complementary hydrogen bonding is presented. The three ligands used, 2(1H-pyrazinone, 4(3H-pyrimidinone and 4(3H-quinazolinone, consistently deliver the required synthetic vectors in a series of CdII coordination polymers, allowing for reproducible supramolecular synthesis that is insensitive to the different steric and geometric demands from potentially disruptive counterions. In all nine crystallographically characterized compounds presented here, directional intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds between ligands on adjacent complex building blocks drive the assembly and orientation of discrete building blocks into largely predictable topologies. Furthermore, whether the solids are prepared from solution or through liquid-assisted grinding, the structural outcome is the same, thus emphasizing the robustness of the synthetic protocol. The details of the molecular recognition events that take place in this series of compounds have been clearly delineated and rationalized in the context of calculated molecular electrostatic potential surfaces.

  12. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  13. Photorefractive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, Hendrik Jan; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of photorefractive polymers. Photorefractive polymers are materials in which the refractive index can be varied by the interaction with light. Unlike in numerous other photosensitive materials, in photorefractive materials this occurs via

  14. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  15. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  16. Study of the influence of the molecular structure of vinyl compounds on their ability to form polymer films by electro-polymerization under cathodic polarisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Guy

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of new vinyl compounds, and aims at improving knowledge on the interaction between metal and a vinyl molecule under an intense electric field (the field of the double electrochemical layer), and more particularly at studying the influence of the molecular structure of the vinyl compound as well as the occurring reactions. After a first part presenting physical-chemical principles and knowledge which govern the whole set of reactions which are occurring within an electrolysis reactor, and a brief historical overview, this research thesis proposes a presentation of molecules which have been chosen for this study (vinyl compounds) and a justification of this choice. The author also presents the experimental device and describes the process implementation. Then, he presents and analyses experimental results. It appears that only some studied molecules result in the formation of polymer film [fr

  17. Direct modification of hydrogen/deuterium-terminated diamond particles with polymers to form reversed and strong cation exchange solid phase extraction sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jensen, David S; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R

    2010-12-03

    We describe direct polymer attachment to hydrogen and deuterium-terminated diamond (HTD and DTD) surfaces using a radical initiator (di-tert-amyl peroxide, DTAP), a reactive monomer (styrene) and a crosslinking agent (divinylbenzene, DVB) to create polystyrene encapsulated diamond. Chemisorbed polystyrene is sulfonated with sulfuric acid in acetic acid. Surface changes were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, both polystyrene-modified DTD and sulfonated styrene-modified DTD were used in solid phase extraction (SPE). Percent recovery and column capacity were investigated for both phenyl (polystyrene) and sulfonic acid treated polystyrene SPE columns. These diamond-based SPE supports are stable under basic conditions, which is not the case for silica-based SPE supports. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are inactivated by binding to glass and cellulosic surfaces, and released in active form by a heat-stable polymer from cauliflower florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Sandra C; Nguyen-Phan, Tu C; Fry, Stephen C

    2017-11-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, which cuts and re-joins hemicellulose chains in the plant cell wall, contributing to wall assembly and growth regulation, is the major activity of XTH proteins. During purification, XTHs often lose XET activity which, however, is restored by treatment with certain cold-water-extractable, heat-stable polymers (CHPs), e.g. from cauliflower florets. It was not known whether the XTH-activating factor (XAF) present in CHPs works by promoting (e.g. allosterically) XET activity or by re-solubilising sequestered XTH proteins. We now show that XTHs in dilute solution bind to diverse surfaces (e.g. glass and cellulose), and that CHPs can re-solubilise the bound enzyme, re-activating it. Cell walls prepared from cauliflower florets, mung bean shoots and Arabidopsis cell-suspension cultures each contained endogenous, tightly bound, inactive XTHs, which were likewise rapidly solubilised (within 0.5h) and thus activated by cauliflower XAF. We present a convenient quantitative assay for XAF acting on the native sequestered XTHs of Arabidopsis cell walls; using this assay, we show that CHPs from all plants tested possess XAF activity. The XAF activity of diverse CHPs does not correlate with their conductivity, showing that this activity is not a simple ionic effect. The XAF action of cauliflower CHPs was augmented by NaCl, although NaCl alone was much less effective than a CHP solution of similar conductivity, confirming that the cauliflower polymers did not simply exert a salt effect. We suggest that XAF is an endogenous regulator of XET action, modulating cell-wall loosening and/or assembly in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Aggregates Based on Sector- and Cone-Shaped Dendrons and Bolaamphiphiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, M. A.; Chvalun, S. N.

    2018-06-01

    Using a number of classes of such sector-shaped macromolecules as derivatives of 2,3,4- and 3,4,5- tri(dodecyloxy)benzenesulfonic acid and dendrimers based on gallic acid as an example, the main stages in the formation of supramolecular ensembles are considered: the formation of individual supramolecular aggregates due to the weak noncovalent interactions of mesogenic groups, and the subsequent ordering within these aggregates, which lowers the free energy of a system. Supramolecular aggregates are in turn organized into two- or three-dimensional supramolecular lattices. It is shown that the shape of the supramolecular aggregates and its change along with temperature are functions of the chemical structure of the mesogenic group (resulting in the controlled design of complex self-organizing systems with a given response to external stimuli).

  20. Crystal structure of a supramolecular lithium complex of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Yamada

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of a supramolecular lithium complex with a calix[4]arene derivative, namely tetramethanollithium 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27-trihydroxy-28-oxidocalix[4]arene methanol monosolvate, [Li(CH3OH4](C44H55O4·CH3OH or [Li(CH3OH4]+·(calix[4]arene−]·CH3OH (where calix[4]arene− represents a mono-anion species because of deprotonation of one H atom of the calixarene hydroxy groups, were obtained from p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene reacted with LiH in tetrahydrofuran, followed by recrystallization from methanol. The asymmetric unit comprises one mono-anionic calixarene molecule, one Li+ cation coordinated to four methanol molecules, and one methanol molecule included in the calixarene cavity. The calixarene molecule maintains a cone conformation by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between one phenoxide (–O− and three pendent calixarene hydroxy groups (–OH. The coordinated methanol molecules around the metal cation play a significant role in forming the supramolecular assembly. The crystal structure of this assembly is stabilized by three sets of intermolecular interactions: (i hydrogen bonds involving the –OH and –O− moieties of the calixarene molecules, the –OH groups of the coordinated methanol molecules, and the –OH group of the methanol molecule included in the calixarene cavity; (ii C—H...π interactions between the calixarene molecules and/or the coordinated methanol molecules; (iii O—H...π interactions between the calixarene molecule and the included methanol molecule.

  1. Spectrofluorimetric study of the β-cyclodextrin-dapsone-linear alcohol supramolecular system and determination of dapsone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Tang Bo; Chu Chun

    2002-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS) forms a 1:1 supramolecular complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) both in the absence and presence of linear alcohols. The apparent association constants (K app ) were measured using a steady-state fluorescence method. K app decreases linearly with an increasing number of carbon atoms in the chain of the alcohol. We attribute this to a competition between dapsone and linear alcohol for the β-CD hydrophobic cavity as detailed analysis of K app as a function of the concentration of alcohol suggests that the interactions in the β-CD-dapsone-linear alcohol system do not result in the formation of ternary supramolecular complex. Quenching the fluorescence of dapsone with NaI shows that the β-CD cavity acts as a shield against contact between dapsone and this aqueous phase quencher, while addition of alcohols inhibits this protective effect. This again suggests that alcohols occupy the space within the β-CD cavity with the result that dapsone molecules are forced to reside in the aqueous environment. Based on the significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of dapsone produced through complex formation, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of dapsone in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of β-CD is developed. The linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and dapsone concentration was obtained in the range of 3.39 to 1.50x10 3 ng ml -1 , with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The detection limit was 1.02 ng ml -1 . There was no interference from the excipients normally used in tablet formulations. The application of the present method to the determination of dapsone in tablets and human plasma gave satisfactory results and was compared with the pharmacopoeia method

  2. Structure-directing star-shaped block copolymers: supramolecular vesicles for the delivery of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Liu, Shao Qiong; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Gao, Shu Jun; Ke, Xiyu; Chia, Xin Tian; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2015-06-28

    Amphiphilic polycarbonate/PEG copolymer with a star-like architecture was designed to facilitate a unique supramolecular transformation of micelles to vesicles in aqueous solution for the efficient delivery of anticancer drugs. The star-shaped amphipilic block copolymer was synthesized by initiating the ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) from methyl cholate through a combination of metal-free organo-catalytic living ring-opening polymerization and post-polymerization chain-end derivatization strategies. Subsequently, the self-assembly of the star-like polymer in aqueous solution into nanosized vesicles for anti-cancer drug delivery was studied. DOX was physically encapsulated into vesicles by dialysis and drug loading level was significant (22.5% in weight) for DOX. Importantly, DOX-loaded nanoparticles self-assembled from the star-like copolymer exhibited greater kinetic stability and higher DOX loading capacity than micelles prepared from cholesterol-initiated diblock analogue. The advantageous disparity is believed to be due to the transformation of micelles (diblock copolymer) to vesicles (star-like block copolymer) that possess greater core space for drug loading as well as the ability of such supramolecular structures to encapsulate DOX. DOX-loaded vesicles effectively inhibited the proliferation of 4T1, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474 cells, with IC50 values of 10, 1.5 and 1.0mg/L, respectively. DOX-loaded vesicles injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice exhibited enhanced accumulation in tumor tissue due to the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Importantly, DOX-loaded vesicles demonstrated greater tumor growth inhibition than free DOX without causing significant body weight loss or cardiotoxicity. The unique ability of the star-like copolymer emanating from the methyl cholate core provided the requisite modification in the block copolymer interfacial curvature to generate vesicles of high loading capacity for DOX with significant

  3. Solvent induced synthesis, structure and properties of coordination polymers based on 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid as linker and 1,10-phenanthroline as auxiliary ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariem, Mukaddus; Yawer, Mohd; Sheikh, Haq Nawaz

    2015-11-01

    Three new coordination polymers [Mn(hip)(phen) (H2O)]n (1), [Co(hip)(phen) (H2O)]n (2), and [Cd(hip) (phen) (H2O)]n (3) (H2hip=5-hydroxyisophthalic acid; phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized by solvo-hydrothermal method using diethyl formamide-water (DEF-H2O) as solvent system. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all three coordination polymers 1, 2 and 3 crystallize in monoclinic space group P2/n. Metal ions are inter-connected by hydroxyisophthalate anions forming zig-zag 1D chain. 1D chains are further inter-connected by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions leading to 3D supramolecular architecture. Hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking provide thermal stability to polymers. Compounds 1 and 2 are paramagnetic at room temperature and variable temperature magnetic moment measurements revealed weak ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions at low temperature. Compound 3 exhibits excellent photoluminescence with large Stokes shift.

  4. Conformational equilibrium in supramolecular chemistry: Dibutyltriuret case

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Mroczyńska; Małgorzata Kaczorowska; Erkki Kolehmainen; Ireneusz Grubecki; Marek Pietrzak; Borys Ośmiałowski

    2015-01-01

    Summary The association of substituted benzoates and naphthyridine dianions was used to study the complexation of dibutyltriuret. The title molecule is the simplest molecule able to form two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The naphthyridine salt was used to break two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at a time while with the use of substituted benzoates the systematic approach to study association was achieved. Both, titrations and variable temperature measurements shed the light on the importance...

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization and photoluminescent properties of 2D multilayer Cu+ coordination polymers via Csbnd H⋯π and π⋯π interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Hong; Zhu, Sheng-Lan; Xiong, Xian-Lian; Li, Jia-Dong; Yang, Hu; Huang, Xin; Huang, Xue-Ren; Zhang, Kunming

    2017-09-01

    Two Cu(I) coordination polymers, {[Cu(pmbb)0.5(4,4'-bipy)0.5(PPh3)](BF4) (H2O)2}n (1) and {[Cu(pmbb)0.5(bpe)0.5(PPh3)](BF4)(DMF)}n (2) (pmbb = N, N'-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)biphenyl -4,4'-diamine, 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), PPh3 = triphenyl phosphine), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, 19F NMR, 11B-NMR, TG and X-ray crystal structure analysis. The structural analysis shows that complexes 1 and 2 contain diverse and interesting 2D supramolecular networks based on inter-chain interactions. Complex 1 displays a 1D zig-zag chain and a 1D+1D→2D supramolecular network formed by intermolecular Csbnd H···π interaction. For 2, each 1D zig-zag chain interacts with neighboring ones via intermolecular Csbnd H···π and π···π stacking interactions, leading to the formation of a 2D-stacking network. Furthermore, solid-state UV-Vis absorption spectra of complexes 1 and 2 indicate the existence of MLCT absorption. Complexes 1 and 2 show efficient luminescent emission peaks at 435 and 452 nm assigned to MLCT excited states, and the emission decay lifetimes are 20.82 μs for 1 and 20.72 μs for 2, displaying strong room-temperature solid-state photoluminescence. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis shows that the heat stability of polymers is 1>2.

  6. Towards supramolecular engineering of functional nanomaterials: pre-programming multi-component 2D self-assembly at solid-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Palma, Carlos-Andres; Bonini, Massimo; Samorì, Paolo

    2010-08-24

    Materials with a pre-programmed order at the supramolecular level can be engineered with a sub-nanometer precision making use of reversible non- covalent interactions. The intrinsic ability of supramolecular materials to recognize and exchange their constituents makes them constitutionally dynamic materials. The tailoring of the materials properties relies on the full control over the self-assembly behavior of molecular modules exposing recognition sites and incorporating functional units. In this review we focus on three classes of weak-interactions to form complex 2D architectures starting from properly designed molecular modules: van der Waals, metallo-ligand and hydrogen bonding. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies will provide evidence with a sub-nanometer resolution, on the formation of responsive multicomponent architectures with controlled geometries and properties. Such endeavor enriches the scientist capability of generating more and more complex smart materials featuring controlled functions and unprecedented properties.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  8. Self-assembly of heterogeneous supramolecular structures with uniaxial anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Osés, M; Gonzalez-Lakunza, N; Silanes, I; Gourdon, A; Arnau, A; Ortega, J E

    2006-12-28

    Uniaxial anisotropy in two-dimensional self-assembled supramolecular structures is achieved by the coadsorption of two different linear molecules with complementary amine and imide functionalization. The two-dimensional monolayer is defined by a one-dimensional stack of binary chains, which can be forced to line up along steps in vicinal surfaces. The competing driving forces in the self-organization process are discussed in light of the structures observed during single molecule adsorption and coadsorption on flat and vicinal surfaces and the corresponding theoretical calculations.

  9. Predicting supramolecular self-assembly on reconstructed metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Thomas J.; Barrena, Esther; Ocal, Carmen; Faraudo, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule-molecule interactions are enhanced in a way that long-range order is promoted. Also, the presence of a distortion in a reconstructed surface pattern not only induces the presence of long-range order but also is able to drive the organization of DIP into two coexisting homochiral domains, in quantitative agreement with STM experiments. On the other hand, only short range order is obtained in other reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. The simulation strategy opens interesting perspectives to tune the supramolecular structure by simulation design and surface engineering if choosing the right molecular building blocks and stabilising the chosen reconstruction pattern.The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule

  10. Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architectures Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Garti, Nissim

    2012-01-01

    This book will describe fundamentals and recent developments in the area of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architecture and their relevance to the  understanding of the functionality of  membranes  as delivery systems for active ingredients. As the heirarchial architectures determine their performance capabilities, attention will be paid to theoretical and design aspects related to the construction of lyotropic liquid crystals: mesophases such as lamellar, hexagonal, cubic, sponge phase micellosomes. The book will bring to the reader mechanistic aspects, compositional c

  11. Fluorescent supramolecular micelles for imaging-guided cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Yin, Wenyan; Dong, Xinghua; Yang, Wantai; Zhao, Yuliang; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-02-01

    A novel smart fluorescent drug delivery system composed of a perylene diimide (PDI) core and block copolymer poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) is developed and named as PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8. The biodegradable PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8 is a unimolecular micelle and can self-assemble into supramolecular micelles, called as fluorescent supramolecular micelles (FSMs), in aqueous media. An insoluble drug camptothecin (CPT) can be effectively loaded into the FSMs and exhibits pH-responsive release. Moreover, the FSMs with good biocompatibility can also be employed as a remarkable fluorescent probe for cell labelling because the maximum emission of PDI is beneficial for bio-imaging. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrate that the micelles are easily endocytosed by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth-inhibitory studies reveal a better therapeutic effect of FSMs after CPT encapsulation when compared with the free CPT drug. The multifunctional FSM nanomedicine platform as a nanovehicle has great potential for fluorescence imaging-guided cancer therapy.A novel smart fluorescent drug delivery system composed of a perylene diimide (PDI) core and block copolymer poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) is developed and named as PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8. The biodegradable PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8 is a unimolecular micelle and can self-assemble into supramolecular micelles, called as fluorescent supramolecular micelles (FSMs), in aqueous media. An insoluble drug camptothecin (CPT) can be effectively loaded into the FSMs and exhibits pH-responsive release. Moreover, the FSMs with good biocompatibility can also be employed as a remarkable fluorescent probe for cell labelling because the maximum emission of PDI is beneficial for bio-imaging. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrate that the micelles are easily endocytosed by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth

  12. 2,2 ':6 ',2 ''-terpyridine-functionalized redox-responsive hydrogels as a platform for multi responsive amphiphilic polymer membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schöller, K.; Toncelli, C.; Experton, J.; Widmer, S.; Rentsch, D.; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Martin, C.J.; Heuberger, M.; Housecroft, C.E.; Constable, E.C.; Boesel, L.F.; Scherer, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 100 (2016), s. 97921-97930 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metallo-supramolecular polymers * drug-delivery * biomedical applications Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  13. Effect of intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions on interfacial supramolecular structures of C3-symmetric hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhongcheng; Shao, Qi; Ye, Jun; Zeng, Zebing; Zhao, Yang; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Wu, Jishan; Chen, Xiaodong

    2011-02-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) supramolecular assemblies of a series of novel C(3)-symmetric hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) derivatives bearing different substituents adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite were studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy at a solid-liquid interface. It was found that the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions play a critical role in controlling the interfacial supramolecular assembly of these C(3)-symmetric HBC derivatives at the solid-liquid interface. The HBC molecule bearing three -CF(3) groups could form 2D honeycomb structures because of antiparallel dipole-dipole interactions, whereas HBC molecules bearing three -CN or -NO(2) groups could form hexagonal superstructures because of a special trimeric arrangement induced by dipole-dipole interactions and weak hydrogen bonding interactions ([C-H···NC-] or [C-H···O(2)N-]). Molecular mechanics and dynamics simulations were performed to reveal the physics behind the 2D structures as well as detailed functional group interactions. This work provides an example of how intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions could enable fine control over the self-assembly of disklike π-conjugated molecules.

  14. Supramolecular "Big Bang" in a Single-Ionic Surfactant/Water System Driven by Electrostatic Repulsion: From Vesicles to Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Loïc; Bauduin, Pierre; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2017-04-11

    In aqueous solution, dimethyldi-n-octylammonium chloride, [DiC 8 ][Cl], spontaneously forms dimers at low concentrations (1-10 mM) to decrease the strength of the hydrophobic-water contact. Dimers represent ideal building blocks for the abrupt edification of vesicles at 10 mM. These vesicles are fully characterized by dynamic and static light scattering, self-diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy. An increase in concentration leads to electrostatic repulsion between vesicles that explode into small micelles at 30 mM. These transitions are detected by means of surface tension, conductivity, and solubility of hydrophobic solutes as well as by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. These unusual supramolecular transitions emerge from the surfactant chemical structure that combines two contradictory features: (i) the double-chain structure tending to form low planar aggregates with low water solubility and (ii) the relatively short chains giving high hydrophilicity. The well-balanced hydrophilic-hydrophobic character of [DiC 8 ][Cl] is then believed to be at the origin of the unusual supramolecular sequence offering new opportunities for drug delivery systems.

  15. Anticancer efficacy of a supramolecular complex of a 2-diethylaminoethyl–dextran–MMA graft copolymer and paclitaxel used as an artificial enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Onishi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer efficacy of a supramolecular complex that was used as an artificial enzyme against multi-drug-resistant cancer cells was confirmed. A complex of diethylaminoethyl–dextran–methacrylic acid methylester copolymer (DDMC/paclitaxel (PTX, obtained with PTX as the guest and DDMC as the host, formed a nanoparticle 50–300 nm in size. This complex is considered to be useful as a drug delivery system (DDS for anticancer compounds since it formed a stable polymeric micelle in water. The resistance of B16F10 melanoma cells to PTX was shown clearly through a maximum survival curve. Conversely, the DDMC/PTX complex showed a superior anticancer efficacy and cell killing rate, as determined through a Michaelis–Menten-type equation, which may promote an allosteric supramolecular reaction to tubulin, in the same manner as an enzymatic reaction. The DDMC/PTX complex showed significantly higher anticancer activity compared to PTX alone in mouse skin in vivo. The median survival times of the saline, PTX, DDMC/PTX4 (particle size 50 nm, and DDMC/PTX5 (particle size 290 nm groups were 120 h (treatment (T/control (C, 1.0, 176 h (T/C, 1.46, 328 h (T/C, 2.73, and 280 h (T/C, 2.33, respectively. The supramolecular DDMC/PTX complex showed twice the effectiveness of PTX alone (p < 0.036. Above all, the DDMC/PTX complex is not degraded in cells and acts as an intact supramolecular assembly, which adds a new species to the range of DDS.

  16. Conformational equilibrium in supramolecular chemistry: Dibutyltriuret case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczyńska, Karina; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Grubecki, Ireneusz; Pietrzak, Marek; Ośmiałowski, Borys

    2015-01-01

    The association of substituted benzoates and naphthyridine dianions was used to study the complexation of dibutyltriuret. The title molecule is the simplest molecule able to form two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The naphthyridine salt was used to break two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at a time while with the use of substituted benzoates the systematic approach to study association was achieved. Both, titrations and variable temperature measurements shed the light on the importance of conformational equilibrium and its influence on association in solution. Moreover, the associates were observed by mass spectrometry. The DFT-based computations for complexes and single bond rotational barriers supports experimental data and helps understanding the properties of multiply hydrogen bonded complexes.

  17. A Supramolecular Approach toward Bioinspired PAMAM-Dendronized Fusion Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Förtsch, Christina; Ng, David Yuen Wah; Fischer, Stephan; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Weina; Wu, Yuzhou; Koynov, Kaloian; Barth, Holger; Weil, Tanja

    2016-06-01

    Nature has provided a highly optimized toolbox in bacterial endotoxins with precise functions dictated by their clear structural division. Inspired by this streamlined design, a supramolecular approach capitalizing on the strong biomolecular (streptavidin (SA))-biotin interactions is reported herein to prepare two multipartite fusion constructs, which involves the generation 2.0 (D2) or generation 3.0 (D3) polyamidoamine-dendronized transporter proteins (dendronized streptavidin (D3SA) and dendronized human serum albumin (D2HSA)) non-covalently fused to the C3bot1 enzyme from Clostridium botulinum, a potent and specific Rho-inhibitor. The fusion constructs, D3SA-C3 and D2HSA-C3, represent the first examples of dendronized protein transporters that are fused to the C3 enzyme, and it is successfully demonstrated that the C3 Rho-inhibitor is delivered into the cytosol of mammalian cells as determined from the characteristic C3-mediated changes in cell morphology and confocal microscopy. The design circumvents the low uptake of the C3 enzyme by eukaryotic cells and holds great promise for reprogramming the properties of toxin enzymes using a supramolecular approach to broaden their therapeutic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  19. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  20. Supramolecular Structures for Photochemical Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.

    2003-08-26

    OAK B188 The goal of this project is to mimic the energy transduction processes by which photosynthetic organisms harvest sunlight and convert it to forms of energy that are more easily used and stored. The results may lead to new technologies for solar energy harvesting based on the natural photosynthetic process. They may also enrich our understanding and control of photosynthesis in living organisms, and lead to methods for increasing natural biomass production, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. In our work to date, we have learned how to make synthetic antenna and reaction center molecules that absorb light and undergo photoinduced electron transfer to generate long-lived, energetic charge-separated states. We have assembled a prototype system in which artificial reaction centers are inserted into liposomes (artificial cell-like constructs), where they carry out light-driven transmembrane translocation of hydrogen ions to generate proton motive force. By insertion of natural ATP synthase into the liposomal bilayer, this proton motive force has been used to power the synthesis of ATP. ATP is a natural biological energy currency. We are carrying out a systematic investigation of these artificial photosynthetic energy harvesting constructs in order to understand better how they operate. In addition, we are exploring strategies for reversing the direction of the light-powered proton pumping. Most recently, we have extended these studies to develop a light-powered transmembrane calcium ion pump that converts sunlight into energy stored as a calcium ion concentration gradient across a lipid bilayer.

  1. The crystal structures of three pyrazine-2,5-dicarb-oxamides: three-dimensional supra-molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cati, Dilovan S; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-05-01

    The complete mol-ecules of the title compounds, N 2 , N 5 -bis-(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C 18 H 16 N 6 O 2 (I), 3,6-dimethyl- N 2 , N 5 -bis-(pyridin-2-yl-meth-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C 20 H 20 N 6 O 2 (II), and N 2 , N 5 -bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C 18 H 16 N 6 O 2 (III), are generated by inversion symmetry, with the pyrazine rings being located about centres of inversion. Each mol-ecule has an extended conformation with the pyridine rings inclined to the pyrazine ring by 89.17 (7)° in (I), 75.83 (8)° in (II) and by 82.71 (6)° in (III). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are also linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the (10-1) plane. As in (I), the layers are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. In the crystal of (III), mol-ecules are again linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, but here form corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. Within the sheets, neighbouring pyridine rings are linked by offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.739 (1) Å]. The sheets are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. Compound (I) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P 2 1 / c . Another monoclinic polymorph, space group C 2/ c , has been reported on by Cockriel et al. [ Inorg. Chem. Commun. (2008), 11 , 1-4]. The mol-ecular structures of the two polymorphs are compared.

  2. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  3. Wear of polymers and composites

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelbary, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In the field of tribology, the wear behaviour of polymers and composite materials is considered a highly non-linear phenomenon. Wear of Polymers and Composites introduces fundamentals of polymers and composites tribology. The book suggests a new approach to explore the effect of applied load and surface defects on the fatigue wear behaviour of polymers, using a new tribometer and thorough experiments. It discusses effects of surface cracks, under different static and cyclic loading parameters on wear, and presents an intelligent algorithm, in the form of a neural network, to map the relations

  4. Small angle scattering and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs

  5. Supramolecular Organization of Nonstoichiometric Drug Hydrates: Dapsone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris E. Braun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The observed moisture- and temperature dependent transformations of the dapsone (4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS 0. 33-hydrate were correlated to its structure and the number and strength of the water-DDS intermolecular interactions. A combination of characterization techniques was used, including thermal analysis (hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies and variable humidity powder X-ray diffraction, along with computational modeling (crystal structure prediction and pair-wise intermolecular energy calculations. Depending on the relative humidity the hydrate contains between 0 and 0.33 molecules of water per molecule DDS. The crystal structure is retained upon dehydration indicating that DDS hydrate shows a non-stoichiometric (dehydration behavior. Unexpectedly, the water molecules are not located in structural channels but at isolated-sites of the host framework, which is counterintuitively for a hydrate with non-stoichiometric behavior. The water-DDS interactions were estimated to be weaker than water-host interactions that are commonly observed in stoichiometric hydrates and the lattice energies of the isomorphic dehydration product (hydrate structure without water molecules and (form III differ only by ~1 kJ mol−1. The computational generation of hypothetical monohydrates confirms that the hydrate with the unusual DDS:water ratio of 3:1 is more stable than a feasible monohydrate structure. Overall, this study highlights that a deeper understanding of the formation of hydrates with non-stoichiometric behavior requires a multidisciplinary approach including suitable experimental and computational methods providing a firm basis for the development and manufacturing of high quality drug products.

  6. Supramolecular Organization of Nonstoichiometric Drug Hydrates: Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doris E.; Griesser, Ulrich J.

    2018-01-01

    The observed moisture- and temperature dependent transformations of the dapsone (4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS) 0. 33-hydrate were correlated to its structure and the number and strength of the water-DDS intermolecular interactions. A combination of characterization techniques was used, including thermal analysis (hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis), gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies and variable humidity powder X-ray diffraction, along with computational modeling (crystal structure prediction and pair-wise intermolecular energy calculations). Depending on the relative humidity the hydrate contains between 0 and 0.33 molecules of water per molecule DDS. The crystal structure is retained upon dehydration indicating that DDS hydrate shows a non-stoichiometric (de)hydration behavior. Unexpectedly, the water molecules are not located in structural channels but at isolated-sites of the host framework, which is counterintuitively for a hydrate with non-stoichiometric behavior. The water-DDS interactions were estimated to be weaker than water-host interactions that are commonly observed in stoichiometric hydrates and the lattice energies of the isomorphic dehydration product (hydrate structure without water molecules) and (form III) differ only by ~1 kJ mol−1. The computational generation of hypothetical monohydrates confirms that the hydrate with the unusual DDS:water ratio of 3:1 is more stable than a feasible monohydrate structure. Overall, this study highlights that a deeper understanding of the formation of hydrates with non-stoichiometric behavior requires a multidisciplinary approach including suitable experimental and computational methods providing a firm basis for the development and manufacturing of high quality drug products. PMID:29520359

  7. Assembly of one-dimensional supramolecular objects: From monomers to networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Mehmet; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2005-07-01

    One-dimensional supramolecular aggregates can form networks at exceedingly low concentrations. Recent experiments in several laboratories, including our own, have demonstrated the formation of gels by these systems at concentrations well under 1% by weight. The systems of interest in our laboratory form either cylindrical nanofibers or ribbons as a result of strong noncovalent interactions among monomers. The stiffness and interaction energies among these thread-like objects can vary significantly depending on the chemical structure of the monomers used. We have used Monte Carlo simulations to study the structure of the threads and their ability to form networks through bundle formation. The persistence length of the threads was found to be strongly affected not only by stiffness, but also by the strength of attractive two-body interactions among thread segments. The relative values of stiffness and attractive two-body interaction strength determine if threads collapse or create bundles. Only in the presence of sufficiently long threads and bundle formation can these systems assemble into networks of high connectivity.

  8. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  9. Claisen thermally rearranged (CTR) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Alberto; Rangou, Sofia; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers, which are considered the next-generation of membrane materials because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability, are proven to have significant drawbacks because of the high temperature required for the rearrangement and low degree of conversion during this process. We demonstrate that using a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, the temperature required for the rearrangement of a solid glassy polymer was reduced by 200°C. Conversions of functionalized polyimide to polybenzoxazole of more than 97% were achieved. These highly mechanically stable polymers were almost five times more permeable and had more than two times higher degrees of conversion than the reference polymer treated under the same conditions. Properties of these second-generation TR polymers provide the possibility of preparing efficient polymer membranes in a form of, for example, thin-film composite membranes for various gas and liquid membrane separation applications. PMID:27482538

  10. Development of polymer films by the coalescence of polymer particles in powdered and aqueous polymer-modified mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.U.K.; Ohama, Y.; Demura, K.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates and compares the coalescence of polymer particles (continuous polymer films formation) in powdered polymer-modified mortars (PPMMs) and aqueous polymer-modified mortars (APMMs). Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) using various redispersible polymer powders (powdered cement modifiers) and polymer dispersions (aqueous cement modifiers) were prepared by varying the polymer-cement ratio (P/C) and were tested for the characterization of polymer films using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after curing for 28 days. It is concluded from the test results that mortar constituents of unmodified mortar (UMM) are loosely joined with each other due to the absence of polymer films, thus having a structure with comparatively lower mechanical and durability characteristics. By contrast, mortar constituents in PPMMs and APMMs are compactly joined with each other due to the presence of interweaving polymer films, thereby forming a monolithic structure with improved mechanical and durability characteristics. However, the results make obvious the poor coalescence of polymer particles or development of inferior quality polymers films in PPMMs as compared to that observed in APMMs. Moreover, PPMMs show less uniform distribution of polymer films as compared to that in APMMs. Different powdered cement modifiers have different film-forming capabilities. However, such difference is hardly recognized in aqueous cement modifiers. The polymer films in PPMMs and APMMs may acquire different structures. They may appear as mesh-like, thread-like, rugged, dense or fibrous with fine or rough surfaces. Development of coherent polymer films is not well pronounced at a P/C of 5% in PPMMs, whereas sometimes coherent polymer films are observed at a P/C of 5% in APMMs. At a P/C of 10% or more, fully developed, coherent polymer films are observed in both PPMMs and APMMs

  11. Graphene–cyclodextrin–cytochrome c layered assembly with improved electron transfer rate and high supramolecular recognition capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Cheng-Bin; Guo, Cong-Cong; Jiang, Dan; Tang, Qian, E-mail: qiantang@swu.edu.cn; Liu, Chang-Hua; Ma, Xue-Bing

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a new graphene-based layered assembly, named graphene–cyclodextrin–cytochrome c with improved electron transfer rate. This assembly has combined high conductivity of graphene nanosheets (GNs), selectively binding properties and electronegativity of cyclodextrins (CDs), as well as electropositivity of cytochrome c (Cyt c). This assembly can also mimic the confined environments of the intermembrane space of mitochondria. A β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized GN (GN–CD) assembly was initially prepared by a simple wet-chemical strategy, i.e., in situ thermal reduction of graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of β-CD. Cyt c was then intercalated to the GN–CD assembly to form a layered self-assembled structure, GN–CD–Cyt c, through electrostatic interaction. Compared with GNs and GN–CD, GN–CD–Cyt c assembly displayed improved electron transfer rate and high supramolecular recognition capability toward six probe molecules. - Highlights: • A new tertiary layered assembly named GN–CD–Cyt c was prepared. • Compared with GNs and GN–CD, GN–CD–Cyt c shows improved electron transfer rate. • GN–CD–Cyt c displays high supramolecular recognition capability.

  12. Graphene–cyclodextrin–cytochrome c layered assembly with improved electron transfer rate and high supramolecular recognition capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Cheng-Bin; Guo, Cong-Cong; Jiang, Dan; Tang, Qian; Liu, Chang-Hua; Ma, Xue-Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new graphene-based layered assembly, named graphene–cyclodextrin–cytochrome c with improved electron transfer rate. This assembly has combined high conductivity of graphene nanosheets (GNs), selectively binding properties and electronegativity of cyclodextrins (CDs), as well as electropositivity of cytochrome c (Cyt c). This assembly can also mimic the confined environments of the intermembrane space of mitochondria. A β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized GN (GN–CD) assembly was initially prepared by a simple wet-chemical strategy, i.e., in situ thermal reduction of graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of β-CD. Cyt c was then intercalated to the GN–CD assembly to form a layered self-assembled structure, GN–CD–Cyt c, through electrostatic interaction. Compared with GNs and GN–CD, GN–CD–Cyt c assembly displayed improved electron transfer rate and high supramolecular recognition capability toward six probe molecules. - Highlights: • A new tertiary layered assembly named GN–CD–Cyt c was prepared. • Compared with GNs and GN–CD, GN–CD–Cyt c shows improved electron transfer rate. • GN–CD–Cyt c displays high supramolecular recognition capability

  13. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  14. Cyclopentadithiophene-Benzothiadiazole Donor-Acceptor Polymers as Prototypical Semiconductors for High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; An, Cunbin; Pisula, Wojciech; Müllen, Klaus

    2018-05-15

    Donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers are of great interest as organic semiconductors, because they offer a rational tailoring of the electronic properties by modification of the donor and acceptor units. Nowadays, D-A polymers exhibit field-effect mobilities on the order of 10 -2 -10 0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , while several examples showed a mobility over 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The development of cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CDT-BTZ) copolymers one decade ago represents an important step toward high-performance organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. The significant rise in field-effect mobility of CDT-BTZ in comparison to the existing D-A polymers at that time opened the door to a new research field with a large number of novel D-A systems. From this point, the device performance of CDT-BTZ was gradually improved by a systematic optimization of the synthesis and polymer structure as well as by an efficient solution processing into long-range ordered thin films. The key aspect was a comprehensive understanding of the relation between polymer structure and solid-state organization. Due to their fundamental role for the field of D-A polymers in general, this Account will for the first time explicitly focus on prototypical CDT-BTZ polymers, while other reviews provide an excellent general overview on D-A polymers. The first part of this Account discusses strategies for improving the charge carrier transport, focusing on chemical aspects. Improved synthesis as an essential stage toward high purity, and high molecular weight is a prerequisite for molecular order. The modification of substituents is a further crucial feature to tune the CDT-BTZ packing and self-assembly. Linear alkyl side chains facilitate intermolecular π-stacking interactions, while branched ones increase solubility and alter the polymer packing. Additional control over the supramolecular organization of CDT-BTZ polymers is introduced by alkenyl substituents via their cis

  15. Supramolecular Drug Delivery Systems Based on Water-Soluble Pillar[n]arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuan; Gao, Lei; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Leyong

    2016-06-01

    Supramolecular drug delivery systems (SDDSs), including various kinds of nanostructures that are assembled by reversible noncovalent interactions, have attracted considerable attention as ideal drug carriers owing to their fascinating ability to undergo dynamic switching of structure, morphology, and function in response to various external stimuli, which provides a flexible and robust platform for designing and developing functional and smart supramolecular nano-drug carriers. Pillar[n]arenes represent a new generation of macrocyclic hosts, which have unique structures and excellent properties in host-guest chemistry. This account describes recent progress in our group to develop pillararene-based stimuli-responsive supramolecular nanostructures constructed by reversible host-guest interactions for controllable anticancer drug delivery. The potential applications of these supramolecular drug carriers in cancer treatment and the fundamental questions facing SDDSs are also discussed. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Insight into the chiral induction in supramolecular stacks through preferential chiral salvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, S.J.; Tomovic, Z.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Preferred handedness in the supramolecular chirality of self-assembled achiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) derivatives is induced by chiral solvents and spectroscopic probing provides insight into the mechanistic aspects of this chiral induction through chiral solvation

  17. From metal-organic squares to porous zeolite-like supramolecular assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Tingting; Li, Guanghua; Wojtas, Łukasz; Huo, Qisheng; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Liu, Yunling

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis, structure, and characterization of two novel porous zeolite-like supramolecular assemblies, ZSA-1 and ZSA-2, having zeolite gis and rho topologies, respectively. The two compounds were assembled from functional metal

  18. Molecular printboards as a general platform for protein immobilization: A supramolecular solution to nonspecific adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Mulder, A.; Tampe, Robert; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    Be specific: A supramolecular adsorbate consisting of an adamantyl group (red) and an oligo(ethylene glycol) chain has been designed to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption at cyclodextrin molecular printboards. The adamantyl group allows specific and reversible interactions. Specific

  19. Template Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Supramolecular Assembly of Hexaaza Macrocyclic Copper(II) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Ju Chang; Lough, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Two new hexaaza macrocyclic copper(II) complexes were prepared by a template method and structurally characterized. In the solid state, they were self-assembled by intermolecular interactions to form the corresponding supramolecules 1 and 2, respectively. In the structure of 1, the copper(II) macrocycles are bridged by a tp ligand to form a macrocyclic copper(II) dimer. The dimer extends its structure by intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds and C-H···π interactions, resulting in the formation of a double stranded 1D supramolecule. In 2, the basic structure is a monomeric copper(II) macrocycle with deprotonated imidazole pendants. An undulated 1D hydrogen bonded array is achieved through hydrogen bonds between imidazole pendants and secondary amines, where the imidazole pendants act as a hydrogen bond acceptor. The 1D hydrogen bonded supramolecular chain is supported by C-H···π interactions between the methyl groups of acetonitrile ligands and imidazole pendants of the copper(II) macrocycles. In both complexes, the introduction of imidazoles to the macrocycle as a pendant plays an important role for the formation of supramolecules, where they act as intermolecular hydrogen bond donors and/or acceptors, C-H···π and π-π interactions

  20. Synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with beta-cyclodextrin as a supramolecular shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Landong; Sun, Xiaohong; Yang, Yali; Guan, Naijia; Zhang, Fuxiang

    2006-11-20

    We report a novel, green hydrothermal-synthesis route to well-dispersed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with particle sizes of 9-16 nm in the presence of beta-CD (beta-cyclodextrin). During the synthesis process, the CD-containing synthesis mixture assembled in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions. Driven by the interaction between molecules, the beta-CDs assembled in the longitudinal direction to form long-chain compounds, whereas in the latitudinal direction, they tended to form regular aggregates through coordination with the Ti species from the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate. In view of the effect of the coordination and the steric hindrance of beta-CDs as a supramolecular shell, homogeneous nuclei and slow growth of TiO2 crystals during the synthesis process was observed, which was responsible for the formation of uniform TiO2 nanoparticles. The low beta-CD dosage and the high product yield (>90%) demonstrated well the potential of this synthesis route in the large-scale industrial production of anatase nanoparticles.

  1. Sensitization effects of supramolecular assemblies on the luminescence of terbium-ion prulifloxacin complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Yi Chongyue; Li Xue; Fang Fang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang Yajiang, E-mail: yjyang@mail.hust.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Luminescence enhancement of terbium-ion prulifloxacin complexes (Tb(III)-PUFX) in supramolecular hydrogels formed by assembly of 1,3:2,4-di-O-benzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) was investigated by steady-state fluorescence, varying temperature fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence. The luminescence images show that Tb(III)-PUFX were dispersed in the DBS gels. The luminescence intensity of Tb(III)-PUFX in the DBS gels was significantly increased in comparison with that in corresponding aqueous solutions. The varying temperature fluorescent spectra show that the luminescence intensity of Tb(III)-PUFX decreased with an increase in the temperature. This implies that the luminescence enhancement of Tb(III)-PUFX is related to the dissociation and the formation of the DBS assemblies. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements show slower rotational motion in DBS gels in comparison with that in the corresponding aqueous solutions. This may be ascribed to a unique microstructure of three-dimensional network formed by DBC aggregates, resulting in deactivation of the nonradiative relaxation. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy and polarized optical microscopy indicate that the morphology of the DBS assemblies was not influenced upon addition of Tb(III)-PUFX to the DBS gels.

  2. Supramolecular assembly of a series of chiral dendrimers in interfacial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jing; Deng Guojun; Fan Qinghua; Liu Minghua

    2004-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly and interfacial properties of a series of novel binaphthyl containing dendrimers from generation 1 through generation 4 have been investigated at the air/water interface and in solid substrates. Due to the lack of either long alkyl chains or strong hydrophilic groups, the dendrimer molecules tend to aggregate together to form stable two-dimensional ultrathin films, as verified by π-A and A-t measurements. Atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements of the transferred one-layer ultrathin films indicate that all the dendrimers show disk-like morphologies, which could be varied in particle size upon changing the surface pressure. The height profiles reveal that the height of the disks is between that of a monolayer and a bilayer, indicating that they are formed due to the aggregation of dendrimers with a distortion and/or partial overlapping. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the transferred multilayer films show Cotton effects due to the exciton couplet of the aromatic moieties adjacent to the bis(diphenylphosphino)-binaphthyl moiety, which is an active catalytic site for the dendrimer. With the increment of the generation, the intensity of the Cotton effects increased, suggesting that the optical active site of the dendrimer can be controlled by the outside wedge

  3. Unexpected Rotamerism at the Origin of a Chessboard Supramolecular Assembly of Ruthenium Phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Giuseppe; Larciprete, Rosanna; Alippi, Paola; Bonapasta, Aldo Amore; Filippone, Francesco; Lacovig, Paolo; Lizzit, Silvano; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Ronci, Fabio; Zanotti, Gloria; Colonna, Stefano

    2017-11-16

    We have investigated the formation and the properties of ultrathin films of ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) 2 vacuum deposited on graphite by scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy measurements, interpreted in close conjunction with ab initio simulations. Thanks to its unique dimeric structure connected by a direct Ru-Ru bond, (RuPc) 2 can be found in two stable rotameric forms separated by a low-energy barrier. Such isomerism leads to a peculiar organization of the molecules in flat, horizontal layers on the graphite surface, characterized by a chessboard-like alternation of the two rotamers. Moreover, the molecules are vertically connected to form π-stacked columnar pillars of akin rotamers, compatible with the high conductivity measured in (RuPc) 2 powders. Such features yield an unprecedented supramolecular assembly of phthalocyanine films, which could open interesting perspectives toward the realization of new architectures of organic electronic devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Supramolecular Polymers with Multiple Types of Binding Motifs: From Fundamental Studies to Multifunctional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    razor blade. The damaged area was subsequently exposed to UV irradiation (320 – 390 nm, 500 mW·cm-2), which led to complete disappearance of the...subsequently exposed for 12 s to the light of a UV lamp , which caused complete healing (bottom). (d) Unloading curves of AFM nano indentation of an as...UPy motif. By contrast, UV -Vis spectroscopic titration experiments revealed that equimolar mixtures of [Fe(BKB)](ClO4)2 and (UPy-PEB-UPy) show

  5. Functionalized graphene nanomaterials: new insight into direct exfoliation of graphite with supramolecular polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chang, Feng-Chih; Wang, Jui-Hsu; Chen, Jem-Kun; Yen, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-12-01

    A novel urea-cytosine end-capped polypropylene glycol (UrCy-PPG) can self-assemble into a long-range ordered lamellar microstructure on the surface of graphene, due to the strong specific interactions between UrCy-PPG and graphene. In addition, the graphene composite produced exhibits a high conductivity (~1093 S m-1) with a dramatic thermo-responsive ON/OFF resistance-switching behavior (10 consecutive cycles).A novel urea-cytosine end-capped polypropylene glycol (UrCy-PPG) can self-assemble into a long-range ordered lamellar microstructure on the surface of graphene, due to the strong specific interactions between UrCy-PPG and graphene. In addition, the graphene composite produced exhibits a high conductivity (~1093 S m-1) with a dramatic thermo-responsive ON/OFF resistance-switching behavior (10 consecutive cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07076g

  6. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  7. Supramolecular "Trojan Horse" for Nuclear Delivery of Dual Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanbin; Shen, Haosheng; Zhan, Jie; Lin, Mingliang; Dai, Liuhan; Ren, Chunhua; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jianfeng; Gao, Jie; Yang, Zhimou

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear delivery and accumulation are very important for many anticancer drugs that interact with DNA or its associated enzymes in the nucleus. However, it is very difficult for neutrally and negatively charged anticancer drugs such as 10-hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT). Here we report a simple strategy to construct supramolecular nanomedicines for nuclear delivery of dual synergistic anticancer drugs. Our strategy utilizes the coassembly of a negatively charged HCPT-peptide amphiphile and the positively charged cisplatin. The resulting nanomaterials behave as the "Trojan Horse" that transported soldiers (anticancer drugs) across the walls of the castle (cell and nucleus membranes). Therefore, they show improved inhibition capacity to cancer cells including the drug resistant cancer cell and promote the synergistic tumor suppression property in vivo. We envision that our strategy of constructing nanomaterials by metal chelation would offer new opportunities to develop nanomedicines for combination chemotherapy.

  8. A redox-assisted supramolecular assembly of manganese oxide nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Li; Sun Chenggao; Fan Meilian; Huang Caijuan; Wu Hailong; Chao Zisheng; Zhai Hesheng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of manganese oxide nanotube from an aqueous medium of pH 7, using KMnO 4 and MnCl 2 as inorganic precursors, polyoxyethylene (10) nonyl phenyl ether (TX-10) a surfactant and acetaldehyde an additive. The characterization of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and N 2 adsorption at 77 K (BET) reveals that the synthesized manganese oxide nanotube has a mesopore size of ca. 3.65 nm and a wall thickness of ca. 12 nm, with the wall being composed of microporous crystals of monoclinic manganite. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) result demonstrates a decrease of the binding energy of the Mn 3+ in the manganese oxide nanotube, which may be related to both the nanotubular morphology and the crystalline pore wall. A mechanism of a redox-assisted supramolecular assembly, regulated by acetaldehyde, is postulated

  9. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Haruk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  10. Electrochemical supramolecular recognition of hemin-carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hien Thi Ngoc; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Hemin-graphite oxide-carbon nanotube (hemin-GO-CNT) and hemin-thermally reduced graphite oxide-carbon nanotube (hemin-TRGO-CNT) composites are synthesized and investigated for the electrochemical supramolecular recognition by electron transfer between biomolecules (dopamine and hydrogen peroxide) and the composite electrodes. Redox reaction mechanisms of two composites with dopamine and hydrogen peroxide are explained in detail by using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Hemin-TRGO-CNT displays higher electrochemical detection for dopamine and hydrogen peroxide than that of hemin-GO-CNT, exhibiting enhancement of the electron transfer due to the effective immobilization of redox couple of hemin (Fe2+/Fe3+) on the TRGO-CNT surface.

  11. Supramolecular Gold Metallogelators: The Key Role of Metallophilic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gold metallogelators is an emerging area of research. The number of results published in the literature is still scarce. The majority of these gels is observed in organic solvents, and the potential applications are still to be explored. In this work, we present an overview about gold metallogelators divided in two different groups depending on the type of solvent used in the gelation process (organogelators and hydrogelators. A careful analysis of the data shows that aurophilic interactions are a common motif directly involved in gelation involving Au(I complexes. There are also some Au(III derivatives able to produce gels but in this case the organic ligands determine the aggregation process. A last section is included about the potential applications that have been reported until now with this new and amazing class of supramolecular assemblies.

  12. Self-Assembly of Coordinative Supramolecular Polygons with Open Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Wang, Ming; Kobayashi, Shiho; Stang, Peter J

    2011-04-27

    The design and synthesis of coordinative supramolecular polygons with open binding sites is described. Coordination-driven self-assembly of 2,6-bis(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)pyridine with 60° and 120° organoplatinum acceptors results in quantitative formation of a supramolecular rhomboid and hexagon, respectively, both bearing open pyridyl binding sites. The structures were determined by multinuclear ((31)P and (1)H) NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, along with a computational study.

  13. A Dynamic Supramolecular System Exhibiting Substrate Selectivity in the Catalytic Epoxidation of Olefins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Stefan; Odille, Fabrice G. J.; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction.......A dynamic supramolecular system involving hydrogen bonding between a Mn(III) salen catalyst and a Zn(II) porphyrin receptor exhibits selectivity for pyridine appended cis-beta-substituted styrene derivatives over phenyl appended derivatives in a catalytic epoxidation reaction....

  14. Information processing in the CNS: a supramolecular chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo

    2015-10-01

    How does central nervous system process information? Current theories are based on two tenets: (a) information is transmitted by action potentials, the language by which neurons communicate with each other-and (b) homogeneous neuronal assemblies of cortical circuits operate on these neuronal messages where the operations are characterized by the intrinsic connectivity among neuronal populations. In this view, the size and time course of any spike is stereotypic and the information is restricted to the temporal sequence of the spikes; namely, the "neural code". However, an increasing amount of novel data point towards an alternative hypothesis: (a) the role of neural code in information processing is overemphasized. Instead of simply passing messages, action potentials play a role in dynamic coordination at multiple spatial and temporal scales, establishing network interactions across several levels of a hierarchical modular architecture, modulating and regulating the propagation of neuronal messages. (b) Information is processed at all levels of neuronal infrastructure from macromolecules to population dynamics. For example, intra-neuronal (changes in protein conformation, concentration and synthesis) and extra-neuronal factors (extracellular proteolysis, substrate patterning, myelin plasticity, microbes, metabolic status) can have a profound effect on neuronal computations. This means molecular message passing may have cognitive connotations. This essay introduces the concept of "supramolecular chemistry", involving the storage of information at the molecular level and its retrieval, transfer and processing at the supramolecular level, through transitory non-covalent molecular processes that are self-organized, self-assembled and dynamic. Finally, we note that the cortex comprises extremely heterogeneous cells, with distinct regional variations, macromolecular assembly, receptor repertoire and intrinsic microcircuitry. This suggests that every neuron (or group of

  15. Supramolecular compounds of indium sulfates with nitrogen-containing cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyants, S.P.; Ilyukhin, A.B.; Ketsko, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Compounds with a general formula [Cat][In(H 2 O) n (SO 4 ) 2 ] x · mH 2 O (where Cat = C(NH 2 ) 3 , H(2,2'-Bipy), H 2 (4,4'-Bipy), H 2 [Py(CH 2 ) 3 Py], and H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ) were synthesized and identified from the elemental analysis, IR, and thermogravimetric analysis data. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline [C(NH 2 ) 3 ][In(H 2 O) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 ] complex has shown that the polymer chains of In aqua sulfate form ensembles with guanidinium ions. The structure of [H 2 (4,4'-Bipy)][In 2 (H 2 O) 6 (SO 4 ) 4 ] · 2H 2 O consists of the dimeric anions of indium sulfate. The coordination sphere of In includes three O atoms of three SO 4 groups and three O atoms of water molecules. The dimers are united into framework by diprotonated Bipy cations [ru

  16. Polymer adhesion predictions for oral dosage forms to enhance drug administration safety. Part 3: Review of in vitro and in vivo methods used to predict esophageal adhesion and transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Nélio; Stegemann, Sven

    2018-05-01

    The oral cavity is frequently used to administer pharmaceutical drug products. This route of administration is seen as the most accessible for the majority of patients and supports an independent therapy management. For current oral dosage forms under development, the prediction of their unintended mucoadhesive properties and esophageal transit profiles would contribute for future administration safety, as concerns regarding unintended adhesion of solid oral dosage forms (SODF) during oro-esophageal transit still remain. Different in vitro methods that access mucoadhesion of polymers and pharmaceutical preparations have been proposed over the years. The same methods might be used to test non-adhesive systems and contribute for developing safe-to-swallow technologies. Previous works have already investigated the suitability of non-animal derived in vitro methods to assess such properties. The aim of this work was to review the in vitro methodology available in the scientific literature that used animal esophageal tissue to evaluate mucoadhesion and esophageal transit of pharmaceutical preparations. Furthermore, in vivo methodology is also discussed. Since none of the in vitro methods developed are able to mimic the complex swallowing process and oro-esophageal transit, in vivo studies in humans remain as the gold standard. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  18. Revolving supramolecular chiral structures powered by light in nanomotor-doped liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tetiana; Lancia, Federico; Loussert, Charles; Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Katsonis, Nathalie; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-04-01

    Molecular machines operated by light have been recently shown to be able to produce oriented motion at the molecular scale1,2 as well as do macroscopic work when embedded in supramolecular structures3-5. However, any supramolecular movement irremediably ceases as soon as the concentration of the interconverting molecular motors or switches reaches a photo-stationary state6,7. To circumvent this limitation, researchers have typically relied on establishing oscillating illumination conditions—either by modulating the source intensity8,9 or by using bespoke illumination arrangements10-13. In contrast, here we report a supramolecular system in which the emergence of oscillating patterns is encoded at the molecular level. Our system comprises chiral liquid crystal structures that revolve continuously when illuminated, under the action of embedded light-driven molecular motors. The rotation at the supramolecular level is sustained by the diffusion of the motors away from a localized illumination area. Above a critical irradiation power, we observe a spontaneous symmetry breaking that dictates the directionality of the supramolecular rotation. The interplay between the twist of the supramolecular structure and the diffusion14 of the chiral molecular motors creates continuous, regular and unidirectional rotation of the liquid crystal structure under non-equilibrium conditions.

  19. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: - Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). - Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. - VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion