WorldWideScience

Sample records for suppression ratio smsr

  1. Degradation of Side-Mode Suppression Ratio in a DFB Laser Integrated With a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Lestrade, Michel; Camel, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) in a monolithically integrated distributed feedback laser and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) cavity is investigated. An expression is derived that gives the degradation of the SMSR in the case of a perfectly antireflection-coated SO...

  2. Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein SMSr is a suppressor of ceramide-induced mitochondrial apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafesse, Fikadu G.; Vacaru, Ana M.; Bosma, Elleke Fenna

    2014-01-01

    ceramide-induced cell death and that SMSr-mediated ceramide homeostasis requires the N-terminal sterile a-motif, or SAM domain, of the enzyme. These results define ER ceramides as bona fide transducers of mitochondrial apoptosis and indicate a primary role of SMSr in monitoring ER ceramide levels...

  3. Burst-Suppression Ratio on Electrocorticography Depends on Interelectrode Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Calin, Alexandru; Kumaraswamy, Vishakhadatta M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With deepening of anesthesia-induced comatose states, the EEG becomes fragmented by increasing periods of suppression. When measured from conventional EEG recordings, the binary burst-suppression signal (BS) appears similar across the scalp. As such, the BS ratio (BSR), quantifying...

  4. Switchable semiconductor optical fiber laser incorporating AWG and broadband FBG with high SMSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Thambiratnam, K; Latiff, A A; Harun, S W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose and demonstrate a switchable wavelength fiber laser (SWFL) using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) together with an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). The proposed SOA-based SWFL is capable of generating up to 14 lasing channels from 1530.1 nm to 1534.9 nm at a channel spacing of 0.8 nm (100 GHz) and a bandwidth of 11.8 and 10.2 nm respectively. The EDFA-based SWFL has a higher peak power at –5 dBm, while to SOA-based SWFL has a peak power of only –10 dBm. However, the SOA-based SWFL exhibits a much better SMSR of between 10 to 20 dB as compared to the SMSR of the EDFA-based SWFL due to the inhomogeneous broadening properties of the SOA

  5. Optimization of a Compton-suppression system by escape-peak ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, H.; Chao, J.H.; Wu, S.-C.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton-suppression system consisting of an HPGe central detector surrounded by eight BGO scintillators in an annular geometry was assembled. This system is dedicated to in-beam γ-ray measurements. The ratios of full-energy to single-escape peak and full-energy of double-escape peak, at γ-rays of 2754, 4443 and 6130 keV, were used to derive associated suppression factors in order to optimize detection conditions of the system. The suppression factors derived both from the escape peak ratios and the corresponding peak-to-Compton ratios of the γ-ray spectra are compared and discussed. This optimization technique may be of great significance for analyzing complicated spectra, where high-energy γ-rays are considered for analytical use. (Author)

  6. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter; Bartenwerfer, Malte; Krohs, Florian; Oliva, Maria; Harzendorf, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several FIB milling strategies for obtaining sharper tips are discussed. Finally, assembly of the HAR tips on a custom-designed probe as well as the first AFM scanning is shown. (paper)

  7. Poor outcome prediction by burst suppression ratio in adults with post-anoxic coma without hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinglin; Su, Yingying; Hussain, Mohammed; Chen, Weibi; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Tian, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Burst suppression ratio (BSR) is a quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) parameter. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of BSR when compared to other EEG parameters in predicting poor outcomes in adults who sustained post-anoxic coma while not being subjected to therapeutic hypothermia. EEG was registered and recorded at least once within 7 days of post-anoxic coma onset. Electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 system, using a 16-channel layout. Each EEG expert scored raw EEG using a grading scale adapted from Young and scored amplitude-integrated electroencephalography tracings, in addition to obtaining qEEG parameters defined as BSR with a defined threshold. Glasgow outcome scales of 1 and 2 at 3 months, determined by two blinded neurologists, were defined as poor outcome. Sixty patients with Glasgow coma scale score of 8 or less after anoxic accident were included. The sensitivity (97.1%), specificity (73.3%), positive predictive value (82.5%), and negative prediction value (95.0%) of BSR in predicting poor outcome were higher than other EEG variables. BSR1 and BSR2 were reliable in predicting death (area under the curve > 0.8, P coma who do not undergo therapeutic hypothermia when compared to other qEEG parameters.

  8. The K0/π- ratio and strangeness suppression in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Kennedy, O.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Chima, J.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Towers, S.; Shotton, P.

    1984-10-01

    Neutral kaon to negative pion production ratios from νp and anti νp charged current interactions in BEBC are presented and compared with LUND fragmentation model predictions. Good agreement is obtained with a strangeness suppression factor lambda = 0.203 +- 0.014(stat) +- 0.010(sys). No evidence is seen for an energy dependence of lambda in our kinematic region. (orig.)

  9. The K0/π- ratio and strangeness suppression in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Kennedy, O.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Chima, J.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Towers, S.; Shotton, P.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral kaon to negative pion production ratios from νp and anti νp charged current interactions in BEBC are presented and compared with LUND fragmentation model predictions. Good agreement is obtained with a strangeness suppression factor lambda=0.203+-0.014(stat)+-0.010(sys). No evidence is seen for an energy dependence of lambda in our kinematic region. (orig.)

  10. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility...

  11. On the Generation of Transport Suppression Barriers by Externally Driven Alfven Waves in D-Shaped, Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate quantitatively the possibility of turbulence suppression through the generation of transport barriers in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks (LARTs) by the sheared electric fields generated by externally driven rf waves in the frequency range ω A ≅ ci (ω A and ω ci are, respectively, Alfven and ion cyclotron frequencies). To this aim the following sequential steps are followed: (1) Solutions of the resistive two-fluid model full wave equation for a realistic LART configuration (D-shape cross-section and aspect ratio, R/a ∼> 1; as well as suitably located low field side, LFS, antenna) upon using a quite general dielectric tensor operator; (2) Calculation of the ponderomotive forces and their magnetic surface averages; (3) Solution of a strongly non-linear differential equation for the quasi-stationary radial electric field, including the particle orbit squeezing effects, based on the results of steps (1) and (2); and (4) Calculation of the radial flow shear, S perpend ; for both banana and potato collisional regimes

  12. On the Generation of Transport Suppression Barriers by Externally Driven Alfven Waves in D-Shaped, Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Komoshvili, K. [The College of Judea and Samaria, Ariel (Israel)

    2003-05-01

    We investigate quantitatively the possibility of turbulence suppression through the generation of transport barriers in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks (LARTs) by the sheared electric fields generated by externally driven rf waves in the frequency range {omega}{sub A} {approx_equal} <{omega}{sub ci} ({omega}{sub A} and {omega}{sub ci} are, respectively, Alfven and ion cyclotron frequencies). To this aim the following sequential steps are followed: (1) Solutions of the resistive two-fluid model full wave equation for a realistic LART configuration (D-shape cross-section and aspect ratio, R/a {approx}> 1; as well as suitably located low field side, LFS, antenna) upon using a quite general dielectric tensor operator; (2) Calculation of the ponderomotive forces and their magnetic surface averages; (3) Solution of a strongly non-linear differential equation for the quasi-stationary radial electric field, including the particle orbit squeezing effects, based on the results of steps (1) and (2); and (4) Calculation of the radial flow shear, S{sub perpend}; for both banana and potato collisional regimes.

  13. Carbon nanotube feedback-gate field-effect transistor: suppressing current leakage and increasing on/off ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhong, Donglai; Si, Jia; Yang, Yingjun; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2015-01-27

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on moderate or large diameter carbon nanotubes (CNTs) usually suffer from ambipolar behavior, large off-state current and small current on/off ratio, which are highly undesirable for digital electronics. To overcome these problems, a feedback-gate (FBG) FET structure is designed and tested. This FBG FET differs from normal top-gate FET by an extra feedback-gate, which is connected directly to the drain electrode of the FET. It is demonstrated that a FBG FET based on a semiconducting CNT with a diameter of 1.5 nm may exhibit low off-state current of about 1 × 10(-13) A, high current on/off ratio of larger than 1 × 10(8), negligible drain-induced off-state leakage current, and good subthreshold swing of 75 mV/DEC even at large source-drain bias and room temperature. The FBG structure is promising for CNT FETs to meet the standard for low-static-power logic electronics applications, and could also be utilized for building FETs using other small band gap semiconductors to suppress leakage current.

  14. Curcumin improves prostanoid ratio in diabetic mesenteric arteries associated with cyclooxygenase-2 and NF-κB suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patumraj S

    2010-12-01

    of PKC-βII within the vascular wall. Also, COX-2 expression and activated NF-κB in the small mesenteric artery of diabetes mellitus rats were markedly increased when compared with the control. Interestingly, curcumin could inhibit the upregulation of all of these biomarkers.Conclusion: These findings show that curcumin can attenuate diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in association with its potential for COX-2 and NF-κB suppression, PKC inhibition, and improving the ratio of prostanoid products PGI2/TXA2.Keywords: diabetes, endothelial dysfunction, COX-2, prostanoids

  15. A study of particle ratios and strangeness suppression p$\\overline{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 630 GeV with UA1

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, G; Wang, H Q; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, Ritva; Pimiä, M; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Albajar, C; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Sphicas, Paris; Sumorok, K; Tan, C H; Tether, S; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Dibon, Heinz; Lipa, P; Markytan, Manfred; Neumeister, N

    1996-01-01

    From a sample of 2.36 million minimum bias events produced in p{\\overline{p}} collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment and from other published data at the CERN Sp\\bar{p}S collider we have estimated the relative production of \\pi^\\pm, \\pi^0, K^\\pm K^0_s, \\Lambda, \\bar{\\Lambda}, p and \\bar{p}. We obtain a meson over baryon ratio M/B = 6.4\\pm1.1. From the K^0_s/\\pi^\\pm ratio we measure the strangeness suppression factor \\lambda=0.29\\pm0.02\\pm0.01 which, combining with other available data provides a new world average of 0.29 \\pm 0.015. Both the K^0_s/\\pi^\\pm ratio and the strangeness suppression factor \\lambda as a function of \\sqrt{s} are investigated, and an extrapolation to the LHC energy is performed.

  16. Sterilization of melon flies: mating competitiveness after treatment with tepa or gamma irradiation and ratios of treated to untreated flies producing population suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Keiser, I.; Harris, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Male melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, treated with a single dose of the chemosterilant tepa (tris(l-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide), or with gamma irradiation, either single or fractionated doses, did not differ significantly in sexual competitiveness as determined by percentage hatch of eggs. Mating competitiveness of males treated by either method ranged from 53 to 66 percent of that of untreated males. In another study, melon flies (males and females) sterilized with 0.0125 percent tepa, the threshold dose for both sexes, completely suppressed a population when the ratio was 16:16:1:1 (sterile males-sterile females-untreated males-untreated females) as determined by no egg hatch

  17. Hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 and effectively suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness with a high therapeutic ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang You-Lan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hesperetin was reported to selectively inhibit phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4. While hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether (HDME is a synthetic liposoluble hesperetin. Therefore, we were interested in investigating its selectivity on PDE4 and binding ability on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites (HARBs in vitro, and its effects on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and clarifying its potential for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods PDE1~5 activities were measured using a two-step procedure. The binding of HDME on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites was determined by replacing 2 nM [3H]-rolipram. AHR was assessed using the FlexiVent system and barometric plethysmography. Inflammatory cells were counted using a hemocytometer. Cytokines were determined using mouse T helper (Th1/Th2 cytokine CBA kits, and total immunoglobulin (IgE or IgG2a levels were done using ELISA method. Xylazine (10 mg/kg/ketamine (70 mg/kg-induced anesthesia was performed. Results HDME revealed selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibition with a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of 35.5 in vitro. In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn, and decreased enhanced pause (Penh values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed the increases in the numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of these mice. In addition, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, p.o. dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (IgE levels in the BALF and serum, and enhanced IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. Conclusions HDME exerted anti

  18. cAMP/PKA regulates osteogenesis, adipogenesis and ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in mesenchymal stem cells by suppressing leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chih Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a pluripotent cell type that can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and other cells. The reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis was previously demonstrated; however, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report that activation of PKA by 3-isobutyl-1 methyl xanthine (IBMX and forskolin enhances adipogenesis, the gene expression of PPARgamma2 and LPL, and downregulates the gene expression of Runx2 and osteopontin, markers of osteogenesis. PKA activation also decreases the ratio of Receptor Activator of the NF-kappaB Ligand to Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG gene expression - the key factors of osteoclastogenesis. All these effects are mediated by the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway by suppressing leptin, and may contribute to PKA stimulators-induced in vivo bone loss in developing zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Using MSCs, the center of a newly proposed bone metabolic unit, we identified cAMP/PKA signaling, one of the many signaling pathways that regulate bone homeostasis via controlling cyto-differentiation of MSCs and altering RANKL/OPG gene expression.

  19. Measurement of Branching Ratios for Non-leptonic Cabibbo-suppressed Decays of the Charmed-Strange Baryon Ξc+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Jauregui, Eric [The Autonomous Univ. of San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2008-08-01

    We studied several Ξc+ decay modes, most of them with a hyperon in the final state, and determined their branching ratios. The data used in this analysis come from the fixed target experiment SELEX, a multi-stage spectrometer with high acceptance for forward interactions, that took data during 1996 and 1997 at Fermilab with 600 GeV=c (mainly Σ-, π-) and 540 GeV/c (mainly p) beams incident on copper and carbon targets. The thesis mainly details the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξc+ → Σ+π-π+ and Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+ are measured to be: Γ(Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+)/Γ(Ξc+ → Ξ-π+π+) = 0.184 ± 0.086. Systematic studies have been performed in order to check the stability of the measurements varying all cuts used in the selection of events over a wide interval and we do not observe evidence of any trend, so the systematic error is negligible in the final results because the quadrature sum of the total error is not affected. The branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λc+ are measured to check the methodology of the analysis. The branching ratio of the decay mode Λc+ → Σ+π-π+ is measured relative to Λc+ → pK- π+, while the one of the decay mode Λc+ → Σ-π+π+is relative to Λc+→ Σ+π-π+, as they have been reported earlier. The results for the control modes are:

  20. Age and Early Graft Function Relate With Risk-Benefit Ratio of Allogenic Islet Transplantation Under Antithymocyte Globulin-Mycophenolate Mofetil-Tacrolimus Immune Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DaHae; Keymeulen, Bart; Hilbrands, Robert; Ling, Zhidong; Van de Velde, Ursule; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Maleux, Geert; Lapauw, Bruno; Crenier, Laurent; De Block, Christophe; Mathieu, Chantal; Pipeleers, Daniel; Gillard, Pieter

    2017-09-01

    Induction therapy with a T cell-depleting agent followed by mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus is presently the most frequently used immune suppression (IS) regimen in islet transplantation. This study assesses its safety and tolerability in nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients. Fifty-one patients (age, between 29 and 63 years) with high glycemic variability and problematic hypoglycemia received intraportal islet grafts under anti-thymocyte globulin-mycophenolate mofetil-tacrolimus protocol. They were followed up for over 48 months for function of the implant and adverse events. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis were absent in patients with functioning graft. Immune suppressive therapy was maintained for 48 months in 29 recipients with sustained function (group A), whereas 16 patients stopped earlier due to graft failure (group B) and in 6 for other reasons. Group A was significantly older at the time of implantation and achieved higher graft function at posttransplantation month 6 under similar dose of IS. Prevalence of IS-related side effects was similar in groups A and B, occurring predominantly during the first year posttransplantation. IS-related serious adverse events (SAE) were reported in 47% of patients, with 4 presenting with cytomegalovirus infection and 4 (age, 42-59 years) diagnosed with cancer. Except in 1 patient with cancer, all SAEs resolved after appropriate treatment. These risk/benefit data serve as a basis for clinical decision-making before entering an intraportal islet transplantation protocol. A longer benefit is observed in recipients of higher age (≥40 years), but it is not associated with more side effects and SAE.

  1. Effects of octreotide infusion, surgery and estrogen on suppression of height increase and 20K growth hormone ratio in a girl with gigantism due to a growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, M; Yasuda, T; Someya, T; Kohno, Y; Saeki, N; Hashimoto, Y

    2000-01-01

    We treated an extremely tall 13-year-old girl with a growth hormone (GH)-secreting macroadenoma and GH levels of 120-495 ng/ml with a combination of preoperative octreotide infusion, surgery and postoperative octreotide infusion plus estrogen, which resulted in reduced tumor size prior to surgery, reduced GH levels and completely suppressed growth after surgery. 20K GH is produced by alternative splicing of 22K GH mRNA and the ratio of 20K GH to 22K GH is within a small range in the normal population and high in a GH-secreting tumor. The 20K/22K GH ratio in this patient was persistently elevated during each phase of the treatment and may serve as a sensitive index of tumor-derived GH secretion. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  3. Discrete mode laser diodes for FTTH/PON applications up to 10 Gbit/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Carroll, J.; Phelan, R.; Kelly, B.; Byrne, D.; Latkowski, S.; Anandarajah, P.M.; Barry, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mode Laser Diodes (DMLDs) present an economic approach with a focus on high volume manufacturability of single mode lasers using a single step fabrication process. We report on a DMLD designed for operation in the 1550 nm window with high Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) over a wide

  4. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  5. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  6. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  7. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  8. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  9. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da [Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  10. Spectral Characteristic Based on Fabry—Pérot Laser Diode with Two-Stage Optical Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian-Wei; Nakarmi Bikash

    2013-01-01

    An optical device, consisting of a multi-mode Fabry—Pérot laser diode (MMFP-LD) with two-stage optical feedback, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The results show that the single-mode output with side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of ∼21.7 dB is attained by using the first-stage feedback. By using the second-stage feedback, the SMSR of single-mode operation could be increased to ∼28.5 dB while injection feedback power of −29 dBm is introduced into the laser diode. In the case of up to −29 dBm feedback power, the outcome SMSR is rapidly decayed to a very low level so that an obvious multi-mode operation in the output spectrum could be achieved at the feedback power level of −15.5 dBm. Thus, a transition between single- and multi-mode operations could be flexibly controlled by adjusting the injected power in the second-stage feedback system. Additionally, in the case of injection locking, the outcome SMSR and output power at the locked wavelength are as high as ∼50 dB and ∼5.8 dBm, respectively

  11. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  12. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  13. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  14. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  15. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  16. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  17. Interferometric crosstalk suppression using polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Xueyan, Zheng; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA.......Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA....

  18. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  20. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  1. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  3. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  4. Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.

  5. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  6. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  7. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  8. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  9. Radiation effluent suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1992-01-01

    In a radiation release suppression system upon accident, an electromotive valve, a pneumatic operation valve or a manual operation valve is disposed to gas ventilation pipelines which are extended from both of a dry well and a wet well of a reactor container to a stuck. In addition, a combination filter of a metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. and an activated carbon fiber filter is disposed in the midway of pipelines in a reactor building. With such a constitution, the inside of the container can be depressurized (prevention of ruptures) and the amount of radioactive substances released to circumstances is remarkably suppressed by the effect of radioactive substance capturing effect of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. disposed in the vent pipe in the container and a radioactive substance capturing effect by the combination filter of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel, etc. and the activated carbon fiber filter disposed in the gas ventilation pipelines even upon occurrence of an accident exceeding design basis. Systems can be simplified and minimized, and cost down can also be attained. (N.H.)

  10. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H

  11. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  13. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  14. Assessing Suppression in Amblyopic Children With a Dichoptic Eye Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E; Morale, Sarah E; Jost, Reed M; De La Cruz, Angie; Kelly, Krista R; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Bex, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Suppression has a key role in the etiology of amblyopia, and contrast-balanced binocular treatment can overcome suppression and improve visual acuity. Quantitative assessment of suppression could have a role in managing amblyopia. We describe a novel eye chart to assess suppression in children. We enrolled 100 children (7-12 years; 63 amblyopic, 25 nonamblyopic with strabismus or anisometropia, 12 controls) in the primary cohort and 22 children (3-6 years; 13 amblyopic, 9 nonamblyopic) in a secondary cohort. Letters were presented on a dichoptic display (5 letters per line). Children wore polarized glasses so that each eye saw a different letter chart. At each position, the identity of the letter and its contrast on each eye's chart differed. Children read 8 lines of letters for each of 3 letter sizes. The contrast balance ratio was the ratio at which 50% of letters seen by the amblyopic eye were reported. Amblyopic children had significantly higher contrast balance ratios for all letter sizes compared to nonamblyopic children and controls, requiring 4.6 to 5.6 times more contrast in the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye (P amblyopia treatment was correlated with change in contrast balance ratio (r ranged from 0.43-0.62 for the 3 letter sizes). Severity of suppression can be monitored as part of a routine clinical exam in the management of amblyopia in children.

  15. Theoretical status of J/ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1993-03-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are expected to produce hadron densities far beyond the density in nuclei, ρ 0 = 0.16 fm -3 . Remarkably, no single measurement from the AGS and SPS light ion programs with projectiles A ≤ 32 stands out as unambiguous evidence of these extreme densities. To separate the high density signals from the background effects that result, e.g. from scattering with primary nucleons, careful systematic studies of hadron-nucleus, hA, and nucleus-nucleus, AB, data are needed. In this talk the author surveys the ongoing systematic study of the most notorious case in point -- J/ψ suppression. In principle, measurements of J/ψ suppression provide a probe of the densities obtained in AB collisions that is also sensitive to quark gluon plasma production. The latest results from SPS experiment NA38 reported by A. Romana in these proceedings show that the ratio of cross sections in the dimuon channel B μμ σ ψ /σ cont is reduced by a factor 0.50 ± 0.05 in central S+U compared to minimum bias pU collisions at 200 AGeV. This is precisely the sort of suppression that one expects if high densities are obtained. On the other hand, a target-mass dependence suggestive of this suppression is found in hA collisions where high densities are not expected. At 200 GeV, NA38 finds that B μμ σ ψ /σ cont falls to 0.84 ± 0.08 in pU compared to pCu. The hA suppression in this kinematic regime is likely due to a combination of nuclear effects: nucleon absorption and shadowing

  16. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  17. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  18. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a pressure suppression device for a gas cooled reactor wherein the coolant is discharged in a reactor building by a loss-of-coolant accident or the like, the increase in the pressure and temperature is controlled and thermal energy of the discharged coolant of high temperature and high pressure can be absorbed. Constitution: A low heat source unit is provided at the upper part in an inner space of a reactor building provided around the reactor, and at the upper part of the low heat source unit a stirring fan for mixing gas within the building, and a low heat source circulating the low heat source through a pipe is connected to the low heat source unit. The low heat source unit is provided with the pipe arranged in a spiral shape at the upper part of the space of the unit, and a large number of fins are provided at the outer surface of the pipe for increasing the transmission area and improve the heat exchange. When the coolant of high temperature and high pressure has been lost in the building, the thermal energy of the coolant is absorbed by the low heat source unit. (Aizawa, K.)

  19. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  20. Infrared suppression by hybrid EUV multilayer - IR lossy etalon structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakunin, A.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Many optical applications demand high reflectivity in a particular wavelength range and, simultaneously, suppression of radiation outside this prime range. Such parasitic radiation can lead to image distortions in imaging applications, or poor signal-noise ratios in spectroscopy. When working with

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Bragg mirrors with suppressed infrared reflectivity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; van den Boogaard, Toine; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakinun, A.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Many optical applications demand high reflectivity in a particular wavelength range while simultaneously requiring suppression of radiation outside this range. Such parasitic radiation can for instance lead to image distortions in imaging applications or poor signal-noise ratios in spectroscopy. The

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Bragg mirrors with suppressed infrared reflectivity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; van den Boogaard, Toine; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakunin, A.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Many optical applications demand high reflectivity in a particular wavelength range while simultaneously requiring suppression of radiation outside this range. Such parasitic radiation can for instance lead to image distortions in imaging applications or poor signal-noise ratios in spectroscopy. The

  3. Performance comparison for modes of operation and suppression cases of the clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2014-01-01

    Peak-to-total ratios have been extracted for a segmented clover detector for various modes of operation and suppression cases. Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for quantifying the advantages of using addback mode and active suppression. Further investigations have been performed to find if the reduction of background counts is caused more by active suppression or by addback process

  4. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  5. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  6. RpA ratio: total shadowing due to running coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Iancu, E.; Triantafyllopoulos, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    We predict that the RpA ratio at the most forward rapidities to be measured at LHC should be strongly suppressed, close to "total shadowing'' (RpA = A^(-1/3)), as a consequence of running coupling effects in the nonlinear QCD evolution.

  7. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  8. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  9. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  10. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  11. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  12. Interocular suppression in amblyopia for global orientation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Pi-Chun; Hess, Robert F

    2013-04-22

    We developed a dichoptic global orientation coherence paradigm to quantify interocular suppression in amblyopia. This task is biased towards ventral processing and allows comparison with two other techniques-global motion processing, which is more dorsally biased, and binocular phase combination, which most likely reflects striate function. We found a similar pattern for the relationship between coherence threshold and interocular contrast curves (thresholds vs. interocular contrast ratios or TvRs) in our new paradigm compared with those of the previous dichoptic global motion coherence paradigm. The effective contrast ratios at balance point (where the signals from the two eyes have equal weighting) in our new paradigm were larger than those of the dichoptic global motion coherence paradigm but less than those of the binocular phase combination paradigm. The measured effective contrast ratios in the three paradigms were also positively correlated with each other, with the two global coherence paradigms having the highest correlation. We concluded that: (a) The dichoptic global orientation coherence paradigm is effective in quantifying interocular suppression in amblyopia; and (b) Interocular suppression, while sharing a common suppression mechanism at the early stage in the pathway (e.g., striate cortex), may have additional extra-striate contributions that affect both dorsal and ventral streams differentially.

  13. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  16. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  17. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jo, Young Suk [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lewis, Raymond [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bromberg, Leslie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Heywood, John [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  18. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  19. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  20. Azimuth Phase Coding for Range Ambiguity Suppression in SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A novel ambiguity suppression technique is proposed. Range ambiguities in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are eliminated with an azimuth filter after having applied an azimuth phase modulation to the transmitted pulses and a corresponding demodulation to the received pulses. The technique...... excels by actually eliminating the ambiguities rather than just defocusing them as most other techniques do. This makes the proposed technique applicable to distributed targets. The range ambiguity suppression permits the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to exceed the upper limit otherwise defined...... by the antenna elevation dimension. The fundamental antenna area constraint still applies, but the PRF can be chosen with more freedom. In addition to ambiguity suppression, potential applications include nadir return elimination and signal-to-noise ratio improvement....

  1. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  2. Adaptive suppression of passive intermodulation in digital satellite transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu TIAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For the performance issues of satellite transceivers suffering passive intermodulation interference, a novel and effective digital suppression algorithm is presented in this paper. In contrast to analog approaches, digital passive intermodulation (PIM suppression approaches can be easily reconfigured and therefore are highly attractive for future satellite communication systems. A simplified model of nonlinear distortion from passive microwave devices is established in consideration of the memory effect. The multiple high-order PIM products falling into the receiving band can be described as a bilinear predictor function. A suppression algorithm based on a bilinear polynomial decorrelated adaptive filter is proposed for baseband digital signal processing. In consideration of the time-varying characteristics of passive intermodulation, this algorithm can achieve the rapidness of online interference estimation and low complexity with less consumption of resources. Numerical simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively compensate the passive intermodulation interference, and achieve a high signal-to-interference ratio gain.

  3. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Fischer, Rosa-Linde

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading......-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. Auditory working memory was assessed at +6 dB SNR using listening span and N-back paradigms. STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty experienced HA users ages 55-80 with large differences in reading span. RESULTS: For the listening span measurements, there was an influence of HA setting....... CONCLUSIONS: HA noise suppression may affect the recognition and recall of speech at positive SNRs, irrespective of individual reading span. Future work should improve the reliability of the auditory working memory measurements....

  4. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  5. In-beam background suppression shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.

    2015-01-01

    The long (3 ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument's capabilities will be limited by its Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator......, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...... to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks....

  6. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  7. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  8. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  10. [Autologous regulatory T cells can suppress the proliferation of lymphoma cell line in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhi-Tao; Guo, Jun; Ren, Jun; Kong, Yan; Yuan, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xi-Juan; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Yun-Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on the T cell lymphoma EL4 cell line and to explore its mechanism. C57BL/6 Mouse Treg cells were isolated by MACS (magnetic cell sorting). The purity and the expression of Foxp3 were detected by flow cytometry. The suppressive effect of sorted Treg cells on EL4 cells was detected by MTT assay. The secretion of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells could be successfully isolated by MACS with the purity reaching 91.6% and the expression level of Foxp3 was 78.9%. The ratio of viable cells was more than 95%. Regulatory T cells could suppress the proliferation of EL4 cells effectively in the presence of antigen presenting cells (APCs). And the suppressive effect was most significant at 1:1 ratio. In addition, the suppression still existed without APCs. TGF-beta1 and IL-10 could not be detected by ELISA. It is concluded that the Treg cells can suppress T lymphoma cell in vitro. The suppressive effect of Treg cells works in dose-dependent manner, but not in cytokine-dependent manner. The mechanism of this suppression may take effect through cell-cell contact.

  11. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  12. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  13. A wavelength-tunable fiber laser using a novel filter based on a compound interference effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Lou, Shuqin; Su, Wei; Han, Bolin; Shen, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using a novel filter which is formed from a 2  ×  2 3 dB multimode coupler incorporating a segment of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF). By using the filter with 2.1 m lengths of PMF in a ring fiber laser, a stable single wavelength lasing is obtained experimentally. Its 3 dB bandwidth is less than 0.0147 nm and the side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is higher than 58.91 dB. Experimental results demonstrate that mode competition can be effectively suppressed and the SMSR can be improved due to the compound interference effect aroused by the novel filter. Meanwhile the stability of the output lasing can be enhanced. By appropriately adjusting the polarization controllers (PCs), the output lasing wavelength can be tuned from 1563.51 to 1568.21 nm. This fiber laser has the advantage of a simple structure and stable operation at room temperature.

  14. Fat suppression techniques for obtaining high resolution dynamic contrast enhanced bilateral breast MR images at 7 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Tijl A; Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    contained 3D T1-weighted gradient echo images obtained with both WSE fat suppression, multi echo Dixon fat suppression, and without fat suppression. Images were acquired at a (0.8mm)(3) or (0.7mm)(3) isotropic resolution with equal field of view and optimized such to obtain a maximal SNR. Image quality...... was scored qualitatively on overall image quality, sharpness of anatomical details, presence of artefacts, inhomogeneous fat suppression and the presence of water-fat shift. A quantitative scoring was obtained from the signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio. RESULTS: WSE scored significantly...... better in terms of overall image quality and the absence of artefacts. No significant difference in contrast to noise ratio was found between the two fat suppression methods. CONCLUSION: When maximizing temporal and spatial resolution of high resolution DCE MRI of the breast, water selective excitation...

  15. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  16. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...

  17. Novel Burst Suppression Segmentation in the Joint Time-Frequency Domain for EEG in Treatment of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a method to distinguish bursts and suppressions for EEG burst suppression from the treatments of status epilepticus, employing the joint time-frequency domain. We obtained the feature used in the proposed method from the joint use of the time and frequency domains, and we estimated the decision as to whether the measured EEG was a burst segment or suppression segment by the maximum likelihood estimation. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of its accordance with the visual scores and estimation of the burst suppression ratio. The accuracy was higher than the sole use of the time or frequency domains, as well as conventional methods conducted in the time domain. In addition, probabilistic modeling provided a more simplified optimization than conventional methods. Burst suppression quantification necessitated precise burst suppression segmentation with an easy optimization; therefore, the excellent discrimination and the easy optimization of burst suppression by the proposed method appear to be beneficial.

  18. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Martín, Sergio, E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}≈110 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (Σ{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation.

  19. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  20. Optimization of Compton-suppression and summing schemes for the TIGRESS HPGe detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2007-04-01

    Methods of optimizing the performance of an array of Compton-suppressed, segmented HPGe clover detectors have been developed which rely on the physical position sensitivity of both the HPGe crystals and the Compton-suppression shields. These relatively simple analysis procedures promise to improve the precision of experiments with the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS). Suppression schemes will improve the efficiency and peak-to-total ratio of TIGRESS for high γ-ray multiplicity events by taking advantage of the 20-fold segmentation of the Compton-suppression shields, while the use of different summing schemes will improve results for a wide range of experimental conditions. The benefits of these methods are compared for many γ-ray energies and multiplicities using a GEANT4 simulation, and the optimal physical configuration of the TIGRESS array under each set of conditions is determined.

  1. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  2. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  3. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...

  4. Analysis of the effects of pair production for the suppressed clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full energy peak, single escape peak and double escape peak areas have been extracted for an escape suppressed clover detector. Results have been obtained for the single crystal and addback modes of operation as well as the active and passive suppression cases at several gamma energies. We have compared the ratio of single escape peak areas in addback mode with that of single crystal mode to study if the single escape peak gains or loses counts due to addback mode. Detailed analysis has been performed for quantifying the advantages of using addback mode and active suppression. Comparison is made for different types of clover detectors with different volumes

  5. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  6. The efficacy of fat suppressed and gadolinium enhanced dynamic MR imaging in pancreatic adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabata, Toshifumi

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of both fat suppressed T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging (dynamic MRI) was compared with conventional MR sequences and dynamic CT in 22 patients with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). In the control group of 30 patients without pancreatic disease, the pancreas was shown as a markedly higher signal intensity on fat suppressed T1WI than on conventional MR sequences. The signal noise ratio (SNR) of the normal pancreas and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the normal pancreas and muscle were significantly higher on fat suppressed T1WI than the other MR sequences. In the group of PAC patients without chronic pancreatitis (n=14), CNR between the tumor and the normal pancreas significantly differed among imaging techniques, including fat suppressed T1WI, dynamic MRI, and the other conventional MR sequences. In the group of PAC with chronic pancreatitis (n=8), CNR between the tumor and the associated chronic pancreatitis was remarkably diminished on both fat suppressed T1WI and conventional T1WI; however, it was significantly higher on dynamic MRI than the other pulse sequences. The early phase of dynamic MRI clearly identified the tumors in the group of PAC. The capability of conventional T1WI and dynamic CT to demonstrate peripancreatic tumor extension was significantly higher than that of fat suppressed T1WI. In conclusion, fat suppressed T1WI and dynamic MRI were useful in detecting pancreatic carcinoma. (N.K.)

  7. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  8. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol response and proliferation of oxidative enzyme-activated human T lymphocytes: suppression by plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, A.L.; Scupham, D.W.; Harmony, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) response and DNA synthesis of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO)-stimulated human T lymphocytes are suppressed by low density lipoproteins (LDL). To understand the mechanism of lymphocyte activation more fully, the PI response and DNA synthesis and suppression of these events by LDL in NAGO-stimulated T lymphocytes were characterized. Between 30 min and 6 hr after NAGO stimulation, there was an increase of 32 Pi incorporation into PI without increased incorporation into the phosphorylated forms of PI or into other phospholipids. DNA synthesis as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation depended on the lymphocyte-accessory monocyte ratio and total cell density. Optimal stimulation of the PI response and DNA synthesis occurred at the same concentration of neuraminidase and galactose oxidase. While the PI response was only partially suppressed by LDL with optimal suppression at 10 to 20 micrograms of protein/ml, DNA synthesis was completely suppressed although at much higher LDL concentrations, greater than 100 micrograms protein/ml. As monocyte numbers are increased, LDL suppression of DNA synthesis is decreased. The ability of NAGO to stimulate the PI response and DNA synthesis in a similar way, and the suppression of both events by LDL, suggests the PI response is important for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Stimulation of human T lymphocytes by oxidative mitogens, neuraminidase, and galactose oxidase caused increased phosphatidylinositol metabolism and increased DNA synthesis. Both responses were suppressed by low density lipoproteins

  10. Hearing aid noise suppression and working memory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Fischer, Rosa-Linde

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading......-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. Auditory working memory was assessed at +6 dB SNR using listening span and N-back paradigms. STUDY SAMPLE: Twenty experienced HA users ages 55-80 with large differences in reading span. RESULTS: For the listening span measurements, there was an influence of HA setting...... on sentence-final word recognition and recall, with the directional microphones leading to ~6% better performance than the single-channel noise reduction. For the N-back measurements, there was substantial test-retest variability and no influence of HA setting. No interactions with reading span were found...

  11. Reflection/suppression coatings for 900 - 1200 A radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    The design and performance of multiple-layer, selective-reflection, selective-suppression coatings for the 900 - 1200 A band are described. These coatings are designed to optimize both high reflectivity at a desirable wavelength and low reflectivity at an undesirable wavelength. The minimum structure for a selective coating consists of a thin metal or metal oxide layer (50 - 150 A thickness) over an aluminum substrate protected with a semi-transparent dielectric (100 - 1000 A thickness). Predicted coating performance is strongly effected by varying the layer combination and thickness. A graphical method of optimizing the coating layer structure is developed. Aluminum, silicon, their oxides, and gold have been investigated as coating layer materials. A very simple coating with a 1026 to 1216 A reflectivity ratio greater than 100 was fabricated. Such reflection/suppression coatings may be of great utility to spaceborne EUV spectrographs.

  12. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  13. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  14. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  15. A Study of Residual Amplitude Modulation Suppression in Injection Locked Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on a Simplified Rate Equation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2015-01-01

    Using results that come out of a simplified rate equation model, the suppression of residual amplitude modulation in injection locked quantum cascade lasers with the master laser modulated by its drive current is investigated. Quasi-static and dynamic expressions for intensity modulation are used. The suppression peaks at a specific value of the injection ratio for a given detuning and linewidth enhancement factor. The intensity modulation suppression remains constant over a range of frequencies. The effects of injection ratio, detuning, coupling efficiency and linewidth enhancement factor are considered. (paper)

  16. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  17. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  18. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  19. DPOAE generation dependence on primary frequencies ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Teresa; Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; D'Amato, Luisa; Sanjust, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are responsible for the DPOAE generation. The nonlinear distortion wave-fixed mechanism generates the DPOAE Zero-Latency (ZL) component, as a backward traveling wave from the "overlap" region. Linear reflection of the forward DP wave (IDP) generates the DPOAE Long-Latency (LL) component through a place-fixed mechanism. ZL and LL components add up vectorially to generate the DPOAE recorded in the ear canal. The 2f1 - f2 and 2f2 - f1 DPOAE intensity depends on the stimulus level and on the primary frequency ratio r = f2/f1, where f1 and f2 are the primary stimuli frequencies. Here we study the behavior of the ZL and LL DPOAE components as a function of r by both numerical and laboratory experiments, measuring DPAOEs with an equal primary levels (L1 = L2) paradigm in the range [35, 75] dB SPL, with r ranging in [1.1, 1.45]. Numerical simulations of a nonlocal nonlinear model have been performed without cochlear roughness, to suppress the linear reflection mechanism. In this way the model solution at the base represents the DPOAE ZL component, and the solution at the corresponding DPOAE tonotopic place corresponds to the IDP. This technique has been not effectual to study the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE, as a consequence of its generation mechanism. While the 2f1 - f2 generation place is known to be the tonotopic place x(f2), the 2f2 - f1 DPOAE one has to be assumed basal to its corresponding reflection place. That is because ZL components generated in x(f2) cannot significantly pass through their resonant place. Moreover increasing the ratio r, 2f2 - f1 ZL and LL generation place approach each other, because the overlap region of primary tones decreases. Consequently, the distinction between the two places becomes complicated. DPOAEs have been measured in six young normal-hearing subjects. DPOAE ZL and LL components have been separated by a time-frequency filtering method based on the wavelet transform 1. due to their different phase gradient delay

  20. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  1. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  2. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  3. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  4. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  5. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  6. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  7. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  8. Mode competition and hopping in optomechanical nano-oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Du, Han; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the inter-mode nonlinear interaction in the multi-mode optomechanical nano-oscillator which consists of coupled silicon nanocantilevers, where the integrated photonic crystal nanocavities provide the coupling between the optical and mechanical modes. Due to the self-saturation and cross-saturation of the mechanical gain, the inter-mode competition is observed, which leads to the bistable operation of the optomechanical nano-oscillator: only one of the mechanical modes can oscillate at any one time, and the oscillation of one mode extremely suppresses that of the other with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) up to 40 dB. In the meantime, mode hopping, i.e., the optomechanical oscillation switches from one mode to the other, is also observed and found to be able to be provoked by excitation laser fluctuations.

  9. What causes Psi suppression in Pb+Pb Collisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.

    1998-01-01

    A reexamination of hadronic comover scattering indicates that this mechanism cannot explain the observed ψ suppression in Pb+Pb interactions. The possibility of quark-gluon plasma formation is therefore considered. Implications for RHIC and LHC are also discussed. The agreement of the NA50 Pb+Pb data with naive comover models is reassessed. Previous work is reanalyzed and expanded to include feeding of the ψ' and χ c states to the ψ. The effect of color screening is also investigated. Only the ψ/Drell-Yan (DY) ratios are discussed here

  10. Strangeness Suppression of qq ¯ Creation Observed in Exclusive Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, M. D.; Park, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Simonyan, A.; Sokhan, D.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    We measured the ratios of electroproduction cross sections from a proton target for three exclusive meson-baryon final states: ΛK+, pπ0, and nπ+, with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. Using a simple model of quark hadronization, we extract qq ¯ creation probabilities for the first time in exclusive two-body production, in which only a single qq ¯ pair is created. We observe a sizable suppression of strange quark-antiquark pairs compared to nonstrange pairs, similar to that seen in high-energy production.

  11. Strangeness suppression of qq creation observed in exclusive reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, M D; Park, K; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Pereira, S Anefalos; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Garillon, B; Garçon, M; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Peng, P; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Raue, B A; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Simonyan, A; Sokhan, D; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Tang, W; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2014-10-10

    We measured the ratios of electroproduction cross sections from a proton target for three exclusive meson-baryon final states: ΛK(+), pπ(0), and nπ(+), with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. Using a simple model of quark hadronization, we extract qq creation probabilities for the first time in exclusive two-body production, in which only a single qq pair is created. We observe a sizable suppression of strange quark-antiquark pairs compared to nonstrange pairs, similar to that seen in high-energy production.

  12. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  13. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  14. Evolution of male-killer suppression in a natural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Hornett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Male-killing bacteria are widespread in arthropods, and can profoundly alter the reproductive biology of their host species. Here we detail the first case of complete suppression of a male killer. The nymphalid butterfly Hypolimnas bolina is infected with a strain of the bacterium Wolbachia, wBol1, which kills male host embryos in Polynesian populations, but does not do so in many areas of Southeast Asia, where both males and female adults are naturally infected, and wBol1-infected females produce a 1:1 sex ratio. We demonstrate that absence of male killing by wBol1 is associated with dominant zygotic suppression of the action of the male killer. Simulations demonstrate host suppressors of male-killer action can spread very rapidly, and historical data indicating the presence of male killing in Southeast Asia in the very recent past suggests suppressor spread has been a very recent occurrence. Thus, male killer/host interactions are much more dynamic than previously recognised, with rapid and dramatic loss of the phenotype. Our results also indicate that suppression can render male killers completely quiescent, leading to the conclusion that some species that do not currently express a male killer may have done so in the past, and thus that more species have had their biology affected by these parasites than previously believed.

  15. Selective epidemic broadcast algorithm to suppress broadcast storm in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chitra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks is the best way to spread emergency messages all over the network. With the dynamic nature of vehicular ad hoc networks, simple broadcast or flooding faces the problem called as Broadcast Storm Problem (BSP. The issue of the BSP will degrade the performance of a message broadcasting process like increased overhead, collision and dissemination delay. The paper is motivated to solve the problems in the existing Broadcast Strom Suppression Algorithms (BSSAs like p-Persistence, TLO, VSPB, G-SAB and SIR. This paper proposes to suppress the Broadcast Storm Problem and to improve the Emergency Safety message dissemination rate through a new BSSA based on Selective Epidemic Broadcast Algorithm (SEB. The simulation results clearly show that the SEB outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of ESM Delivery Ratio, Message Overhead, Collision Ratio, Broadcast Storm Ratio and Redundant Rebroadcast Ratio with decreased Dissemination Delay.

  16. Burst-suppression is reactive to photic stimulation in comatose children with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nita, Dragos A.; Moldovan, Mihai; Sharma, Roy

    2016-01-01

    reactivity. We quantified reactivity by measuring the change in the burst ratio (fraction of time in burst) following photic stimulation. Results: Photic stimulation evoked bursts in all patients, resulting in a transient increase in the burst ratio, while the mean heart rate remained unchanged......Objective: Burst-suppression is an electroencephalographic pattern observed during coma. In individuals without known brain pathologies undergoing deep general anesthesia, somatosensory stimulation transiently increases the occurrence of bursts. We investigated the reactivity of burst......-suppression in children with acquired brain injury. Methods: Intensive care unit electroencephalographic monitoring recordings containing burst-suppression were obtained from 5 comatose children with acquired brain injury of various etiologies. Intermittent photic stimulation was performed at 1 Hz for 1 min to assess...

  17. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  18. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  19. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  20. Suppression of interferometric crosstalk and ASE noise using a polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Wolfson, David

    2000-01-01

    Noise suppression at 10 Gbit/s and 20 Gbit/s is demonstrated using a gain saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a polarization multiplexing technique, where no impairments like waveform distortion and extinction ratio degradation caused by the gain saturation of the SOA appear. More...

  1. Compton suppression tests on Ge and BGO prototype detectors for GAMMASPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Khoo, T L; Bleich, M E; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Beene, J R; Lee, I Y [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the Compton suppression and overall P/T ratio of two Ge detectors in a BGO shield of the honeycomb pattern. These were the first prototype CSG detector assemblies for GAMMASPHERE. A more detailed description of these results will be published later. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. VHF signal power suppression in stratiform and convective precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that VHF clear-air radar return strengths are reduced during periods of precipitation. This study aims to examine whether the type of precipitation, stratiform and convective precipitation types are identified, has any impact on the relationships previously observed and to examine the possible mechanisms which produce this phenomenon. This study uses a combination of UHF and VHF wind-profiler data to define periods associated with stratiform and convective precipitation. This identification is achieved using an algorithm which examines the range squared corrected signal to noise ratio of the UHF returns for a bright band signature for stratiform precipitation. Regions associated with convective rainfall have been defined by identifying regions of enhanced range corrected signal to noise ratio that do not display a bright band structure and that are relatively uniform until a region above the melting layer. This study uses a total of 68 days, which incorporated significant periods of surface rainfall, between 31 August 2000 and 28 February 2002 inclusive from Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W. Examination suggests that both precipitation types produce similar magnitude reductions in VHF signal power on average. However, the frequency of occurrence of statistically significant reductions in VHF signal power are very different. In the altitude range 2-4 km stratiform precipitation is related to VHF signal suppression approximately 50% of the time while in convective precipitation suppression is observed only 27% of the time. This statistical result suggests that evaporation, which occurs more often in stratiform precipitation, is important in reducing the small-scale irregularities in humidity and thereby the radio refractive index. A detailed case study presented also suggests that evaporation reducing small-scale irregularities in humidity may contribute to the observed VHF signal suppression.

  3. VHF signal power suppression in stratiform and convective precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that VHF clear-air radar return strengths are reduced during periods of precipitation. This study aims to examine whether the type of precipitation, stratiform and convective precipitation types are identified, has any impact on the relationships previously observed and to examine the possible mechanisms which produce this phenomenon. This study uses a combination of UHF and VHF wind-profiler data to define periods associated with stratiform and convective precipitation. This identification is achieved using an algorithm which examines the range squared corrected signal to noise ratio of the UHF returns for a bright band signature for stratiform precipitation. Regions associated with convective rainfall have been defined by identifying regions of enhanced range corrected signal to noise ratio that do not display a bright band structure and that are relatively uniform until a region above the melting layer.

    This study uses a total of 68 days, which incorporated significant periods of surface rainfall, between 31 August 2000 and 28 February 2002 inclusive from Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W. Examination suggests that both precipitation types produce similar magnitude reductions in VHF signal power on average. However, the frequency of occurrence of statistically significant reductions in VHF signal power are very different. In the altitude range 2-4 km stratiform precipitation is related to VHF signal suppression approximately 50% of the time while in convective precipitation suppression is observed only 27% of the time. This statistical result suggests that evaporation, which occurs more often in stratiform precipitation, is important in reducing the small-scale irregularities in humidity and thereby the radio refractive index. A detailed case study presented also suggests that evaporation reducing small-scale irregularities in humidity may contribute to the observed VHF signal

  4. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  5. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  7. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  8. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  9. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  10. Key Techniques on Preparing High Aspect Ratio Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jian, Zhao; Lianhe, Dong; Xiaoli, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    effectively. The mechanism of action between NaCl and HSQ was analyzed. The collapse and adhesion of resist structure due to the effect of gas-liquid interfacial capillary surface tension were suppressed by the CO2 supercritical drying method. Large-area dense nano-structures with the aspect ratio of 12...

  11. The K 0/π- ratio and strangeness supression in v p andbar vp charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Chima, J. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Towers, S.; Shotton, P.

    1985-03-01

    Neutral kaon to negative pion production ratios from vp andbar vp charged current interactions in BEBC are presented and compared with LUND fragmentation model predictions. Good agreement is obtained with a strangeness suppression factor λ=0.203±0.014(stat)±0.010(sys). No evidence is seen for an energy dependence of λ in our kinematic region.

  12. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  13. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  14. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  15. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  16. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...

  18. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of suppressing the effect of background noise in an optical communication system would exploit the transmission and reception of correlated photons at the receiver. The method would not afford any advantage in a system in which performance is limited by shot noise. However, if the performance of the system is limited by background noise (e.g., sunlight in the case of a free-space optical communication system or incoherently scattered in-band photons in the case of a fiber-optic communication system), then the proposed method could offer an advantage: the proposed method would make it possible to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) significantly greater than that of an otherwise equivalent background- noise-limited optical communication system based on the classical transmission and reception of uncorrelated photons. The figure schematically depicts a classical optical-communication system and a system according to the proposed method. In the classical system, a modulated laser beam is transmitted along an optical path to a receiver, the optics of which include a narrow-band-pass filter that suppresses some of the background noise. A photodetector in the receiver detects the laser-beam and background photons, most or all of which are uncorrelated. In the proposed system, correlated photons would be generated at the transmitter by making a modulated laser beam pass through a nonlinear parametric down-conversion crystal. The sum of frequencies of the correlated photons in each pair would equal the frequency of the incident photon from which they were generated. As in the classical system, the correlated photons would travel along an optical path to a receiver, where they would be band-pass filtered and detected. Unlike in the classical system, the photodetector in the receiver in this system would be one that intrinsically favors the detection of pairs of correlated photons over the detection of uncorrelated photons. Even though there would be no

  20. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  1. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  2. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  3. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  4. Variable impact of CSF flow suppression on quantitative 3.0T intracranial vessel wall measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Petrice M; Siero, Jeroen C W; Lants, Sarah K; Waddle, Spencer; Davis, L Taylor; Gilbert, Guillaume; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Donahue, Manus J

    2018-03-31

    Flow suppression techniques have been developed for intracranial (IC) vessel wall imaging (VWI) and optimized using simulations; however, simulation results may not translate in vivo. To evaluate experimentally how IC vessel wall and lumen measurements change in identical subjects when evaluated using the most commonly available blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow suppression modules and VWI sequences. Prospective. Healthy adults (n = 13; age = 37 ± 15 years) were enrolled. A 3.0T 3D T 1 /proton density (PD)-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisition with post-readout anti-driven equilibrium module, with and without Delay-Alternating-with-Nutation-for-Tailored-Excitation (DANTE) was applied. DANTE flip angle (8-12°) and TSE refocusing angle (sweep = 40-120° or 50-120°) were varied. Basilar artery and internal carotid artery (ICA) wall thicknesses, CSF signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal ratio (SR) were assessed. Measurements were made by two readers (radiology resident and board-certified neuroradiologist). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied with corrected two-sided P CSF suppression. Addition of the DANTE preparation reduced CSF SNR from 17.4 to 6.7, thereby providing significant (P CSF suppression. The DANTE preparation also resulted in a significant (P CSF CNR improvement (P = 0.87). There was a trend for a difference in blood SNR with vs. without DANTE (P = 0.05). The outer vessel wall diameter and wall thickness values were lower (P CSF suppression and CNR of the approaches evaluated. However, improvements are heterogeneous, likely owing to intersubject vessel pulsatility and CSF flow variations, which can lead to variable flow suppression efficacy in these velocity-dependent modules. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  6. Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charmed baryon decay Λc+→pφ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.J.; Ehrlich, R.; Elia, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Lingel, K.; Prescott, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G.E.; Gollin, G.D.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; McLean, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.; Janicek, R.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; ONeill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Wang, P.N.; Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Dominick, J.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Lambrecht, M.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wei, G.; Artuso, M.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Horwitz, N.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays Λ c + →pK - K + and Λ c + →pφ using data collected with the CLEO II detector at CESR. The latter mode, observed for the first time with significant statistics, is of interest as a test of color suppression in charm decays. We have determined the branching ratios for these modes relative to Λ c + →pK - π + and compared our results with theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data by τ-p transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth; Davidson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Surface passive seismic methods are receiving increased attention for monitoring changes in reservoirs during the production of unconventional oil and gas. However, in passive seismic data the strong cultural and ambient noise (mainly surface-waves) decreases the effectiveness of these techniques. Hence, suppression of surface-waves is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. We apply a noise suppression technique, based on the τ — p transform, to a surface passive seismic dataset recorded over a Barnett Shale reservoir undergoing a hydraulic fracturing process. This technique not only improves the signal-to-noise ratios of added synthetic microseismic events, but it also preserves the event waveforms.

  8. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  9. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of fracture and pneumonia from acid suppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Chun-Sick; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2011-09-26

    A recently published systematic review and meta-analysis, incorporating all relevant studies on the association of acid suppressive medications and pneumonia identified up to August 2009, revealed that for every 200 patients, treated with acid suppressive medication, one will develop pneumonia. They showed the overall risk of pneumonia was higher among people using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.11-1.46, I(2) = 90.5%] and Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09-1.36, I(2) = 0.0%). In the randomized controlled trials, use of H2RAs was associated with an elevated risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia (relative risk 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48, I(2) = 30.6%). Another meta-analysis of 11 studies published between 1997 and 2011 found that PPIs, which reduce stomach acid production, were associated with increased risk of fracture. The pooled OR for fracture was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.18-1.41) with use of PPIs and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99-1.23) with use of H2RAs, when compared with non-use of the respective medications. Long-term use of PPIs increased the risk of any fracture (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48) and of hip fracture risk (adjusted OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.09-1.66), whereas long-term H2RA use was not significantly associated with fracture risk. Clinicians should carefully consider when deciding to prescribe acid-suppressive drugs, especially for patients who are already at risk for pneumonia and fracture. Since it is unnecessary to achieve an achlorhydric state in order to resolve symptoms, we recommend using the only minimum effective dose of drug required to achieve the desired therapeutic goals.

  11. Passive harmonic mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using CVD-grown few-layer MoS2 as a saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Han-Ding; Li He-Ping; Lan Chang-Yong; Li Chun; Deng Guang-Lei; Li Jian-Feng; Liu Yong

    2015-01-01

    Passive harmonic mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) saturable absorber (SA) is demonstrated. The few-layer MoS 2 is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and then transferred onto the end face of a fiber connector to form a fiber-compatible MoS 2 SA. The 20th harmonic mode-locked pulses at 216-MHz repetition rate are stably generated with a pulse duration of 1.42 ps and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 36.1 dB. The results confirm that few-layer MoS 2 can serve as an effective SA for mode-locked fiber lasers. (paper)

  12. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  13. Improvement of a triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, P C; Hu, H L; Wang, J B

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a simple construct of a tunable triple-wavelength fiber ring laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and an optical tunable bandpass filter. An optical tunable bandpass filter is used within the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber laser to select the lasing wavelength. Because the Fabry–Perot laser diode is in combination with the tunable bandpass filter, the erbium-doped fiber laser can stably lase three wavelengths simultaneously. Moreover, this laser is easily tuned dynamically. This triple-wavelength output performs satisfactorily, with its optical side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. Furthermore, the wavelength tuning range of this triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is greater than 27 nm. (paper)

  14. Novel O-band tunable fiber laser using an array waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Latif, A A; Harun, S W

    2010-01-01

    A novel tunable fibre laser (TFL) operating in the ordinary band (O-band) of 1310 nm is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed TFL is developed using a 1×16 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as a slicing mechanism for the broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source and an optical channel selector (OCS) to provide the tunability. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with a centre wavelength of 1310 nm serves as the compact gain medium for the TFL and also as a broadband ASE source. The TFL has a tuning range of 1301.26 nm to 1311.18 nm with 9.92 nm span and a channel spacing of 0.7 nm. The measured output power is about –4 and –8 dBm and with a side node suppression ratio (SMSR) of 29 to 33 dB

  15. Packaging and testing of multi-wavelength DFB laser array using REC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yi; Kong, Xuan; Gu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiangfei; Zheng, Guanghui; Luan, Jia

    2014-02-01

    Packaging of distributed feedback (DFB) laser array based on reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technology is a bridge from chip to system, and influences the practical process of REC chip. In this paper, DFB laser arrays of 4-channel @1310 nm and 8-channel @1550 nm are packaged. Our experimental results show that both these laser arrays have uniform wavelength spacing and larger than 35 dB average Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR). When I=35 mA, we obtain the total output power of 1 mW for 4-channel @1310 nm, and 227 μw for 8-channel @1550 nm respectively. The high frequency characteristics of the packaged chips are also obtained, and the requirements for 4×10 G or even 8×10 G systems can be reached. Our results demonstrate the practical and low cost performance of REC technology and indicate its potential in the future fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application.

  16. Discrete mode laser diodes for FTTH/PON applications up to 10 Gbit/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Kelly, Brian; Byrne, Diarmuid; Latkowski, Sylwester; Anandarajah, Prince M.; Barry, Liam P.

    2012-06-01

    Discrete Mode Laser Diodes (DMLDs) present an economic approach with a focus on high volume manufacturability of single mode lasers using a single step fabrication process. We report on a DMLD designed for operation in the 1550 nm window with high Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) over a wide temperature tuning range of -20 °C < T < 95 °C. Direct modulation rates as high as 10 Gbit/s are demonstrated at both 1550 nm and 1310 nm. Transmission experiments were also carried out over single mode fibre at both wavelengths. Using dispersion pre-compensation transmission from 0 to 60 km is demonstrated at 1550 nm with a maximum power penalty measured at 60 km of 3.6 dB.

  17. A Continuously Tunable Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser Using Tunable Fibre Bragg Gratings and Optical Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Liu; Feng-Ping, Yan; Jian, Li; Lin, Wang; Ti-Gang, Ning; Tao-Rong, Gong; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A continuously tunable erbium-doped fibre laser (TEDFL) based on tunable fibre Bragger grating (TFBG) and a three-port optical circulator (OC) is proposed and demonstrated. The OC acts as a 100%-reflective mirror. A strain-induced uniform fibre Bragger grating (FBG) which functions as a partial-reflecting mirror is implemented in the linear cavity. By applying axial strain onto the TFBG, a continuously tunable lasing output can be realized. The wavelength tuning range covers approximately 7.00nm in C band (from 1543.6161 to 1550.3307nm). The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is better than 50 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is less than 0.01 nm. Moreover, an array waveguide grating (AWG) is inserted into the cavity for wavelength preselecting, and a 50 km transmission experiment was performed using our TEDFL at a 10Gb/s modulation rate

  18. Four distributed feedback laser array integrated with multimode-interference and semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Zhu Hong-Liang; Liang Song; Zhao Ling-Juan; Chen Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic integration of four 1.55-μm-range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using varied ridge width with a 4 × 1-multimode-interference (MMI) optical combiner and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is demonstrated. The average output power and the threshold current are 1.8 mW and 35 mA, respectively, when the injection current of the SOA is 100 mA, with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. The four channels have a 1-nm average channel spacing and can operate separately or simultaneously. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  20. GHSR deficiency suppresses neointimal formation in injured mouse arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Man; Wang, Mo; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yahan; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the role of GHSR in neointimal formation following vascular injury. In the mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, we found that vessel intima-to-media ratio was significantly reduced in GHSR deficiency (GHSR −/− ) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the smooth muscle cell (SMCs) in the neointima were significantly decreased in the injured arteries of GHSR −/− mice which was associated with decreased SMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, immunoblotting demonstrated that, in cultured rat aortic SMCs, small interfering RNA-mediated GHSR knockdown suppressed the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested a novel role of GHSR in neointimal formation likely via promoting the proliferation and migration of SMCs involving Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, GHSR may be a potential therapeutic target in restenosis and vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • GHSR deficiency inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury. • GHSR deficiency suppresses SMCs numbers in vivo. • Knockdown GHSR represses SMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. • Knockdown GHSR inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in SMCs.

  1. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  2. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  3. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  4. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  5. Shielding design of ITER pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2006-01-01

    The duct shield from streaming D-T neutrons has been designed for the ITER pressure suppression system. Streaming calculations are performed with the DUCT-III code for the region from the inlet of the pressure relief line to the rupture disk. Next, the neutron permeation through the shield is studied by Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code. It is found that 0.15 m thick iron shield is enough to suppress the permeating component from the outside. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of the shield can be reduced by about 30% if the optimized iron shield structure having localized thickness across intense permeation paths is employed to shield the pressure suppression line. (T.I.)

  6. Edge enhancement and noise suppression for infrared image based on feature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng

    2018-06-01

    Infrared images are often suffering from background noise, blurred edges, few details and low signal-to-noise ratios. To improve infrared image quality, it is essential to suppress noise and enhance edges simultaneously. To realize it in this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on feature analysis in shearlet domain. Firstly, as one of multi-scale geometric analysis (MGA), we introduce the theory and superiority of shearlet transform. Secondly, after analyzing the defects of traditional thresholding technique to suppress noise, we propose a novel feature extraction distinguishing image structures from noise well and use it to improve the traditional thresholding technique. Thirdly, with computing the correlations between neighboring shearlet coefficients, the feature attribute maps identifying the weak detail and strong edges are completed to improve the generalized unsharped masking (GUM). At last, experiment results with infrared images captured in different scenes demonstrate that the proposed algorithm suppresses noise efficiently and enhances image edges adaptively.

  7. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.

  8. Determination of sulphite in wines using suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Uekusa, Yuki; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Suppressed ion chromatography with the use of a conductivity detector was developed for the determination of sulphite ions in wine samples. When a mixed solution of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and acetone was used as the mobile phase, simultaneous determination of eight inorganic anions (i.e., fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulphite, phosphate, sulphate, and thiosulphate) was completed in approximately 25 min. Linearity, reproducibility, and detection limits were determined for the proposed method. In the case of sulphite detection, a linear calibration curve with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9992 was obtained from the peak height of sulphite with a relative standard deviation (n = 6) 1.48%. In addition, the detection limit of sulphite was 0.27 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Further, the developed method was applied for the determination of sulphite contained in several wine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New hybrid technique for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Zeb, A.; Sheikh, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid technique employing RS (Reed Solomon) coding and adaptive filter for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems is presented. Adaptive filter creates a more accurate estimate of the original OFDM signal after impulsive noise cancellation. The residual impulsive noise is further mitigated by RS decoder in the second stage of proposed technique. Three members of adaptive filters family i.e. NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm, RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm and Bhagyashri algorithm are tested with RS decoder in the proposed hybrid technique. Furthermore, the results in terms of steady state MSE (Mean Square Error) reduction, BER (Bit Error Rate) improvement and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) enhancement confirm the effectiveness of the proposed dual faceted technique when compared with the recently reported techniques in literature. (author)

  10. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out. (paper)

  11. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out.

  12. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  13. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  14. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  15. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  16. Subcritical enhanced safety molten-salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Men'shikov, L.I.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.; Krasnykh, A.K.; Rudenko, V.T.; Somov, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power and its fuel cycle safety requirements can be met in the main by providing nuclear power with subcritical molten salt reactors (SMSR) - 'burner' with an external neutron source. The utilized molten salt fuel is the decisive advantage of the SMSR over other burners. Fissile and fertile nuclides in the burner are solved in a liquid salt in the form of fluorides. This composition acts simultaneously as: a) fuel, b) coolant, c) medium for chemical partitioning and reprocessing. The effective way of reducing the external source power consists in the cascade neutron multiplication in the system of coupled reactors with suppressed feedback between them. (author)

  17. Oscillatory convection in low aspect ratio Czochralski melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, A.; Prasad, V.; Koziol, J.; Gupta, K. P.

    1993-11-01

    Modeling of the crucible in bulk crystal growth simulations as a right circular cylinder may be adequate for high aspect ratio melts but this may be unrealistic when the melt height is low. Low melt height is a unique feature of a solid feed continuous Czochralski growth process for silicon single crystals currently under investigation. At low melt heights, the crucible bottom curvature has a dampening effect on the buoyancy-induced oscillations, a source of inhomogeneities in the grown crystal. The numerical results demonstrate how the mode of convection changes from vertical wall-dominated recirculating flows to Benard convection as the aspect ratio is lowered. This phenomenon is strongly dependent on the boundary condition at the free surface of the melt, which has been generally considered to be either adiabatic or radiatively cooled. A comparison of the flow oscillations in crucibles with and without curved bottoms at aspect ratios in the range of 0.25 to 0.50, and at realistic Grashof numbers (10 7 < Gr < 10 8) illustrate that changing the shape of the crucible may be an effective means of suppressing oscillations and controlling the melt flow.

  18. Pretransplantation recipient regulatory T cell suppressive function predicts delayed and slow graft function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Tri J P; Fryml, Elise; Sahakian, Sossy K; Liu, Shuqing; Michel, Rene P; Lipman, Mark L; Mucsi, Istvan; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Tchervenkov, Jean I; Paraskevas, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF) are a continuous spectrum of ischemia-reperfusion-related acute kidney injury (AKI) that increases the risk for acute rejection and graft loss after kidney transplantation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in transplant tolerance and attenuate murine AKI. In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated whether pretransplantation peripheral blood recipient Treg frequency and suppressive function are predictors of DGF and SGF after kidney transplantation. Deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (n=53) were divided into AKI (n=37; DGF, n=10; SGF, n=27) and immediate graft function (n=16) groups. Pretransplantation peripheral blood CD4CD25FoxP3 Treg frequency was quantified by flow cytometry. Regulatory T-cell suppressive function was measured by suppression of autologous effector T-cell proliferation by Treg in co-culture. Pretransplantation Treg suppressive function, but not frequency, was decreased in AKI recipients (Paccounting for the effects of cold ischemic time and donor age, Treg suppressive function discriminated DGF from immediate graft function recipients in multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio, 0.77; Pfunction is a potential independent pretransplantation predictor of DGF and SGF.

  19. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Shil; Lee, Wanhyung; Hong, Kwanyoung; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei Jin; Yoon, Jin Ha

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43-8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30-9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16-2.73) and 1.63 (1.02-2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34-20.80) and 10.17 (4.46-22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population.

  20. Ionization Suppression and Recovery in Direct Biofluid Analysis Using Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Carolina; Spence, Corina; Zhang, Chengsen; Bills, Brandon J.; Manicke, Nicholas E.

    2016-04-01

    Paper spray mass spectrometry is a method for the direct analysis of biofluid samples in which extraction of analytes from dried biofluid spots and electrospray ionization occur from the paper on which the dried sample is stored. We examined matrix effects in the analysis of small molecule drugs from urine, plasma, and whole blood. The general method was to spike stable isotope labeled analogs of each analyte into the spray solvent, while the analyte itself was in the dried biofluid. Intensity of the labeled analog is proportional to ionization efficiency, whereas the ratio of the analyte intensity to the labeled analog in the spray solvent is proportional to recovery. Ion suppression and recovery were found to be compound- and matrix-dependent. Highest levels of ion suppression were obtained for poor ionizers (e.g., analytes lacking basic aliphatic amine groups) in urine and approached -90%. Ion suppression was much lower or even absent for good ionizers (analytes with aliphatic amines) in dried blood spots. Recovery was generally highest in urine and lowest in blood. We also examined the effect of two experimental parameters on ion suppression and recovery: the spray solvent and the sample position (how far away from the paper tip the dried sample was spotted). Finally, the change in ion suppression and analyte elution as a function of time was examined by carrying out a paper spray analysis of dried plasma spots for 5 min by continually replenishing the spray solvent.

  1. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  2. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that 10 -7 M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  4. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, psuppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  7. Pressure suppression facility for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor comprising heat transfer surfaces from a pressure suppression pool at the inside to the outer circumferential pool at the outside, a means for supplying water from a water supply source at the outside of the container to the pools is disposed. Then, a heat transfer means is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the water cooling pool. The water supply means comprises a pressurization means for applying pressure to water of the water supply source and a water supply channel. Water is supplied into the pressure suppression pool and the outer circumferential pool to elevate the water level and extend the region of heat contact with the water cooling heat transfer means. In addition, since dynamic pressure is applied to the feedwater, for example, by pressurizing the water surface of the water supply source, water can be supplied without using dynamic equipments such as pumps. Then, since water-cooling heat transfer surface can be extended after occurrence of accident, enlargement of a reactor container and worsening of earthquake proofness can be avoided as much as possible, to improve function for suppressing the pressure in the container. Further, since water-cooling heat transfer region can be extended, the arrangement of the water source and the place to which water is supplied is made optional without considering the relative height therebetween, to improve earthquake proofness. (N.H.)

  8. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  9. Aralia elata (Miquel) Seemann Suppresses Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... The LPS-induced increase in the production of nitric oxide was concentration- dependently suppressed ... Aralia elata ethanol extract (AEE) exhibits protective ... temperature for 72 h and filtered. The filtered .... scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner showing a ...

  10. Suppression of the e- coextracted from a Penning surface-plasma H-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.; Allison, P.

    1992-01-01

    The ratio of electrons to negative ions extracted from Penning surface-plasma sources (SPS) such as the 8X source is low even before any steps are taken to suppress the electrons. For the 8X source the e - /H - ratio is typically four or five to one for H - operation and nine to one for D - operation. Because the coextracted e - present a power-loading problem to the 8X-source extraction system, methods to dissipate and/or reduce the power in the e - beam must be developed before extracting a dc H - or D - beam. Thus, we conducted this study to determine whether a collar installed in the near-extraction region of the 8X source suppresses the electrons extracted from that source. (Author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  11. Measured and simulated performance of Compton-suppressed TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Tests of the performance of a 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detector coupled to a 20-fold segmented Compton-suppression shield, which form a prototype element of the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS), have been made. Peak-to-total ratios and relative efficiencies have been measured for a variety of γ-ray energies. These measurements were used to validate a GEANT4 simulation of the TIGRESS detectors, which was then used to create a simulation of the full 12-detector array. Predictions of the expected performance of TIGRESS are presented. These predictions indicate that TIGRESS will be capable, for single 1 MeV γ rays, of absolute detection efficiencies of 17% and 9.4%, and peak-to-total ratios of 54% and 61% for the "high-efficiency" and "optimized peak-to-total" configurations of the array, respectively.

  12. Strange quark suppression in 225 GeV/c pi-minus beryllium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Chicago Cyclotron Magnet Spectrometer at Fermilab was used to study the production of #betta#(783) and phi(1020) mesons in 225 GeV/c π - Be interactions via their decays into μ + μ - . Basedon the observed phi/#betta# production ratio, the strange quark suppression factor lambda was determined to be 0.31 +- 0.05, in good agreement with a world average of about 0.29

  13. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  14. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  15. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  16. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  17. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  18. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  19. Robust Grid-Current-Feedback Resonance Suppression Method for LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverter Connected to Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Leming; Chen, Yandong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a robust grid-current-feedback reso-nance suppression (GCFRS) method for LCL-type grid-connected inverter is proposed to enhance the system damping without introducing the switching noise and eliminate the impact of control delay on system robustness against grid-impedance variation....... It is composed of GCFRS method, the full duty-ratio and zero-beat-lag PWM method, and the lead-grid-current-feedback-resonance-suppression (LGCFRS) method. Firstly, the GCFRS is used to suppress the LCL-resonant peak well and avoid introducing the switching noise. Secondly, the proposed full duty-ratio and zero......-beat-lag PWM method is used to elimi-nate the one-beat-lag computation delay without introducing duty cycle limitations. Moreover, it can also realize the smooth switching from positive to negative half-wave of the grid current and improve the waveform quality. Thirdly, the proposed LGCFRS is used to further...

  20. Transverse momentum dependence of γ'/γ ratio in heavy ion collisions at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Kumar, Vineet

    2011-01-01

    The heavy ion collisions at high energy are performed to produce and study strongly interacting matter at high temperatures where a formation of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is expected. The most popular signal of this phase is the suppression of quarkonia due to screening by color charges. The suppression is predicted to occur above a critical temperature T c , sequentially, in order of the binding energy. It was shown many years back that the ρ T dependence of such ratio would show large variation and would be a direct probe of the QGP. In this work, the ratio γ'/γ has been calculated using essentially same model with the parameters relevant for LHC

  1. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit selection with co-channel interference suppression in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms are considered. The first algorithm assumes that the receiver eliminates the impact of the strongest subset of interferers, whereas the second algorithm suggests random cancelation of interferers to further reduce processing complexity. The impact of outdated ordering of interferers powers on the efficiency of interference cancelation, and the effect of imperfect prediction of transmit channels for desired user adaptation are investigated. Analytical formulations for various performance measures and comparisons between the performance and processing complexity of different adaptation schemes are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  3. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  4. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  5. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  6. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  7. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  8. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

  9. Suppression of Rabi oscillations for moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Muga, J. G.; Hegerfeldt, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known laser-induced Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom are shown to be suppressed under certain conditions when the atom is entering a laser-illuminated region. For temporal Rabi oscillations the effect has two regimes: a first classical-like one, taking place at intermediate atomic velocities, and a second purely quantum case at low velocities. The classical regime is associated with the formation of incoherent internal states of the atom in the laser region, whereas in the quantum, low velocity regime the laser projects the atom onto a pure internal state that can be controlled by detuning. Spatial Rabi oscillations are only suppressed in this low velocity, quantum regime

  10. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  11. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Realegeno, Susan; Pant, Anil; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli S; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  12. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  13. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  14. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  15. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  16. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  17. Pressure suppression device for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent damages in drain pipes or the likes upon the water level increase due to blowing of incompressible gases. Constitution: An exhaust pipe for guiding escaping steams is connected to a main steam releaf valve. The exhaust pipe is guided into pressure-suppression-chamber water through the inside of a dry-well and by way of a vent pipe, a vent header and a drain pipe or a downcomer. Since the exhaust pipe is not exposed to the water surface inside the pressure suppression chamber, even if steams blow out into the dry-well by the rapture of pipeways or the likes to rapidly increase the water level, the water surface does not hit on the exhaust pipe, whereby the damages for the exhaust pipe and support members can be prevented to improve the reliability. (Seki, T.)

  18. Myc suppression of Nfkb2 accelerates lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Huber, Jürgen; Nilsson, Jonas A; Fallahi, Mohammad; Hall, Mark A; Peschel, Christian; Cleveland, John L

    2010-01-01

    Deregulated c-Myc expression is a hallmark of several human cancers where it promotes proliferation and an aggressive tumour phenotype. Myc overexpression is associated with reduced activity of Rel/NF-κB, transcription factors that control the immune response, cell survival, and transformation, and that are frequently altered in cancer. The Rel/NF-κB family member NFKB2 is altered by chromosomal translocations or deletions in lymphoid malignancies and deletion of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of NF-κB2 augments lymphocyte proliferation. Precancerous Eμ-Myc-transgenic B cells, Eμ-Myc lymphomas and human Burkitt lymphoma samples were assessed for Nfkb2 expression. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven apoptosis, proliferation, and lymphomagenesis was tested genetically in vivo. Here we report that the Myc oncoprotein suppresses Nfkb2 expression in vitro in primary mouse fibroblasts and B cells, and in vivo in the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma (BL). NFKB2 suppression by Myc was also confirmed in primary human BL. Promoter-reporter assays indicate that Myc-mediated suppression of Nfkb2 occurs at the level of transcription. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven lymphomagenesis was tested in vivo, where Nfkb2 loss was shown to accelerate lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, by impairing Myc's apoptotic response. Nfkb2 is suppressed by c-Myc and harnesses Myc-driven lymphomagenesis. These data thus link Myc-driven lymphomagenesis to the non-canonical NF-κB pathway

  19. Hangar Fire Suppression Utilizing Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    fuel fires in aircraft hangars. A 30×30×8-ft concrete-and-steel test structure was constructed for this test series. Four discharge assemblies...that agent concentration in the test structure exceeded the required extinguishing concentration for at least 5 min after discharge. Two fire ...involved suppression of a 4.6-gal, approximately 5-ft diameter, Jet-A pool fire . Both fires were successfully extinguished by the Novec 1230 discharge

  20. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  1. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  2. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  3. Cumulative vibratory indices and the H/M ratio of the soleus H-reflex: a quantitative study in control and spastic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Bour, L. J.; Koelman, J. H.; Speelman, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    Suppression of the soleus (Sol) H-reflex recruitment curve by Achilles tendon vibration and the ratio of maximum Sol H-reflex (Hmax) to maximum M-response (H/M ratio) have been studied by means of computer processing on the basis of peak-to-peak (P-P) and area values in 46 controls and in 16 spastic

  4. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  5. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  6. Variation in plant defense suppresses herbivore performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian; Paul, Ryan; Ode, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Defensive variability of crops and natural systems can alter herbivore communities and reduce herbivory. However, it is still unknown how defense variability translates into herbivore suppression. Nonlinear averaging and constraints in physiological tracking (also more generally called time-dependent effects) are the two mechanisms by which defense variability might impact herbivores. We conducted a set of experiments manipulating the mean and variability of a plant defense, showing that defense variability does suppress herbivore performance and that it does so through physiological tracking effects that cannot be explained by nonlinear averaging. While nonlinear averaging predicted higher or the same herbivore performance on a variable defense than on an invariable defense, we show that variability actually decreased herbivore performance and population growth rate. Defense variability reduces herbivore performance in a way that is more than the average of its parts. This is consistent with constraints in physiological matching of detoxification systems for herbivores experiencing variable toxin levels in their diet and represents a more generalizable way of understanding the impacts of variability on herbivory. Increasing defense variability in croplands at a scale encountered by individual herbivores can suppress herbivory, even if that is not anticipated by nonlinear averaging.

  7. Abscopal suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Johnson, M.J.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Abscopal responses of hemopoietic tissue, which we noted in preliminary studies of mice receiving partial-body irradiation, led us to clarify these effects. In studies reported here, one hind leg of CF-1 female mice received 1000, 5000, or 10,000 rad of x radiation. We found a persistent shift from medullary to splenic erythropoiesis preventing anemia in mice receiving 5000 or 10,000 rad. Splenectomy prior to 5000-rad irradiation resulted in anemia, which was not ameliorated by exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Despite evidence for increased levels of erythropoietin in the animals, namely, a reticulocytosis and increased erythrocyte radioiron incorporation, both 59 Fe uptake and erythroblast counts in shielded marrow remained below normal. We found 50 to 90% suppression of the growth of marrow stromal colonies (MSC) from bone marrow aspirates of the shielded and irradiated femoral marrow at 1 month and at least 20% depression of MSC at 1 year, with each dose. We conclude that: (i) high doses of x radiation to one leg of mice caused prolonged suppression of medullary erythropoiesis with splenic compensation to prevent anemia; (ii) splenectomy, anemia, and hypoxia prevented the severe abscopal depression of medullary erythropoiesis; and (iii) suppressed medullary erythropoiesis with decreased growth of MSC suggested a change in the hemopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow

  8. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  9. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  10. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  11. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AM Fokkens

    suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article .... firepower was an appropriate response to suppress the uprising of local ..... Morris accompanied by Beukes and a commando of 50 men, moved east.

  12. Suppression of vegetation in LANDSAT ETM+ remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation cover is an impediment to the interpretation of multispectral remote sensing images for geological applications, especially in densely vegetated terrains. In order to enhance the underlying geological information in such terrains, it is desirable to suppress the reflectance component of vegetation. One form of spectral unmixing that has been successfully used for vegetation reflectance suppression in multispectral images is called "forced invariance". It is based on segregating components of the reflectance spectrum that are invariant with respect to a specific spectral index such as the NDVI. The forced invariance method uses algorithms such as software defoliation. However, the outputs of software defoliation are single channel data, which are not amenable to geological interpretations. Crippen and Blom (2001) proposed a new forced invariance algorithm that utilizes band statistics, rather than band ratios. The authors demonstrated the effectiveness of their algorithms on a LANDSAT TM scene from Nevada, USA, especially in open canopy areas in mixed and semi-arid terrains. In this presentation, we report the results of our experimentation with this algorithm on a densely to sparsely vegetated Landsat ETM+ scene. We selected a scene (Path 119, Row 39) acquired on 18th July, 2004. Two study areas located around the city of Hangzhou, eastern China were tested. One of them covers uninhabited hilly terrain characterized by low rugged topography, parts of the hills are densely vegetated; another one covers both inhabited urban areas and uninhabited hilly terrain, which is densely vegetated. Crippen and Blom's algorithm is implemented in the following sequential steps: (1) dark pixel correction; (2) vegetation index calculation; (3) estimation of statistical relationship between vegetation index and digital number (DN) values for each band; (4) calculation of a smooth best-fit curve for the above relationships; and finally, (5) selection of a target average DN

  13. Optimization of transport suppression barriers generated by externally driven Alfven waves in D-shaped, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C; Cuperman, S; Komoshvili, K

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to optimize the internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated by externally launched mode-converted fast waves (FWs) in pre-heated spherical tokamaks (STs), we have carried out a systematic parametric investigation with respect to the rf waves and antenna characteristics; as a study case, a START-like device has been considered. Within the framework of a plasma model including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped and passing electrons and ions, and starting with the solution of the full wave equation for a ST-plasma, we show that optimized ITBs, suitable for the stabilization of plasma turbulence (e.g. overpassing the maximum growth rate of the ITG-instability, γ ITG ) in STs can be generated by the aid of externally launched FW and mode-converted to kinetic Alfven waves. This result holds in spite of the limiting trapped-particles associated squeezing factor S present in the non-linear equation for E r (via the viscosity coefficient μ θi ∝|S| 3/2 , S = S(dE r /dr))

  14. DNAJB6 is a peptide-binding chaperone which can suppress amyloid fibrillation of polyglutamine peptides at substoichiometric molar ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansson, Cecilia; Kakkar, Vaishali; Monsellier, Elodie; Sourigues, Yannick; Harmark, Johan; Kampinga, Harm H.; Melki, Ronald; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    Expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches lead to protein aggregation and severe neurodegenerative diseases. A highly efficient suppressor of polyQ aggregation was identified, the DNAJB6, when molecular chaperones from the HSPH, HSPA, and DNAJ families were screened for huntingtin exon 1 aggregation

  15. Optimization of transport suppression barriers generated by externally driven Alfven waves in D-shaped, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruma, C [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Cuperman, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Komoshvili, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2003-04-01

    In an effort to optimize the internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated by externally launched mode-converted fast waves (FWs) in pre-heated spherical tokamaks (STs), we have carried out a systematic parametric investigation with respect to the rf waves and antenna characteristics; as a study case, a START-like device has been considered. Within the framework of a plasma model including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped and passing electrons and ions, and starting with the solution of the full wave equation for a ST-plasma, we show that optimized ITBs, suitable for the stabilization of plasma turbulence (e.g. overpassing the maximum growth rate of the ITG-instability, {gamma}{sub ITG}) in STs can be generated by the aid of externally launched FW and mode-converted to kinetic Alfven waves. This result holds in spite of the limiting trapped-particles associated squeezing factor S present in the non-linear equation for E{sub r} (via the viscosity coefficient {mu}{sub {theta}}{sub i}{proportional_to}|S|{sup 3/2}, S = S(dE{sub r}/dr))

  16. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  17. Exploring Genetic Suppression Interactions on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C.; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N.; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insig...

  18. Measurement of the relative branching ratio of $D^+ \\to \\pi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+$ to $D^+ \\to K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, Natasa [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed D+ meson decay into three charged pions using 193 pb-1 of data collected by CDF II detector at Fermilab's Tevatron.

  19. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  20. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  1. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  2. Microbial enrichment to enhance the disease suppressive activity of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Montenari, M.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Compost amended soil has been found to be suppressive against plant diseases in various cropping systems. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of compost might be increased by the addition of antagonists. In the present study, the establishment and suppressive activity of

  3. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  4. Prediction of Microcystis Blooms Based on TN:TP Ratio and Lake Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Amano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between TN:TP ratio and Microcystis growth via a database that includes worldwide lakes based on four types of lake origin (dammed, tectonic, coastal, and volcanic lakes. We used microcosm and mesocosm for the nutrient elution tests with lake water and four kinds of sediment (nontreated, MgO sprinkling treated, dissolved air flotation [DAF] treated, and combined treated sediment in order to control TN:TP ratio and to suppress Microcystis growth. Microcystis growth was related to TN:TP ratio, with the maximum value at an optimum TN:TP ratio and the minimum values when the TN:TP ratios reached to 0 or ∞. The kurtosis of the distribution curve varied with the type of lake origin; the lowest kurtosis was found in dammed lakes, while the highest was found in volcanic lakes. The lake trophic state could affect the change in the kurtosis, providing much lower kurtosis at eutrophic lakes (dammed lakes than that at oligotrophic lakes (volcanic lakes. The relationship between TN:TP ratio and Microcystis growth could be explained by the nutrient elution tests under controlled TN:TP ratios through the various sediment treatments. A significant suppression of Microcystis growth of 70% could be achieved when the TN:TP ratios exceeded 21. Lake origin could be regarded as an index including morphological and geographical factors, and controlling the trophic state in lakes. The origin rather than trophic state for lakes could be considered as an important factor of TN:TP influences on Microcystis growth.

  5. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  6. Analysis and suppression of passive noise in surface microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush

    Surface microseismic surveys are gaining popularity in monitoring the hydraulic fracturing process. The effectiveness of these surveys, however, is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired data. Cultural and industrial noise generated during hydraulic fracturing operations usually dominate the data, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of using these data in identifying and locating microseismic events. Hence, noise suppression is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. In this thesis, I focus on two important aspects in using surface-recorded microseismic seismic data: first, I take advantage of the unwanted surface noise to understand the characteristics of these noise and extract information about the propagation medium from the noise; second, I propose effective techniques to suppress the surface noise while preserving the waveforms that contain information about the source of microseisms. Automated event identification on passive seismic data using only a few receivers is challenging especially when the record lengths span over long durations of time. I introduce an automatic event identification algorithm that is designed specifically for detecting events in passive data acquired with a small number of receivers. I demonstrate that the conventional STA/LTA (Short-term Average/Long-term Average) algorithm is not sufficiently effective in event detection in the common case of low signal-to-noise ratio. With a cross-correlation based method as an extension of the STA/LTA algorithm, even low signal-to-noise events (that were not detectable with conventional STA/LTA) were revealed. Surface microseismic data contains surface-waves (generated primarily from hydraulic fracturing activities) and body-waves in the form of microseismic events. It is challenging to analyze the surface-waves on the recorded data directly because of the randomness of their source and their unknown source signatures. I use seismic interferometry to extract

  7. Instructions to suppress semantic memory enhances or has no effect on P300 in a concealed information test (CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena; Tullman, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress semantic memory as indexed with the P300 ERP and the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). In EXP 1, participants (22) were run in a counterbalanced repeated measures study in both simply knowledgeable (SK) and knowledgeable with suppression (SP) conditions. A P300-based, concealed information test ("Complex Trial Protocol"; CTP) with a 50/50 Target/Nontarget (T/NT) ratio was given both with and without instructions to suppress semantic memories. The results showed increased P300s to probe name stimuli, reduced (but still high positive) aIAT d-scores, and increased simple reaction times to all stimuli used in ERP tests in the SP condition. EXP 2 was similar, but with SP and SK in two separate groups, and a 20/80 T/NT ratio. Again, ERP and aIAT results failed to show a suppression effect for semantic memory. The behavioral data suggest some task demand effects under suppression instructions, and that EXP 1 was more demanding than EXP 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  9. Comparative study of fast T 2-weighted images using respiratory triggered, breath-hold, fat suppression and phased array multi coil for liver evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbehusen, Cristiane L.; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Palacio, Glaucia A.S.; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare both qualitatively and quantitatively six T 2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences varying the respiratory compensation technique, associating or not fat tissue suppression and using different types of coils. We performed a prospective study of 71 consecutive patients that were submitted to MRI of the liver using a 1.5 T magnet. The six following pulse sequences were used: fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; non-suppressed respiratory triggered with conventional body coil; breath-hold non fat-suppressed with conventional body coil; fat-suppressed respiratory triggered with phased-array multi coil; breath-hold fat-suppressed with phased-array multi coil. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios and qualitatively by evaluating the sharpness of hepatic contours, visibility of intrahepatic vessels and other segmental landmarks, and the presence of artifacts. Results: the qualitative analysis showed that the mean values obtained with the six sequences were 7.8, 4.6, 7.9, 5.2, 6.7 and 4.6 respectively. The respiratory-triggered sequences were better than the breath-hold sequences in both qualitative and quantitative analysis (p < 0.001). No significant differences in the values of signal-to-noise ratios and in overall image quality were found between the sequences with and without fat suppression (p . 0.05). The sequences using the body coil were similar in terms of image quality (p . 0.05) and better regarding signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the phased=array multi coil (p ,0.001). Our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that the best MRI sequences for the valuation of the liver are the sequences with respiratory triggering using a conventional body coil, with or without fat suppression. (author)

  10. Psychophysical research progress of interocular suppression in amblyopic visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some recent animal experiments and psychophysical studies indicate that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression, and interocular suppression is a key mechanism in visual deficits experienced by patients with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent psychophysical findings that have investigated the important role of interocular suppression in amblyopia, the measurement and modulation of suppression, and new dichoptic treatment intervention that directly target suppression.

  11. Suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work related to experience of depression and anxiety symptoms: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    YOON, Jin-Ha; KANG, Mo-Yeol; JEUNG, Dayee; CHANG, Sei-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of ?Engaging with Complaints?, ?Suppressing Emotion?, experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and...

  12. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  13. Vitamin K3 suppressed inflammatory and immune responses in a redox-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K; Khan, Nazir M; Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Kohli, Vineet; Sainis, Krishna B

    2011-08-01

    Recent investigations suggest that cellular redox status may play a key role in the regulation of several immune functions. Treatment of lymphocytes with vitamin K3 (menadione) resulted in a significant decrease in cellular GSH/GSSG ratio and concomitant increase in the ROS levels. It also suppressed Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation and cytokine production in lymphocytes and CD4 + T cells in vitro. Immunosuppressive effects of menadione were abrogated only by thiol containing antioxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that menadione directly interacted with thiol antioxidant GSH. Menadione completely suppressed Con A-induced activation of ERK, JNK and NF-κB in lymphocytes. It also significantly decreased the homeostasis driven proliferation of syngeneic CD4 + T cells. Further, menadione significantly delayed graft-vs-host disease morbidity and mortality in mice. Menadione suppressed phytohemagglutinin-induced cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results reveal that cellular redox perturbation by menadione is responsible for significant suppression of lymphocyte responses.

  14. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  15. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  16. Effects of Capacity Ratios between Anode and Cathode on Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon-Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min; Kim, Keon; Yi, Cheol-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The areal capacity ratio of negative to positive electrodes (N/P ratio) is the most important factor to design the lithium ion batteries with high performance in the consideration of balanced electrochemical reactions. In this study, the effect of N/P ratio (1.10, 1.20, and 1.30) on electrochemical properties has been investigated with a lithium polymer battery with PVdF-coated separator and 1.40 Ah of capacity. The N/P ratio is controlled by adjusting the anode thickness with a fixed anode density. The cell with an N/P ratio higher than 1.10 effectively suppresses the lithium plating at the 0.85C-rate charging at 25 °C and the cell with 1.20 of N/P ratio shows the enhanced cycle performance in comparison with other cells. Among the cells with differently designed N/P ratios, significant difference was not observed in the aging test with fully charged batteries at 25 and 45 °C. The effect of N/P ratio on electrochemical properties of lithium batteries can help to design the safe full cell without lithium plating

  17. HIV RNA Suppression during and after Pregnancy among Women in the HIV Outpatient Study, 1996 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Monita; Tedaldi, Ellen; Armon, Carl; Nesheim, Steven; Lampe, Margaret; Palella, Frank; Novak, Richard; Sutton, Madeline; Buchacz, Kate

    2018-01-01

    To examine HIV viral suppression during/after pregnancy. Prospective observational cohort. We identified pregnancies from 1996 to 2015. We examined HIV RNA viral load (VL), VL suppression (≤500 copies/mL), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) status at pregnancy start, end, and 6 months postpartum. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VL nonsuppression. Among 253 pregnancies analyzed, 34.8% of women exhibited VL suppression at pregnancy start, 60.1% at pregnancy end, and 42.7% at 6 months postpartum. Median VL (log 10 copies/mL) was 2.80 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.40-3.85) at pregnancy start, 1.70 (IQR: 1.40-2.82) at pregnancy end, and 2.30 (IQR: 1.40-3.86) at postpartum. Risk of postpartum VL nonsuppression was also lower among women on ART and with VL suppression at pregnancy end (versus those not; adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53). Maintaining VL suppression among US women remains a challenge, particularly during postpartum. Achieving VL suppression earlier during pregnancy benefits women subsequently.

  18. Fast spin-echo T2-weighted MR imaging of tongue cancer; the value of fat-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zu Byoung; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Byun, Hong Sik; Baek, Chung Whan; Son, Yong Ik

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted MR imaging with and without fat suppression. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women; mean age, 48 years) with pathologically proven cancer of the tongue were included in this study. In all of these, FSE T2-weighted MR images with and without fat suppression were obtained in the same imaging planes before surgery or biopsy. Two radiologists visually compared the images thus obtained in terms of detection, extent, and conspicuity of the tumor, and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each tumor was also calculated. In all patients, both imaging modalities were equal in terms of tumor detection. In 4 of 12(33%), the extent of the tumor was greater with fat suppression, while in eight (67%), it was almost the same both with and without. In ten patients (83%), the tumor was more conspicuous with fat suppression, and percentage CNRs were significantly higher with fat suppression than without (180±70% and 113±61%, respectively; p=0.02). For the evaluation of patients with tongue cancer, fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted MR imaging is superior to its conventional equivalent

  19. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  20. Glechoma hederacea Suppresses RANKL-mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Erkhembaatar, M; Gu, D R; Lee, S H; Lee, C H; Shin, D M; Lee, Y R; Kim, M S

    2014-07-01

    Glechoma hederacea (GH), commonly known as ground-ivy or gill-over-the-ground, has been extensively used in folk remedies for relieving symptoms of inflammatory disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of GH are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that GH constituents inhibit osteoclastogenesis by abrogating receptor activator of nuclear κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations. To evaluate the effect of GH on osteoclastogenesis, we assessed the formation of multi-nucleated cells (MNCs), enzymatic activity of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and [Ca(2+)]i alterations in response to treatment with GH ethanol extract (GHE) in primarily cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Treatment of RANKL-stimulated or non-stimulated BMMs with GHE markedly suppressed MNC formation, TRAP activity, and NFATc1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GHE treatment induced a large transient elevation in [Ca(2+)]i while suppressing RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations, which are essential for NFATc1 activation. GHE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)]i was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP), inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), but was independent of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Notably, after transient [Ca(2+)] elevation, treatment with GHE desensitized the VGCCs, resulting in an abrogation of RANKL-induced [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and MNC formation. These findings demonstrate that treatment of BMMs with GHE suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by activating and then desensitizing DHP-sensitive VGCCs, suggesting potential applications of GH in the treatment of bone disorders, such as periodontitis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  1. Fire suppression as a thermal implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    The present paper discusses the possibility of the thermal implosion scenario. This process would be a reverse of the well known thermal explosion (autoignition) phenomenon. The mechanism for thermal implosion scenario is proposed which involves quick suppression of the turbulent diffusion flame. Classical concept of the thermal explosion is discussed first. Then a possible scenario for the reverse process (thermal implosion) is discussed and illustrated by a relevant mathematical model. Based on the arguments presented in the paper, thermal implosion may be observed as an unstable equilibrium point on the generalized Semenov diagram for turbulent flame, however this hypothesis requires ultimate experimental confirmation.

  2. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  3. Experimental Status Of $J/\\psi$ Suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Kluberg, L; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, M; Bellaiche, F; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Bussière, A; Capelli,L; Capony, V; Casagrande, L; Castor, J; Chambon, T; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Filippov, S N; Fleuret, F; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Y K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanyan, H; Hakobyan, R; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenrço, C; Macciotta, P; Mac Cormick, M; Marzari- Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mehrabyan, S; Monteno, M; Mourgues, S; Musso, A; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Racca, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Ropotar, I; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2001-01-01

    The most recent results obtained by experiment NA50 show that the $J /\\psi$ cross-section per nucleon-nucleon collision in semi-peripheral Pb-Pb reactions is "normally" suppressed in the sense that it follows the trend already observed from p-p and up to the most central S-U reactions. A clear change of behaviour is observed for more central Pb-Pb collisions which could be due to the transition of normal nuclear matter to its predicted Quark-Gluon Plasma state

  4. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  5. Pressure suppression system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, N.

    1977-01-01

    The invention pertains to a pressure suppression system for PWR reactors where the parts enclosing the primary coolant are contained in two pressure-tight separate chambers. According to the invention, these chambers are partly filled with water and are connected with each other below the water surface. This way, gases cannot escape from the containment, not even if a valve and a line are damaged at the same time, as the vapours released condensate in the water of at least one of the other chambers. (HP) [de

  6. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  7. The relation of weight suppression and BMI to bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multi-tone suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Nicole E.; Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Jesteadt, Walt; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of multiple suppressors. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were made in normal-hearing participants. Primary tones had fixed frequencies (f2 = 4000 Hz; f1 / f2 = 1.22) and a range of levels. Suppressor tones were at three frequencies (fs = 2828, 4100, 4300 Hz) and range of levels. Decrement was defined as the attenuation in DPOAE level due to the presence of a suppressor. A measure of suppression called suppressive intensity was calculated by an equation previously shown to fit DPOAE suppression data. Suppressor pairs, which were the combination of two different frequencies, were presented at levels selected to have equal single-suppressor decrements. A hybrid model that represents a continuum between additive intensity and additive attenuation best described the results. The suppressor pair with the smallest frequency ratio produced decrements that were more consistent with additive intensity. The suppressor pair with the largest frequency ratio produced decrements at the highest level that were consistent with additive attenuation. Other suppressor-pair conditions produced decrements that were intermediate between these two alternative models. The hybrid model provides a useful framework for representing the observed range of interaction when two suppressors are combined. PMID:27250125

  9. Differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions using fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, Takeshi; Isomoto, Ichirou; Nakamura, Kazukuni; Kajiwara, Yoshifumi; Izawa, Kunihide

    1998-01-01

    To assess the value and problems of fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. In twenty-nine patients who underwent excisional biopsy or surgical resection, fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging was performed with a 0.5 T superconducting magnet. Pre- and post-contrast 3D-spoiled gradient echo sequences were employed with fat suppression. We calculated and evaluated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast enhancement ratio (CER) at each contrast determination time (CDT), which is the intermediate time in the scan. Time intensity curves of CNR showed no statistically significant difference between cancers and other benign lesions. The difference in CER between malignant and benign disease was highly significant (p=0.006) at CDT 45 sec., but there was great overlap in the time intensity curve of CER after CDT 45 sec. When we attempt to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions by dynamic MR imaging, comparison of CNR is impertinent, and we should evaluate the differential diagnosis of cancer versus benign lesions by means of CER at CDT points of about 45 sec. (author)

  10. Multi-tone suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Nicole E; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Jesteadt, Walt; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of multiple suppressors. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were made in normal-hearing participants. Primary tones had fixed frequencies (f2 = 4000 Hz; f1 / f2 = 1.22) and a range of levels. Suppressor tones were at three frequencies (fs = 2828, 4100, 4300 Hz) and range of levels. Decrement was defined as the attenuation in DPOAE level due to the presence of a suppressor. A measure of suppression called suppressive intensity was calculated by an equation previously shown to fit DPOAE suppression data. Suppressor pairs, which were the combination of two different frequencies, were presented at levels selected to have equal single-suppressor decrements. A hybrid model that represents a continuum between additive intensity and additive attenuation best described the results. The suppressor pair with the smallest frequency ratio produced decrements that were more consistent with additive intensity. The suppressor pair with the largest frequency ratio produced decrements at the highest level that were consistent with additive attenuation. Other suppressor-pair conditions produced decrements that were intermediate between these two alternative models. The hybrid model provides a useful framework for representing the observed range of interaction when two suppressors are combined.

  11. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  12. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  13. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  14. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  15. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  16. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  17. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  18. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  19. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  20. Charmonia suppression in p-A collisions at 450 GeV/c new results from NA50

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alessandro, B; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordab, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castor, J I; Castanier, C; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Marco, N; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Callio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Ramello, L; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silvar, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    Drell-Yan, J/$\\psi$ and $\\psi^{\\prime}$ production in proton-induced collisions on Be, Al, Cu, Ag and W targets has been studied by the NA50 collaboration at the CERN SPS. Results on absolute cross sections and cross section ratios are presented. We show that J/$\\psi$ suppression in proton-nucleus and in sulphur-uranium collisions can be understood in terms of nuclear absorption and there is no indication of an additional suppression mechanism in S-U collisions compared to p-A. (11 refs).

  1. Charmonia suppression in p-A collisions at 450 GeV/c new results from NA50

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordab, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castor, J I; Castanier, C; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Marco, N; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Callio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Ramello, L; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silvar, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2002-01-01

    Drell-Yan, J/ psi and psi ' production in proton-induced collisions on Be, Al, Cu, Ag and W targets has been studied by the NA50 collaboration at the CERN SPS. Results on absolute cross sections and cross section ratios are presented. We show that J/ psi suppression in proton-nucleus and in sulphur-uranium collisions can be understood in terms of nuclear absorption and there is no indication of an additional suppression mechanism in S-U collisions compared to p-A. (11 refs).

  2. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  3. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  4. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  5. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  6. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  7. Reinstatement of Conditioned Suppression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Dirikx

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Return of fear after successful exposure therapy calls for a better understanding of the mechanisms of relapse. Classical conditioning research provides a useful framework for conceptualising the acquisition, extinction and reappearance of fear. The present paper focuses on reinstatement, the return of extinguished conditioned responses due to the experience of one or more unconditioned stimuli (USs after extinction. This phenomenon illustrates that unpredictable USs can lead to a return of fear after successful exposure. The data we present is one of the first demonstrations that conditioned suppression of instrumental behaviour can be used as an index of classical conditioning in laboratory mice. The procedure proves to be a promising instrument for assessing fear in mice, both in the context of research aimed at unravelling the functional characteristics of learning and memory in healthy mice and in the context of research aimed at unravelling the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric disorders, e.g., in studies with transgenic and knockout mice. Using this procedure, we report the first observation of reinstatement of conditioned suppression in this species.

  8. Suppressive and immunoprotective functions of Tregs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa ePandiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T lymphocytes, known as regulatory T cells or Tregs, have been proposed to be a lineage of professional immune suppressive cells that exclusively counteract the effects of the immunoprotective "helper" and "cytotoxic" lineages of T lymphocytes. Here we discuss new concepts on the mechanisms and functions of Tregs. There are several key points we emphasize: 1. Tregs exert suppressive effects both directly on effector T cells and indirectly through antigen-presenting cells (APCs; 2. Regulation can occur through a novel mechanism of cytokine consumption to regulate as opposed to the usual mechanism of cytokine/chemokine production; 3. In cases where CD4+ effector T cells are directly inhibited by Tregs, it is chiefly through a mechanism of lymphokine withdrawal apoptosis leading to polyclonal deletion (PCD; and 4. Contrary to the current view, we discuss new evidence that Tregs, similar to other T cells lineages, can promote protective immune responses in certain infectious contexts (Pandiyan et al. 2011; Chen et al 2011. Although these points are at variance to varying degrees with the standard model of Treg behavior, we will recount developing findings that support these new concepts.

  9. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  10. Optimal digital filtering for tremor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J G; Heredia, E A; Rahman, T; Barner, K E; Arce, G R

    2000-05-01

    Remote manually operated tasks such as those found in teleoperation, virtual reality, or joystick-based computer access, require the generation of an intermediate electrical signal which is transmitted to the controlled subsystem (robot arm, virtual environment, or a cursor in a computer screen). When human movements are distorted, for instance, by tremor, performance can be improved by digitally filtering the intermediate signal before it reaches the controlled device. This paper introduces a novel tremor filtering framework in which digital equalizers are optimally designed through pursuit tracking task experiments. Due to inherent properties of the man-machine system, the design of tremor suppression equalizers presents two serious problems: 1) performance criteria leading to optimizations that minimize mean-squared error are not efficient for tremor elimination and 2) movement signals show ill-conditioned autocorrelation matrices, which often result in useless or unstable solutions. To address these problems, a new performance indicator in the context of tremor is introduced, and the optimal equalizer according to this new criterion is developed. Ill-conditioning of the autocorrelation matrix is overcome using a novel method which we call pulled-optimization. Experiments performed with artificially induced vibrations and a subject with Parkinson's disease show significant improvement in performance. Additional results, along with MATLAB source code of the algorithms, and a customizable demo for PC joysticks, are available on the Internet at http:¿tremor-suppression.com.

  11. Tagging and suppression of pileup jets

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The suppression of pileup jets has been a crucial component of many physics analyses using 2012 LHC proton-proton collisions. In ATLAS, tracking information has been used to calculate a variable called the jet-vertex-fraction, which is the fraction of the total mo- mentum of tracks in the jet which is associated to the primary vertex. Imposing a minimum on this variable rejects the majority of pileup jets, but leads to hard-scatter jet efficiencies that depend on the number of reconstructed primary vertices in the event ($N_{Vtx}$). In this note, new track-based variables to suppress pileup jets are developed in such a way that the resulting hard-scatter jet efficiency is stable as a function of $N_{Vtx}$. A multivariate combina- tion of two such variables called the jet-vertex-tagger is constructed. In addition, it is shown that jet-vertex association can be applied to large-R jets, providing a track-based grooming technique that is as powerful as calorimeter-based trimming but based on complementary trackin...

  12. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  13. Effect of land use and soil organic matter quality on the structure and function of microbial communities in pastoral soils: Implications for disease suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Bryony E A; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, Leo M; Kowalchuk, George A; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Cropping soils vary in extent of natural suppression of soil-borne plant diseases. However, it is unknown whether similar variation occurs across pastoral agricultural systems. We examined soil microbial community properties known to be associated with disease suppression across 50 pastoral fields varying in management intensity. The composition and abundance of the disease-suppressive community were assessed from both taxonomic and functional perspectives. Pseudomonas bacteria were selected as a general taxonomic indicator of disease suppressive potential, while genes associated with the biosynthesis of a suite of secondary metabolites provided functional markers (GeoChip 5.0 microarray analysis). The composition of both the Pseudomonas communities and disease suppressive functional genes were responsive to land use. Underlying soil properties explained 37% of the variation in Pseudomonas community structure and up to 61% of the variation in the abundance of disease suppressive functional genes. Notably, measures of soil organic matter quality, C:P ratio, and aromaticity of the dissolved organic matter content (carbon recalcitrance), influenced both the taxonomic and functional disease suppressive potential of the pasture soils. Our results suggest that key components of the soil microbial community may be managed on-farm to enhance disease suppression and plant productivity.

  14. Contribution of suppression difficulty and lessons learned in forecasting fire suppression operations productivity: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2016-01-01

    We propose an economic analysis using utility and productivity, and efficiency theories to provide fire managers a decision support tool to determine the most efficient fire management programs levels. By incorporating managers’ accumulated fire suppression experiences (capitalized experience) in the analysis we help fire managers...

  15. Design and Vibration Suppression Control of a Modular Elastic Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel mechatronic design philosophy is introduced to develop a compact modular rotary elastic joint for a humanoid manipulator. The designed elastic joint is mainly composed of a brushless direct current (DC motor, harmonic reducer, customized torsional spring, and fail-safe brake. The customized spring considerably reduces the volume of the elastic joint and facilitates the construction of a humanoid manipulator which employs this joint. The large central hole along the joint axis brings convenience for cabling and the fail-safe brake can guarantee safety when the power is off. In order to reduce the computational burden on the central controller and simplify system maintenance, an expandable electrical system, which has a double-layer control structure, is introduced. Furthermore, a robust position controller for the elastic joint is proposed and interpreted in detail. Vibration of the elastic joint is suppressed by means of resonance ratio control (RRC. In this method, the ratio between the resonant and anti-resonant frequency can be arbitrarily designated according to the feedback of the nominal spring torsion. Instead of using an expensive torque sensor, the spring torque can be obtained by calculating the product of spring stiffness and deformation, due to the high linearity of the customized spring. In addition, to improve the system robustness, a motor-side disturbance observer (DOb and an arm-side DOb are employed to estimate and compensate for external disturbances and system uncertainties, such as model variation, friction, and unknown external load. Validity of the DOb-based RRC is demonstrated in the simulation results. Experimental results show the performance of the modular elastic joint and the viability of the proposed controller further.

  16. A fire suppression model for forested range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds of caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A fire suppression model was developed for forested winter range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq (formerly Kaminuriak herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in north-central Canada. The model is a balance between total protection, as voiced by some aboriginal people, and a let-burn policy for natural fires advocated by some ecologists. Elements in the model were caribou ecology, lichen recovery after fire, burn history, community priorities for caribou hunting, and fire cycle lengths. The percent ratio of current productive caribou habitat to the goal for that habitat determines whether fire should be suppressed in a specific area. The goals for productive caribou habitat, defined as forests older than 50 years, were scaled by fire cycle length and community priority ranking. Thus, the model is an example of co-management: traditional knowledge combined with science in a joint forum, the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.

  17. Weight Suppression in Bulimia Nervosa: Associations with Biology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a serious eating disorder that can persist for years and contribute to medical complications and increased mortality, underscoring the need to better understand factors maintaining this disorder. Higher levels of weight suppression (WS) have been found to predict both the onset and maintenance of BN; however, no studies have examined mechanisms that may account for the effects of WS on BN. We hypothesized that high WS would lead to reduced leptin levels, which may increase risk of binge eating by modulating reward responses to food. The current study examined the relationship between WS, leptin levels, and the reinforcing value of food in women with BN (n=32) and non-eating disorder controls (n=30). Participants provided information on WS, completed a fasting blood draw to obtain serum leptin, and completed a progressive ratio task to measure the reinforcing value of food. Individuals with BN had greater WS (p<.01) and reinforcing food value (p<.05) compared to controls. Additionally, higher WS was associated with both lower leptin (p<.05) and increased reinforcing value of food (p<.05). Contrary to hypotheses, BN and control participants did not differ significantly on leptin levels, and leptin levels were not significantly associated with the reinforcing value of food. Findings support that efforts to conform to the thin ideal may alter drive to consume rewarding foods and leave women vulnerable to binge episodes. However, mechanisms through which WS contributes to food reward and binge eating remain unknown. PMID:26191637

  18. Interference suppression capabilities of smart cognitive-femto networks (SCFN)

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad; Atat, Rachad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Radios are considered a standard part of future heterogeneous mobile network architectures. In this chapter, a two tier heterogeneous network with multiple Radio Access Technologies (RATs) is considered, namely (1) the secondary network, which comprises of Cognitive-Femto BS (CFBS), and (2) the macrocell network, which is considered a primary network. By exploiting the cooperation among the CFBS, the multiple CFBS can be considered a single base station with multiple geographically dispersed antennas, which can reduce the interference levels by directing the main beam toward the desired femtocell mobile user. The resultant network is referred to as Smart Cognitive-Femto Network (SCFN). In order to determine the effectiveness of the proposed smart network, the interference rejection capabilities of the SCFN is studied. It has been shown that the smart network offers significant performance improvements in interference suppression and Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) and may be considered a promising solution to the interference management problems in future heterogeneous networks. © 2013, IGI Global.

  19. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m 2 and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of 233 U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U 3 O 8 depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management

  20. Participation costs can suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Berchtold, André; Tomassini, Marco

    2011-03-21

    Indirect reciprocity, one of the many mechanisms proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation, is the idea that altruistic actions can be rewarded by third parties. Upstream or generalized reciprocity is one type of indirect reciprocity in which individuals help someone if they have been helped by somebody else in the past. Although empirically found to be at work in humans, the evolution of upstream reciprocity is difficult to explain from a theoretical point of view. A recent model of upstream reciprocity, first proposed by Nowak and Roch (2007) and further analyzed by Iwagami and Masuda (2010), shows that while upstream reciprocity alone does not lead to the evolution of cooperation, it can act in tandem with mechanisms such as network reciprocity and increase the total level of cooperativity in the population. We argue, however, that Nowak and Roch's model systematically leads to non-uniform interaction rates, where more cooperative individuals take part in more games than less cooperative ones. As a result, the critical benefit-to-cost ratios derived under this model in previous studies are not invariant with respect to the addition of participation costs. We show that accounting for these costs can hinder and even suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity, both for populations with non-random encounters and graph-structured populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  2. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  3. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  4. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  5. Impaired methylation as a novel mechanism for proteasome suppression in liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osna, Natalia A., E-mail: nosna@UNMC.edu [Liver Study Unit, The Omaha Veterans Affairs VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); White, Ronda L.; Donohue, Terrence M. [Liver Study Unit, The Omaha Veterans Affairs VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Beard, Michael R. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Adelaide (Australia); Tuma, Dean J.; Kharbanda, Kusum K. [Liver Study Unit, The Omaha Veterans Affairs VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 (United States)

    2010-01-08

    The proteasome is a multi-catalytic protein degradation enzyme that is regulated by ethanol-induced oxidative stress; such suppression is attributed to CYP2E1-generated metabolites. However, under certain conditions, it appears that in addition to oxidative stress, other mechanisms are also involved in proteasome regulation. This study investigated whether impaired protein methylation that occurs during exposure of liver cells to ethanol, may contribute to suppression of proteasome activity. We measured the chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in Huh7CYP cells, hepatocytes, liver cytosols and nuclear extracts or purified 20S proteasome under conditions that maintain or prevent protein methylation. Reduction of proteasome activity of hepatoma cell and hepatocytes by ethanol or tubercidin was prevented by simultaneous treatment with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Moreover, the tubercidin-induced decline in proteasome activity occurred in both nuclear and cytosolic fractions. In vitro exposure of cell cytosolic fractions or highly purified 20S proteasome to low SAM:S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratios in the buffer also suppressed proteasome function, indicating that one or more methyltransferase(s) may be associated with proteasomal subunits. Immunoblotting a purified 20S rabbit red cell proteasome preparation using methyl lysine-specific antibodies revealed a 25 kDa proteasome subunit that showed positive reactivity with anti-methyl lysine. This reactivity was modified when 20S proteasome was exposed to differential SAM:SAH ratios. We conclude that impaired methylation of proteasome subunits suppressed proteasome activity in liver cells indicating an additional, yet novel mechanism of proteasome activity regulation by ethanol.

  6. STAR FORMATION SUPPRESSION DUE TO JET FEEDBACK IN RADIO GALAXIES WITH SHOCKED WARM MOLECULAR GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Ogle, Patrick M.; Appleton, Philip N.; Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and infrared colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ∼3–6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest that this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H 2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H 2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parameterized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR–stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the largest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.

  7. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  8. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  9. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  10. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  11. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  12. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  13. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  14. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  15. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  16. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  17. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  18. Ratios of strange hadrons to pions in collisions of large and small nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeschler, H. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Cleymans, J. [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa); Hippolyte, B. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Strasbourg (France); Redlich, K. [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Sharma, N. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-09-15

    The dependence of particle production on the size of the colliding nuclei is analyzed in terms of the thermal model using the canonical ensemble. The concept of strangeness correlation in clusters of sub-volume V{sub c} is used to account for the suppression of strangeness. A systematic analysis is presented of the predictions of the thermal model for particle production in collisions of small nuclei. The pattern of the maxima of strange-particles-to-pion ratios as a function of beam energy is quite special, as they do not occur at the same beam energy and are sensitive to the system size. In particular, the Λ/π{sup +} ratio shows a clear maximum even for small systems while the maximum in the K{sup +}/π{sup +} ratio is less pronounced in small systems. (orig.)

  19. Method of suppressing evaporation loss of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromura, Tadazumi; Sato, Tadashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporation loss of ruthenium from liquid wastes by adding an aluminum compound upon applying evaporating and drying to solid treatment to reprocessing liquid wastes for spent fuels. Method: An aluminum compound such as aluminum nitrate or aluminum hydroxide to reprocessing liquid wastes of spent fuels such that aluminum/ruthenium mixing ratio corresponds to 1.3 - 70.0 by g/atom ratio (0.34 - 187 by weight ratio), and the liquid mixture is heated to a temperature of about 130 deg C to be evaporated and dried to solidness. This enables to recover ruthenium without settling and depositing insoluble matters in the liquid wastes and without decomposing nitric acid. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. The generation and suppression of synchrotron sidebands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of FEL lasing differ in the degree to which they approximate real experiments. One of the FEL codes used extensively at Los Alamos takes account of the features of each electron micropulse and follows the growth and saturation of the optical micropulse. With no additional adjustments, this code displays the development of sidebands and demonstrates their control when optical filters of various kinds are used. Other codes that do not include a description of the micropulse do not automatically display sidebands but need to have artificial noise of some kind added. This is not unexpected because sidebands are generated by an FEL instability; instabilities, in general, need some kind of initiating disturbance. In this paper we: identify the disturbance that triggers the instability in the pulse code; discuss a practical way to suppress the instability without using filters; compare these results with experiments; and discuss these findings. 22 refs., 9 figs

  1. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  2. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  4. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  5. Suppression of coffee ring: (Particle) size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Seth, Pranjal; Murugappan, Bhubesh; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-05-01

    Coffee ring patterns in drying sessile droplets are undesirable in various practical applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that on hydrophobic substrates, the coffee ring can be suppressed just by increasing the particle diameter. Particles with larger size flocculate within the evaporation timescale, leading to a significant gravimetric settling (for Pe > 1) triggering a uniform deposit. Interestingly, the transition to a uniform deposit is found to be independent of the internal flow field and substrate properties. Flocculation of particles also alters the particle packing at the nanoscale resulting in order to disorder transitions. In this letter, we exhibit a physical exposition on how particle size affects morphodynamics of the droplet drying at macro-nano length scales.

  6. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  8. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  9. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...... by UHPLC-MS-MS using three different gradients (Group I, II and III). The analytes in group I was measured on an Agilent 6460 mass spectrometer and group II and III were measured on an Agilent 6410 mass spectrometer both utilizing positive electrospray ionization. The experiments demonstrated significant...

  10. Neutrino wave function and oscillation suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Lychkovskiy, O.V.; Mamonov, A.A.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment, in which a neutrino is produced by an electron on a nucleus in a crystal. The wave function of the oscillating neutrino is calculated assuming that the electron is described by a wave packet. If the electron is relativistic and the spatial size of its wave packet is much larger than the size of the crystal cell, then the wave packet of the produced neutrino has essentially the same size as the wave packet of the electron. We investigate the suppression of neutrino oscillations at large distances caused by two mechanisms: (1) spatial separation of wave packets corresponding to different neutrino masses; (2) neutrino energy dispersion for given neutrino mass eigenstates. We resolve the contributions of these two mechanisms. (orig.)

  11. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  12. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  13. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  14. Suppressive effects of ketamine on macrophage functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yi; Chen, T.-L.; Sheu, J.-R.; Chen, R.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. Clinically, induction of anesthesia with ketamine can cause immunosuppression. Macrophages play important roles in host defense. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of ketamine on macrophage functions and its possible mechanism using mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells as the experimental model. Exposure of macrophages to 10 and 100 μM ketamine, which correspond to 0.1 and 1 times the clinically relevant concentration, for 1, 6, and 24 h had no effect on cell viability or lactate dehydrogenase release. When the administered concentration reached 1000 μM, ketamine caused a release of lactate dehydrogenase and cell death. Ketamine, at 10 and 100 μM, did not affect the chemotactic activity of macrophages. Administration of 1000 μM ketamine in macrophages resulted in a decrease in cell migration. Treatment of macrophages with ketamine reduced phagocytic activities. The oxidative ability of macrophages was suppressed by ketamine. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA in macrophages. Administration of ketamine alone did not influence TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6 mRNA production. Meanwhile, cotreatment with ketamine and lipopolysaccharide significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA levels. Exposure to ketamine led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the activity of mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase was not affected by ketamine. This study shows that a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine (100 μM) can suppress macrophage function of phagocytosis, its oxidative ability, and inflammatory cytokine production possibly via reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential instead of direct cellular toxicity

  15. Rituximab selectively suppresses specific islet antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Herold, Kevan; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; McGee, Paula L; Bundy, Brian; Pugliese, Alberto; Krischer, Jeff; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-10-01

    The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P 1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.

  16. Suppression of soil nitrification by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Guntur Venkata; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Worthington, Margaret; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Ando, Yasuo; Sahrawat, Kanwar Lal; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudhana; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Kishii, Masahiro; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, weakens the soil's ability to retain N and facilitates N-losses from production agriculture through nitrate-leaching and denitrification. This process has a profound influence on what form of mineral-N is absorbed, used by plants, and retained in the soil, or lost to the environment, which in turn affects N-cycling, N-use efficiency (NUE) and ecosystem health and services. As reactive-N is often the most limiting in natural ecosystems, plants have acquired a range of mechanisms that suppress soil-nitrifier activity to limit N-losses via N-leaching and denitrification. Plants' ability to produce and release nitrification inhibitors from roots and suppress soil-nitrifier activity is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI). With recent developments in methodology for in-situ measurement of nitrification inhibition, it is now possible to characterize BNI function in plants. This review assesses the current status of our understanding of the production and release of biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs) and their potential in improving NUE in agriculture. A suite of genetic, soil and environmental factors regulate BNI activity in plants. BNI-function can be genetically exploited to improve the BNI-capacity of major food- and feed-crops to develop next-generation production systems with reduced nitrification and N2O emission rates to benefit both agriculture and the environment. The feasibility of such an approach is discussed based on the progresses made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

  19. Sunspot Light Walls Suppressed by Nearby Brightenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Li, Xiaohong [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yan, Limei, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Light walls, as ensembles of oscillating bright structures rooted in sunspot light bridges, have not been well studied, although they are important for understanding sunspot properties. Using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, here we study the evolution of two oscillating light walls each within its own active region (AR). The emission of each light wall decays greatly after the appearance of adjacent brightenings. For the first light wall, rooted within AR 12565, the average height, amplitude, and oscillation period significantly decrease from 3.5 Mm, 1.7 Mm, and 8.5 minutes to 1.6 Mm, 0.4 Mm, and 3.0 minutes, respectively. For the second light wall, rooted within AR 12597, the mean height, amplitude, and oscillation period of the light wall decrease from 2.1 Mm, 0.5 Mm, and 3.0 minutes to 1.5 Mm, 0.2 Mm, and 2.1 minutes, respectively. Particularly, a part of the second light wall even becomes invisible after the influence of a nearby brightening. These results reveal that the light walls are suppressed by nearby brightenings. Considering the complex magnetic topology in light bridges, we conjecture that the fading of light walls may be caused by a drop in the magnetic pressure, where the flux is canceled by magnetic reconnection at the site of the nearby brightening. Another hypothesis is that the wall fading is due to the suppression of driver source ( p -mode oscillation), resulting from the nearby avalanche of downward particles along reconnected brightening loops.

  20. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  1. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  2. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  3. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), occurring when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click (e.g. 0-8ms). Various temporal suppression methods for examining temporal changes in cochlear compression were evaluated and me...... under test. Temporal suppression was shown to be comparable for CEOAEs and SSOAEs, indicating similar underlying cochlear nonlinear mechanisms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the temporal properties of cochlear dynamics....

  4. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depre...

  5. Psychophysical research progress of interocular suppression in amblyopic visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Jing Li; Yi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Some recent animal experiments and psychophysical studies indicate that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression, and interocular suppression is a key mechanism in visual deficits experienced by patients with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent psychophysical findings that have investigated the important role of interocular suppression in amblyopia, the measurement an...

  6. Binocular vision in amblyopia : structure, suppression and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin; Baker, Daniel Hart

    2014-01-01

    The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cor...

  7. Suppression of persistent photo-conductance in solution-processed amorphous oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Minho; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    This study offers a combinatorial approach for suppressing the persistent photo-conductance (PPC) characteristic in solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in order to achieve rapid photo-recovery. Various analyses were used to examine the photo-instability of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) TFTs including negative-bias-illumination-stress (NBIS) and transient photo-response behaviors. It was found that the indium ratio in metallic components had a significant impact on their PPC and photo-recovery characteristics. In particular, when the indium ratio was low (51.5%), the PPC characteristic was significantly suppressed and achieving rapid photo-recovery was possible without significantly affecting the electrical performance of AOSs. These results imply that the optimization of the indium composition ratio may allow achieving highly photo-stable and near PPC-free characteristics while maintaining high electrical performance of AOSs. It is considered that the negligible PPC behavior and rapid photo-recovery observed in IGZO TFTs with a lower indium composition are attributed to the less activation energy required for the neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies.

  8. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  9. Temporal suppression and augmentation of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Sarah; Harte, James; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates and models temporal suppression of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs). This suppression-effect is created when a suppressor-click is presented close in time to a test-click. The analysis was carried out for short time-frames of short- and long-latency CEOAEs...... suppression is present in all CEOAEs for inter-click intervals (ICIs) less than 8 ms. The long-latency CEOAEs showed augmentation (i.e., negative suppression) for ICIs of 6-7 ms which was not reported for the short-latency CEOAE at these ICIs. A phenomenological approach is adopted here to explain both...

  10. Electronic Warfare: Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... To achieve this suppression, the services use specialized aircraft designed to neutralize, destroy, or temporarily degrade enemy air defense systems through either physical attack or electronic warfare...

  11. Disease Suppressive Soils: New Insights from the Soil Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Kinkel, Linda; Thomashow, Linda; Weller, David; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Soils suppressive to soilborne pathogens have been identified worldwide for almost 60 years and attributed mainly to suppressive or antagonistic microorganisms. Rather than identifying, testing and applying potential biocontrol agents in an inundative fashion, research into suppressive soils has attempted to understand how indigenous microbiomes can reduce disease, even in the presence of the pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing of microbiomes have provided new tools to reexamine and further characterize the nature of these soils. Two general types of suppression have been described: specific and general suppression, and theories have been developed around these two models. In this review, we will present three examples of currently-studied model systems with features representative of specific and general suppressiveness: suppression to take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici), Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), and Streptomyces. To compare and contrast the two models of general versus specific suppression, we propose a number of hypotheses about the nature and ecology of microbial populations and communities of suppressive soils. We outline the potential and limitations of new molecular techniques that can provide novel ways of testing these hypotheses. Finally, we consider how this greater understanding of the phytobiome can facilitate sustainable disease management in agriculture by harnessing the potential of indigenous soil microbes.

  12. Double suppression of FCNCs in a supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    A concrete model which can suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena is suggested. It is S 3 symmetric extension of MSSM in extra dimensions where only SU(2) and SU(3) gauge multiplet are assumed to propagate in the bulk. They are suppressed due to S 3 flavor symmetry at M SUSY , and the infrared attractive force of gauge interaction in extra dimensions are used to suppress them at the compactification scale. We find that O(1) disorders of the soft parameters are allowed at the cut-off scale to suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena. (author)

  13. Double suppression of FCNCs in a supersymmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiyama, Yuji [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    A concrete model which can suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena is suggested. It is S{sub 3} symmetric extension of MSSM in extra dimensions where only SU(2) and SU(3) gauge multiplet are assumed to propagate in the bulk. They are suppressed due to S{sub 3} flavor symmetry at M{sub SUSY}, and the infrared attractive force of gauge interaction in extra dimensions are used to suppress them at the compactification scale. We find that O(1) disorders of the soft parameters are allowed at the cut-off scale to suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena. (author)

  14. The regional extent of suppression: strabismics versus nonstrabismics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon R; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-10-09

    Evidence is accumulating that suppression may be the cause of amblyopia rather than a secondary consequence of mismatched retinal images. For example, treatment interventions that target suppression may lead to better binocular and monocular outcomes. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the measurement of suppression may have prognostic value for patching therapy. For these reasons, the measurement of suppression in the clinic needs to be improved beyond the methods that are currently available, which provide a binary outcome. We describe a novel quantitative method for measuring the regional extent of suppression that is suitable for clinical use. The method involves a dichoptic perceptual matching procedure at multiple visual field locations. We compare a group of normal controls (mean age: 28 ± 5 years); a group with strabismic amblyopia (four with microesotropia, five with esotropia, and one with exotropia; mean age: 35 ± 10 years); and a group with nonstrabismic anisometropic amblyopia (mean age: 33 ± 12 years). The extent and magnitude of suppression was similar for observers with strabismic and nonstrabismic amblyopia. Suppression was strongest within the central field and extended throughout the 20° field that we measured. Suppression extends throughout the central visual field in both strabismic and anisometropic forms of amblyopia. The strongest suppression occurs within the region of the visual field corresponding to the fovea of the fixing eye.

  15. The Analysis and Suppression of the spike noise in vibrator record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Ge, L.; Lin, J.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    During the seismic exploration with vibrator, seismic recording systems have often been affected by random spike noise in the background, which leads to strong data distortions as a result of the cross-correlation processing of the vibrator method. Partial or total loss of the desired seismic information is possible if no automatic spike reduction is available in the field prior to correlation of the field record. Generally speaking, original record of vibrator is uncorrelated data, in which the signal is non-wavelet form. In order to obtain the seismic record similar to explosive source, the signal of uncorrelated data needs to use the correlation algorithm to compress into wavelet form. The correlation process results in that the interference of spike in correlated data is not only being suppressed, but also being expanded. So the spike noise suppression of vibrator is indispensable. According to numerical simulation results, the effect of spike in the vibrator record is mainly affected by the amplitude and proportional points in the uncorrelated record. When the spike noise ratio in uncorrelated record reaches 1.5% and the average amplitude exceeds 200, it will make the SNR(signal-to-noise ratio) of the correlated record lower than 0dB, so that it is difficult to separate the signal. While the amplitude and ratio is determined by the intensity of background noise. Therefore, when the noise level is strong, in order to improve SNR of the seismic data, the uncorrelated record of vibrator need to take necessary steps to suppress spike noise. For the sake of reducing the influence of the spike noise, we need to make the detection and suppression of spike noise process for the uncorrelated record. Because vibrator works by inputting sweep signal into the underground long time, ideally, the peak and valley values of each trace have little change. On the basis of the peak and valley values, we can get a reference amplitude value. Then the spike can be detected and

  16. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  17. Breaking continuous flash suppression: A new measure of unconscious processing during interocular suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eStein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS, a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this breaking CFS (b-CFS paradigm, differential unconscious processing during suppression is inferred when (a speeded detection responses to initially invisible stimuli differ, and (b no comparable differences are found in non-rivalrous control conditions supposed to measure general threshold differences between stimuli. To critically evaluate these assumptions was the aim of the present study. In six experiments we compared the time upright and inverted faces needed to be detected. We found that not only under CFS, but also in control conditions upright faces were detected faster and more accurately than inverted faces, although the effect was larger during CFS. However, reaction time (RT distributions indicated critical differences between the CFS and the control condition. When RT distributions were matched, similar effect sizes were obtained in both conditions. Moreover, subjective ratings revealed that CFS and control conditions are not perceptually comparable. These findings cast doubt on the usefulness of non-rivalrous control conditions to rule out mere detection threshold differences as a cause of shorter detection latencies during CFS. In conclusion, we acknowledge that the b-CFS paradigm can be fruitfully applied as a highly sensitive device to probe differences between stimuli in their potency to gain access to awareness. However, our current findings suggest that such differences can not unequivocally be attributed to differential unconscious processing under interocular suppression.

  18. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  19. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  20. Electrostatic system of background suppression under detection of low-intensive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, M.M.; Belyaev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes electrostatic system to suppress background at recording of low-intensive particle fluxes with transverse cross section exceeding the area of detector inlet aperture. Electrostatic system comprises 5 electrodes ensuring such spatial distribution of electrostatic field that enables accumulation of beam all ions with 30 x 40 mm 2 cross section at inlet aperture of secondary electron multiplier (SEM) with 9 mm diameter. In this case, ion trajectories prior to enter SEM are turned by 180 deg thus essentially improving signal/background ratio [ru

  1. Type II Modic Changes May not Always Represent Fat Degeneration: A Study Using MR Fat Suppression Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiyun; Liu, Yuanhao; Wei, Wei; Hu, Shengping; Wang, Yue

    2016-08-15

    A radiological study of type II Modic changes (MCs). The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of type II MCs on fat suppression (FS) magnetic resonance (MR) images and its association with radiological disc degeneration. Type II MCs are common endplate signal changes on MR images. On the basis of limited histological samples, type II MCs are thought to be stable fat degeneration. FS technique on MR, which can quantify fat content, may be an alternative to explore the pathology of MCs. To date, however, the characteristics of type II MCs on FS sequence have not been studied. Lumbar MR images conducted in a single hospital during a defined period were reviewed to include those with type II MCs and FS images. On FS images, signal status of type II MCs was visually classified as suppressed or not-suppressed. Signal intensity of vertebral regions with and without MCs was measured quantitatively on T2-weighted (T2W) and FS images to calculate fat content index and validate the visual classification. Using image analysis program Osirix, MCs size and adjacent disc degeneration were measured quantitatively. Paired t-tests and logistic regressions were used to determine the associations studied. Sixty-four lumbar MRIs were included and 150 endplates with type II MCs were studied. Although signal of 37 (24.7%) type II MCs was suppressed on FS images, that of 113 (75.3%) was not suppressed. The discs adjacent to type II MCs had lower signal intensity (0.13 ± 0.003 vs. 0.14 ± 0.004, P Type II MCs that were not suppressed on FS image were associated with greater age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, P type II MCs was not suppressed on FS MR images, suggesting that there are ongoing complicated pathologies. Type II MCs may not merely represent fat replacement. 3.

  2. HIV care visits and time to viral suppression, 19 U.S. jurisdictions, and implications for treatment, prevention and the national HIV/AIDS strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Irene Hall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early and regular care and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are associated with viral suppression, reductions in transmission risk and improved health outcomes for persons with HIV. We determined, on a population level, the association of care visits with time from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression. METHODS: Using data from 19 areas reporting HIV-related tests to national HIV surveillance, we determined time from diagnosis to viral suppression among 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009, followed through December 2011, using data reported through December 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed factors associated with viral suppression, including linkage to care within 3 months of diagnosis, a goal set forth by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, and number of HIV care visits as determined by CD4 and viral load test results, while controlling for demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics. RESULTS: Of 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009 in the 19 areas, 76.6% were linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis and 57.0% had a suppressed viral load during the observation period. Median time from diagnosis to viral suppression was 19 months overall, and 8 months among persons with an initial CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/µL. During the first 12 months after diagnosis, persons linked to care within 3 months experienced shorter times to viral suppression (higher rate of viral suppression per unit time, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.84 versus not linked within 3 months; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.27, 5.48. Persons with a higher number of time-updated care visits also experienced a shorter time to viral suppression (HR = 1.51 per additional visit, 95% CI 1.49, 1.52. CONCLUSIONS: Timely linkage to care and greater frequency of care visits were associated with faster time to viral suppression with implications for individual health outcomes and for secondary prevention.

  3. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  4. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  5. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  6. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  7. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  8. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer in a suppression chamber of the water wall type passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the system pressure response of a water wall type containment cooling system, which is one of the passive safety systems, the evaporation and condensation behaviors in a suppression chamber have been experimentally examined. In the system, the suppression pool water evaporates from the pool surface, passing into the wetwell due to pool temperature rise, while steam in the wetwell condenses on the steel containment vessel wall due to the heat release through the wall. The wetwell is a gas phase region in the suppression chamber and its pressure, which is expressed as the sum of the noncondensable gas pressure and saturated steam pressure, is strongly affected by the evaporation heat transfer from the suppression pool surface and condensation heat transfer on the containment vessel wall. Based on the measured temperature profiles near the heat transfer surface and the wetwell pressure using two apparatuses, evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficients were evaluated. The following results were obtained. (1) Both heat transfer coefficients increased as the ratio of the steam partial pressure to the total pressure increased. (2) Comparison of the results from two types of test apparatuses confirmed that the size of the heat transfer surface did not affect the heat transfer characteristics within these tests. (3) The heat transfer coefficients were expressed by the ratio of the steam to noncondensable gas logarithmic mean concentration, which considered the steam and gas concentration gradient from the heat transfer surface to the wetwell bulk. (author)

  9. Suppress to feel and remember less: Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Yuta; Dolcos, Sanda

    2018-02-09

    Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the AMY and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), during successful encoding. Although both explicit and implicit suppression diminished functional connectivity between these regions and the hippocampus (HC) linked to successful encoding, explicit suppression was uniquely associated with interference with AMY-HC interactions, which no longer predicted subsequent memory for the explicitly-suppressed items. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the common and dissociable mechanisms of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory, and suggest their impact on both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion-cognition interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan; Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14±2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  11. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14{+-}2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  12. Non-water-suppressed 1 H FID-MRSI at 3T and 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paul; Nassirpour, Sahar; Avdievitch, Nikolai; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    This study investigates metabolite concentrations using metabolite-cycled 1 H free induction decay (FID) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at ultra-high fields. A non-lipid-suppressed and slice-selective ultra-short echo time (TE) 1 H FID MRSI sequence was combined with a low-specific absorption rate (SAR) asymmetric inversion adiabatic pulse to enable non-water-suppressed metabolite mapping using metabolite-cycling at 9.4T. The results were compared to a water-suppressed FID MRSI sequence, and the same study was performed at 3T for comparison. The scan times for performing single-slice metabolite mapping with a nominal voxel size of 0.4 mL were 14 and 17.5 min on 3T and 9.4T, respectively. The low-SAR asymmetric inversion adiabatic pulse enabled reliable non-water-suppressed metabolite mapping using metabolite cycling at both 3T and 9.4T. The spectra and maps showed good agreement with the water-suppressed FID MRSI ones at both field strengths. A quantitative analysis of metabolite ratios with respect to N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) was performed. The difference in Cre/NAA was statistically significant, ∼0.1 higher for the non-water-suppressed case than for water suppression (from 0.73 to 0.64 at 3T and from 0.69 to 0.59 at 9.4T). The difference is likely because of chemical exchange effects of the water suppression pulses. Small differences in mI/NAA were also statistically significant, however, are they are less reliable because the metabolite peaks are close to the water peak that may be affected by the water suppression pulses or metabolite-cycling inversion pulse. We showed the first implementation of non-water-suppressed metabolite-cycled 1 H FID MRSI at ultra-high fields. An increase in Cre/NAA was seen for the metabolite-cycled case. The same methodology was further applied at 3T and similar results were observed. Magn Reson Med 80:442-451, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society

  13. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  14. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  15. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  16. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  17. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  18. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  19. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  20. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  1. Adaptive transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit channel selection in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to- interference-plus- noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms, which are the dominant cancelation and the less complex arbitrary cancelation, are considered, for which the receive antenna array is assumed to have small angular spread. Analytical formulation for some performance measures in addition to several processing complexity and numerical comparisons between various adaptation schemes are presented. ©2010 IEEE.

  2. High rate of virological re-suppression among patients failing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Of 69 patients enrolled in the programme, 40 had at least one follow-up VL and no known drug resistance at enrolment; 27 (68%) of these re-suppressed while remaining on second-line ART following enhanced adherence support. The majority (18/27; 67%) achieved re-suppression within the first 3 months in the ...

  3. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over…

  4. Dynamic interactions of the cortical networks during thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Kazuo; Kiyonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Takaaki; Inagawa, Michiyo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-08-01

    Thought suppression has spurred extensive research in clinical and preclinical fields, particularly with regard to the paradoxical aspects of this behavior. However, the involvement of the brain's inhibitory system in the dynamics underlying the continuous effort to suppress thoughts has yet to be clarified. This study aims to provide a unified perspective for the volitional suppression of internal events incorporating the current understanding of the brain's inhibitory system. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed thought suppression blocks alternating with visual imagery blocks. The whole dataset was decomposed by group-independent component analysis into 30 components. After discarding noise components, the 20 valid components were subjected to further analysis of their temporal properties including task-relatedness and between-component residual correlation. Combining a long task period and a data-driven approach, we observed a right-side-dominant, lateral frontoparietal network to be strongly suppression related. This network exhibited increased fluctuation during suppression, which is compatible with the well-known difficulty of suppression maintenance. Between-network correlation provided further insight into the coordinated engagement of the executive control and dorsal attention networks, as well as the reciprocal activation of imagery-related components, thus revealing neural substrates associated with the rivalry between intrusive thoughts and the suppression process.

  5. Suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing: From perception to intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje

    2015-10-01

    Perception operates on an immense amount of incoming information that greatly exceeds the brain's processing capacity. Because of this fundamental limitation, the ability to suppress irrelevant information is a key determinant of perceptual efficiency. Here, I will review a series of studies investigating suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing, namely perceptual suppression of large, background-like motions. These spatial suppression mechanisms are adaptive, operating only when sensory inputs are sufficiently robust to guarantee visibility. Converging correlational and causal evidence links these behavioral results with inhibitory center-surround mechanisms, namely those in cortical area MT. Spatial suppression is abnormally weak in several special populations, including the elderly and individuals with schizophrenia-a deficit that is evidenced by better-than-normal direction discriminations of large moving stimuli. Theoretical work shows that this abnormal weakening of spatial suppression should result in motion segregation deficits, but direct behavioral support of this hypothesis is lacking. Finally, I will argue that the ability to suppress information is a fundamental neural process that applies not only to perception but also to cognition in general. Supporting this argument, I will discuss recent research that shows individual differences in spatial suppression of motion signals strongly predict individual variations in IQ scores. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Regularized Adaptive Notch Filters for Acoustic Howling Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the suppression of acoustic howling is developed, based on adaptive notch filters (ANF) with regularization (RANF). The method features three RANFs working in parallel to achieve frequency tracking, howling detection and suppression. The ANF-based approach to howling...

  7. Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression.

  8. Suppression of mouse-killing in rats following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Boyle, M.

    1976-01-01

    Suppression of mouse-killing was produced following pairings of mouse-presentations (CS) with 96 roentgens of ionizing radiation (US) at 0 (less than 2 min.) and 30 min. US-CS interstimulus intervals. No suppression was found at CS-US intervals of 30 min., 1 hr., and 2 hr., or at US-CS intervals of 1 hr. and 2 hr

  9. How best to assess suppression in patients with high anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Hess, Robert F; Chan, Lily Y L; Deng, Daming; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin S

    2013-02-01

    We have recently described a rapid technique for measuring suppression using a dichoptic signal/noise task. Here, we report a modification of this technique that allows for accurate measurements to be made in amblyopic patients with high levels of anisometropia. This was necessary because aniseikonic image size differences between the two eyes can provide a cue for signal/noise segregation and, therefore, influence suppression measurement in these patients. Suppression was measured using our original technique and with a modified technique whereby the size of the signal and noise elements was randomized across the stimulus to eliminate size differences as a cue for task performance. Eleven patients with anisometropic amblyopia, five with more than 5 diopters (D) spherical equivalent difference (SED), six with less than 5 D SED between the eyes, and 10 control observers completed suppression measurements using both techniques. Suppression measurements in controls and patients with less than 5 D SED were constant across the two techniques; however, patients with more than 5 D SED showed significantly stronger suppression on the modified technique with randomized element size. Measurements made with the modified technique correlated with the loss of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye and were in good agreement with previous reports using detailed psychophysical measurements. The signal/noise technique for measuring suppression can be applied to patients with high levels of anisometropia and aniseikonia if element size is randomized. In addition, deeper suppression is associated with a greater loss of visual acuity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia.

  10. Improved fat suppression of the breast using discretized frequency shimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Tijl A.; Luijten, Peter R.; Klomp, DWJ

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Robust fat suppression is essential in bilateral breast MRI at 7 Tesla. The lack of good fat suppression can result in errors when calculating the enhancement curve from dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisitions. In this work we propose discretized frequency shimming to improve the quality of

  11. Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Hesselmann, Guido; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eye Contact Facilitates Awareness of Faces during Interocular Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Senju, Atsushi; Peelen, Marius V.; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Eye contact captures attention and receives prioritized visual processing. Here we asked whether eye contact might be processed outside conscious awareness. Faces with direct and averted gaze were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. In two experiments we found that faces with direct gaze overcame such suppression more rapidly than…

  13. Nature of dynamical suppressions in the generalized Veneziano model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odorico, R.

    1976-05-01

    It is shown by explicit numerical calculations that of a class of coupling suppressions existing in the generalized Veneziano model, which have been recently used to interpret the psi data and other related phenomena, only a part can be attributed to the exponential growth with energy of the number of levels in the model. The remaining suppressions have a more direct dual origin

  14. Usefulness of IDEAL T2 imaging for homogeneous fat suppression and reducing susceptibility artefacts in brachial plexus MRI at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Bignotti, Bianca; Tagliafico, Giulio; Martinoli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To quantitatively and qualitatively compare fat-suppressed MR imaging quality using iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) with that using frequency-selective fat-suppressed (FSFS) T2 images of the brachial plexus at 3.0 T. Prospective MR image analysis was performed in 40 volunteers and 40 patients at a single centre. Oblique-sagittal and coronal IDEAL fat-suppressed T2 images and FSFS T2 images were compared. Visual assessment was performed by two independent musculoskeletal radiologists with respect to: (1) susceptibility artefacts around the neck, (2) homogeneity of fat suppression, (3) image sharpness and (4) tissue resolution contrast of pathologies. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for each image sequence were assessed. Compared to FSFS sequences, IDEAL fat-suppressed T2 images significantly reduced artefacts around the brachial plexus and significantly improved homogeneous fat suppression (p < 0.05). IDEAL significantly improved sharpness and lesion-to-tissue contrast (p < 0.05). The mean SNRs were significantly improved on T2-weighted IDEAL images (p < 0.05). IDEAL technique improved image quality by reducing artefacts around the brachial plexus while maintaining a high SNR and provided superior homogeneous fat suppression than FSFS sequences.

  15. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  16. Is neutrinoless double beta decay suppressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, T.

    1989-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to the study of nuclear double beta decay, since the observation of a neutrinoless double beta (OνΒΒ) decay would be clear evidence that the electron neutrino is a Majorana particle. The OνΒΒ decay is caused by a finite Majorana neutrino mass and/or an admixture of right-handed leptonic currents. In order to relate these quantities to OνΒΒ decay rates, we need nuclear matrix elements, which are model dependent. One of the possibilities of testing nuclear models employed in such analysis is to calculate the experimentally known rates of ΒΒ decay with emission of two neutrinos (2νΒΒ decay) which occurs independently of the nature of the neutrino. There was a long-standing difficulty in such attempts that the calculated 2νΒΒ decay rates turned out to be always too large by one to two orders of magnitude. Trying to overcome such difficulty, Klapdor and Grotz as well as Vogel and Zirnbauer showed in their calculation using schematic effective interactions such that 2νΒΒ decay rates can get reduced considerably due to the nuclear ground state correlations. This paper reports that the suppression is ascribed to that of the virtual Gamow-Teller transitions from the excited 1 + states of the intermediate odd-odd -even nucleus

  17. Myeloma cells suppress osteoblasts through sclerostin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, S; Brunetti, G; Oranger, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Mori, G [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Sardone, F [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Specchia, G; Rinaldi, E; Curci, P; Liso, V [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Passeri, G [Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Zallone, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Rizzi, R [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Grano, M [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling through the secretion of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf1, soluble frizzled-related protein-2 and -3 has a key role in the decreased osteoblast (OB) activity associated with multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease. We provide evidence that another Wnt antagonist, sclerostin, an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, is expressed by myeloma cells, that is, human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and plasma cells (CD138+ cells) obtained from the bone marrow (BM) of a large number of MM patients with bone disease. We demonstrated that BM stromal cells (BMSCs), differentiated into OBs and co-cultured with HMCLs showed, compared with BMSCs alone, reduced expression of major osteoblastic-specific proteins, decreased mineralized nodule formation and attenuated the expression of members of the activator protein 1 transcription factor family (Fra-1, Fra-2 and Jun-D). Moreover, in the same co-culture system, the addition of neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies restored OB functions by inducing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand and the downregulation of osteoprotegerin in OBs were also sclerostin mediated. Our data indicated that sclerostin secretion by myeloma cells contribute to the suppression of bone formation in the osteolytic bone disease associated to MM.

  18. Glutamine supplementation suppresses herpes simplex virus reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Hoshino, Yo; Dowdell, Kennichi; Bosch-Marce, Marta; Myers, Timothy G; Sarmiento, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Krause, Philip R; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-06-30

    Chronic viral infections are difficult to treat, and new approaches are needed, particularly those aimed at reducing reactivation by enhancing immune responses. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency and reactivates frequently, and breakthrough reactivation can occur despite suppressive antiviral therapy. Virus-specific T cells are important to control HSV, and proliferation of activated T cells requires increased metabolism of glutamine. Here, we found that supplementation with oral glutamine reduced virus reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected mice and HSV-2-infected guinea pigs. Transcriptome analysis of trigeminal ganglia from latently HSV-1-infected, glutamine-treated WT mice showed upregulation of several IFN-γ-inducible genes. In contrast to WT mice, supplemental glutamine was ineffective in reducing the rate of HSV-1 reactivation in latently HSV-1-infected IFN-γ-KO mice. Mice treated with glutamine also had higher numbers of HSV-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells in latently infected ganglia. Thus, glutamine may enhance the IFN-γ-associated immune response and reduce the rate of reactivation of latent virus infection.

  19. Installation for the suppression of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.; Lee, C.J.; Rowe, D.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic operating principles are discussed of a passive baffle-catch tray fire suppression system for sodium fires. A new design is described incorporating increased compartmentalization of the collecting and drainage parts of the device. The burning and smoke generation rates from trays with varying aperture sizes were measured. From the experiments it was found that the burning rate and smoke generation rates could be related satisfactorily to the aperture areas. For the smallest aperture size ( 2 ) it was found that the smoke release was considerably less than that from a fire of the same area, because the smoke deposited on the underside of the baffle. A re-ignition problem was found, where pillars of sodium oxide (wicks) grow upward from the surface of the drained sodium and begin to burn when level with the baffle aperature. From a knowledge of the rate of growth of the wicks, trays may be made sufficiently deep to avoid the problem. Self acting valves were developed which allow the passage of sodium through the aperture and close when drainage is complete. These devices were shown to effect complete extinction of the drained sodium. Using the designs proposed it is possible to construct a system that will reduce the smoke emission from the drained sodium by a factor approaching 10 3 , without the use of valves, or with the self acting valves developed, reduce the emission from the drained sodium to approximately zero. (author)

  20. Rotator cuff injury: fat suppression MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Yoon; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Yong Soo

    1994-01-01

    We performed the study prospectively to evaluate the advantage of fat suppression MR in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Ten symptomatic patients were studied with both conventional T2WI and FST2WI using chemical shift technique. Each image was analyzed for the assessment of injuries, conspicuity of the lesion, the presence of effusion in subacromical bursae and joint space, and presence of humeral head injury. Arthroscopy was done in 4 patients following MRI. We could made presumptive diagnoses on FSMR as identical as on conventional MR in six cases(1 normal, 2 tendinitis, 2 partial thickness tear, 1 full thickness tear), two of them were confirmed by arthroscopic procedures. Two cases of partial thickness tear proved by arthroscopy were detected on FST2WI, whereas they were considered tendinitis on conventional T2WI. There were another 2 cases who showed tendinitis on FSMR, but normal on conventional T2WI. They, however, were not confirmed by either arthroscopy or surgical procedure. We found the FSMR were superior to conventional T2WI in the conspicuity of lesions and detection of joint effusion and abnormalities on the humeral head. We think FSMR of the shoulder could have significant diagnostic advantages over the conventional spin-echo MR imaging

  1. Probiotics-mediated suppression of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Stephanie S Y; Wan, Murphy L Y; El-Nezami, Hani

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment through their abilities to modulate intestinal microbiota and host immune response. Although most of the recent reviews have focused on the potential role of probiotics against colon cancer, only few of them include the probiotic effect on extraintestinal cancers. The present review covers the most important findings from the literature published during the past 20 months (from January 2015 to August 2016) regarding the probiotics-mediated suppression of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers and the underlying mechanisms. A comprehensive literature search in Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar databases was conducted to locate all relevant articles that investigated the effect of probiotics on prevention/treatment of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers. Different mechanisms for the beneficial effects of probiotics against cancer were also discussed, mainly via modulation of gut microbiota which thereby influences host metabolism and immunity. Despite laboratory-based studies having demonstrated encouraging outcomes that probiotics possess antitumor effects, the benefits should not be exaggerated before we get more results from human clinical trials. These are very important before the medical community can accept the use of probiotics as an alternative therapy for cancer control.

  2. Rotator cuff injury: fat suppression MR image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yoon; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We performed the study prospectively to evaluate the advantage of fat suppression MR in the diagnosis of rotator cuff injury. Ten symptomatic patients were studied with both conventional T2WI and FST2WI using chemical shift technique. Each image was analyzed for the assessment of injuries, conspicuity of the lesion, the presence of effusion in subacromical bursae and joint space, and presence of humeral head injury. Arthroscopy was done in 4 patients following MRI. We could made presumptive diagnoses on FSMR as identical as on conventional MR in six cases(1 normal, 2 tendinitis, 2 partial thickness tear, 1 full thickness tear), two of them were confirmed by arthroscopic procedures. Two cases of partial thickness tear proved by arthroscopy were detected on FST2WI, whereas they were considered tendinitis on conventional T2WI. There were another 2 cases who showed tendinitis on FSMR, but normal on conventional T2WI. They, however, were not confirmed by either arthroscopy or surgical procedure. We found the FSMR were superior to conventional T2WI in the conspicuity of lesions and detection of joint effusion and abnormalities on the humeral head. We think FSMR of the shoulder could have significant diagnostic advantages over the conventional spin-echo MR imaging.

  3. Suppression of PTEN transcription by UVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baozhong; Ming, Mei; He, Yu-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Although UVA has different physical and biological targets than UVB, the contribution of UVA to skin cancer susceptibility and its molecular basis remain largely unknown. Here we show that chronic UVA radiation suppresses PTEN expression at the mRNA level. Subchronic and acute UVA radiation also down-regulated PTEN in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, skin culture and mouse skin. At the molecular level, chronic UVA radiation decreased the transcriptional activity of the PTEN promoter in a methylation-independent manner, while it had no effect on the protein stability or mRNA stability of PTEN. In contrast, we found that UVA-induced activation of the Ras/ERK/AKT and NF-κB pathways plays an important role in UV-induced PTEN down-regulation. Inhibiting ERK or AKT increases PTEN expression. Our findings may provide unique insights into PTEN down-regulation as a critical component of UVA’s molecular impact during keratinocyte transformation. PMID:23129115

  4. Pressure suppression device for nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegame, Noboru.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor building, there are disposed cooling coils connected to an air supply duct at the outside of the building, an air supply blower, an air supply duct having the top end opened, an exhaustion duct having the top end opened and a bypassing pipeline interposed between the exhaustion duct and the air supply duct on the side of the inlet of the cooling coils. In the reactor building, when a radioactive material leakage accident should occur, an isolation valve is closed to isolate the building from the outside. Further, bypassing isolation valve is opened to form a closed cooling circuit by the cooling coils, the air supply blower and the air supply duct, the exhaustion duct and the bypassing pipeline in the reactor building. With such a constitution, since air as the atmosphere in the building is circulated through the closed cooling circuit and cooled by the cooling coils, the temperature is not elevated. Accordingly, since the pressure elevation of the atmosphere in the building is suppressed, the atmosphere containing radioactive materials do not flow out of the building. (I.N.)

  5. Gyrotactic suppression and emergence of chaotic trajectories of swimming particles in three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S. I. Heath; Baggaley, A. W.; Hill, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of imposed three-dimensional flows on the trajectories and mixing of gyrotactic swimming microorganisms and identify phenomena not seen in flows restricted to two dimensions. Through numerical simulation of Taylor-Green and Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows, we explore the role that the flow and the cell shape play in determining the long-term configuration of the cells' trajectories, which often take the form of multiple sinuous and helical "plumelike" structures, even in the chaotic ABC flow. This gyrotactic suppression of Lagrangian chaos persists even in the presence of random noise. Analytical solutions for a number of cases reveal the how plumes form and the nature of the competition between torques acting on individual cells. Furthermore, studies of Lyapunov exponents reveal that, as the ratio of cell swimming speed relative to the flow speed increases from zero, the initial chaotic trajectories are first suppressed and then give way to a second unexpected window of chaotic trajectories at speeds greater than unity, before suppression of chaos at high relative swimming speeds.

  6. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-07-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the (/sup 3/H)thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% (SD)) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition.

  7. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the [ 3 H]thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% [SD]) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition

  8. Bandwidth-limited control and ringdown suppression in high-Q resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

    2012-12-01

    We describe how the transient behavior of a tuned and matched resonator circuit and a ringdown suppression pulse may be integrated into an optimal control theory (OCT) pulse-design algorithm to derive control sequences with limited ringdown that perform a desired quantum operation in the presence of resonator distortions of the ideal waveform. Inclusion of ringdown suppression in numerical pulse optimizations significantly reduces spectrometer deadtime when using high quality factor (high-Q) resonators, leading to increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of inductive measurements. To demonstrate the method, we experimentally measure the free-induction decay of an inhomogeneously broadened solid-state free radical spin system at high Q. The measurement is enabled by using a numerically optimized bandwidth-limited OCT pulse, including ringdown suppression, robust to variations in static and microwave field strengths. We also discuss the applications of pulse design in high-Q resonators to universal control of anisotropic-hyperfine coupled electron-nuclear spin systems via electron-only modulation even when the bandwidth of the resonator is significantly smaller than the hyperfine coupling strength. These results demonstrate how limitations imposed by linear response theory may be vastly exceeded when using a sufficiently accurate system model to optimize pulses of high complexity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Syringyl lignin is unaltered by severe sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase suppression in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-12-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference-inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem.

  10. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  11. Exploring genetic suppression interactions on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire E; Cao, Jessica; Cote, Atina; Gebbia, Marinella; Horecka, Gene; Horecka, Ira; Kuzmin, Elena; Legro, Nicole; Liang, Wendy; van Lieshout, Natascha; McNee, Margaret; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Shaeri, Fatemeh; Shuteriqi, Ermira; Sun, Song; Yang, Lu; Youn, Ji-Young; Yuen, Michael; Costanzo, Michael; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Aloy, Patrick; Oostenbrink, Chris; Murray, Andrew; Graham, Todd R; Myers, Chad L; Andrews, Brenda J; Roth, Frederick P; Boone, Charles

    2016-11-04

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insights into the functional wiring diagram of the cell. In addition to suppressor mutations, we identified frequent secondary mutations,in a subset of genes, that likely cause a delay in the onset of stationary phase, which appears to promote their enrichment within a propagating population. These findings allow us to formulate and quantify general mechanisms of genetic suppression. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  13. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  14. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  15. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  16. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  17. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  18. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  19. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...

  20. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  1. Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence

  2. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  3. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  4. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  5. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  6. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  7. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  8. Androgenic suppression combined with radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasse, André D; Sasse, Elisa; Carvalho, Albertina M; Macedo, Ligia T

    2012-01-01

    Locally advanced prostate cancer is often associated with elevated recurrence rates. Despite the modest response observed, external-beam radiotherapy has been the preferred treatment for this condition. More recent evidence from randomised trials has demonstrated clinical benefit with the combined use of androgen suppression in such cases. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the combination of distinct hormone therapy modalities versus radiotherapy alone for overall survival, disease-free survival and toxicity. Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane databases and ClinicalTrials.gov) were scanned for randomised clinical trials involving radiotherapy with or without androgen suppression in local prostate cancer. The search strategy included articles published until October 2011. The studies were examined and the data of interest were plotted for meta-analysis. Survival outcomes were reported as a hazard ratio with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data from ten trials published from 1988 to 2011 were included, comprising 6555 patients. There was a statistically significant advantage to the use of androgen suppression, in terms of both overall survival and disease free survival, when compared to radiotherapy alone. The use of long-term goserelin (up to three years) was the strategy providing the higher magnitude of clinical benefit. In contrast to goserelin, there were no trials evaluating the use of other luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues as monotherapy. Complete hormonal blockade was not shown to be superior to goserelin monotherapy. Based on the findings of this systematic review, the evidence supports the use of androgen suppression with goserelin monotherapy as the standard treatment for patients with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy, which are at high risk of recurrence or metastases

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of fundamental differences in the noise suppression of high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Suzuki, R.

    2005-01-01

    We identify a fundamental difference between the ASE noise filtering properties of different all-optical SOA-based switch configurations, and divide the switches into two classes. An in-band ASE suppression ratio quantifying the difference is derived theoretically and the impact of the ASE...

  10. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  11. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  12. Pocket Proteins Suppress Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myeong-Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is a common cancer in humans long known to be caused by tobacco and alcohol use, but now an increasing percentage of HNSCC is recognized to be caused by the same human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPV-positive HNSCCs differ remarkably from HPV-negative HNSCCs in their clinical response and molecular properties. From studies in mice, we know that E7 is the dominant HPV oncoprotein in head and neck cancer. E7 is best known for its ability to inactivate pRb, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor susceptibility gene. However loss of pRb function does not fully account for E7’s potency in causing head and neck cancer. In this study, we characterized the cancer susceptibility of mice deficient in the expression of pRb and either of two related “pocket” proteins, p107 and p130, that are also inactivated by E7. pRb/p107 deficient mice developed head and neck cancer as frequently as do HPV16 E7 transgenic mice. The head and neck epithelia of the pRb/p107 deficient mice also displayed the same acute phenotypes and biomarker readouts as observed in the epithelia of E7 transgenic mice. Mice deficient for pRb and p130 in their head and neck epithelia showed intermediate acute and tumor phenotypes. We conclude that pRb and p107 act together to efficiently suppress head and neck cancer, and are therefore highly relevant targets of HPV16 E7 in its contribution to HPV-positive HNSCC. PMID:22237625

  13. Suppression of in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis generation by alloactivated lymphocytes. Examination of radioresistant suppressive activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orosz, C.G.; Ferguson, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the radioresistant (1000 rads) suppression of CML generation mediated by alloactivated murine splenocytes. Suppressive cells were generated in MLCs by stimulation of (A X 6R)F1 splenocytes with irradiated C57BL/10 splenocytes. Suppressive cells could lyse targets bearing H-2b alloantigens, but would not lyse parental B10.T(6R) or B10.A targets. Suppressive activity was detected by including the alloactivated (A X 6R)F1 cells in B10.T(6R) anti-B10.A(1R) MLCs. Relative to the suppressive (A X 6R)F1 cells, the B10.A(1R) lymphocytes display both parental and suppressor-inducing alloantigens. In the absence of a suppressive population, B10.A(1R) stimulators cause B10.T(6R) splenocytes to generate cytolytic activity specific for both H-2Db (suppressor-inducing) and H-2Kk (suppressor-borne) target determinants. The irradiated, alloactivated (A X 6R)F1 cells decrease the H-2Db-specific CML generated in this system, thus mediating apparent antigen-specific suppression. However, cytolytic activity concomitantly generated in the same culture against the unrelated H-2Kk target determinants is similarly reduced by the (A X 6R)F1 cells. Thus, radioresistant suppression by alloactivated splenocytes is not necessarily antigen-specific. The irradiated (A X 6R)F1 cells would not suppress the generation of H-2Kk-specific CTL in B10.T(6R) anti-B10.A MLCs. Hence, the irradiated (A X 6R)F1 cells can impede CML generation against third-party alloantigens if, and only if, those alloantigens are coexpressed with suppressor-inducing alloantigens on the stimulator cells in suppressed MLCs. Similar results were also obtained using a different histoincompatible lymphocyte combination

  14. Multivariate analysis of covariates of adherence among HIV-positive mothers with low viral suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsubuga-Nyombi, Tamara; Sensalire, Simon; Karamagi, Esther; Aloyo, Judith; Byabagambi, John; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Nabitaka, Linda Kisaakye; Calnan, Jacqueline

    2018-03-31

    As part of efforts to improve the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Northern Uganda, we explored reasons for poor viral suppression among 122 pregnant and lactating women who were in care, received viral load tests, but had not achieved viral suppression and had more than 1000 copies/mL. Understanding the patient factors associated with low viral suppression was of interest to the Ministry of Health to guide the development of tools and interventions to achieve viral suppression for pregnant and lactating women newly initiating on ART as well as those on ART with unsuppressed viral load. A facility-based cross-sectional and mixed methods study design was used, with retrospective medical record review. We assessed 122 HIV-positive mothers with known low viral suppression across 31 health facilities in Northern Uganda. Adjusted odds ratios were used to determine the covariates of adherence among HIV positive mothers using logistic regression. A study among health care providers shed further light on predictors of low viral suppression and a history of low early retention. This study was part of a larger national evaluation of the performance of integrated care services for mothers. Adherence defined as taking antiretroviral medications correctly everyday was low at 67.2%. The covariates of low adherence are: taking other medications in addition to ART, missed appointments in the past 6 months, experienced violence in the past 6 months, and faces obstacles to treatment. Mothers who were experiencing each of these covariates were less likely to adhere to treatment. These covariates were triangulated with perspectives of health providers as covariates of low adherence and included: long distances to health facility, missed appointments, running out of pills, sharing antiretroviral drugs, violence, and social lifestyles such as multiple sexual partners coupled with non-disclosure to partners. Inadequate counseling, stigma, and lack of client identity are

  15. Carnosine attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression by reducing oxidative DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Deng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative DNA damage in bone marrow cells is the main side effect of chemotherapy drugs including cyclophosphamide (CTX. However, not all antioxidants are effective in inhibiting oxidative DNA damage. In this study, we report the beneficial effect of carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine, a special antioxidant with acrolein-sequestering ability, on CTX-induced bone marrow cell suppression. Our results show that carnosine treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. significantly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG, and decreased chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow cells of mice treated with CTX (20 mg/kg, i.v., 24 h. Furthermore, carnosine evidently mitigated CTX-induced G2/M arrest in murine bone marrow cells, accompanied by reduced ratios of p-Chk1/Chk1 and p-p53/p53 as well as decreased p21 expression. In addition, cell apoptosis caused by CTX was also suppressed by carnosine treatment, as assessed by decreased TUNEL-positive cell counts, down-regulated expressions of Bax and Cyt c, and reduced ratios of cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3. These results together suggest that carnosine can protect murine bone marrow cells from CTX-induced DNA damage via its antioxidant activity. Keywords: Carnosine, Cyclophosphamide, Oxidative DNA damage, Sister chromatid exchange, Apoptosis, Cell cycle arrest

  16. An Overview of Crop Hail Damage and Evaluation of Hail Suppression Efficiency in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Petio

    1996-09-01

    The space time distribution of the crop hail loss-to-risk ratio over the whole. Bulgarian territory has been ascertained using the rank approach. The relationships between hailfall characteristics (sizes and kinetic energy) and the percentage of the crop damage for wheat, corn, and vines were obtained using field observations and hailpad data. A physical statistical method for evaluating the changes in damaged crop areas was tested over a 5000-km2 target area (numbers for three hail suppression ranges). Using a regression equation (worked out for 120 nonseeded days) for evaluation of the damaged area changes, reductions in damaged area of 34% 48% were obtained for 7 and 9 years of heavy hail. The magnitude of the reduction is comparable with the one obtained using double-mass ratio and bivariate test of loss-to-risk data in the control and target areas. Similar results were obtained in other hail suppression projects in France, North Dakota, and Greece. A short overview of the physical effects of cloud seeding is presented. The physical-statistical approach for severe hailstorms, based on the regression between thermodynamical indices of instability and damaged areas, shows promise as a perspective to evaluate the efficiency of the seeding operations in problematic cases.

  17. Design and evaluation of noise suppression sheet for GHz band utilizing magneto-elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Feasibility of realizing a noise suppression sheet (NSS) coping with the low SHF band such as the 5 GHz band was investigated, which was composed of soft magnetic metal flakes dispersed in a polymer. For suppressing noises, the higher frequency one of the bimodal frequency dispersion (lower frequency one: Dispersion DII, higher frequency one: Dispersion DIII) seen in the imaginary permeability (μ″; magnetic loss component) spectrum of the NSS was aimed to utilize. Referring to the previous finding that Dispersion DIII is originated from a magneto-elastic effect, several magnetic composite sheets were prepared using various alloy flakes with different saturation magnetostriction (λs), and their frequency (fr(DIII)) and magnitude (μ″(DIII)) of Dispersion DIII were investigated. It was found that the NSS containing flakes with higher λs exhibited higher fr(DIII) and higher μ″(DIII)/μ″(DII), which was ratio of μ″(DIII) to the magnitude of Dispersion DII (μ″(DII)). The fr(DIII) for the NSS having the highest λs containing Fe-Co alloy flake reached 7.45 GHz and μ″ in the 5 GHz band was approximately twice as high as the conventional NSS containing Fe-Si-Al alloy flake. For transmission attenuation power ratio (Rtp) when an NSS was placed on a microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, NSS with larger fr(DIII)2 · μ″(DIII) ∝ Ms2 (Ms: saturation magnetization), which theoretically gave the frequency limit of imaginary permeability for a thin film, exhibited larger Rtp in the low SHF band. These results suggested that an NSS containing a magnetic flake material with both large λs and Ms was suitable for suppressing low SHF band noises.

  18. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  19. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  20. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaë, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliette

    2016-05-11

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we examined whether people from collectivistic backgrounds (Chinese exchange students and immigrants from the Moluccas, Indonesia) living in the Netherlands differed from those from individualistic backgrounds (Dutch natives) in emotion suppression during everyday interactions. We also examined whether this depended on their relationship with the interaction partner(s). We found that Chinese participants suppressed positive and negative emotions more than Dutch and Moluccan participants and that this was related to differences in interdependent and independent self-construal across the samples. We also found that Chinese participants suppressed positive emotions less in interactions with close others, whereas Dutch participants suppressed negative emotions more with non-close others. No such differences were found for Moluccans. Our findings support the idea that people from collectivistic cultures suppress emotions more than those from individualistic cultures, but they also suggest that this depends on who the interaction partner is. Furthermore, they suggest that emotion suppression may change when people with collectivistic backgrounds have been raised in individualistic cultures. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  2. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  3. Modelling the liquidity ratio as macroprudential instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Willem van den End; Mark Kruidhof

    2012-01-01

    The Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) is a microprudential instrument to strengthen the liquidity position of banks. However, if in extreme scenarios the LCR becomes a binding constraint, the interaction of bank behaviour with the regulatory rule can have negative externalities. We simulate the systemic implications of the LCR by a liquidity stress-testing model, which takes into account the impact of bank reactions on second round feedback effects. We show that a flexible approach of ...

  4. Realisation Ratios in the Capital Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Berkelmans; Gareth Spence

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Bureau of Statistics capital expenditure survey is one of the inputs into the Reserve Bank’s forecasts for private business investment. This article considers several methods for interpreting the expectations data from this survey and evaluates these methods using out-of-sample forecasts. Forecasts based on long-run average realisation ratios are found to be the most accurate of the options considered, although the use of these forecasts for predicting investment in the nationa...

  5. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  6. MARKETING MIX BY BED OCCUPANCY RATIO (BOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR in RSI Arafah Mojosari during the last three years are at under ideal rate and the lowest of the three existing hospitals in the area of Mojosari. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship marketing mix with Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Methods: This research uses analytic methods with crossectional approach. Variables in the study is marketing mix and Bed Occupancy Ratio (BOR. The population in this study were all patients hospitalized in the RSI Arafah Mojosari. Samples amounted 44 respondents taken by the Stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using the questionnaire and analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Result: The results obtained more than 50% of respondents (59.1% rate well against the marketing mix is developed by the hospital management and the majority of respondents (79.5% are in the treatment room that has a number BOR is not ideal. Fisher Exact test test results obtained probabililty value=0.02<0.05 so that H0 is rejected, which means there is a relationship marketing mix with the Bed Occupancy Ratio in RSI Arafah Mojosari. Discussion: Hospitals which able to develop the marketing mix very well, can attract consumers to use inpatient services at the hospital, with that BOR value will increase as the increased use of inpatient services. Hospital management must be able to formulate a good marketing mix strategy that hospital marketing objectives can be achieved. Conformity between service quality and service rates must be addressed, otherwise it extent of media promotions can attract patients to inpatient services.

  7. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  8. Communication system with adaptive noise suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, David (Inventor); Devault, James A. (Inventor); Birr, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A signal-to-noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction process eliminates noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. The process first pre-emphasizes the frequency components of the input sound signal which contain the consonant information in human speech. Next, a signal-to-noise ratio is determined and a spectral subtraction proportion adjusted appropriately. After spectral subtraction, low amplitude signals can be squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoiced frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Spectral subtraction may be performed on a composite noise-corrupted signal, or upon individual sub-bands of the noise-corrupted signal. Pre-averaging of the input signal's magnitude spectrum over multiple time frames may be performed to reduce musical noise.

  9. Gating in time domain as a tool for improving the signal-to-noise ratio of beam transfer function measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, U; Caspers, Fritz

    1992-01-01

    For the measurement of Beam Transfer Functions the signal-to-noise ratio is of great importance. In order to get a reasonable quality of the measured data one may apply averaging and smoothing. In the following another technique called time gating to improve the quality of the measurement will be described. By this technique the measurement data are Fourier transformed and then modified in time domain. Tune gating suppresses signal contributions that are correlated to a time interval when no interesting information is expected. Afterivards an inverse Fourier transform leads to data in frequency domain with an improved signal to noise ratio.

  10. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Bankruptcy Prediction Based on the Autonomy Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brîndescu Olariu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of the financial ratio analysis suggest the existence of a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. Previous studies conducted on a sample of companies from Timis County (largest county in Romania confirm this hypothesis and recommend the autonomy ratio as a useful tool for measuring the bankruptcy risk two years in advance. The objective of the current research was to develop a methodology for measuring the bankruptcy risk that would be applicable for the companies from the Timis County (specific methodologies are considered necessary for each region. The target population consisted of all the companies from Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei (aprox. 2,200 Euros. The research was performed over all the target population. The study has thus included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010. The results of the study allow for the setting of benchmarks, as well as the configuration of a methodology of analysis. The proposed methodology cannot predict with perfect accuracy the state of the company, but it allows for a valuation of the risk level to which the company is subjected.

  12. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  13. Statistical moments of the Strehl ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaitskova, Natalia; Esselborn, Michael; Gladysz, Szymon

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the statistical characteristics of the Strehl ratio is essential for the performance assessment of the existing and future adaptive optics systems. For full assessment not only the mean value of the Strehl ratio but also higher statistical moments are important. Variance is related to the stability of an image and skewness reflects the chance to have in a set of short exposure images more or less images with the quality exceeding the mean. Skewness is a central parameter in the domain of lucky imaging. We present a rigorous theory for the calculation of the mean value, the variance and the skewness of the Strehl ratio. In our approach we represent the residual wavefront as being formed by independent cells. The level of the adaptive optics correction defines the number of the cells and the variance of the cells, which are the two main parameters of our theory. The deliverables are the values of the three moments as the functions of the correction level. We make no further assumptions except for the statistical independence of the cells.

  14. Omniclassical Diffusion in Low Aspect Ratio Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently reported numerical results for axisymmetric devices with low aspect ratio A found radial transport enhanced over the expected neoclassical value by a factor of 2 to 3. In this paper, we provide an explanation for this enhancement. Transport theory in toroidal devices usually assumes large A, and that the ratio B p /B t of the poloidal to the toroidal magnetic field is small. These assumptions result in transport which, in the low collision limit, is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device one may have B p /B t ∼ 1, and the gyroradius may be larger than the banana excursion. Here, we develop an approximate analytic transport theory valid for devices with arbitrary A. For low A, we find that the enhanced transport, referred to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly generalized classical effects, which become dominant in the low-A, B p /B t ∼ 1 regime. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained

  15. KERMA ratios in pediatric CT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    Patient organ doses may be estimated from CTDI values. More accurate estimates may be obtained by measuring KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in Matter) in anthropomorphic phantoms and referencing these values to free-in-air X-ray intensity. To measure KERMA ratios (R K ) in pediatric phantoms at CT. CT scans produce an air KERMA K in a phantom and an air KERMA K CT at isocenter. KERMA ratios (R K ) are defined as (K/K CT ), measured using TLD chips in phantoms representing newborns to 10-year-olds. R K in the newborn is approximately constant. For the other phantoms, there is a peak R K value in the neck. The median R K values for the GE scanner at 120 kV were 0.92, 0.83, 0.77 and 0.76 for newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. Organ R K values were 0.91 ± 0.04, 0.84 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.09 and 0.72 ± 0.10 in newborns, 1-year-olds, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds, respectively. At 120 kV, a Siemens Sensation 16 scanner had R K values 5% higher than those of the GE LightSpeed Ultra. KERMA ratios may be combined with air KERMA measurements at the isocenter to estimate organ doses in pediatric CT patients. (orig.)

  16. Comparative Metatranscriptomics of Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiomes in Disease Suppressive and Non-suppressive Soils for Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Hayden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R. solani AG8. Analysis of 12 rhizosphere metatranscriptomes (six per field was undertaken using two bioinformatic approaches involving unassembled and assembled reads. Differential expression analysis showed the dominant taxa in the rhizosphere based on mRNA annotation were Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for non-suppressive samples and Stenotrophomonas spp. and Buttiauxella spp. for the suppressive samples. The assembled metatranscriptome analysis identified more differentially expressed genes than the unassembled analysis in the comparison of suppressive and non-suppressive samples. Suppressive samples showed greater expression of a polyketide cyclase, a terpenoid biosynthesis backbone gene (dxs and many cold shock proteins (csp. Non-suppressive samples were characterised by greater expression of antibiotic genes such as non-heme chloroperoxidase (cpo which is involved in pyrrolnitrin synthesis, and phenazine biosynthesis family protein F (phzF and its transcriptional activator protein (phzR. A large number of genes involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide radicals (sod, cat, ahp, bcp, gpx1, trx were also expressed in the non-suppressive rhizosphere samples most likely in response to the infection of wheat

  17. Determination of the oxygen-metal-ratio of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the dissolution of uranium-americium mixed oxides in phosphoric acid under nitrogen tetravalent uranium is oxidized by tetravalent americium. The obtained hexavalent uranium is determined by constant potential coulometry. The coulombs measured are equivalent to the oxygen in excess of the minimum composition of UO 2 x AmO 1 . 5 . The total uranium content of the sample is determined in a subsequent coulometric titration. The oxygen-metal ratio of the sample can be calculated for a given uranium-americium ratio. An excess of uranium dioxide is necessary in order to suppress the oxidation of water by tetravalent americium. The standard deviation of the method is 0.0017 O/M units. (orig.) [de

  18. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee [Inha Univ, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed.

  19. Extinction ratio enhancement of SOA-based delayed-interference signal converter using detuned filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Kumar, S.; Yan, L.-S.; Willner, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally >3 dB extinction ratio improvement at the output of SOA-based delayed-interference signal converter (DISC) using optical off-centered filtering. Through careful modeling of the carrier and the phase dynamics, we explain in detail the origin of sub-pulses in the wavelength converted output, with an emphasis on the time-resolved frequency chirping of the output signal. Through our simulations we conclude that the sub-pulses and the main-pulses are oppositely chirped, which is also verified experimentally by analyzing the output with a chirp form analyzer. We propose and demonstrate an optical off-center filtering technique which effectively suppresses these sub-pulses. The effects of filter detuning and phase bias adjustment in the delayed-interferometer are experimentally characterized and optimized, leading to a >3 dB extinction ratio enhancement of the output signal.

  20. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed

  1. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  2. Invited review: sex ratio and rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, M D

    2001-11-01

    Human illnesses affect men and women differently. In some cases (diseases of sex organs, diseases resulting from X or Y chromosome mutations), reasons for sex discrepancy are obvious, but in other cases no reason is apparent. Explanations for sex discrepancy of illness occur at different biological levels: molecular (e.g., imprinting, X-inactivation), cellular (sex-specific receptor activity), organ (endocrine influences), whole organism (size, age), and environmental-behavioral, including intrauterine influences. Autoimmunity represents a prototypical class of illness that has high female-to-male (F/M) ratios. Although the F/M ratios in autoimmune diseases are usually attributed to the influence of estrogenic hormones, evidence demonstrates that the attributed ratios are imprecise and that definitions and classifications of autoimmune diseases vary, rendering at least part of the counting imprecise. In addition, many studies on sex discrepancy of human disease fail to distinguish between disease incidence and disease severity. In April 2001, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences published Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? (Wizemann T and Pardue M-L, editors). This minireview summarizes the section of that report that concerns autoimmune and infectious disease. Some thyroid, rheumatic, and hepatic autoimmune diseases have high F/M ratios, whereas others have low. Those that have high ratios occur primarily in young adulthood. Gonadal hormones, if they play a role, likely do so through a threshold or permissive mechanism. Examples of sex differences that could be caused by environmental exposure, X inactivation, imprinting, X or Y chromosome genetic modulators, and intrauterine influences are presented as alternate, theoretical, and largely unexplored explanations for sex differences of incidence. The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases (young, female) suggests that an explanation for sex discrepancy of

  3. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  4. Suppression of the dayside magnetopause surface modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko V.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetopause surface eigenmodes were suggested as a potential source of dayside high-latitude broadband pulsations in the Pc5-6 band (frequency about 1–2 mHz. However, the search for a ground signature of these modes has not provided encouraging results. The comparison of multi-instrument data from Svalbard with the latitudinal structure of Pc5-6 pulsations, recorded by magnetometers covering near-cusp latitudes, has shown that often the latitudinal maximum of pulsation power occurs about 2–3° deeper in the magnetosphere than the dayside open-closed field line boundary (OCB. The OCB proxy was determined from SuperDARN radar data as the equatorward boundary of enhanced width of a return radio signal. The OCB-ULF correspondence is further examined by comparing the latitudinal profile of the near-noon pulsation power with the equatorward edge of the auroral red emission from the meridian scanning photometer. In most analyzed events, the “epicenter” of Pc5-6 power is at 1–2° lower latitude than the optical OCB proxy. Therefore, the dayside Pc5-6 pulsations cannot be associated with the ground image of the magnetopause surface modes or with oscillations of the last field line. A lack of ground response to these modes beneath the ionospheric projection of OCB seems puzzling. As a possible explanation, we suggest that a high variability of the outer magnetosphere near the magnetopause region may suppress the excitation efficiency. To quantify this hypothesis, we consider a driven field line resonator terminated by conjugate ionospheres with stochastic fluctuations of its eigenfrequency. A solution of this problem predicts a substantial deterioration of resonant properties of MHD resonator even under a relatively low level of background fluctuations. This effect may explain why there is no ground response to magnetopause surface modes or oscillations of the last field line at the OCB latitude, but it can be seen at somewhat lower latitudes

  5. Identifying Malignant Pleural Effusion by A Cancer Ratio (Serum LDH: Pleural Fluid ADA Ratio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Abisheganaden, John; Light, R W

    2016-02-01

    We studied the diagnostic potential of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in malignant pleural effusion. Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized with exudative pleural effusion in 2013. Serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio was significantly higher in cancer patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pleural fluid ADA was negatively correlated 0.62 (0.45-0.85, p = 0.003) with malignancy, whereas serum LDH 1.02 (1.0-1.03, p = 0.004) and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio 0.94 (0.99-1.0, p = 0.04) was correlated positively with malignant pleural effusion. For serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio, a cut-off level of >20 showed sensitivity, specificity of 0.98 (95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and 0.94 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 32.6 (95 % CI 10.7-99.6), while the negative likelihood ratio at this cut-off was 0.03 (95 % CI 0.01-0.15). Higher serum LDH and serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio in patients presenting with exudative pleural effusion can distinguish between malignant and non-malignant effusion on the first day of hospitalization. The cut-off level for serum LDH: pleural fluid ADA ratio of >20 is highly predictive of malignancy in patients with exudative pleural effusion (whether lymphocytic or neutrophilic) with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Utility of fat-suppressed sequences in differentiation of aggressive vs typical asymptomatic haemangioma of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Mamourian, Alexander; Schmitt, James E; Cloran, Francis; Vossough, Arastoo; Pukenas, Bryan; Loevner, Laurie A; Mohan, Suyash

    2016-01-01

    While haemangiomas are common benign vascular lesions involving the spine, some behave in an aggressive fashion. We investigated the utility of fat-suppressed sequences to differentiate between benign and aggressive vertebral haemangiomas. Patients with the diagnosis of aggressive vertebral haemangioma and available short tau inversion-recovery or T2 fat saturation sequence were included in the study. 11 patients with typical asymptomatic vertebral body haemangiomas were selected as the control group. Region of interest signal intensity (SI) analysis of the entire haemangioma as well as the portion of each haemangioma with highest signal on fat-saturation sequences was performed and normalized to a reference normal vertebral body. A total of 8 patients with aggressive vertebral haemangioma and 11 patients with asymptomatic typical vertebral haemangioma were included. There was a significant difference between total normalized mean SI ratio (3.14 vs 1.48, p = 0.0002), total normalized maximum SI ratio (5.72 vs 2.55, p = 0.0003), brightest normalized mean SI ratio (4.28 vs 1.72, p 88%) and specificity (>82%). In addition to the conventional imaging features such as vertebral expansion and presence of extravertebral component, quantitative evaluation of fat-suppression sequences is also another imaging feature that can differentiate aggressive haemangioma and typical asymptomatic haemangioma. The use of quantitative fat-suppressed MRI in vertebral haemangiomas is demonstrated. Quantitative fat-suppressed MRI can have a role in confirming the diagnosis of aggressive haemangiomas. In addition, this application can be further investigated in future studies to predict aggressiveness of vertebral haemangiomas in early stages.

  7. FINANCIAL RATIOS – REVEAL HOW A BUSINESS IS DOING?

    OpenAIRE

    MIRELA MONEA

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to present the main financial ratios which provide a picture about company’s profitability, its financial position, use of its assets efficiency, its long-term debt financing. Discussion is focused on: profitability ratios, short-term financial ratios, activity ratios, long-term debt ratios or dividend policy ratios. Also, will try to answer at the following main questions: What financial ratios analysis tells us? What the users of these needs to know?

  8. Serotonin suppresses β-casein expression via PTP1B activation in human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Sanbe, Atsushi; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-04-22

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) has an important role in milk volume homeostasis within the mammary gland during lactation. We have previously shown that the expression of β-casein, a differentiation marker in mammary epithelial cells, is suppressed via 5-HT-mediated inhibition of signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation in the human mammary epithelial MCF-12A cell line. In addition, the reduction of β-casein in turn was associated with 5-HT7 receptor expression in the cells. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the 5-HT-mediated suppression of β-casein and STAT5 phosphorylation. The β-casein level and phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5)/STAT5 ratio in the cells co-treated with 5-HT and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (KT5720) were significantly higher than those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Exposure to 100 μM db-cAMP for 6 h significantly decreased the protein levels of β-casein and pSTAT5 and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio, and significantly increased PTP1B protein levels. In the cells co-treated with 5-HT and an extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK) inhibitor (FR180294) or Akt inhibitor (124005), the β-casein level and pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio were equal to those of cells treated with 5-HT alone. Treatment with 5-HT significantly induced PTP1B protein levels, whereas its increase was inhibited by KT5720. In addition, the PTP1B inhibitor sc-222227 increased the expression levels of β-casein and the pSTAT5/STAT5 ratio. Our observations indicate that PTP1B directly regulates STAT5 phosphorylation and that its activation via the cAMP/PKA pathway downstream of the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in the suppression of β-casein expression in MCF-12A cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  10. Colloid normalizes resuscitation ratio in pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.

  11. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  12. On the universality of knot probability ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)

  13. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohsen

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... suppressive effects of sodium silicate in the polymer form were confirmed against powdery mildew and ... crops (such as rice) controls diseases and could reduce ... negative charge and sodium ions with a positive charge.

  14. Nonlinear Suppression of Range Ambiguity in Pulse Doppler Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Jon

    2001-01-01

    ... ambiguities in Doppler and range. First introduced by Palermo in 1962 using two conjugate LFM pulses, the primary nonlinear suppression objective involves reducing range ambiguity, given the waveform is nominally unambiguous...

  15. Suppression of magnetic islands by rf-driven currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.H.

    1982-06-01

    The quasilinear theory for the saturation of nonlinear tearing modes is modified to include rf driven currents. It is shown that the presence of lower hybrid driven currents can strongly suppress the growth of magnetic islands

  16. New fat suppression RF pulse with shorter duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro; Ukai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The fat suppression radio frequency pulse currently employed for MRI, which selectively saturates the frequency of the fat, has the narrow-band frequency characteristics. Therefore, the application duration for the pulse employed tends to be prolonged. In the present study, we designed a new fat suppression radiofrequency (RF) pulse using the Laguerre function in order to shorten the duration for fat suppression RF pulse and conducted an evaluation with the clinical equipment. The length of the RF pulse that we created allowed to reduce the duration by 47.3% compared with that employed for the clinical equipment. In addition, in the MR imaging evaluation, the new pulse was confirmed to have the fat suppression effect equivalent to that employed for the clinical equipment. (author)

  17. Suppression of multiphoton excitation in resonance ionization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.R.; Moore, M.A.; Wunderlich, R.K.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-04-01

    We describe experimental confirmation of strong suppressions of laser-driven nonlinear absorption processes by electromagnetic fields through other nonlinear processes within a given atomic or molecular medium. (AR)

  18. Cross-cultural differences in emotion suppression in everyday interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte

    Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we

  19. Acetonitrile Ion Suppression in Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Kevin; Mahoney, Keira E.; Yevdokimov, Alexander V.; Smith, James L.; Oxley, Jimmie C.

    2016-11-01

    Efforts to analyze trace levels of cyclic peroxides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence that acetonitrile suppressed ion formation. Further investigations extended this discovery to ketones, linear peroxides, esters, and possibly many other types of compounds, including triazole and menadione. Direct ionization suppression caused by acetonitrile was observed for multiple adduct types in both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The addition of only 2% acetonitrile significantly decreased the sensitivity of analyte response. Efforts to identify the mechanism were made using various nitriles. The ion suppression was reduced by substitution of an acetonitrile hydrogen with an electron-withdrawing group, but was exacerbated by electron-donating or steric groups adjacent to the nitrile. Although current theory does not explain this phenomenon, we propose that polar interactions between the various functionalities and the nitrile may be forming neutral aggregates that manifest as ionization suppression.

  20. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...