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Sample records for suppression expenditures electronic

  1. External human factors in incident management team decisionmaking and their effect on large fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janie Canton-Tompson; Krista M. Gebert; Brooke Thompson; Greg Jones; David Calkin; Geoff. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. Changing climate, fuel buildup due to past suppression, and increasing populations in the wildland-urban interface have all been blamed for the extreme fire seasons and rising suppression expenditures of recent years. With each high-cost year comes a...

  2. Suppressed sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle, muscle thermogenesis, and activity energy expenditure with calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almundarij, Tariq I; Gavini, Chaitanya K; Novak, Colleen M

    2017-02-01

    During weight loss, adaptive thermogenesis occurs where energy expenditure (EE) is suppressed beyond that predicted for the smaller body size. Here, we investigated the contributions of resting and nonresting EE to the reduced total EE seen after 3 weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in rats, focusing on activity-associated EE, muscle thermogenesis, and sympathetic outflow. Prolonged food restriction resulted in a 42% reduction in daily EE, through a 40% decrease in resting EE, and a 48% decline in nonresting EE These decreases in EE were significant even when the reductions in body weight and lean mass were taken into account. Along with a decreased caloric need for low-to-moderate-intensity treadmill activity with 50% CR, baseline and activity-related muscle thermogenesis were also suppressed, though the ability to increase muscle thermogenesis above baseline levels was not compromised. When sympathetic drive was measured by assessing norepinephrine turnover (NETO), 50% CR was found to decrease NETO in three of the four muscle groups examined, whereas elevated NETO was found in white adipose tissue of food-restricted rats. Central activation of melanocortin 4 receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulated this pathway, enhancing activity EE; this was not compromised by 50% CR These data suggest that suppressed activity EE contributes to adaptive thermogenesis during energy restriction. This may stem from decreased sympathetic drive to skeletal muscle, increasing locomotor efficiency and reducing skeletal muscle thermogenesis. The capacity to increase activity EE in response to central stimuli is retained, however, presenting a potential target for preventing weight regain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Cardiovascular stress, energy expenditure and subjective perceived ratings of fire fighters during typical fire suppression and rescue tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Szmauz-Dybko, Magdalena; Konarska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The study determined physiological and psychophysical responses to fire fighters' typical activities. Self-reported assessment of the most demanding fire fighting/rescue tasks were collected with a questionnaire. Then 19 voluntary fire fighters performed 3 simulated fire fighting/rescue tasks in protective clothing. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and energy expenditure were measured; the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed with the Borg scale. The questionnaires showed that carrying out victims, fire suppression and resuscitation were classified as heavy load; climbing stairs with a hose as moderate load. According to RPE the subjects considered their effort during ladder climbing fairly light and only somewhat harder during stair climbing and carrying out injured people. The study demonstrated that typical fire fighting/rescue tasks were associated with high energy expenditure and imposed considerable cardiovascular stress. The Borg scale appeared not suitable for assessing perceived exertion in fire fighters during simulated tasks.

  4. Theory of suppression of loss cone instabilities by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.; Sinha, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new mechanism for the suppression of Drift Cyclotron Loss Cone instabilities by electron beams injected along the field lines is given. The mechanism explains some of the recent observations. (author)

  5. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Sarah M; Weidemann, Benjamin J; Castro, Ana N; Walsh, John W; deLeon, Orlando; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Murry, Daryl J; Grobe, Justin L; Kirby, John R

    2015-11-01

    Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80μg/day) exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahra, Sarah M; Weidemann, Benjamin J; Castro, Ana N; Walsh, John W; deLeon, Orlando; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Murry, Daryl J; Grobe, Justin L; Kirby, John R

    2015-11-01

    Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day) exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  7. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bahr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  8. Economics of wildfire management the development and application of suppression expenditure models

    CERN Document Server

    Hand, Michael S; Liang, Jingjing; Thompson, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    In this age of climatic and financial uncertainty, it becomes increasingly important to balance the cost, benefits and risk of wildfire management. In the United States, increased wildland fire activity over the last 15 years has resulted in drastic damage and loss of life. An associated rapid increase in fire management costs has consumed higher portions of budgets of public entities involved in wildfire management, challenging their ability to fulfill other responsibilities. Increased public scrutiny highlights the need to improve wildland fire management for cost effectiveness. This book closely examines the development of basic wildfire suppression cost models for the United States and their application to a wide range of settings from informing incident decision making to programmatic review. The book also explores emerging trends in suppression costs and introduces new spatially explicit cost models to account for characteristics of the burned landscape. Finally, it discusses how emerging risk assessmen...

  9. Reversible Electron Beam Heating for Suppression of Microbunching Instabilities at Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher; /DESY; Huang, Zhirong; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-05-30

    The presence of microbunching instabilities due to the compression of high-brightness electron beams at existing and future x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) results in restrictions on the attainable lasing performance and renders beam imaging with optical transition radiation impossible. The instability can be suppressed by introducing additional energy spread, i.e., heating the electron beam, as demonstrated by the successful operation of the laser heater system at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The increased energy spread is typically tolerable for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs but limits the effectiveness of advanced FEL schemes such as seeding. In this paper, we present a reversible electron beam heating system based on two transverse deflecting radio-frequency structures (TDSs) upstream and downstream of a magnetic bunch compressor chicane. The additional energy spread is introduced in the first TDS, which suppresses the microbunching instability, and then is eliminated in the second TDS. We show the feasibility of the microbunching gain suppression based on calculations and simulations including the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. Acceptable electron beam and radio-frequency jitter are identified, and inherent options for diagnostics and on-line monitoring of the electron beam's longitudinal phase space are discussed.

  10. Thin Film Coatings for Suppressing Electron Multipacting in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Chiggiato, P; Neupert, H; Shaposhnikova, E N; Taborelli, M; Vollenberg, W; Yin Vallgren, C

    2011-01-01

    Thin film coatings are an effective way for suppressing electron multipacting in particle accelerators. For bakeable beam pipes, the TiZrV Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) developed at CERN can provide a Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of 1.1 after activation at 180oC (24h). The coating process was implemented in large scale to coat the long straight sections and the experimental beam pipes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For non bakeable beam pipes, as those of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN started a campaign to develop a coating having a low SEY without need of in situ heating. Magnetron sputtered carbon thin films have shown SEY of 1 with marginal deterioration when exposed in air for months. This material is now being tested in both laboratory and accelerator environment. At CERN’s SPS, tests with electron cloud monitors attached to carbon coated chambers show no degradation of the coating after two years of operation interleaved with a total of 3 months of air exposure during shutdown periods...

  11. Comparing resource values at risk from wildfires with Forest Service fire suppression expenditures: Examples from 2003 western Montana wildfire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Calkin; Kevin Hyde; Krista Gebert; Greg Jones

    2005-01-01

    Determining the economic effectiveness of wildfire suppression activities is complicated by difficulties in identifying the area that would have burned and the associated resource value changes had suppression resources not been employed. We developed a case study using break-even analysis for two large wildfires from the 2003 fire season in western Montana -- the...

  12. [Introduction of the electronic prescription in a primary care district: impact on pharmaceutical expenditure and the factors determining its use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzón, Silvia; Mercader, Juan José; Montero, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Valencia, Raquel

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the impact of using the electronic prescription on pharmaceutical expenditure (PE), and to explore the factors determining its use. Two multiple regression models were constructed. For these two models, the PE and the percentage of electronic prescription use were taken respectively as dependent variables. Data from nine Primary care centres were included. Each point increase in prescription by active principle (PAP) was associated with an average reduction of 2,079 PE € per year. In contrast, every percentage increase in the use of electronic prescriptions was associated with an annual increase of 1,027 €. In addition, factors like card adjusted for age and type of pharmacy (TAFE) allocated (€ 36.71/year), the burden of care (€ 2,585/year) and frequency of clinic visits (€ 17,148/year), were also associated with increased PE. The other factors associated with an increase in the electronic prescriptions were, lower rurality rates, greater distance from the capital, greater PAP, as well as less clinic visits. Electronic prescription use seems to be a predictor of pharmaceutical expenditure in which every percentage increase relates to an average annual increase of 1,027 Euros. This variable along with the prescription by active principle, and the amount of TAFEs assigned, as well as the burden of care and number of visits, are variables which help to explain more than 65% of the PE variability between physicians. Likewise, the increase in expenditures related to electronic prescriptions seems to occur at the expense of increasing number of prescriptions per patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bo; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chi; Xia, Zhixiong; Dai, Jianli; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Feng; He, Shengqi; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Mingliang; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia; Liu, Jianmiao; Liu, Jianfeng; Jia, Weiping; Qiu, Yifu; Song, Baoliang; Han, Jing-Dong J; Rui, Liangyou; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. Myeloid-specific IRE1α abrogation in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice largely reversed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly higher in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, IRE1α ablation augmented M2 polarization of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, IRE1α senses protein unfolding and metabolic and immunological states, and consequently guides ATM polarization. The macrophage IRE1α pathway drives obesity and metabolic syndrome through impairing BAT activity and WAT browning.

  14. All-electronic suppression of mode hopping noise in diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, L.

    1990-01-01

    A simple all-electronic stabilization scheme is presented for suppression of external-cavity mode-hopping noise in diode lasers. This excess noise is generated when the laser is subjected to optical feedback and may degrade the overall performance of optical systems including sensors. Suppression...

  15. Suppression secondary electrons from target surface under pulsed ion beams bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Peng Yufei; Long Jidong; Lan Chaohui; Dong Pan; Shi Jinshui

    2012-01-01

    The producing mechanism of secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment is discussed. Several methods to suppress the secondary electrons in special vacuum devices and their advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The ways of using self-bias and curved surface target are proposed and verified in the experiment. The results show that the secondary electrons can be effectively suppressed when the self-bias is larger than 80 V. The secondary electron yield decreases by using curved surface target instead of flat target. The secondary electron yield calculated from the experimental data is about 0.67, which is slightly larger than the value (0.58) from the literature due to the impurities of the ion beam and target surface. The effect of suppressing the electron countercurrent by the self-bias method is analyzed. The result shows that the self-bias method can not only suppress the secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment, but also suppress the electron countercurrent resulting from the instability of the pulsed power source. (authors)

  16. Influence on rod-pinch diode performance of suppressing electron emission from different cathode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yi; Lv Min; Qiu Aici; Yang Hailiang; Liang Tianxue; Zhang Zhong

    2010-01-01

    The electron pinching process of a rod-pinch diode is simulated with UNIPIC. It indicates that the pinching characteristics of the electrons emitted from different cathode surfaces differ significantly. The electrons emitted from the downstream surface pinch worst, with large amount of electrons hitting upstream of the rod, which increases the axial bremsstrahlung X-ray spot size. The simulation results show that suppressing electron emission from the downstream surface will reduce the axial X-ray spot size and improve the pinching quality. Composite cathodes are designed to investigate the influence of suppressing electron emission from the upstream or downstream surface. Experiments are performed on the new-built IVA (Inductive Voltage Adder) device at the peak voltage of ∼1.5 MV, and the peak current of ∼44 kA. It is shown that the composite cathode is effective in suppressing electron emission from the specific surface, the axial X-ray spot size in the case of downstream suppression is about 14.5% less than the case of upstream suppression and in both cases, the axis-on X-ray dose at 1 meter from the rod tip is ∼1.9rads, validating the simulation results. (authors)

  17. Dosimetric impact of a CT metal artefact suppression algorithm for proton, electron and photon therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jikun; Sandison, George A; Hsi, W-C; Ringor, Michael; Lu Xiaoyi

    2006-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation is essential to precision radiation treatment planning and this accuracy depends upon anatomic and tissue electron density information. Modern treatment planning inhomogeneity corrections use x-ray CT images and calibrated scales of tissue CT number to electron density to provide this information. The presence of metal in the volume scanned by an x-ray CT scanner causes metal induced image artefacts that influence CT numbers and thereby introduce errors in the radiation dose distribution calculated. This paper investigates the dosimetric improvement achieved by a previously proposed x-ray CT metal artefact suppression technique when the suppressed images of a patient with bilateral hip prostheses are used in commercial treatment planning systems for proton, electron or photon therapies. For all these beam types, this clinical image and treatment planning study reveals that the target may be severely underdosed if a metal artefact-contaminated image is used for dose calculations instead of the artefact suppressed one. Of the three beam types studied, the metal artefact suppression is most important for proton therapy dose calculations, intermediate for electron therapy and least important for x-ray therapy but still significant. The study of a water phantom having a metal rod simulating a hip prosthesis indicates that CT numbers generated after image processing for metal artefact suppression are accurate and thus dose calculations based on the metal artefact suppressed images will be of high fidelity

  18. How does methylation suppress the electron-induced decomposition of 1-methyl-nitroimidazoles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoski, F.; Varella, M. T. do N.

    2017-10-01

    The efficient decomposition of nitroimidazoles (NIs) by low energy electrons is believed to underlie their radiosensitizing properties. Recent dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements showed that methylation at the N1 site unexpectedly suppresses the electron-induced reactions in 4(5)-NI. We report theoretical results that provide a clear interpretation of that astounding finding. Around 1.5 eV, DEA reactions into several fragments are initiated by a π* resonance, not considered in previous studies. The autoionization lifetime of this anion state, which limits the predissociation dynamics, is considerably shorter in the methylated species, thereby suppressing the DEA signals. On the other hand, the lifetime of the π* resonance located around 3 eV is less affected by methylation, which explains why DEA is still observed at these energies. Our results demonstrate how even a simple methylation can significantly modify the probabilities for DEA reactions, which may be significant for NI-based cancer therapy.

  19. Transverse to longitudinal phase space coupling in an electron beam for suppression of microbunching instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhang Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbunching instability developed during the beam compression process in the linear accelerator (LINAC of a free-electron laser (FEL facility has always been a problem that degrades the lasing performance, and even no FEL is able to be produced if the beam quality is destroyed too much by the instability. A common way to suppress the microbunching instability is to introduce extra uncorrelated energy spread by the laser heater that heats the beam through the interaction between the electron and laser beam, as what has been successfully implemented in the Linac Coherent Light Source and Fermi@Elettra. In this paper, a simple and effective scheme is proposed to suppress the microbunching instability by adding two transverse gradient undulators (TGU before and after the magnetic bunch compressor. The additional uncorrelated energy spread and the density mixing from the transverse spread brought up by the first TGU results in significant suppression of the instability. Meanwhile, the extra slice energy spread and the transverse emittance can also be effectively recovered by the second TGU. The magnitude of the suppression can be easily controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic fields of the TGUs. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in the LINAC of an x-ray free-electron laser facility.

  20. Exact suppression of depolarisation by beam-beam interaction in an electron ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1983-03-01

    It is shown that depolarisation due to beam-beam interaction can be exactly suppressed in an electron storage ring. The necessary ''spin matching'' conditions to be fulfilled are derived for a planar ring. They depend on the ring optics, assumed linear, but not on the features of the beam-beam force, like intensity and non-linearity. Extension to a ring equipped with 90 0 spin rotators is straightorward

  1. Strong suppression of shot noise in a feedback-controlled single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Timo; Strasberg, Philipp; Bayer, Johannes C.; Rugeramigabo, Eddy P.; Brandes, Tobias; Haug, Rolf J.

    2017-03-01

    Feedback control of quantum mechanical systems is rapidly attracting attention not only due to fundamental questions about quantum measurements, but also because of its novel applications in many fields in physics. Quantum control has been studied intensively in quantum optics but progress has recently been made in the control of solid-state qubits as well. In quantum transport only a few active and passive feedback experiments have been realized on the level of single electrons, although theoretical proposals exist. Here we demonstrate the suppression of shot noise in a single-electron transistor using an exclusively electronic closed-loop feedback to monitor and adjust the counting statistics. With increasing feedback response we observe a stronger suppression and faster freezing of charge current fluctuations. Our technique is analogous to the generation of squeezed light with in-loop photodetection as used in quantum optics. Sub-Poisson single-electron sources will pave the way for high-precision measurements in quantum transport similar to optical or optomechanical equivalents.

  2. Suppression of high-energy electrons generated in both disrupting and sustained MST tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Munaretto, S.; Cornille, B. S.; McCollam, K. J.; Sovinec, C. R.; Dubois, A. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Goetz, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    High-energy electrons appearing during MST tokamak plasma disruptions are rapidly lost from the plasma due apparently to internal MHD activity. Work has just recently begun on generating and diagnosing disruptions in MST tokamak plasmas. Initial measurements show the characteristic drop in central temperature and density preceding a quench of the plasma current. This corresponds to a burst of dominantly n=1 MHD activity, which is accompanied by a short-lived burst of high-energy electrons. The short-lived nature of these electrons is suspected to be due to stochastic transport associated with the increased MHD. Earlier work shows that runaway electrons generated in low density, sustained plasmas are suppressed by a sufficiently large m=3 RMP in plasmas with q(a) wound around the vertical insulated gap in MST's thick conducting shell. With an m=3 RMP, the degree of runaway suppression increases with RMP amplitude, while an m=1 RMP has little effect on the runaways. Nonlinear MHD modeling with NIMROD of these MST plasmas indicates increased stochasticity with an m=3 RMP, while no such increase in stochasticity is observed with an m=1 RMP. Work supported by US DOE.

  3. Suppression of discharge breakdown of polyethylene insulation during electron beam irradiation to power cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Hosoi, F.; Kasai, N.; Hagiwara, M.

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to apply the electron beam process to the crosslinking procedure for polyethylene insulation of high tension power cables, the suppression of discharge breakdown during irradiation has been investigated in the presence of crosslinking agents. Alkylamines of strong basicity and secondary or tertiary alcoholamines were found to be effective additives to suppress the discharge breakdown. The retardation of crosslinking by amines was minimized by reducing the amount of an amine and adding an alcohol instead. Polyethylene compounds contaning crosslinking agents, amines and alcohols which gave properties suitable for insulating a cable were obtained. The feasibility of these results are ascertained by irradiating cable specimens of a 22 kV class. (author)

  4. Electron suppression in the H- beam from a Penning surface-plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.

    1993-01-01

    The ratio of electrons to negative ions extracted from Penning surface-plasma sources such as the 8X source is low even before any further steps are taken to suppress the electrons. For the 8X source the e - /H - ratio is typically four or five to one for H - operation and nine to one for D - operation. Because the coextracted e - present a power-loading problem to the 8X-source extraction system, methods to dissipate and/or reduce the power in the e - beam must be developed before extracting a dc H - or D - beam. Thus, we systematically varied the geometry of a cylindrical collar installed in the near-extraction region of the 8X source. The observed dependence of the extracted e - and H - currents on the collar radii and lengths suggests that a conical collar would provide superior electron suppression. The conical collar that we tested lowered the e - /H - ratio to 0.9/1 without reducing the extracted H - current

  5. Vibration Suppression of Electronic Box by a Dual Function Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Tuned Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Rafique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry

  6. Suppression of the Transit -Time Instability in Large-Area Electron Beam Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew C.; Friedman, Moshe; Swanekamp, Stephen B.; Chan, Lop-Yung; Ludeking, Larry; Sethian, John D.

    2002-12-01

    Experiment, theory, and simulation have shown that large-area electron-beam diodes are susceptible to the transit-time instability. The instability modulates the electron beam spatially and temporally, producing a wide spread in electron energy and momentum distributions. The result is gross inefficiency in beam generation and propagation. Simulations indicate that a periodic, slotted cathode structure that is loaded with resistive elements may be used to eliminate the instability. Such a cathode has been fielded on one of the two opposing 60 cm × 200 cm diodes on the NIKE KrF laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. These diodes typically deliver 600 kV, 500 kA, 250 ns electron beams to the laser cell in an external magnetic field of 0.2 T. We conclude that the slotted cathode suppressed the transit-time instability such that the RF power was reduced by a factor of 9 and that electron transmission efficiency into the laser gas was improved by more than 50%.

  7. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  8. Feedback for suppression of single-bunch transverse instability in electron-positron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaluk, V; Sukhanov, D; Oreshonok, V; Cherepanov, V; Kiselev, V

    2012-01-01

    Transverse head-tail instability is a severe limitation of a single-bunch beam current in circular accelerators. Applicability and efficiency of feedbacks for suppression of the instability is analyzed. Both chromatic and nonlinear effects have been taken into account to understand the processes of excitation and damping of the instability. Analytical estimations are compared with the results of experiments and numerical simulations. A feedback system has been developed, installed and commissioned at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider. An original scheme of the kicker powering has been developed to provide the necessary performance with minimal expenses. Real-time digital data processing performed by a code running in an FPGA module provides high efficiency and flexibility of the system. During the system commissioning, a more than threefold increase of intensity of the VEPP-4M single-bunch beam has been achieved.

  9. Increased electron temperature turbulence during suppression of edge localized mode by resonant magnetic perturbations in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, C.; Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Smith, S. P.; Osborne, T. H.; Ono, M.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Groebner, R. J.; Davis, E. M.; Zeng, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Evans, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    The first observation of increased electron temperature turbulence during edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is presented. These are long wavelength fluctuations (kθρs ≤ 0.2, where kθ = poloidal wavenumber and ρs = ion sound gyroradius) observed during H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D. This increase occurs only after ELMs are suppressed and are not observed during the initial RMP application. The T˜ e/Te increases ( >60%) are coincident with changes in normalized density and electron temperature gradients in the region from the top of the pedestal outward to the upper portion of the steep edge gradient. Density turbulence (kθρs ≤ 0.4) in this location was also observed to increase only after ELM suppression. These results are significant since they indicate that increased gradient-driven turbulent transport is one possible mechanism to regulate and maintain ELM-free H-mode operation. Investigation of linear stability of drift wave instabilities using the CGYRO code [Candy et al., J. Comput. Phys. 324, 73 (2016)] shows that the dominant mode moves closer to the electron mode branch from the ion mode branch only after ELMs are suppressed, correlated with the increased turbulence. The increased turbulence during ELM suppression, rather than with the initial RMP application, indicates that the often observed RMP induced "density pump-out" cannot be attributed to long wavelength edge turbulence level changes.

  10. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, David

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation (γ). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from 60 Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by 60 Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA + (Study 1) and celB + (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10 8 cells g -1 peat. At high rates, above 40 kGy, and after long

  11. National Health Expenditure Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...

  12. A study of transport suppression in an undoped AlGaAs/GaAs quantum dot single-electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, A. M.; Klochan, O.; Micolich, P.

    2013-01-01

    . The temperature and magnetic field dependences of these features indicate the couplings between the leads and the quantum dot states are suppressed. We attribute this to two possible mechanisms: spin effects which determine whether a particular charge transition is allowed based on the change in total spin......, and the interference effects which arise from coherent tunnelling of electrons in the quantum dot....

  13. Experimental studies on the production and suppression mechanism of the hot electrons produced by short wavelength laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Lanying; Jiang Xiaohua; Zhao Xuewei; Li Sanwei; Zhang Wenhai; Li Chaoguang; Zheng Zhijian; Ding Yongkun

    1999-12-01

    The experiments on gold-disk and hohlraum and plastic hydrocarbon (CH) film targets irradiated by laser beams with wavelength 0.35 μm (Xingguang-II) and 0.53 μm (Shenguang-I) are performed. The characteristics of hot electrons are commonly deduced from spectrum of hard X-ray. Associated with the measurement of backward SRS and 3/2ω 0 , the production mechanism of hot electrons for different target type is analyzed in laser plasma with shorter wavelength. A effective way to suppress hot electrons has been found

  14. Electronic cigarette aerosols suppress cellular antioxidant defenses and induce significant oxidative DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengatesh Ganapathy

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (EC aerosols contain unique compounds in addition to toxicants and carcinogens traditionally found in tobacco smoke. Studies are warranted to understand the public health risks of ECs.The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity and the mechanisms induced by EC aerosol extracts on human oral and lung epithelial cells.Cells were exposed to EC aerosol or mainstream smoke extracts and DNA damage was measured using the primer anchored DNA damage detection assay (q-PADDA and 8-oxo-dG ELISA assay. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured using standard methods. mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively.EC aerosol extracts induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of nicotine concentration. Overall, EC aerosol extracts induced significantly less DNA damage than mainstream smoke extracts, as measured by q-PADDA. However, the levels of oxidative DNA damage, as indicated by the presence of 8-oxo-dG, a highly mutagenic DNA lesion, were similar or slightly higher after exposure to EC aerosol compared to mainstream smoke extracts. Mechanistically, while exposure to EC extracts significantly increased ROS, it decreased TAC as well as the expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1, an enzyme essential for the removal of oxidative DNA damage.Exposure to EC aerosol extracts suppressed the cellular antioxidant defenses and led to significant DNA damage. These findings emphasize the urgent need to investigate the potential long-term cancer risk of exposure to EC aerosol for vapers and the general public.

  15. Spectral weight suppression near a metal-insulator transition in a double-layer electron-doped iridate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affeldt, Gregory; Hogan, Tom; Smallwood, Christopher L.; Das, Tanmoy; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Wilson, Stephen D.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2017-06-01

    The perovskite iridates Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 represent novel systems for exploring the electronic structure that is characteristic of Mott insulators upon carrier doping. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we reveal a previously unobserved suppression of spectral weight near the Fermi level in the conduction band of very lightly electron-doped (Sr1-xLax) 3Ir2O7 followed by a loss of coherence at high temperature. The doping and temperature dependence of this suppression suggests a correspondence with the antiferromagnetic Mott state. These results connect (Sr1-xLax) 3Ir2O7 to other doped Mott insulators and add to the growing evidence of universal physics in these systems.

  16. Longitudinal space charge assisted echo seeding of a free-electron laser with laser-spoiler noise suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hacker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed lasers are employed to improve the temporal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL light. However, when these seed pulses are short relative to the particle bunch, the noisy, temporally incoherent radiation from the unseeded electrons can overwhelm the coherent, seeded radiation. In this paper, a technique to seed a particle bunch with an external laser is presented in which a new mechanism to improve the contrast between coherent and incoherent free electron laser radiation is employed together with a novel, simplified echo-seeding method. The concept relies on a combination of longitudinal space charge wakes and an echo-seeding technique to make a short, coherent pulse of FEL light together with noise background suppression. Several different simulation codes are used to illustrate the concept with conditions at the soft x-ray free-electron laser in Hamburg, FLASH.

  17. Charging suppression in focused-ion beam fabrication of visible subwavelength dielectric grating reflector using electron conducting polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-08-19

    Nanoscale periodic patterning on insulating materials using focused-ion beam (FIB) is challenging because of charging effect, which causes pattern distortion and resolution degradation. In this paper, the authors used a charging suppression scheme using electron conducting polymer for the implementation of FIB patterned dielectric subwavelength grating (SWG) reflector. Prior to the FIB patterning, the authors numerically designed the optimal structure and the fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters (period, grating thickness, fill-factor, and low refractive index layer thickness) using the rigorous-coupled wave analysis computation. Then, the authors performed the FIB patterning on the dielectric SWG reflector spin-coated with electron conducting polymer for the anticharging purpose. They also performed similar patterning using thin conductive film anticharging scheme (30 nm Cr coating) for comparison. Their results show that the electron conducting polymer anticharging scheme effectively suppressing the charging effect during the FIB patterning of dielectric SWG reflector. The fabricated grating exhibited nanoscale precision, high uniformity and contrast, constant patterning, and complied with fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters across the entire patterned area. Utilization of electron conducting polymer leads to a simpler anticharging scheme with high precision and uniformity for FIB patterning on insulator materials.

  18. Suppressed spin dephasing for two-dimensional and bulk electrons in GaAs wires due to engineered cancellation of spin-orbit interaction terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denega, S.Z.; Last, Thorsten; Liu, J.; Slachter, A.; Rizo, P.J.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Wees, B.J. van; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A.D.; Wal, C.H. van der

    2010-01-01

    We report a study of suppressed spin dephasing for quasi-one-dimensional electron ensembles in wires etched into a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system. Time-resolved Kerr-rotation measurements show a suppression that is most pronounced for wires along the [110] crystal direction. This is the

  19. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  20. A model for the advantage of early electron cyclotron current drive in the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaros, Avrilios; Maraschek, Marc; Zohm, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    An analytic model for the advantage of the early application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) is presented. The improved performance of early ECCD is attributed to the second (smaller) saturation island width, which appears for sufficiently small (relative to the ECCD deposition width) critical island widths, in the strongly nonlinear growth rate profile. The operational range for the advantage of early ECCD is obtained, and it is shown that it is favored by broad deposition profiles. The preliminary experimental results in ASDEX Upgrade [H. Zohm et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 197 (2001)] are consistent with the present model

  1. Transverse momentum and centrality dependence of high-ptnon-photonic electron suppression in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2006-07-11

    The STAR collaboration at RHIC reports measurements of theinclusive yield of non-photonic electrons, which arise dominantly fromsemi-leptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons, over a broad range oftransverse momenta (1.2electron yieldexhibits unexpectedly large suppression in central AuAu collisions athigh pt, suggesting substantial heavy quark energy loss at RHIC. Thecentrality and \\pt dependences of the suppression provide constraints ontheoretical models of suppression.

  2. Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; Chou, Weiren; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements.

  3. Note: Self-biased voltage to suppress secondary electrons by a ZnO varistor in a compact pulsed neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Li, X.; Li, J.; Long, J. D.; Lan, C. H.; Wang, T.; Dong, P.; He, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    A large amount of back streaming electrons will bring about a part of current drain on power supply, cause sparking or high-voltage breakdowns, and affect the neutron yield and waveform for a compact sealed-tube pulsed neutron generator. A novel idea which uses a ZnO varistor to provide a constant self-biased voltage to suppress the secondary electrons is introduced. The I-V curve for the ZnO varistor was measured in the experiment. The effects of suppressing the secondary electrons were investigated using a ZnO varistor, linear resistors, and an independent power supply, respectively. The results show that the secondary electrons are suppressed effectively by the compact ZnO varistor, while not increasing the size and the component of the device. It is a promising design for compact sealed-tube neutron generators.

  4. Examining heterogeneity and wildfire management expenditures using spatially and temporally descriptive data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Hand; Matthew P. Thompson; Dave Calkin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing costs of wildfire management have highlighted the need to better understand suppression expenditures and potential tradeoffs of land management activities that may affect fire risks. Spatially and temporally descriptive data is used to develop a model of wildfire suppression expenditures, providing new insights into the role of spatial and temporal...

  5. Suppression of Octahedral Tilts and Associated Changes in Electronic Properties at Epitaxial Oxide Heterostructure Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisevich, A.Y.; Chang, H.J.; Huijben, Mark; Oxley, M.P.; Okamoto, S.; Niranjan, M.K.; Burton, J.D.; Tsymbal, E.Y.; Chu, Y.H.; Yu, P.; Ramesh, R.; Kalinin, S.V.; Pennycook, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial oxide interfaces with broken translational symmetry have emerged as a central paradigm behind the novel behaviors of oxide superlattices. Here, we use scanning transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate a direct, quantitative unit-cell-by-unit-cell mapping of lattice parameters and

  6. Suppression of Electron Thermal Conduction by Whistler Turbulence in a Sustained Thermal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberg-Clark, G. T.; Drake, J. F.; Reynolds, C. S.; Swisdak, M.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of weakly magnetized collisionless plasmas in the presence of an imposed temperature gradient along an ambient magnetic field is explored with particle-in-cell simulations and modeling. Two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures drive an electron heat flux that destabilizes off-angle whistler-type modes. The whistlers grow to large amplitude, δ B /B0≃1 , and resonantly scatter the electrons, significantly reducing the heat flux. Surprisingly, the resulting steady-state heat flux is largely independent of the thermal gradient. The rate of thermal conduction is instead controlled by the finite propagation speed of the whistlers, which act as mobile scattering centers that convect the thermal energy of the hot reservoir. The results are relevant to thermal transport in high-β astrophysical plasmas such as hot accretion flows and the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters.

  7. Suppression of low-energy dissociative electron attachment in Fe(CO)5 upon clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lengyel, Jozef; Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Fárník, Michal; Fedor, Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), s. 2200-2207 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04844S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04068S; GA ČR GJ16-10995Y Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : aggregation effects * FEBID * dissociative electron attachment Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  8. Suppression of Systematic Errors of Electronic Distance Meters for Measurement of Short Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jaroslav; Štroner, Martin; Urban, Rudolf; Dvoček, Filip

    2015-08-06

    In modern industrial geodesy, high demands are placed on the final accuracy, with expectations currently falling below 1 mm. The measurement methodology and surveying instruments used have to be adjusted to meet these stringent requirements, especially the total stations as the most often used instruments. A standard deviation of the measured distance is the accuracy parameter, commonly between 1 and 2 mm. This parameter is often discussed in conjunction with the determination of the real accuracy of measurements at very short distances (5-50 m) because it is generally known that this accuracy cannot be increased by simply repeating the measurement because a considerable part of the error is systematic. This article describes the detailed testing of electronic distance meters to determine the absolute size of their systematic errors, their stability over time, their repeatability and the real accuracy of their distance measurement. Twenty instruments (total stations) have been tested, and more than 60,000 distances in total were measured to determine the accuracy and precision parameters of the distance meters. Based on the experiments' results, calibration procedures were designed, including a special correction function for each instrument, whose usage reduces the standard deviation of the measurement of distance by at least 50%.

  9. Energy Expenditure and Intake Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The main components of total energy expenditure are energy expenditure for maintenance or basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food or diet-induced energy expenditure (DEE), and the energy cost of physical activity or activity-induced energy expenditure (AEE). This chapter describes methods

  10. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Projecting future drug expenditures--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James M; Li, Edward; Doloresco, Fred; Matusiak, Linda; Hunkler, Robert J; Shah, Nilay D; Vermeulen, Lee C; Schumock, Glen T

    2012-03-01

    Factors likely to influence drug expenditures, drug expenditure trends in 2010 and 2011, and projected drug expenditures for 2012 are discussed. Data were analyzed to provide drug expenditure trends for total drug expenditures and the hospital and clinic sectors. Data were obtained from the IMS Health National Sales Perspectives database. From 2009 to 2010, total U.S. drug expenditures increased by 2.7%, with total spending rising from $299.2 billion to $307.5 billion. Drug expenditures in clinics grew by 6.0% from 2009 to 2010. Hospital drug expenditures increased at the moderate rate of 1.5% from 2009 to 2010; through the first nine months of 2011, hospital drug expenditures increased by only 0.3% compared with the same period in 2010. The dominant trend over the past several years is substantial moderation in expenditure growth for widely used drugs, primarily due to the ongoing introduction and wide use of generic versions of high-cost, frequently used medications. At the end of 2010, generic drugs accounted for 78% of all retail prescriptions dispensed. Another pattern is substantial increases in expenditures for specialized medications, particularly in the outpatient setting as growth in prescription drug expenditures for clinic-administered drugs consistently outpaces growth in total expenditures. Various factors are likely to influence drug expenditures in 2012, including drugs in development, the diffusion of new drugs, generic drugs, drug shortages, and biosimilars. For 2012, we project a 3-5% increase in total drug expenditures across all settings, a 5-7% increase in expenditures for clinic-administered drugs, and a 0-2% increase in hospital drug expenditures.

  12. Energy expenditure in caving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Antoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1, respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  13. [Health expenditures for cases of pleural mesothelioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C

    2015-09-09

    Through the study of 65 cases of probable pleural mesothelioma currently under discussion in 4 criminal trials in the Lombardy Region, who died between 2002 and 2015, this study aimed to provide economical information regarding the health expenditures sustained by the Regional Health Service (RHS) for providing hospitalization, outpatient services and drugs to such patients. Health information regarding the services provided for the cases under study were electronically retrieved from the RHS information system. For each pleural mesothelioma case the costs (on average) were about 67,000 euros, 37,000 of which were spent after the date of diagnosis. Drugs formed the largest part of health expenditure (about 37,000 euros per person). Per capita expenditures showed a peak near (before and after) the date of diagnosis, rising when approaching the date of death and with increasing age of the patient, and did not vary with survival time. This information, reported for the first time in detail in this paper, will be useful for out-of-court agreements and for setting up reimbursement schemes, and describe per capita expenditures which are higher than estimations proposed in recent criminal trials in Italy and to those reported in the international literature.

  14. Enhanced Algorithms for EO/IR Electronic Stabilization, Clutter Suppression, and Track-Before-Detect for Multiple Low Observable Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a suite of advanced algorithms which provide significantly-improved capabilities for finding, fixing, and tracking multiple ballistic and flying low observable objects in highly stressing cluttered environments. The algorithms have been developed for use in satellite-based staring and scanning optical surveillance suites for applications including theatre and intercontinental ballistic missile early warning, trajectory prediction, and multi-sensor track handoff for midcourse discrimination and intercept. The functions performed by the algorithms include electronic sensor motion compensation providing sub-pixel stabilization (to 1/100 of a pixel), as well as advanced temporal-spatial clutter estimation and suppression to below sensor noise levels, followed by statistical background modeling and Bayesian multiple-target track-before-detect filtering. The multiple-target tracking is performed in physical world coordinates to allow for multi-sensor fusion, trajectory prediction, and intercept. Output of detected object cues and data visualization are also provided. The algorithms are designed to handle a wide variety of real-world challenges. Imaged scenes may be highly complex and infinitely varied -- the scene background may contain significant celestial, earth limb, or terrestrial clutter. For example, when viewing combined earth limb and terrestrial scenes, a combination of stationary and non-stationary clutter may be present, including cloud formations, varying atmospheric transmittance and reflectance of sunlight and other celestial light sources, aurora, glint off sea surfaces, and varied natural and man-made terrain features. The targets of interest may also appear to be dim, relative to the scene background, rendering much of the existing deployed software useless for optical target detection and tracking. Additionally, it may be necessary to detect and track a large number of objects in the threat cloud

  15. Suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas in LaGaO3/SrTiO3 by cation intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2013-12-03

    Cation intermixing at the n-type polar LaGaO 3 /SrTiO 3 (001) interface is investigated by first principles calculations. Ti"Ga, Sr"La, and SrTi"LaGa intermixing are studied in comparison to each other, with a focus on the interface stability. We demonstrate in which cases intermixing is energetically favorable as compared to a clean interface. A depopulation of the Ti 3d xy orbitals under cation intermixing is found, reflecting a complete suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas present at the clean interface.

  16. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  17. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  18. Nanoscale fabrication by intrinsic suppression of proximity-electron exposures and general considerations for easy and effective top–down fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolf, H; Inderbitzin, K; Gómez, L B; Engel, A; Schilling, A

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a planar process development based on the combination of electron-beam lithography and dry etching for fabricating high-quality superconducting photosensitive structures in the sub-100 nm regime. The devices were fabricated by the application of an intrinsic proximity-effect suppression procedure which makes the need for an elaborated correction algorithm redundant for planar design layouts which are orders of magnitude smaller than the backscattering length. In addition, we discuss the necessary considerations for extending the fabrication spatial scale of optical contact-lithography with a mercury arc-discharge photon source down to the order of the exposure photon's wavelength (sub-μm), thereby minimizing the writing time on the electron-beam lithograph. Finally we developed a unique and novel technique for controlling the undercut during a planar lift-off fabrication procedure without cleaving the wafer

  19. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  20. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  1. Beam-induced back-streaming electron suppression analysis for an accelerator type neutron generator designed for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Cory; Ayllon, Mauricio; Becker, Tim; Bernstein, Lee; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kirsch, Leo; Renne, Paul; Bibber, Karl Van

    2017-07-01

    A facility based on a next-generation, high-flux D-D neutron generator has been commissioned and it is now operational at the University of California, Berkeley. The current generator designed for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of geological materials produces nearly monoenergetic 2.45MeV neutrons at outputs of 10 8 n/s. The narrow energy range is advantageous relative to the 235 U fission spectrum neutrons due to (i) reduced 39 Ar recoil energy, (ii) minimized production of interfering argon isotopes from K, Ca, and Cl, and (iii) reduced total activity for radiological safety and waste generation. Calculations provided show that future conditioning at higher currents and voltages will allow for a neutron output of over 10 10 n/s, which is a necessary requirement for production of measurable quantities of 39 Ar through the reaction 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar. A significant problem encountered with increasing deuteron current was beam-induced electron backstreaming. Two methods of suppressing secondary electrons resulting from the deuterium beam striking the target were tested: the application of static electric and magnetic fields. Computational simulations of both techniques were done using a finite element analysis in COMSOL Multiphysics ® . Experimental tests verified these simulations. The most reliable suppression was achieved via the implementation of an electrostatic shroud with a voltage offset of -800V relative to the target. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Zn induced in-gap electronic states in La214 probed by uniform magnetic susceptibility: relevance to the suppression of superconducting T c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. S.; Naqib, S. H.

    2018-02-01

    Substitution of isovalent non-magnetic defects, such as Zn, in the CuO2 plane strongly modifies the magnetic properties of strongly electron correlated hole doped cuprate superconductors. The reason for enhanced uniform magnetic susceptibility, χ, in Zn substituted cuprates is debatable. Generally the defect induced magnetic behavior has been analyzed mainly in terms of two somewhat contrasting scenarios. The first one is due to independent localized moments appearing in the vicinity of Zn arising because of the strong electronic/magnetic correlations present in the host compound and the second one is due to transfer of quasiparticle (QP) spectral weight and creation of weakly localized low-energy electronic states associated with each Zn atom in place of an in-plane Cu. If the second scenario is correct, one should expect a direct correspondence between Zn induced suppression of the superconducting transition temperature, T c, and the extent of the enhanced magnetic susceptibility at low temperature. In this case, the low-T enhancement of χ would be due to weakly localized QP states at low energy and these electronic states will be precluded from taking part in Cooper pairing. We explore this second possibility by analyzing the χ(T) data for La2-x Sr x Cu1-y Zn y O4 with different hole contents, p (=x), and Zn concentrations (y) in this paper. The results of our analysis support this scenario.

  3. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP in the short and long term where you see the Wagner hypothesis that causal heading of GDP to government spending while there is a causal relationship analysis positive trending of government spending to GDP according to the Keynesian hypothesis in this study will be used descriptive analytical method to validate these hypotheses. Results in the short and long term made it clear that there is a difference in the outcome of Applied Studies where we find that each supports a relationship Wagner in the sense that the causal trending of real GDP to government spending and more precisely to increase the economic growth lead to increased aggregate demand which leads in turn increasing the need to increase government spending and to increase the resources available to the government sector to finance the increase in spending by the additional resources resulting from the economic growth while others opines opposes the existence of the relationship.

  4. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  5. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  6. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, David A., E-mail: david.deen@alumni.nd.edu; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Electronics Science and Technology Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics f{sub t}/f{sub max} of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with f{sub t}/f{sub max} of 48/60 GHz.

  7. Substituted perylene diimides as electron acceptors in organic solar cells: Suppressing aggregate formation to increase device efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, Valentin; Battagliarin, Glauco; Howard, Ian A.; Hansen, Michael; Spiess, Hans W.; Mavrinskiy, Alexey; Pisula, Wojciech; Li, Chen; Muellen, Klaus; Laquai, Frederic [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Perylene diimide (PDI) is a promising electron acceptor material for high open circuit voltage bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. However, many PDI molecules have the drawback of strong aggregation leading to intermolecular excited state formation that results in exciton trapping. These traps can effectively limit the diffusion of excitons to the interface where charge separation occurs and thus strongly reduce the charge generation efficiency. In this contribution we study the influence of substitution of PDI molecules with side groups attached to the terminal and to the perylene core positions on the formation of aggregates. In particular transient photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are used to probe the impact of aggregation on the dynamics of charge generation and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Besides, AFM, x-ray and solid state NMR techniques are used to get further insight into the solid state morphology of polymer: PDI blends on different length scales. Finally, we correlate the photophysical properties of the PDI derivatives with the efficiency of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells and present unprecedented efficiencies from polymer: PDI solar cells.

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo Modeling of Charge Carriers in Organic Electronic Devices: Suppression of the Self-Interaction Error

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Haoyuan

    2017-05-18

    Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have emerged as an important tool to help improve the efficiency of organic electronic devices by providing a better understanding of their device physics. In the KMC simulation of an organic device, the reliability of the results depends critically on the accuracy of the chosen charge-transfer rates, which are themselves strongly influenced by the site-energy differences. These site-energy differences include components coming from the electrostatic forces present in the system, which are often evaluated through electric potentials described by the Poisson equation. Here we show that the charge-carrier self-interaction errors that appear when evaluating the site-energy differences can lead to unreliable simulation results. To eliminate these errors, we propose two approaches that are also found to reduce the impact of finite-size effects. As a consequence, reliable results can be obtained at reduced computational costs. The proposed methodologies can be extended to other device simulation techniques as well.

  9. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants; Aplicacao da radiacao por feixe de eletrons como agente esterilizante de microorganismos em substrato turfoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, David

    2006-07-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation ({gamma}). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from {sup 60}Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by {sup 60}Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA{sup +} (Study 1) and celB{sup +} (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10{sup 8} cells g{sup -1} peat. At high rates

  10. Guidelines for Acceptable Project Expenditures

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    This appendix describes how to categorize allowable project expenditures by budget category. Specific limitations to what is allowable in a few categories are included in Part 2 of IDRC's standard grant agreement (see the section on Allowable Expenses) and should have been read prior to the submission of a budget ...

  11. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  12. Southeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. Expenditures on trips by mode (for-hire, private boat, and shore) were collected for...

  13. Medicaid CMS-64 New Adult Group Expenditures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset reports summary level expenditure data associated with the new adult group established under the Affordable Care Act. These state expenditures are...

  14. Malawi - Public Expenditures : Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report argues that public expenditure outcomes in Malawi, can be improved in the next few years, provided 1) additional spending on priority items is balanced by expenditure cut-backs in low priority areas, so that public expenditures remain within fiscal parameters to restore macroeconomic stability; 2) incentives for improving the budget process are strengthened; 3) intra-sectoral a...

  15. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality.

  16. Legal procedures regarding state budget expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government spending and the procedures for making them can be examined on the basis of many of public regulations, which are the legal grounds for these expenditure. The procedures of government spending can be studied in the field of personal expenditure of the state budget (including salaries, pensions and social benefits. Appropriate procedures are related to expenditure for purchases of goods and services and for making of public investments (e.g. public roads and buildings. An extensive area of expenditure is in the form of grants. There are special legal ways for transferring the budget grants to different legal organizations and entities. The state expenditure are fixed in the Budget Act. The implementation of the budgetary expenditure needs to take up, by state authorities and agencies, thousands of individual and concrete actions (e.g. the contracts, administrative decisions, other activities. That is, in the Budget Act fixed expenditure have, in principle, normative act features.

  17. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  18. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs

  19. [Health care expenditures and the aging population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, S

    2012-05-01

    The impact of a longer life on future health care expenditures will be quite moderate because of the high costs of dying and the compression of mortality in old age. If not age per se but proximity to death determines the bulk of expenditures, a shift in the mortality risk to higher ages will not significantly affect lifetime health care expenditures, as death occurs only once in every life. A calculation of the demographic effect on health care expenditures in Germany up until 2050 that explicitly accounts for costs in the last years of life leads to a significantly lower demographic impact on per-capita expenditures than a calculation based on crude age-specific health expenditures.

  20. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  1. Decomposing demand for public expenditure in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Liam; O'Toole, Francis

    2005-01-01

    This paper, via the analysis of stated preferences from a nationwide representative survey of 1,100 adults, examines the determinants of preferences for overall government expenditure and estimates a Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model of demand for the three major categories of public expenditures in Ireland, namely, social welfare, education and health. Those on higher incomes are less in favour of government expenditure overall. However, and consistent with the available evidence on...

  2. Corruption and health expenditure in Italian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Lagravinese; Massimo Paradiso

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the corruption is a social phenomenon affecting the health sector. In this paper we show that the impact of corruption on Italian health expenditure is positive, along with ageing population, technological change and supply factors inducing demand in pharmaceuticals and hospitalization. Moreover, the empirical analysis shows that corruption affects pharmaceutical expenditure and conventionated private hospital expenditure, suggesting a relation between corruption and the governance ...

  3. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  4. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  5. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  6. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  7. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  8. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  9. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  10. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  11. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  12. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  13. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  14. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  15. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  16. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  17. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  18. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  19. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  20. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  1. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  2. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  3. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  4. THE PROGNOSIS OF TOTAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURES AND TYPES OF EXPENDITURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA STANCIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide a prognosis of total public expenditure and types of expenditures, starting from the evolution in time of total public expenditure and spending on public services, defense, public order and safety, economic affairs, environmental protection, housing and community amenities, health, recreation, culture and religion, education and social protection.

  5. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Propensity Analysis on Consumption Expenditure of Rural Residents in Hebei Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guirong; Wang, Huijun

    2009-01-01

    Consumption expenditure of rural residents can be divided into eight types of indices, such as food consumption expenditure, clothing consumption expenditure, household equipment and service consumption expenditure, health care consumption expenditure, transportation and communication consumption expenditure, cultural and educational entertainment and service consumption expenditure, housing consumption expenditure, and other goods and services consumption expenditure. Changes in structures o...

  7. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  8. 44 CFR 361.8 - Ineligible expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.8 Ineligible expenditures. (a) Expenditures... for the purchase or rental of any equipment such as radio/telephone communications equipment, warning...

  9. Determinants of dairy consumption expenditure in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the level of household expenditure on dairy products and to identify the principal factors that influence the level of consumption expenditure on dairy products across households in Accra and Kumasi. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit primary information from a total of ...

  10. Relationship Between Education Expenditure And Economic Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical part of the result shows that there is unidirectional relationship between education and economic growth with causality running from education expenditure to economic growth. The result therefore suggests that policy makers should boost expenditure on education as it will further improve economic growth in ...

  11. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The

  12. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs

  13. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expenditure on cassava and other staple foods was determined for each household of the preschool children and classified into two groups and the average determined. Significance of difference between the mean Z – scores of the children for above and below average expenditure households was determined by Student ...

  14. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  15. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-07-01

    We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P episodic memory impairment was found. Expenditures exhibited a linear relationship with executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P < .01). Impairment in executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  18. Effect of Apple, Baobab, Red-Chicory, and Pear Extracts on Cellular Energy Expenditure and Morphology of Caco-2 Cells using Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of four food extracts on the Caco-2 intestinal cell line using a new transepithelial electrical resistance method (TEER) concurrent with electron microscopy (SEM). Caco-2 cells are widely used in transepithelial studies because they can be cultured to creat...

  19. Energy expenditure of acutely ill hospitalised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.

  20. Genetic Predisposition to Obesity and Medicare Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Domingue, Benjamin W; Ullrich, Fred; Wolinsky, Fredric D

    2017-12-12

    The relationship between obesity and health expenditures is not well understood. We examined the relationship between genetic predisposition to obesity measured by a polygenic risk score for body mass index (BMI) and Medicare expenditures. Biennial interview data from the Health and Retirement Survey for a nationally representative sample of older adults enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare were obtained from 1991 through 2010 and linked to Medicare claims for the same period and to Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) data. The study included 6,628 Medicare beneficiaries who provided 68,627 complete person-year observations during the study period. Outcomes were total and service-specific Medicare expenditures and indicators for expenditures exceeding the 75th and 90th percentiles. The BMI polygenic risk score was derived from GWAS data. Regression models were used to examine how the BMI polygenic risk score was related to health expenditures adjusting for demographic factors and GWAS-derived ancestry. Greater genetic predisposition to obesity was associated with higher Medicare expenditures. Specifically, a 1 SD increase in the BMI polygenic risk score was associated with a $805 (p genetic predisposition to obesity is associated with higher Medicare expenditures. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Energy expenditure of genuine laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, MS; Majchrzak, KM; Blomquist, K; Chen, KY; Byrne, DW; Bachorowski, J-A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To measure energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) during genuine laughter. Design Experimental trial of viewing film clips in four cycles either intended to evoke laughter (humorous −10 min) or unlikely to elicit laughter (not humorous −5 min) under strictly controlled conditions of a whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with audio recording system. Participants Forty five adult friend dyads in either same-sex male (n=7), same-sex female (n=21) and mix-sex male-female (n=17); age 18–34 years; body mass index 24.7±4.9 (range 17.9–41.1). Measurements Energy expenditure in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, HR using Polar HR monitor. Laugh rate, duration and type from digitized audio data using a computerized system and synchronized with HR and EE results. Results Laughter EE was 0.79±1.30 kJ/min (0.19±0.31 kcal/min) higher than resting EE (P<0.001, 95% confidence interval=0.75–0.88 kJ/min), ranging from −2.52 to 9.67 kJ/min (−0.60–2.31 kcal/min). Heart rate during laughter segments increased above resting by 2.1±3.8 beats/min, ranging from −7.6 to 26.8 beats/min. Laughter EE was correlated with HR (rs=0.250, P<0.01). Both laughter EE and HR were positively correlated with laughter duration (rs=0.282 and 0.337, both P<0.001) and rate (rs=0.256 and 0.298, both P<0.001). Conclusion Genuine voiced laughter causes a 10–20% increase in EE and HR above resting values, which means that 10–15 min of laughter per day could increase total EE by 40–170 kJ (10–40 kcal). PMID:16652129

  2. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  3. Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variat...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Modeling Per Capita State Health Expenditure Variation State-Level Characteristics Matter, published in Volume 3, Issue 4, of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  4. Reconciling Medical Expenditure Estimates from the MEPS...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Reconciling Medical Expenditure Estimates from the MEPS and NHEA, 2007, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review, provides a...

  5. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  6. Marine angler expenditures 2006 (NCEI Accession 0145343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Angler expenditures for their most recent trip in 2006, by fishing mode - for-hire, private boat, shore. Includes categories such as bait, ice, fuel, lodging, meals,...

  7. Hypocretin/orexin and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, J A; Billington, C J; Kotz, C M

    2010-03-01

    The hypocretins or orexins are endogenous neuropeptides synthesized in discrete lateral, perifornical and dorsal hypothalamic neurones. These multi-functional neuropeptides modulate energy homeostasis, arousal, stress, reward, reproduction and cardiovascular function. This review summarizes the role of hypocretins in modulating non-sleep-related energy expenditure with specific focus on the augmentation of whole body energy expenditure as well as hypocretin-induced physical activity and sympathetic outflow. We compare the efficacy of hypocretin-1 and 2 on energy expenditure and evaluate whether the literature implicates hypocretin signalling though the hypocretin-1 and -2 receptor as having shared and or functionally specific physiological effects. Thus far data suggest that hypocretin-1 has a more robust stimulatory effect relative to hypocretin-2. Furthermore, hypocretin-1 receptor predominantly mediates behaviours known to influence energy expenditure. Further studies on the hypocretin-2 receptor are needed.

  8. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty and government expenditure on growth strategies that have been implemented in Tanzania since the mid 2000s. The paper shows that despite impressive economic growth of about 6 percent per annum that the country has enjoyed in ...

  9. Engineering Synthesis of Nonlinear Spatial Selection with Artificial Intelligence Elements to Suppress Critical Interference of Background in Aviation and Space-Based Opto-Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Levshin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous authors’ works have shown that the system of quasi-optimal linear spatial filtering, due to the restriction of this class of filters, related to the superposition principle, has very limited capacity to suppress the most critical interference spatially inhomogeneous background. Such partial suppression does not meet extreme approach requirements for providing high probability characteristics to detect small targets in the most difficult background conditions.In this regard, there is a conclusion that it is necessary to find a different approach, in which the result of the system operation in complex background does not depend on the level of the background noise at the input. This article performs an engineering synthesis of the system with the artificial visual intelligence elements, which recognizes a class of the small-sized radiating objects with the suppression of the most critical interference through nonlinear topological selection.Consideration of this problem begins with the formation of the filter-discriminator aperture, which is a basis for this theory, «echoing» with the theory of optimal nonlinear filtering spatial Poisson processes. Thus, formation of the optimized nonlinear filter structure is based on the optimal linear filter (Wiener filter structure. As a result, there are three versions of filter apertures (4-, 8- and 16-connected ones, with one of which later providing operations of the object shape discrimination. The focus of the article is, mainly, on the 8-connected aperture, as the average in balance of efficiency and complexity option.The article pays considerable attention to development of signs and algorithms to select the objects by size and shape. It shows that selection on a uniform background is possible by the maximum value of the first derivative and to separate the most critical form of Markov’s field inhomogeneities and background brightness, as the fragments of component boundaries of

  10. Corruption and health expenditure in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lagravinese, Raffaele; Paradiso, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The vulnerability of health sector to corruption lies in the complex interaction between the social environment and the institutional setting of health systems. We investigate this interaction in the case of Italy, speci�cally looking at the impact of corruption on health expenditure. In Italy corruption is a social phenomenon. Health sector has been often involved in corruption o¤ences and decentralized health expenditure is considerably out of control. We show that the impact of corruption ...

  11. E-cigarette advertising expenditures in the U.S., 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Arnold, Kristin Y; Makarenko, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity, but little is known about the extent to which these products are advertised to consumers. To estimate expenditures for e-cigarette advertising in magazines, TV, the Internet, newspapers, and radio in the U.S. from 2011 to 2012. E-cigarette advertising data were obtained from leading media intelligence companies, Kantar Media and Nielsen. Estimated e-cigarette advertising expenditures were summarized across media channels for 2011 and 2012. Additional information on brands advertised and market-level buys (i.e., local versus national) also was examined. Overall, e-cigarette advertising expenditures across media channels tripled from $6.4 million in 2011 to $18.3 million in 2012. Expenditures were highest in magazines and TV and lowest in newspapers and on the Internet. More than 80 unique brands were advertised, but blu eCigs dominated ad spending, comprising 76.7% of all e-cigarette advertising expenditures in 2012. National markets were increasingly targeted from 54.9% of ad buys in 2011 to 87.0% of ad buys in 2012. E-cigarette advertising expenditures are increasing, with a greater focus on national markets and TV ads, which will likely increase consumer awareness and use of e-cigarettes in the future. Federal-level efforts are needed to mandate that e-cigarette companies report their advertising expenditures. Future studies should examine how e-cigarette advertising expenditures and message content influence consumer awareness of, interest in, and use of e-cigarettes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  12. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking expenditures... between the trigger level and Medicare expenditures for a FFY results in a carry forward that either...

  13. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Canikalp, Ebru; Unlukaplan, Ilter

    2017-01-01

    A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise ca...

  14. Managing the Effects of Tax Expenditures on National Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Zhicheng Li

    2006-01-01

    Tax expenditures, in the form of tax provisions, are government expenditures. They are conceptually and functionally distinct from those tax provisions whose purpose is to raise revenue. Tax expenditure programs are comparable to entitlement programs. Therefore, tax expenditures must be analyzed in spending terms and integrated into the budgetary process to ensure fiscal accountability. In addition, tax expenditures must be audited for performance and the information must be published (with c...

  15. Managing the effects of tax expenditures on the national budget

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Zhicheng Li

    2006-01-01

    Tax expenditures, in the form of tax provisions, are government expenditures. They are conceptually and functionally distinct from those tax provisions whose purpose is to raise revenue. Tax expenditure programs are comparable to entitlement programs. Therefore, tax expenditures must be analyzed in spending terms and integrated into the budgetary process to ensure fiscal accountability. In addition, tax expenditures must be audited for performance and the information must be published (with c...

  16. Obesity and health expenditures: evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Johar, Meliyanni

    2015-04-01

    Rising rates of obesity are a public health concern in every industrialized country. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and health care expenditure in Australia, where the rate of obesity has tripled in the last three decades. Now one in four Australians is considered obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of 30 or over. The analysis is based on a random sample survey of over 240,000 adults aged 45 and over that is linked at the individual-level to comprehensive administrative health care claims for the period 2006-2009. This sub-population group has an obesity rate that is nearly 30% and is a major consumer of health services. Relative to the average annual health expenditures of those with normal weight, we find that the health expenditures of those with a BMI between 30 and 35 (obese type I) are 19% higher and expenditures of those with BMI greater than 35 (obese type II/III) are 51% higher. We find large and significant differences in all types of care: inpatient, emergency department, outpatient and prescription drugs. The obesity-related health expenditures are higher for obese type I women than men, but in the obese type II/III state, obesity-related expenditures are higher for men. When we stratify further by age groups, we find that obesity has the largest impact among men over age 75 and women aged 60-74 years old. In addition, we find that obesity impacts health expenditures not only through its link to chronic diseases, but also because it increases the cost of recovery from acute health shocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Private dental insurance expenditure in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaes, Andreia Morales; de Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira; de Castilhos, Eduardo Dickie; Silva, lexandre Emídio Ribeiro; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To quantify the household expenditure per capita and to estimate the percentage of Brazilian households that have spent with dental insurance. METHODS We analyzed data from 55,970 households that participated in the research Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares in 2008–2009. We have analyzed the annual household expenditure per capita with dental insurance (business and private) according to the Brazilian states and the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the households (sex, age, race, and educational level of the head of the household, family income, and presence of an older adult in the household). RESULTS Only 2.5% of Brazilian households have reported spending on dental insurance. The amount spent per capita amounted to R$5.10 on average, most of which consisted of private dental insurance (R$4.70). Among the characteristics of the household, higher educational level and income were associated with higher spending. São Paulo was the state with the highest household expenditure per capita (R$10.90) and with the highest prevalence of households with expenditures (4.6%), while Amazonas and Tocantins had the lowest values, in which both spent less than R$1.00 and had a prevalence of less than 0.1% of households, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Only a small portion of the Brazilian households has dental insurance expenditure. The market for supplementary dentistry in oral health care covers a restricted portion of the Brazilian population. PMID:29489995

  18. Modeling Health Care Expenditures and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Partha; Norton, Edward C

    2018-04-01

    Health care expenditures and use are challenging to model because these dependent variables typically have distributions that are skewed with a large mass at zero. In this article, we describe estimation and interpretation of the effects of a natural experiment using two classes of nonlinear statistical models: one for health care expenditures and the other for counts of health care use. We extend prior analyses to test the effect of the ACA's young adult expansion on three different outcomes: total health care expenditures, office-based visits, and emergency department visits. Modeling the outcomes with a two-part or hurdle model, instead of a single-equation model, reveals that the ACA policy increased the number of office-based visits but decreased emergency department visits and overall spending.

  19. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  20. ELF wave production by an electron beam emitting rocket system and its suppression on auroral field lines - Evidence for Alfven and drift waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.; Abe, Y.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Orthogonal probes on a free-flying plasma diagnostics payload are used to study ELF electric disturbances in the auroral ionosphere that are due to the injection of powerful electron beams. Frequency spectrograms are presented for various pitch angles, pulsing characteristics, and other properties of the injected beams; the large scale DC ionospheric convection electric field is measured, together with auroral particle precipitation, visual auroral forms, and ionospheric parameters. In view of the experimental results obtained, it is postulated that the observed ELF waves are in the Alfven and drift modes, and are generated by the positive vehicle potential during beam injection.

  1. Counting calories in cormorants: dynamic body acceleration predicts daily energy expenditure measured in pelagic cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothart, Mason R; Elliott, Kyle H; Wood, Thomas; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R

    2016-07-15

    The integral of the dynamic component of acceleration over time has been proposed as a measure of energy expenditure in wild animals. We tested that idea by attaching accelerometers to the tails of free-ranging pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) and simultaneously estimating energy expenditure using doubly labelled water. Two different formulations of dynamic body acceleration, [vectorial and overall DBA (VeDBA and ODBA)], correlated with mass-specific energy expenditure (both R(2)=0.91). VeDBA models combining and separately parameterizing flying, diving, activity on land and surface swimming were consistently considered more parsimonious than time budget models and showed less variability in model fit. Additionally, we observed evidence for the presence of hypometabolic processes (i.e. reduced heart rate and body temperature; shunting of blood away from non-essential organs) that suppressed metabolism in cormorants while diving, which was the most metabolically important activity. We concluded that a combination of VeDBA and physiological processes accurately measured energy expenditure for cormorants. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn.

  3. The Effect of Recessions on Gambling Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); R. Paap (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the influence of the business cycle on expenditures of three major types of legalized gambling activities: Casino gambling, lottery, and pari-mutuel wagering. Empirical results are obtained using monthly aggregated US per capita consumption time series for the

  4. 18 CFR 154.402 - ACA expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ACA expenditures. 154.402 Section 154.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION.... The company must apply the ACA unit charge to the usage component of rate schedules with two-part...

  5. Chair-based fidgeting and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, Gabriel A; Moore, Graham K; Levine, James A

    2016-01-01

    Sedentariness is associated with chronic health conditions, impaired cognitive function and obesity. Work contributes significantly to sedentariness because many work tasks necessitate sitting. Few sustained solutions exist to reverse workplace sedentariness. Here, we evaluated a chair and an under-table device that were designed to promote fidgeting while seated. Our hypothesis was that an under-table leg-fidget bar and/or a fidget-promoting chair significantly increased energy expenditure. We compared these devices with chair-based exercise and walking. We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 16 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, an under-desk device that encourages leg fidgeting and a fidget-promoting chair. We compared outcomes with chair-based exercise and walking. Energy expenditure increased significantly while using either an under-table leg-fidget bar or a fidget-promoting chair, when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 76±31 kcal/hour; leg-fidget bar, 98±42 kcal/hour (pchair, 89±40 kcal/hour (p=0.03)). However, heart rate did not increase significantly in either case. Bouts of exercise performed while seated provided energetic and heart rate equivalency to walking at 2 mph. Chairs and devices that promote fidgeting can increase energy expenditure by ∼20-30% but not increase heart rate. Dynamic sitting may be among a lexicon of options to help people move more while at work.

  6. Corruption, Government Expenditures and Economic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the effect of corruption and government expenditures on the performance of Nigeria‟s economy in the pre-democratic (1994-1998) and the democratic (1999 – 2012) eras using annual time series data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, and Transparency International. The analysis indicates that ...

  7. Australia's Educational Expenditures. Working Paper No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of revenue for and expenditure on Australian education institutions. It includes a review of funding from public and private sources and from overseas. Analyses are made for education as a whole and for the major sectors: schools, vocational education and training (VET) and higher education. Estimates are considered…

  8. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-04-01

    It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The objective of this work is to improve the performance of existing estimation models of energy expenditure by using machine learning algorithms and several data from different sensors and provide this estimation service in a cloud-based platform. In this study, we used input data such as breathe rate, and hearth rate from three sensors. Inputs are received from a web form and sent to the web service which applies a regression model on Azure cloud platform. During the experiments, we assessed several machine learning models based on regression methods. Our experimental results showed that our novel model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression in conjunction with the median aggregation technique provides the best result among other five regression algorithms. This cloud-based energy expenditure system which uses a web service showed that cloud computing technology is a great opportunity to develop estimation systems and the new model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression with the median aggregation provides remarkable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  10. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the relationship between the reduction in income-poverty and government expenditure on growth strategies that have been implemented in Tanzania since the mid 2000s. The paper shows that despite impressive economic growth of about 6 percent per annum that the country has enjoyed in the course ...

  11. 34 CFR 300.133 - Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spend on providing special education and related services to parentally-placed private school children... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenditures. 300.133 Section 300.133 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND...

  12. Disability Compensation and Patient Expenditures: FY2000 to FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report contains FY2000 through FY2013 data on disability compensation expenditures and recipients and on VA healthcare system patients and patient expenditures.

  13. Economic Analysis of Quarterly Household Expenditures on Apparel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Pamela S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of various socioeconomic and demographic variables on household expenditures for clothing were examined. Income, the age and sex composition of the household, marital status, education, occupation, and sewing activity were found to affect apparel expenditures significantly. (JOW)

  14. Estimating energy expenditure during front crawl swimming using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Van Thiel, David H

    2014-01-01

    The determination of energy expenditure is of major interest in training load and performance assessment. Small, wireless accelerometer units have the potential to characterise energy expenditure during swimming. The correlation between absorbed oxygen versus flume swimming speed and absorbed...

  15. 26 CFR 1.528-6 - Expenditure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures on a swimming pool are qualifying expenditures despite the fact that fees from guests of members...; (4) Security personnel; (5) Legal fees; (6) Upkeep of tennis courts; (7) Swimming pools; (8...

  16. [Assessment of the pharmaceutical expenditure in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotai, András; Merész, Gergo; Kaló, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Scarcity of health care resources draws attention to the expenditure on pharmaceuticals, as drugs are considered to be one of the major growth drivers of health care spending. This article assesses the Hungarian expenditure on pharmaceuticals by taking into account the economic status of the country and benchmarks from other OECD countries with special focus on indicators of Visegrad V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary). Our results highlight the heterogeneity of pharmaceutical expenditure data derived from different indicators among observed countries. Pharmaceutical spending is relatively higher in middle-income countries, mainly due the price convergence of innovative drug's, on contrary manpower cost of health care services are adjusted to local price levels, therefore the price differential of health care services between middle income and developed countries is greater. International trends of the global pharmaceutical market are also valid in Hungary. Increased private funding, mainly out of pocket payments above the average of V4 countries, has been the major growth driver of pharmaceutical expenditure recently in Hungary. Increased private pharmaceutical expenditure was mainly derived from the severe cost-containment measures in 2006. The annual growth rate of the National Health Insurance Fund's pharmaceutical budget for drug reimbursement was 1.37% in real terms between 1994 and 2009. This is much beneath the expansion of global pharmaceutical market. Consequently, cost-containment of public pharmaceutical spending was very successful in the last fifteen years, and the burden of market growth has been shifted to households. Public health programmes, investment into preventive care, with consideration on unfavourable Hungarian morbidity and mortality indicators, however, necessitate the increase of public pharmaceutical budget. In order to improve the allocative efficiency of health care spending, available resources should be spent

  17. The approaches to classification of expenditures on innovation activities

    OpenAIRE

    Гвоздю, Світлана Юріївна

    2013-01-01

    The essence and classification of expenditures on innovation activities of the enterprise, according to the different classification criteria, were studied in the paper. The aim of the research is to analyze the classification criteria of expenditures on innovation activities for the optimization and rational expenditure accounting at enterprises.However, there are various classification criteria of expenditures on innovation activities of the enterprise that causes the necessity of their gro...

  18. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slinde Frode

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music.

  19. Mexico - Agriculture and Rural Development Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines agricultural and rural development (ARD) public expenditures in Mexico. The study is based on federal public expenditures. The study is structured in six parts as follows: the first part presents the Mexican ARD context in terms of policy and performance. The second part dissects the ARD public budget, classifying expenditure programs in various ways so as to provide an ...

  20. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  1. 26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1....194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general. Section 194 allows a taxpayer to elect to amortize over an 84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined in...

  2. 45 CFR 260.33 - When are expenditures on State or local tax credits allowable expenditures for TANF-related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State or local tax credits allowable expenditures for TANF-related purposes? (a) To be an allowable expenditure for TANF-related purposes, any tax credit program must be reasonably calculated to accomplish one... credit to be an allowable expenditure. (2) Under a State Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program, the...

  3. Energy expenditure during severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Y H; Delafosse, B X; Annat, G J; Viale, J P; Bertrand, O M; Motin, J P

    1989-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) was measured, during 3 consecutive days, in six patients suffering from acute pancreatitis. Measurements were achieved postoperatively, under mechanical ventilation, using a mass spectrometer system. EE represented 1.49 times (range: 1.08-1.78) the predicted resting energy expenditure (PREE) according to the reevaluated Harris-Benedict equation. There was a weak positive correlation between EE and core temperature and a negative correlation between EE and nitrogen balance. EE/PREE was not different between septic and nonseptic patients (1.58 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.07). The calculations of nutrient oxidation rate indicated a high protein catabolic rate, a neoglucogenesis, and a lipolysis.

  4. A partisan model of government expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuninger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Partisan models of budget politics largely concentrate on the size of government, budget deficits and debt, but most theories have little to say as to what the effect of party politics on both the size and the composition of budgets is. This paper seeks to extend previous literature in two directions. First, a model of spending preferences is developed that relates actors preferred level and allocation of expenditure to electoral gains from fiscal policies. Second, changes in both total expe...

  5. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  6. Transport infrastructure in Italian public expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cerrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s quite a long time that the need is felt for an integrated approach to the territory-mobility system; an approach allowing to plan, programme and carry out interventions affecting urban and territorial development. An approach targeted to point out strategies being more effective and consistent with the goals of competitive growth. In order to assess the effects that a more integrated territory-mobility approach could produce in relation to the functional reorganization of urban systems both on national and local scale, the paper suggests an analysis that quantifies the “financial mass” invested in transport infrastructure and urban equipments as well as its weight modification in the course of time. The above said assessment was worked out by analysing the trend of public expenditure in Italy during the five-year period 2000-2005, appraising the “value” of the interventions in transport infrastructure in comparison to the interventions for realizing and managing urban equipments. The worked out analysis stresses how much the strategies of territorial development, both on central and local level, mainly rely on the interventions for realizing and managing transport infrastructures. Therefore, a new approach could better address the great deal of resources (58% of expenditure for public works amounting to over €150.000 that regards the sector of transport infrastructures, although the trend context shows a great reduction of public financial resources destined to expenditure policies.

  7. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  8. The impact of population ageing on future Danish drug expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...

  9. Implications of the introduction of laboratory demand management at primary care clinics in South Africa on laboratory expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozayr H. Mahomed

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to analyse current laboratory expenditures at the primary healthcare (PHC level in South Africa as processed by the National Health Laboratory Service and to determine the potential cost savings of introducing laboratory demand management. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of laboratory expenditures for the 2013/2014 financial year across 11 pilot National Health Insurance health districts was conducted. Laboratory expenditure tariff codes were cross-tabulated to the PHC essential laboratory tests list (ELL to determine inappropriate testing. Data were analysed using a Microsoft Access database and Excel software. Results: Approximately R35 million South African Rand (10% of the estimated R339 million in expenditures was for tests that were not listed within the ELL. Approximately 47% of expenditure was for laboratory tests that were indicated in the algorithmic management of patients on antiretroviral treatment. The other main cost drivers for non-ELL testing included full blood count and urea, as well as electrolyte profiles usually requested to support management of patients on antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions: Considerable annual savings of up to 10% in laboratory expenditure are possible at the PHC level by implementing laboratory demand management. In addition, to achieve these savings, a standardised PHC laboratory request form and some form of electronic gatekeeping system that must be supported by an educational component should be implemented.

  10. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  11. [Quantitative analysis of drug expenditures variability in dermatology units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, David; Ferrándiz, Lara; Ramírez-Soto, Gabriel; Muñoyerro, M Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Variability in adjusted drug expenditures among clinical departments raises the possibility of difficult access to certain therapies at the time that avoidable expenditures may also exist. Nevertheless, drug expenditures are not usually applied to clinical practice variability analysis. To identify and quantify variability in drug expenditures in comparable dermatology department of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. Comparative economic analysis regarding the drug expenditures adjusted to population and health care production in 18 dermatology departments of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. The 2012 cost and production data (homogeneous production units -HPU-)were provided by Inforcoan, the cost accounting information system of the Servicio Andaluz de Salud. The observed drug expenditure ratio ranged from 0.97?/inh to 8.90?/inh and from 208.45?/HPU to 1,471.95?/ HPU. The Pearson correlation between drug expenditure and population was 0.25 and 0.35 for the correlation between expenditure and homogeneous production (p=0.32 and p=0,15, respectively), both Pearson coefficients confirming the lack of correlation and arelevant degree of variability in drug expenditures. The quantitative analysis of variability performed through Pearson correlation has confirmed the existence of drug expenditure variability among comparable dermatology departments. Copyright © 2013 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Catastrophic expenditure on medicines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    To describe the magnitude of the expenditure on medicines in Brazil according to region, household size and composition in terms of residents in a situation of dependency. Population-based data from the national household survey were used, with probabilistic sample, applied between September 2013 and February 2014 in urban households. The expenditure on medicines was the main outcome of interest. The prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) of the outcomes were stratified according to socioeconomic classification and calculated according to the region, the number of residents dependent on income, the presence of children under five years and residents in a situation of dependency by age. In about one of every 17 households (5.3%) catastrophic health expenditure was reported and, in 3.2%, the medicines were reported as one of the items responsible for this situation. The presence of three or more residents (3.6%) and resident in a situation of dependency (3.6%) were the ones that most reported expenditure on medicines. Southeast was the region with the lowest prevalence of expenditure on medicines. The prevalence of households with catastrophic health expenditure and on medicines in relation to the total of households showed a regressive tendency for economic classes. Catastrophic health expenditure was present in 5.3%, and catastrophic expenditure on medicines in 3.2% of the households. Multi-person households, presence of residents in a situation of economic dependency and belonging to the class D or E had the highest proportion of catastrophic expenditure on medicines. Although the problem is important, permeated by aspects of iniquity, Brazilian policies seem to be protecting families from catastrophic expenditure on health and on medicine. Descrever a magnitude do gasto catastrófico em medicamentos no Brasil segundo região, tamanho das famílias e composição familiar em termos de moradores em situação de dependência. Utilizados dados de inqu

  13. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  14. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  15. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  16. MARKETING EXPENDITURES IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, a “new” marketing concept known as "four Ps marketing mix" appeared and shifted the focus from the product to the customer. The objective of the new concept was not only profit, and the means of achieving the objective expanded to include the entire “marketing mix”: product, price, promotion, and place (channels and distribution. Expenditures of marketing in a company should be explored from these mixes, because each mix would have an impact on the total marketing expenditures. These four mixes are the main aspects of marketing and thus, should represent almost all expenditures in marketing in a company. From this research it is discovered that the responding contractors have only average efforts to improve or innovate their service, mostly using the latest construction methods and management approach. Correlated to their policy in the fourth mix (Place, they are still national oriented and not international oriented in marketing their services, this may lead to the big question of their survival; their motivation to innovate is only average while their target market is only national market. Their attitude to use more intensive “fees” policy rather than both product innovation and promotion is also interesting. Big percentage of the responding contractors assumes these “fees” are regular marketing practices. This attitude may better be stopped to make the construction industry practices healthier. Attitude to use more product innovation and true promotion approach in marketing in construction must be encouraged systematically in the future, to improve competitiveness in the long term.

  17. [Adaptation of food ingestion to energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-01-01

    Body energy balance is regulated in adults. The accuracy of the phenomenon is particularly evident in laboratory animals under steady conditions. Moreover, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this balance is maintained in spite of fluctuations in food intake or energy expenditure. When animals such as rats, dogs or rabbits are presented with a diluted or concentrated version of familiar food, they compensate rapidly by increasing or decreasing their ponderal intake. This is achieved first by a change in meal frequency, then meal size adapts to the new caloric content and meal frequency returns to the original pattern. This adaptation is based on the learning of post-ingestive cues. Hypo or hyperphagia leads to reduced or increased energy expenditure, as the case may be; the basal metabolic rate is modulated by thyroid hormones and diet-induced thermogenesis by the sympathetic system. These variations are partly regulatory. In a cold environment, the increase in energy expenditure caused by increased thermogenesis is rapidly compensated by increased caloric intake. Physical activity activates the sympathetic system responsible for numerous hormonal changes, the most important of which is insulin hyposecretion. In animals or humans, moderate aerobic exercise induces a small weight loss; afterwards, weight gain is normalized and increased caloric intake compensates for energy expenditures such as exercise, increased basal metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Extreme changes in body weight and fat are produced by gestation and lactation; they are satisfactorily explained by concomitant hormonal changes. Especially during lactation, food intake is regulated so that it allows body weight to return to pregestation level. Studies on the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of body energy balance are still in progress. Friedman and Ramirez (1985) suggest that the way fatty acids are utilized is important. Kasser et al. (1985) show a striking difference in

  18. Aging Risk and Health Care Expenditure in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoe, Byongho; Nam, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of population aging on health care expenditures in Korea. Examination of the age-expenditure profile reveals that health care resources are allocated more for the older cohort of population over time, suggesting significant growth of health care expenditures due to population aging. We contend, however, that population aging is considered as a parameter rather than an independent variable to explain rising health care expenditures. This paper shows that population aging is not found to be a significant determinant of health care expenditures according to the econometric analysis using OECD health data and time-series data for Korea. Using the components decomposition method, which measures the contribution of each component of health care expenditure, we estimate that population aging contributes only less than 10 percent. PMID:20948958

  19. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories, including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  20. Attitudes toward Education Expenditures in Japan: Comparisons with Social Security and Welfare Services Expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines people's attitudes toward public spending on education in Japan. It is well known that Japan has the smallest public education expenditure relative to GDP among the OECD countries, and this may yield unequal opportunities in education. The tax burden in Japan is small compared to those in OECD countries, and there may be no…

  1. Children as consumers: investigating child diary expenditure data

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Farrell; Michael A. Shields

    2007-01-01

    We investigate expenditure behaviour of school-aged children using child diary information contained in the British Family Expenditure Survey. The estimates from an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) for child expenditure suggest that drinks, sweets, books, and toys are `normal' goods for children, but clothes, travel, leisure and vice products are `luxury' items with income elasticities greater than one. Being a lone-parent child and having a working mother are important factors in determinin...

  2. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Badrudin, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  3. Improving military expenditure decisionmaking in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geoff Harris

    2010-01-01

    This article begins by emphasizing that the number and intensity of armed conflict has fallen substantially but that military expenditure levels in sub-Saharan Africa have nonetheless increased, largely as a result of South African expenditure. The article attempts to answer two questions. First, how can the budget of the security sector be allocated so as to result in effective and efficient security outcomes? Second, how can an appropriate level of military expenditure for a country be dete...

  4. Food Expenditures away from Home by Elderly Households

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Steven T.; Kasteridis, Panagiotis P.; Riley, John B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differentiated effects of economic and socio-demographic variables on food away from home (FAFH) expenditures by type of facility among elderly households in the United States. Using data from the 2008–2010 Consumer Expenditure Surveys, the systems of expenditures on full-service, fast food, and other restaurants are estimated with a multivariate sample selection estimator which also accommodates heteroscedasticity in the error distribution. Statistical significanc...

  5. Iranian Household Financial Protection against Catastrophic Health Care Expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, M Nekoei; Banshi, M; Javar, M Akbari; Amiresmaili, M; Ganjavi, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protecting households against financial risks is one of objectives of any health system. In this regard, Iran’s fourth five year developmental plan act in its 90th article, articulated decreasing household’s exposure to catastrophic health expenditure to one percent. Hence, this study aimed to measure percentage of Iranian households exposed to catastrophic health expenditures and to explore its determinants. Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was carried out retrospectively. Households whose financial contributions to the health system exceeded 40% of disposable income were considered as exposed to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare expenditures were examined by logistic regression and chi-square test. Results: Of 39,088 households, 80 were excluded due to absence of food expenditures. 2.8% of households were exposed to catastrophic health expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare were utilizing ambulatory, hospital, and drug addiction cessation services as well as consuming pharmaceuticals. Socioeconomics characteristics such as health insurance coverage, household size, and economic status were other determinants of exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Conclusion: Iranian health system has not achieved the objective of reducing catastrophic healthcare expenditure to one percent. Inefficient health insurance coverage, different fee schedules practiced by private and public providers, failure of referral system are considered as probable barriers toward decreasing households’ exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. PMID:23193508

  6. [Catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico: magnitude, distribution and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesma-Vázquez, Sergio; Pérez-Rico, Raymundo; Sosa-Manzano, Carlos Lino; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2005-01-01

    To describe the magnitude, distribution, and determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico. The information source was the National Performance Assessment Survey and the methodology, the one developed by the World Health Organization for assessing fair financing. Households with catastrophic expenditures were defined as those with health expenditures over 30% of their ability to pay. Multivariate analysis by logistic and linear regression were used to identify the determinants of catastrophic expenditures. A total of 3.8% of the households incurred in catastrophic health expenditures. There were huge differences by state. The uninsured, poor, and rural households showed a higher impoverishment risk. Sixty percent of the catastrophic expenditures were attributable to outpatient care and medication. A 10% increase of insured households could result in a 9.6% decrease in catastrophic expenditures. Disability, adults 60 years of age and older, and pregnancy increased the probability of catastrophic expenditures. The insurance of older adults, pregnant women, and persons with disabilities could reduce catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico.

  7. Effect of health information technology expenditure on patient level cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhyung; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-09-01

    This study investigate the effect of health information technology (IT) expenditure on individual patient-level cost using California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) data obtained from 2000 to 2007. We used a traditional cost function and applied hospital fixed effect and clustered error within hospitals. We found that a quadratic function of IT expenditure best fit the data. The quadratic function in IT expenditure predicts a decrease in cost of up to US$1,550 of IT labor per bed, US$27,909 of IT capital per bed, and US$28,695 of all IT expenditure per bed. Moreover, we found that IT expenditure reduced costs more quickly in medical conditions than surgical diseases. Interest in health IT is increasing more than ever before. Many studies examined the effect of health IT on hospital level cost. However, there have been few studies to examine the relationship between health IT expenditure and individual patient-level cost. We found that IT expenditure was associated with patient cost. In particular, we found a quadratic relationship between IT expenditure and patient-level cost. In other word, patient-level cost is non-linearly (or a polynomial of second-order degree) related to IT expenditure.

  8. [Trends in health care expenditures in Lithuania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, Danguole; Zemguliene, Jolanta; Gaizauskiene, Aldona

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the tendencies of public and private health care expenditure in Lithuania during 1994-1999. Crude examination of statistical data show, that the growth rate of health care spending per capital is largely determined by growth of national gross domestic product (GDP). We have estimated that health care spending in Lithuania have risen twice faster than GDP during 1994-1999. (Percentage of rise in health care spending, divided by percentage rise of GDP, is +2.26). The introduction of compulsory health insurance in 1997, and the development of private health care sector in Lithuania, led to increase health care expenditure in total, and has influenced changes in public-private spending proportions. A source of private spending in national health account has increased from 15 per cent in 1994-1995 to 24 percent in 1996-1999. The tendency of increasing private spending shows, the evidence, that households are facing more financial risk of purchasing health care. This should be an implication for health care policy makers. Further decisions to increase private payments have to be based on evidence after detailed analysis of impact of consequences on health care access for various social economic groups of population.

  9. Energy expenditure in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuconi, Carolina Pereira; Ceolin Alves, Ana Lígia; Toulson Davisson Correia, Maria Isabel

    2015-04-01

    To assess the energy expenditure of women with breast cancer and the effectiveness of available predictive equations (PEs) for the estimation of energy requirements in these subjects. Women with breast cancer and healthy women controls underwent indirect calorimetry and nutritional assessment. The estimation of energy requirements included PEs (Harris-Benedict [HB], corrected by injury and activity factors), the Mifflin St. Jeor, and the quick formula of 25 kcal/kg of body weight (BW). Statistical analyses, including Student's t test, a paired t test, Bland-Altman analysis, and backward multivariate linear regression, were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software. Statistical significance was set at P breast cancer and 19 healthy women were evaluated. Analysis of nutritional status revealed 64.7% of the patients were overweight/obese, and 88.2% had an excess of body fat mass. The resting energy expenditure (REE) of the breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy women, even after adjustment for fat free mass (FFM) (P breast cancer was similar to that of healthy women. The energy requirements of these patients may be calculated based on the quick formula of 25 kcal/kg of BW. Nonetheless, this estimation should be used cautiously as it results in wide variations when used alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  11. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  12. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Gambling Participation, Expenditure and Risk of Harm in Australia, 1997-1998 and 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew Richard; Thomas, Anna; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-01

    Gambling-related harm results primarily from financial losses. Internationally Australia continues to rank as the largest spending nation per capita on gambling products. This would suggest that Australian gamblers are at disproportionately high risk of harm despite almost two decades of industry scrutiny and regulation, and investment in research, treatment and education programs. However, declines in participation rates, per capita expenditure, household expenditure, national disposable income spent on gambling and problem gambling rates have been cited as evidence that fewer people are gambling, that gamblers are spending less, and that gambling safety in Australia has improved. The current study investigated these propositions using national population and accounts data, and statistics from Australia's two population-representative gambling surveys conducted in 1997-1998 and 2010-2011. Despite a falling participation rate the study found no real change in the number of people gambling overall, and increasing numbers consuming casino table games, race wagering and sports betting. Further found were increases rather than decreases in average gambler expenditure, overall, and across most products, particularly electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Potentially risky levels of average expenditure were observed in both periods, overall and for race wagering, casino table gaming, and EGMs. Changes in the proportion of income spent on gambling suggest risks declined overall and for race wagering and casino table gaming, but increased for EGMs. Finally, while problem gambling statistics were not comparable between periods, the study found double the number of moderate risk gamblers previously estimated for 2010-2011 amongst the 2 million Australians found to have experienced one or more gambling-related problems. The findings have implications for public health policy and resourcing, and the way in which prevalence and expenditure statistics have been interpreted by

  14. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  15. Economics of wildfire management: The development and application of suppression expenditure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Hand; Krista M. Gebert; Jingjing Liang; David E. Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Mo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, increased wildland fire activity over the last 15 years has resulted in increased pressure to balance the cost, benefits, and risks of wildfire management. Amid increased public scrutiny and a highly variable wildland fire environment, a substantial body of research has developed to study factors affecting the cost-effectiveness of wildfire...

  16. Explaining primary healthcare pharmacy expenditure using classification of medications for chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, David; Guadalajara, Natividad; Barrachina, Isabel; Trillo, José-Luis; Usó, Ruth; de-la-Poza, Elena

    2011-11-01

    The Valencian Autonomous Community (Spain) has implemented a scheme of purchasing services with the participation of public and private providers. Five districts are managed using public-private partnership. The financing model is capitation and inter-center invoice. The pharmaceutical benefits are not included in the per capita assignment. Modeling and explaining pharmacy expenditure using electronic prescriptions drug data. A database of electronic prescription corresponding to 625,246 patients between November 2008 and October 2009 was used to run four linear models that explain the pharmaceutical expenditures. We take as dependent variable the neperian log of total pharmacy annual cost per patient in the primary health setting. The independent variables used combined demographics with revised classification in 18 chronic conditions obtained from the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification index (ATC). The retrospective model selected included: gender, pharmaceutical co-payment status and 8 dummy variables for the number of chronic conditions of each patient from 1 to 8 or more. The goodness-of-fit achieved is measured in R(2) of 57%. These models must be considered in the current capitation system for pharmaceutical budgeting in a primary care setting established at regional level, as is the case in the Valencian Autonomous Community. The use of diagnostics and information regarding hospital encounters appears to be a complementary option for refining models of capitation of pharmaceutical and total health expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Public expenditures and health care in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Gallagher, M

    1992-03-01

    Unfavorable economic conditions in most of Africa (in this paper Africa refers to Sub-Saharan Africa only) have meant public austerity and a deceleration in government health spending. Given the dominant role of government in providing health services in Africa there is a need to investigate the links between public spending and the provision of health care. Analyzing information from five Sub-Saharan African countries, namely Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia and Senegal, we investigate the impacts of shifting expenditure patterns and levels on the process of providing health services as well as on delivery of health care. The country analyses indicate that in addition to the level of public spending, the expenditure mix (i.e. salaries, drugs, supplies etc.), the composition of the health infrastructure (hospitals, clinics, health posts etc.), community efforts, and the availability of private health care all influence health care delivery. Consequently, per capita public expenditure (the most important indicator in a number of related studies) alone as a measure of the availability of health care and especially for cross-country comparisons is inadequate. Reductions in government resources for health care often result in less efficient mixing of resources and hence less health care delivery, in quality and quantity terms. With the recent trends in health care spending in Africa there should be greater effort to increase the efficient use of these increasingly scarce resources, yet the trend in resource mix has been in the opposite direction. Given the input to public health care of local communities, as well as the provision of private health care, it would seem that government spending on health care should be counter-cyclical, i.e. government health spending should accelerate during periods of economic down turns. Such counter-cyclical spending would tend to offset the difficulties facing local communities and the declining ability of individuals to

  18. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Productivity and Energy Expenditure by Sawyers When Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, based on overall results it is concluded that, the PLSP is technically more appropriate technology or method for reducing energy expenditure and for increasing productivity during timber harvesting in agroforestry farms. Keywords: Productivity, Energy expenditure, Pitsawing and Portable log sawing. Rwanda ...

  20. Energy expenditure of women boxers in India | Chatterjee | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Women boxing have got recognition recently and so far no work has been reported on energy expenditure of national women boxers in India. This study was aimed to estimate the energy expenditure in Indian female boxers during sparring. Methods: A total of 20 female boxers were subjected. Energy ...

  1. Government expenditure, efficiency and economic growth: a panel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) is applied to answer the two research questions. The results demonstrate that increasing government expenditure accelerates economic growth of low income countries in Sub Saharan Africa. However, when government expenditure is interacted with government efficiency ...

  2. analysis of differences in rural-urban households food expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage per capita expenditure of other important food items like fruits and vegetables was found to be very low compared to the staples and meat .... multi-sage sampling technique between 2006/2007. Data collected were thereafter ..... foods in the States, thereby cutting down their expenditure on the food items.

  3. Faculty Employment and R&D Expenditures at Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses panel data to examine the relationship between faculty employment and external R&D expenditures at Research and Doctoral institutions over a 15-year period of time. On average, a 1% increase in the number of full-time faculty is associated with about 0.2% increase in total R&D expenditure. Further, a one percentage point increase…

  4. Trends in the distribution of South African health care expenditure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-04

    Aug 4, 1990 ... estimates of expenditure4-7 and in the case of the third tier of government, from data compiled by the Central Statistical. Services.s-9 An attempt was made to include all expenditure relating to the provision of health services in the public sector. Certain 'hidden costs' that were not taken into account in.

  5. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time and...

  6. Economic growth and military expenditure linkages: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shahid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has made an attempt to examine relationship between military expenditure and economic growth using 56 country panel data spanning over 1995—2011. Panel fixed effect model has been estimated for all 56 countries and sub-groups classified on the basis of World Bank income criteria. The results of this study indicate a positive effect of military expenditure on economic growth but this positive effect is negligible compared to the alternative uses of scare resources on non-military expenditure. Thus, the effect of military expenditure on economic growth is very low compared to the effect of expenditure on capital formation, hence military expenditure as a sub-optimal means of increasing economic growth compared to alternative uses of government spending on formation of fixed capital. This study raises an important argument of huge opportunity cost of military expenditure. The present study concludes that the boosting of economic growth through higher military expenditure is neither effective nor efficient way of achieving higher growth in the economy.

  7. The Growth of Health Expenditure in Lesotho | Ramashamole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Economic Review ... The study analyses the factors behind the growth of health expenditure in Lesotho over the period 1980 to 2011. The cointegration test results reveal that income is one of the important factors explaining the growth of health spending in Lesotho, with public health expenditure being ...

  8. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Canikalp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise cash benefits, direct in-kind provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes.The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between political structure, i.e. government fragmentation, ideological composition, elections and so on, and the social expenditures in Greece. Employing data from the Comparative Political Dataset (CPDS and the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX, a time series analysis was conducted for Greece for the 1980-2014 period. The findings of the study indicate that voter turnout, spending on the elderly population and the number of government changes have positive and statistically significant effects on social expenditures in Greece while debt stock and cabinet composition have negative effects.

  9. Municipal Overburden: Its Influence on Education Expenditures in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, Harvey E.; McCarty, Therese A.

    The study reported in this document found no evidence for the minicipal overburden (m/o) hypothesis of urban school finance. The theory asserts that there is a causal relationship between high levels of non-school municipal expenditure or tax rates and low levels of school spending. Demand for expenditure on education in a sample of school…

  10. Hurdles for sport consumption? Determining factors of household sports expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Thibaut; Steven Vos; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the determining factors of household expenditures on sports participation. Due to a relatively large amount of zero-expenditures, simple regression methods are not suited. Because of methodological reasons, the two-step Heckman approach is used over the

  11. Trends in the distribution of South African health care expenditure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-04

    Aug 4, 1990 ... prerequisite to any meaningful debate about future health care provision. In this study, health care ... distribution of expenditure by sector and population group. A more detailed presentation and .... a result of an increase in real per capita health care expenditure but, more significantly, was related to a rapid ...

  12. Assessment of expenditure on food among urban households and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed expenditure on food among urban households in Benue State of Nigeria. This was done with the view to assess household food expenditure and its implications for food security status of the households; identify and assess determinants that influence household food demand; and analyze the ...

  13. Allocation of expenditures within the household: A new Danish survey*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Browning, Martin

    We report on a new data initiative that is designed to address the question of “who gets what” within the household. The data consists of supplements to the Danish Expenditure Survey (DES) which is a traditional nationally representative, diary based survey of expenditures. We collect supplementa...

  14. 25 CFR 214.13 - Diligence; annual expenditures; mining records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diligence; annual expenditures; mining records. 214.13... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.13 Diligence; annual expenditures; mining records. (a) Lessees shall exercise diligence in the conduct of prospecting and mining...

  15. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure: A review of research and related literature. ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family ... but a similar trend pertains to household clothing and footwear expenditure in South Africa. ...... categories such as men's wear, sportswear or leisure wear were studied.

  16. Public environmental expenditures in Estonia during 1995-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Pädam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of earmarking on central government environment protection expenditure. Since central government spending for the environment relies on earmarked revenues, which is not the case of the local government, it is expected that central government expenditure is to a lesser degree affected by macroeconomic developments. The analysis indicates that this is the case because correlation between GDP change and the change in central government expenditure for environment protection is smaller than that of the local government. It is also found that increasing revenues from earmarked environmental charges have contributed to growing expenditure. However, the analysis also suggests that the main driver of this growth is the expansion is EU funds. Reliance on EU expenditure was further reinforced by changes in earmarking rules in 2008-2009

  17. Restaurants and hotels expenditure in Polish households of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekut Marlena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The age of household members is an important factor for expenditures. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of expenditure on restaurants and hotels incurred in Polish households of the elderly in 2004-2013 and to identify the factors affecting such expenditures. The source of information used in the study was the household budget survey of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The main methods used in this study were variance analysis and regression analysis. Restaurants and hotels expenditure increases every year together with their share in total household expenditure. The most important factors affecting the restaurants and hotels spending in Polish households of the elderly are: income per capita and the level of education of the head of the family. The study on consumption determinants at different groups leads to better understanding of consumer behavior circumstances and thereby ensuring a good quality of life for the people of the elderly.

  18. Development and changes in consumption expenditures of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Toufarová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development and changes in consumption expenditures of population. It uses secondary data to analyze consumption expenditures of EU-25 and the Czech Republic and concetrates on changes in the expenditure groups over the period of past years. Other part of this paper is devoted to primary data analysis. Primary data were obtained in a questionnaire survey. Primary data analysis is based on statistical methods and it investigates changes in the structure of consumption expenditures of households in relation to changes in household income. By using dependency analysis the paper verifies dependency of surveyed groups of consumption expenditures and groups of households sorted by identification characteristics. Additionally, also based on the primary research, the paper tries to find out the way households allocate money surplus remaining after covering all the adequate expenses.

  19. Use of econometric models to estimate expenditure shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, Justin G; Finkelstein, Eric A; Hoerger, Thomas J

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the use of regression models to calculate disease-specific shares of medical expenditures. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 2000-2003. Theoretical investigation and secondary data analysis. Condition files used to define the presence of 10 medical conditions. Incremental effects of conditions on expenditures, expressed as a fraction of total expenditures, cannot generally be interpreted as shares. When the presence of one condition increases treatment costs for another condition, summing condition-specific shares leads to double-counting of expenditures. Condition-specific shares generated from multiplicative models should not be summed. We provide an algorithm that allows estimates based on these models to be interpreted as shares and summed across conditions.

  20. Impact of morbid obesity on medical expenditures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterburn, D E; Maciejewski, M L; Tsevat, J

    2005-03-01

    Morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or =40 kg/m2) is associated with substantially increased morbidity and mortality from chronic health conditions and with poorer health-related quality of life; however, less is known about the impact of morbid obesity on healthcare expenditures. To examine the impact of morbid obesity on healthcare expenditures using a nationally representative sample of US adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 16 262 adults from the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. Per capita healthcare expenditures were calculated for National Institutes of Health BMI categories, based on self-reported height and weight, using a two-part, multivariable model adjusted for age, gender, race, income, education level, type of health insurance, marital status, and smoking status. Odds of incurring any healthcare expenditure and per capita healthcare expenditures associated with morbid obesity in 2000. When compared with normal-weight adults, the odds of incurring any healthcare expenditure in 2000 were two-fold greater among adults with morbid obesity. Per capita healthcare expenditures for morbidly obese adults were 81% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48-121%) greater than normal-weight adults, 65% (95% CI: 37-110%) greater than overweight adults, and 47% (95% CI: 11-96%) greater than adults with class I obesity. Excess costs among morbidly obese adults resulted from greater expenditures for office-based visits, outpatient hospital care, in-patient care, and prescription drugs. Aggregate US healthcare expenditures associated with excess body weight among morbidly obese US adults exceeded $11 billion in 2000. The economic burden of morbid obesity among US adults is substantial. Further research is needed to identify interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of morbid obesity and improve the health and economic outcomes of morbidly

  1. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures : An input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input–output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are

  2. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  3. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  4. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  5. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  6. 78 FR 50373 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Capital Expenditures Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... 2013 through 2015 Annual Capital Expenditures Survey (ACES). The annual survey collects data on fixed assets and depreciation, sales and receipts, capitalized computer software, and capital expenditures for...

  7. Charge Recombination Suppressed by Destructive Quantum Interference in Heterojunction Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2016-01-01

    We show that charge recombination in ordered heterojunctions depends sensitively on the degree of coherent delocalization of charges at the donor acceptor interface. Depending on the relative sign of the electron and hole transfer integrals, such delocalization can dramatically suppress

  8. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  9. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  10. ACCOUNTING CONTROVERSY ON THE RECOGNITION AND EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TULVINSCHI MIHAELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology in recent decades has forced the transition from the industrialized society, where the main role was occupied by tangible assets, to an information society, where the essential place is played by intangible assets. These are assets that can not be touched or felt, but are very important to produce wealth and to maintain competitiveness. Within these, development expenditure occupies an important place because it influences the analysis of an entity and its future. The accounting practices applicable to development expenditure are based on theoretical fundamentals and ambiguous typologies. The purpose of the article is to present the controversies about recognizing and evaluating development expenditure. Although development expenditure involves large initial investments, it generates, on medium and long term, significant savings. Depending on the purpose for which it is carried out, research and development expenditure can in time generate identifiable intangible assets but also intangible unidentifiable assets. An optimistic attitude regarding the chances of success of a development project will lead to the capitalization of development expenditure. Capitalizing development expenditures, the usefulness of financial statements is increased, which is generally measured in the ability to explain stock prices through earnings and accounting values.

  11. A smooth mixture of Tobits model for healthcare expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Stavrunova, Olena

    2011-09-01

    This paper develops a smooth mixture of Tobits (SMTobit) model for healthcare expenditure. The model is a generalization of the smoothly mixing regressions framework of Geweke and Keane (J Econometrics 2007; 138: 257-290) to the case of a Tobit-type limited dependent variable. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with data augmentation is developed to obtain the posterior distribution of model parameters. The model is applied to the US Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data on total medical expenditure. The results suggest that the model can capture the overall shape of the expenditure distribution very well, and also provide a good fit to a number of characteristics of the conditional (on covariates) distribution of expenditure, such as the conditional mean, variance and probability of extreme outcomes, as well as the 50th, 90th, and 95th, percentiles. We find that healthier individuals face an expenditure distribution with lower mean, variance and probability of extreme outcomes, compared with their counterparts in a worse state of health. Males have an expenditure distribution with higher mean, variance and probability of an extreme outcome, compared with their female counterparts. The results also suggest that heart and cardiovascular diseases affect the expenditure of males more than that of females. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. State-level Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Finkelstein, Eric A; Fiebelkorn, Ian C

    2009-07-01

    Medicaid recipients are disproportionately affected by tobacco-related disease because their smoking prevalence is approximately 53% greater than that of the overall US adult population. This study estimates state-level smoking-attributable Medicaid expenditures. We used state-level and national data and a 4-part econometric model to estimate the fraction of each state's Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking. These fractions were multiplied by state-level Medicaid expenditure estimates obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to estimate smoking-attributable expenditures. The smoking-attributable fraction for all states was 11.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-17.0%). Medicaid smoking-attributable expenditures ranged from $40 million (Wyoming) to $3.3 billion (New York) in 2004 and totaled $22 billion nationwide. Cigarette smoking accounts for a sizeable share of annual state Medicaid expenditures. To reduce smoking prevalence among recipients and the growth rate in smoking-attributable Medicaid expenditures, state health departments and state health plans such as Medicaid are encouraged to provide free or low-cost access to smoking cessation counseling and medication.

  13. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  14. Factors Affecting Tourist Expenditure Coming To Mugla Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehime Korkmaz Bingöl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing tourist expenditure is a means to increase tourism income, which is extremely important for local economies. The purpose of this study is to understand the expending pattern of tourists coming to Mugla Region and provide empirical background for the policies to increase per tourist expenditure. The survey conducted at Dalaman International Airport and the data has been analyzed using OLS method. Nationality, age, accommodation type, pension type, credit card usage, availability of shopping facilities, standard of night life and entertainment, quality of food and beverage, length of holiday and group size has been found as significant factors affecting tourist expenditure

  15. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...... of oxygen uptake. These initial experiments indicate a correlation between estimated step frequency and oxygen uptake. Based on the preliminary results we conclude that the proposed method has potential as a future non-invasive approach to estimate energy expenditure during sports....

  16. Romanian Public Expenditures Policy during the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Ştefania SAVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the Romanian public expenditures policy promoted in the context of the economic and financial crisis. Firstly, we present a brief introduction on the effects of public expenditures policy to economic growth and the role of automatic stabilizers in times of economic recessions. Secondly, the paper analyzes the evolution of current and capital public expenditures before and during the economic and financial crisis, according to which unproductive spending prevailed, in detriment of productive investments which can stimulate the economic recovery.

  17. Implications of the introduction of laboratory demand management at primary care clinics in South Africa on laboratory expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Ozayr H; Lekalakala, Ruth; Asmall, Shaidah; Cassim, Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic health laboratory services are regarded as an integral part of the national health infrastructure across all countries. Clinical laboratory tests contribute substantially to health system goals of increasing quality of care and improving patient outcomes. This study aimed to analyse current laboratory expenditures at the primary healthcare (PHC) level in South Africa as processed by the National Health Laboratory Service and to determine the potential cost savings of introducing laboratory demand management. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of laboratory expenditures for the 2013/2014 financial year across 11 pilot National Health Insurance health districts was conducted. Laboratory expenditure tariff codes were cross-tabulated to the PHC essential laboratory tests list (ELL) to determine inappropriate testing. Data were analysed using a Microsoft Access database and Excel software. Approximately R35 million South African Rand (10%) of the estimated R339 million in expenditures was for tests that were not listed within the ELL. Approximately 47% of expenditure was for laboratory tests that were indicated in the algorithmic management of patients on antiretroviral treatment. The other main cost drivers for non-ELL testing included full blood count and urea, as well as electrolyte profiles usually requested to support management of patients on antiretroviral treatment. Considerable annual savings of up to 10% in laboratory expenditure are possible at the PHC level by implementing laboratory demand management. In addition, to achieve these savings, a standardised PHC laboratory request form and some form of electronic gatekeeping system that must be supported by an educational component should be implemented.

  18. American Samoa Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2006 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset for trip expenditure data for the American Samoa-based longline fleet from August 2006 to present. The dataset includes 10 variable...

  19. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danu Prasetyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the efficiency level of government expenditure in 82 countries towards the human development and peace index of the respective countries by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach during 2007-2011. We found that only few countries that always being positioned in the efficient frontier during the sample period, namely: Japan, Nigeria, and Norway.  By using Malmquist index approach, we also found that Cyprus has the largest government expenditure efficiency improvement.Keywords: Government Expenditure Efficiencies, Human Development Index, Global Peace Indexdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3 How to cite this article:Prasetyo, A.D., and Pudjono, A.N.S. (2013. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 82-91. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3

  20. Aggregate Import Demand and Expenditure Components in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chimobi Omoke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses disaggregated expenditure components of total national income todetermine the behaviour of imports demand in Nigeria using annual time series data and by applyingthe Johansen-Juselius multivariate cointegration technique tests to find out if the relevant economicvariables are cointegrated in the long run. Variables used in the study are volume of imports of goodsand services, consumption expenditure, expenditureon investment goods, relative prices and adummy variable for trade liberalisation policy in Nigeria. The empirical evidence suggests thatcointegrating relationship exists among the variables. The error correction estimate reveals thatalmost all the coefficients of the variables testedcame out with a statistically positive signs.Consumption expenditure, export and investment coefficient relates positively with import implyingthat increase in expenditure on these leads to a significant increase in import. Generally, the resultshowed that import demand function and expenditurecomponent in Nigeria has a statisticallysignificant relationship.

  1. Economic development and workforce impacts of state DOT highway expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research measured the impact of Georgia Department of Transportations highway : expenditures on economic activity in the State. The analysis covered awards made between January 2009 : and April 2013. The research is unique in that it not only ...

  2. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  3. FAD-dependent lysine-specific demethylase-1 regulates cellular energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Shinjiro; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Nagaoka, Katsuya; Anan, Kotaro; Wang, Yuqing; Mimasu, Shinya; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kosai, Ken-Ichiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-03-27

    Environmental factors such as nutritional state may act on the epigenome that consequently contributes to the metabolic adaptation of cells and the organisms. The lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) is a unique nuclear protein that utilizes flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor. Here we show that LSD1 epigenetically regulates energy-expenditure genes in adipocytes depending on the cellular FAD availability. We find that the loss of LSD1 function, either by short interfering RNA or by selective inhibitors in adipocytes, induces a number of regulators of energy expenditure and mitochondrial metabolism such as PPARγ coactivator-1α resulting in the activation of mitochondrial respiration. In the adipose tissues from mice on a high-fat diet, expression of LSD1-target genes is reduced, compared with that in tissues from mice on a normal diet, which can be reverted by suppressing LSD1 function. Our data suggest a novel mechanism where LSD1 regulates cellular energy balance through coupling with cellular FAD biosynthesis.

  4. Trends in Medicare Expenditures and Financial Status, 1966-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Richard S.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews expenditure growth trends over Medicare's 35-year history and comments on how the program's long-range financial outlook has changed over time. The author focuses on the various legislative, economic, and demographic factors that have affected expenditure growth and financial status. In addition, Medicare's share of total U.S. health costs is briefly reviewed. In an appended comment, the author considers whether the impact of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997...

  5. ANALYSIS OF FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AND FOOD EXPENDITURES

    OpenAIRE

    Smallwood, David M.; Blaylock, James R.

    1985-01-01

    A two equation model is developed to examine jointly the determinants of household food stamp program participation and program effects on food expenditures. The model is unique in that it postulates that the participation decision is based on a cost-benefit ratio, selected socioeconomic characteristics, and the potential for increasing both food and nonfood expenditures. Data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Supplemental Low Income Sample is used to estimate the model...

  6. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. [Relationship between cost systems and hospital expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cornejo, Beatriz; Pérez-Méndez, José A

    To analyze the relationship between the degree of development of hospital cost systems (CS) implemented by the regional health services (RHS) and the variation in unit cost of hospitals in Spanish National Health Service (NHS) between 2010 and 2013 and to identify other explanatory factors of this variation. A database of NHS hospitals was constructed from exclusively public sources. Using a multilevel regression model, explaining factors of the variation in unit cost (cost per weighted unit of activity [WAU]) of a sample of 170 hospitals were analyzed. The variables representative of the degree of development of CS are associated in a negative and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. It is observed that if a high-level development CS is used the cost variation per WAU would be reduced by close to 3.2%. There is also a negative and significant relationship between the variation in the cost per WAU and the variations in the percentage of high technology and the hospital occupancy rate. On the other hand, the variations in the average cost of personnel and in the number of workers per 100 beds are associated in a positive and significant way with the variation of the cost per WAU. In the period analysed, during which the main health expenditure adjustment was made, the control in hospital unit cost is associated not only with spending cuts but also with aspects related to their management, such as the implementation of more developed CS. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in technology, social influences and environmental attributes have resulted in substan-tial portions of the day spent in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary behavior may be a cause of many chronic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Research demonstrated that breaking up sedentary time was beneficially associated with markers of body composition, cardiovascular health and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the total energy expenditure of three different durations of physical activity within a 30-minute sedentary period and to examine the potential benefits of interrupting sedentary behavior with physical activity for weight control. Methods Participants completed four consecutive 30-minute bouts of sedentary behavior (reading, working on the computer, or doing other desk activities with and without interruptions of walking at a self-selected pace. Bout one contained no walking interruptions. Bout two contained a 1-minute walking period. Bout three contained a 2-minute walking period. Bout four contained a 5-minute walking period. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed. Result Twenty males and females (18-39 years completed this study. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance with post-hoc testing showed that significantly more energy was expended during each 30 minute sedentary bout with a walking break than in the 30 minute sedentary bout (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that making small changes, such as taking a five minute walking break every hour could yield beneficial weight control or weight loss results. Therefore, taking breaks from sedentary time is a potential outlet to prevent obesity and the rise of obesity in developed countries.

  9. Determinants of cruise passengers’ expenditures in the port of call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maršenka Marksel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism generates different types of cruise consumption and related indirect, direct and induced expenditure effects, in homeports as well as in ports of call. Cruise passengers’ expenditures produce positive economic effects for destinations, from increasing the incomes and employment, to tax incomes, duties, etc. Therefore, it is no doubt that cruise stakeholders and local economies can benefit from increased cruise passenger consumption. To stimulate higher consumption and passengers’ satisfaction, it is necessary to design the supportive policy framework and build appropriate quality of products and services. Identifying influential variables of cruise passengers’ expenditures in this sense enables the design of appropriate policies and measures. In the current research, based on a survey of 357 cruise passengers, several variables included in a new theoretical model of the expenditures determinants, such as gender, nationality, frequency of cruising and frequency of visits, were found to be statistically significantly associated with cruise passengers’ expenditures. Several conclusions and suggestions to stimulate cruise passenger expenditures based on research findings are provided.

  10. Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: the Turkish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülkü, Seher Nur; Caner, Asena

    2011-02-01

    Our study examines the long-term relationship among per capita gross domestic product (GDP), per capita health expenditures and population growth rate in Turkey during the period 1984-2006, employing the Johansen multivariate co-integration technique. Related previous studies on OECD countries have mostly excluded Turkey-itself an OECD country. The only study on Turkey examines the period 1984-1998. However, after 1998, major events and policy changes that had a substantial impact on income and health expenditures took place in Turkey, including a series of reforms to restructure the health and social security system. In contrast to earlier findings in the literature, we find that the income elasticity of total health expenditures is less than one, which indicates that health care is a necessity in Turkey during the period of analysis. According to our results, a 10% increase in per capita GDP is associated with an 8.7% increase in total per capita health expenditures, controlling for population growth. We find that the income elasticity of public health expenditures is less than one. But, in the case of private health care expenditures, the elasticity is greater than one, meaning that private health care is a luxury good in Turkey.

  11. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  12. 26 CFR 56.4911-8 - Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess lobbying expenditures of affiliated... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PUBLIC CHARITY EXCISE TAXES § 56.4911-8 Excess lobbying... expenditures, lobbying expenditures, and grass roots expenditures of an affiliated group of organizations, and...

  13. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity must keep a record of its lobbying expenditures for the taxable year. Lobbying expenditures of which an...

  14. Towards a Standardized Definition of Educational Expenditure. Statistical Reports and Studies, No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard

    This document is an inventory of public and private educational expenditure from an international perspective and sets out the concepts, definitions and procedures useful in accounting for educational expenditure. The monograph defines the field within which expenditure is to be observed; details the necessary expenditure data to be collected from…

  15. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Health Care Expenditure of Rural Households in Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Varadarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortcomings in healthcare delivery has led people to spend a substantial proportion of their incomes on medical treatment. World Health Organization (2005 estimates reveal that every year 25 million households are forced into poverty by illness and the struggle to pay for healthcare. Thus we planned to calculate the health care expenditure of rural households and to assess the households incurring catastrophic health expenditure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the service area of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital from May to August 2011. A total of 100 households from the 4 adjoining villages of our Institute were selected for operational and logistic feasibility. The household’s capacity to pay, out of pocket expenditure and catastrophic health expenditure were calculated. Data collection was done using a pretested questionnaire by the principal investigator and the analysis was done using SPSS (version 16. Results: The average income in the highest income quintile was Rs 51,885 but the quintile ratio was 14.98. The median subsistence expenditure was Rs 4,520. About 18% of households got impoverished paying for health care. About 81% of households were incurring out of pocket expenditure and 66% were facing catastrophic health expenses of 40%.Conclusion There was very high out of pocket spending and a high prevalence of catastrophic expenditure noted. Providing quality care at affordable cost and appropriate risk pooling mechanism are warranted to protect households from such economic threats.

  17. Predictors of regional Medicare expenditures for otolaryngology physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alden; Handorf, Elizabeth; Arjmand, Ellis; Lango, Miriam N

    2017-06-01

    To describe geographic variation in spending and evaluate regional Medicare expenditures for otolaryngologist services with population- and beneficiary-related factors, physician supply, and hospital system factors. Cross-sectional study. The average regional expenditures for otolaryngology physician services were defined as the total work relative value units (wRVUs) collected by otolaryngologists in a hospital referral region (HRR) per thousand Medicare beneficiaries in the HRR. A multivariable linear regression model tested associations with regional sociodemographics (age, sex, race, income, education), the physician and hospital bed supply, and the presence of an otolaryngology residency program. In 2012, the mean Medicare expenditure for otolaryngology provider services across HRRs was 224 wRVUs per thousand Medicare beneficiaries (standard deviation [SD] 104), ranging from 31 to 604 wRVUs per thousand Medicare beneficiaries. In 2013, the average Medicare expenditures for each HRR was highly correlated with expenditures collected in 2012 (Pearson correlation coefficient .997, P = .0001). Regional Medicare expenditures were independently and positively associated with otolaryngology, medical specialist, and hospital bed supply in the region, and were negatively associated with the supply of primary care physicians and presence of an otolaryngology residency program after adjusting for other factors. The magnitude of associations with physician supply and hospital factors was stronger than any population or Medicare beneficiary factor. Wide variations in regional Medicare expenditures for otolaryngology physician services, highly stable over 2 years, were strongly associated with regional health system factors. Changes in health policy for otolaryngology care may require coordination with other physician specialties and integrated hospital systems. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:1312-1317, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas de; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the evolution of catastrophic health expenditure and the inequalities in such expenses, according to the socioeconomic characteristics of Brazilian families. Data from the National Household Budget 2002-2003 (48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (55,970 households) were analyzed. Catastrophic health expenditure was defined as excess expenditure, considering different methods of calculation: 10.0% and 20.0% of total consumption and 40.0% of the family's capacity to pay. The National Economic Indicator and schooling were considered as socioeconomic characteristics. Inequality measures utilized were the relative difference between rates, the rates ratio, and concentration index. The catastrophic health expenditure varied between 0.7% and 21.0%, depending on the calculation method. The lowest prevalences were noted in relation to the capacity to pay, while the highest, in relation to total consumption. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure increased by 25.0% from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 when the cutoff point of 20.0% relating to the total consumption was considered and by 100% when 40.0% or more of the capacity to pay was applied as the cut-off point. Socioeconomic inequalities in the catastrophic health expenditure in Brazil between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 increased significantly, becoming 5.20 times higher among the poorest and 4.17 times higher among the least educated. There was an increase in catastrophic health expenditure among Brazilian families, principally among the poorest and those headed by the least-educated individuals, contributing to an increase in social inequality.

  19. Highway Expenditures and Associated Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the satisfaction of the Nevadans with respect to their highway transportation system and the corresponding expenditures of Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT. A survey questionnaire was designed to capture the opinions of the Nevadans (customers about a number of characteristics of their transportation system. Data from the financial data warehouse of the NDOT was used to evaluate expenditures. Multinomial probit models were estimated to study the correlations between customers’ opinion and the government expenditures in transportation. The results indicate the customer satisfaction is decreasing with respect to traffic safety throughout Northwestern and Southern Nevada highways. In addition, users of Northwestern highways are more likely to be satisfied, compared to their counterparts, with increasing construction spending to reduce the time taken to complete construction projects. In Southern Nevada highways, customers’ satisfaction increases with the expenditures associated with reduction of congestion. These insights are examples of the conclusions that were obtained as a consequence of simultaneously considering customer satisfaction and the corresponding expenditures in transportation.

  20. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games ( p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  1. Energy Expenditure in Infants in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of energy balance represents a basic theoretical concept in the determination of nutritional and fluid requirements in humans in health and disease. Infants have special nutrient requirements, more limited reserves and relative immaturity of organ function. Energy requirements of infants have been based either retrospectively on intakes required to achieve normal growth or on equations derived from energy expenditure studies performed early this century. Recently, improved techniques for studying resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE and metabolically active body compartments in infants have facilitated more accurate estimates of energy requirements. Such studies indicated that current reference values for energy requirements are overestimates, and that compared with measured values, predicted values vary markedly between the various predictive equations with wide co-efficients of variation. In disease states with altered body composition, such as cystic fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, predictive equations markedly underestimate both energy and fluid requirements. In cystic fibrosis, both TEE and REE are 25% higher than values in healthy infants. In extrahepatic biliary atresia, energy expenditure per unit body cell mass is markedly elevated, suggesting that this is a catabolic condition in infants. Current estimates of energy and fluid requirements in both health and disease in infants need reappraisal. Bedside and free living energy expenditure methodology should be used to define accurately components of energy requirement in individual infants.

  2. Testing the stability of travel expenditures in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osula, D.O.A.; Adebisi, O.

    2001-01-01

    A report is presented on a study carried out to develop a functional form for travel money expenditure in a Nigerian setting, and test its stability against energy policy change, specifically the fuel price increase of October 1994. The Box-Cox transformation regression approach was adopted in the modelling exercise in order to evolve a data-defined functional form and ensure a more rational basis for the stability test. The results of the modelling exercise show that while statistically significant functional forms were estimated for the 'before' and 'after' fuel price increase periods, the functional forms estimated are not stable across the periods. Thus 'travel budget' is as yet not usable as a term for travel expenditures in Nigeria. The implication of this for travel demand modelling in Nigeria is that, at least till other evidences prove otherwise, there is as yet no basis for using the 'Universal Mechanism of Travel' model developed by Zahavi (The UMOT Project. Report No. DOT-RSPA-DPB-20-79-3; The UMOT Travel Model II Report No. DOT-RSPA-DPB-50-82-11). Of disposable income and total expenditure, the former has proved to be more appropriate for use as 'available money' for the estimation of travel expenditures in Nigeria in the 'before' energy policy change period, while total expenditure proved appropriate in the 'after' period. (author)

  3. Relations of Nosological Factors and Energy Expenditure in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shmakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the aid of indirect calorimetry, to evaluate whether the nosological factors affect energy exchange in severely ill newborns.Materials and methods. Indirect calorimetry was employed to determine the true energy expenditure in new borns under the mechanical ventilation because of intranatal postanoxia encephalopathy (n=19, severe sepsis (n=18, and urgent surgery (n=19. Energy expenditure at rest was estimated at the beginning of intensive therapy and in in 48 hours. Sedation in groups was similar.Results. At the first stage, the energy exchange in all newborns was characterized by hypometabolism. In cases of damage of the central nervous system the anaerobic metabolism was increased, and the principal used substrate was glucose; the most prolonged hypometabolism was revealed in newborns with sepsis, in which the utilization of lactate was decreased, and the main energetic substrate were lipids; in early postoperative period, the decrease in energy expenditure was not associated with preferential oxidation of glucose or lipids, and disappeared due to elimination of anesthetics.Conclusion. Energetic hypometabolism can be considered as a main reaction of the newborn organism to previous invasion. Acute posthypoxic brain damage in newborns is characterized by high activity of peroxidation associated with hypometabolism. For newborns with severe sepsis a slow recovery of aerobic metabolism and intensity of energy expenditure were evident. Early postoperative period in newborns was characterized by profound iatrogenic hypometabolism with fast normalization of energy expenditure.

  4. Energy expenditure characteristics of weight lifting: 2 sets to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher B; Leary, Michael P; Tenbraak, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the work performed and energy expenditure characteristics within and among 2 sets of the bench press at 70%, 80%, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). For both sets fatigue was the end point. We asked: do multiple sets affect subsequent work output along with aerobic, anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) contributions? Ten males participated. Work was significantly less for the 2nd set within the 70% and 80% protocols, but not the 90% protocol. Anaerobic (glycolytic) energy expenditure was less for the 2nd set within all protocols. However, within all protocols, the work / energy expenditure ratio was not different between sets. Overall work was significantly different among protocols, becoming less as the weight lifted was increased: 70%, 637.1 ± 122.4 J; 80%, 512.4 ± 93.4 J; 90%, 324.7 ± 92.6 J (p EPOC was not different among protocols after the 1st set, 2nd set, or combined overall. Moreover, the overall EPOC did not correlate with overall work performed (r = 0.31, p = 0.11). EPOC overall did correlate with aerobic (r = 0.68, p EPOC that is similar for all. As more work is completed (i.e., lower weight, more repetitions), aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditures appear to increase accordingly, yet absolute EPOC remains essentially unchanged, contributing less to the overall energy expenditure.

  5. The effect of a dynamic chair on seated energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, Aoife; Dankaerts, Wim; Seghers, Jan; Purtill, Helen; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic sitting approaches have been advocated to increase seated energy expenditure with the view of lessening the sedentary nature of the task. This study compared energy expenditure (EE) and overall body discomfort on a novel dynamic chair with a standard office chair. Fifteen pain-free participants completed a DVD viewing task on both chairs in a randomised order. Energy expenditure and discomfort were collected simultaneously. Linear mixed models were used to analyse steady-state EE recorded on each of the chairs. Differences in discomfort were analysed using Wilkoxon Signed Rank Tests. Sitting on the novel dynamic chair significantly (p = 0.005) increased energy expenditure compared to a standard office chair. The discomfort experienced was mild overall, but was significantly greater on the dynamic chair (p = 0.004). Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS. Thus, the use of a dynamic chair does not seem to be the most effective measure to prevent sedentary behaviour. Practitioner Summary: Sitting on a dynamic chair increased energy expenditure compared to sitting on a standard office chair among pain-free participants. Whilst the EE was seen to be significantly higher on the dynamic chair, the MET values are still below 1.5 METS (low level EE).

  6. The Causal Relationship between Health and Education Expenditures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Foon TANG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major macroeconomic policy in generating economic growth is to encourage investments on human capital such as health and education. This is because both health and education make significant contribution to increasing productivity of the labour force which ultimately exerts a positive effect on raising output levels. A question that arises is whether investments on health and education have a causal relationship and if so, what is the directional causality? The objective of this study is to examine the causal relationship between health and education expenditures in Malaysia. This study covered annual data from 1970 to 2007. Using Granger causality as well as Toda and Yamamoto MWALD causality approaches, this study suggests that education Granger-causes health expenditure in both the short run and long run. The findings of this study implied that the Malaysian society places preference on education expenditure rather than health. This preference is not unexpected as generally, an educated and knowledgeable society precedes a healthy one. Before a society has attained a relatively higher level of education, it is less aware of the importance of health. Thus, expenditure on education should lead expenditure on health.

  7. Environmental expenditure and the natural resources industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoianoff, N.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government has used taxation policy to encourage environmental responsibility for the past decade. This paper analyzed the development of tax concessions in the natural resources industry for the past 10 years with emphasis on the objective of introducing environmental expenditure incentives. The taxation policy provided the natural resources industry with a special deduction for current or capital expenditure incurred on rehabilitation-related activities on or after 1 July 1999. During this same period, a regime was introduced for the deductibility of environmental expenditure, including environmental impact studies or environmental protection expenditure. Income taxation in Australia has undergone significant review in the past decade to try to simplify the complicated Income Tax Assessment Act which dates back to 1936. Some provisions in that Act were restructured, such as the special tax concessions for the natural resource industry to remove duplication of provisions. This resulted in a single cohesive regime of concessions for the mining, quarrying and petroleum industries. Environmental expenditures were also imported into the restructured 1997 Act. Major business taxation reforms were also introduced at the end of 1999. It was noted that providing financial incentives to operate in a more environmentally responsible matter is not a guarantee that such behaviour will occur. 102 refs

  8. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  9. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLD’S LIVING EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duddy Roesmara Donna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate and analize the characteristics of Indonesian household expenditure on goods and services, for example food, clothes, household utensils, housing, medical care, education, oil and transportation, gas, electricity and communication. Linear Expenditure System (LES model and seemingly uncorrelated regression (SUR estimation method were applied. This study has some conclusions. First, if ones have more incomes, they will proportionally allocate them for housing, oil and transportation, education, food, and medical care. Second, medical care, education and communication are categorized as superior or deluxe commodities. Third, the approximation of minimum living expenditure to survive is Rp 147.236 for a household per week.  

  11. The impact of public expenditure on undernourishment distribution in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Macías, Lidia; Palma-Solís, Marco; Zapata-Vázquez, Rita E

    2013-09-01

    The status of undernourishment in children under the age of five in Mexico is open to debate. Linked to poverty, underweight and stunting, the rates of undernourishment are reported to be diminishing, although poverty remains an incessant problem. This study was done to determine whether there is an association between public expenditure and underweight and stunting distribution in Mexico based on data from the 2006 health and population census and from macroeconomic, social, and demographic variables. We used principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables and analyze their behavior. Multiple regressions showed that underweight and stunting are significantly associated with the marginalization index, support from the Sistema Nacional para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (DIF) supplies and breakfast program, the gross domestic product per capita, and expenditure from the Opportunities program. Further, public expenditure aimed to combat undernourishment is inadequately oriented to address the needs of the poor.

  12. Energy expenditure during ambulation with ortho crutches and axillary crutches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, C A; Cullen, K E

    1982-06-01

    Thirteen normal male college students were studied during unassisted ambulation and nonweight-bearing ambulation with Ortho crutches and axillary crutches to determine energy expenditure. Subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Energy expenditure was determined by analyzing expired air collected by a calorimeter. Heart rate was monitored by telemetry. During the first 2.5 minutes of walking, heart rate and energy expenditure were significantly greater for ambulation with axillary crutches than with Ortho crutches. After 11.5 minutes of walking, no difference in energy cost was found between crutch types; however, heart rate increased significantly (p less than .01) during ambulation with axillary crutches. Differences in energy cost and heart rate were attributed to increased upper extremity work performed when using axillary crutches. We concluded that during nonweight-bearing ambulation for short periods of time or over a short distance, the Ortho crutch is less taxing in terms of energy cost and heart rate demands.

  13. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  14. Health care expenditure in the Islamic Republic of Iran versus other high spending countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Javan-Noughabi, Javad; Faramarzi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Background: In all countries, health expenditures are a main part of government expenditure, and governments try to find policies and strategies to reduce this expenditure. Overall expenditure index has been raised 30 times during the past 20 years in Iran, while in the health sector, the growth in health expenditures index has been 71 times. The present study aimed at examining health care expenditure in the Islamic Republic of Iran versus other high spending countries. Methods: A comparative panel study was conducted in selected countries with the high mean of health expenditure per capita. Data were collected from the WORLD BANK. Out- of- pocket (OOP), health expenditure per capita, public and private health expenditure, and total health expenditure were compared among the selected counties. Results: Iran has the lowest health expenditure per capita compared to other countries and the USA has the highest health expenditures per capita. In Iran, out- of- pocket expenditure, with more than 50%, was the most cost, while in Luxembourg it was the least cost during 2004 to 2014, with less than 12%. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that politicians and health care executives should find a stable source to finance the health system. Stable sources of financing lead to having a steady trend in health expenditure.

  15. Out-of-pocket expenditure on institutional delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2013-05-01

    Though promotion of institutional delivery is used as a strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, about half of the deliveries in India are conducted at home without any medical care. Among women who deliver at home, one in four cites cost as barrier to facility-based care. The relative share of deliveries in private health centres has increased over time and the associated costs are often catastrophic for poor households. Though research has identified socio-economic, demographic and geographic barriers to the utilization of maternal care, little is known on the cost differentials in delivery care in India. The objective of this paper is to understand the regional pattern and socio-economic differentials in out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on institutional delivery by source of provider in India. The study utilizes unit data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), conducted in India during 2007-08. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and a two-part model are used in the analyses. During 2004-08, the mean OOP expenditure for a delivery in a public health centre in India was US$39 compared with US$139 in a private health centre. The predicted expenditure for a caesarean delivery was six times higher than for a normal delivery. With an increase in the economic status and educational attainment of mothers, the propensity and rate of OOP expenditure increases, linking higher OOP expenditure to quality of care. The OOP expenditure in public health centres, adjusting for inflation, has declined over time, possibly due to increased spending under the National Rural Health Mission. Based on these findings, we recommend that facilities in public health centres of poorly performing states are improved and that public-private partnership models are developed to reduce the economic burden for households of maternal care in India.

  16. Accuracy of annual prescription drug expenditure forecasts in AJHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, Patricia L; Vermeulen, Lee C; Hoffman, James M; Shah, Nilay D; Doloresco, Fred; Suda, Katie J; Li, Edward C; Matusiak, Linda M; Hunkler, Robert J; Schumock, Glen T

    2015-10-01

    The accuracy of the forecasts of drug expenditures in nonfederal hospitals and clinics published annually in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (AJHP) relative to the accuracy of forecasts produced by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) was evaluated. AJHP-published forecasts of drug expenditure growth for nonfederal hospitals (for the years 2003 through 2013) and clinics (for the years 2004 through 2013) were compared with data on actual growth. Data on actual and projected growth published by CMS were analyzed for the years 2003 through 2012. The mean absolute error and directional accuracy of the forecasts published in AJHP for nonfederal hospitals and clinics and the CMS forecasts were determined and compared. Actual spending growth was within the range of the forecast published in AJHP for 2 of 11 years for nonfederal hospitals and for 3 of 10 years for clinics; the forecasts for nonfederal hospitals and clinics were directionally accurate 27.3% and 60.0% of the time, respectively. The mean absolute errors of the AJHP-published drug expenditure forecasts for the nonfederal hospital and clinic sectors were 2.0 and 4.7 percentage points, respectively. The CMS forecasts of overall drug spending were directionally accurate 70% of the time, and the mean absolute error (2.2 percentage points) was not statistically different from that of either sector forecast published in AJHP. The annual drug expenditure forecasts published in AJHP have been reasonably accurate for predicting growth in prescription expenditures when compared with other available drug expenditure forecasts. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. National trends in prescription drug expenditures and projections for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumock, Glen T; Li, Edward C; Suda, Katie J; Matusiak, Linda M; Hunkler, Robert J; Vermeulen, Lee C; Hoffman, James M

    2014-03-15

    An analysis of trends in U.S. pharmaceutical spending is presented, including projections for drug expenditures in nonfederal hospital and clinic settings in 2014. Trends in pharmaceutical expenditures and developments likely to influence future spending, including new drug approvals and patent expirations, were analyzed using data from the IMS Health National Sales Perspectives database. Projections were based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses and expert opinion. Total prescription sales for the 12 months ending September 2013 were approximately $326 billion, 0.7% lower than sales during the previous 12 months; pharmaceutical spending by clinics and nonfederal hospitals grew by 4.5% and 1.8%, respectively. Vaccines were among the products driving large sales increases in clinic settings, with alteplase and pegfilgrastim topping the list of fast-growing drugs by hospital expenditures. Few new drug approvals anticipated in 2014 are expected to result in major expenditures by hospitals and clinics. Expansion of access to health care and other changes related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as well as continued improvement in the U.S. economy, may drive growth in pharmaceutical spending over the next 12-24 months. Growth in U.S. prescription drug expenditures is expected to rebound in 2014, with a projected 3-5% increase in total drug expenditures across all settings this year, including a 5-7% increase in clinic spending and a 1-3% increase in hospital spending. Health-system pharmacy leaders should carefully examine local drug-utilization patterns to determine their respective organization's anticipated spending in 2014.

  18. Government revenue-expenditure nexus: Evidence from several transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konukcu-Önal Debi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficits and the debate on the sources of deficit finance have been on the agenda of public economics ever since the 1980s. However recently in the post-communist countries fiscal imbalances appear to be an important problem due to prolonged periods of growing poverty resulting from the transition process. Poverty alleviation policies considerably affect the revenue and expenditure decisions of governments, which are subject to hard budget constraints in an open transitional economy and do not have room for departing from sound fiscal policies. The public finance literature provides a vast number of studies analyzing the relationship between public revenues and expenditures. These studies are mostly characterized by efforts to reveal the attitude of the fiscal authority towards maintaining the budget balance. In this respect, budgetary dynamics in which past government revenues have predictive power on the current level of government expenditures are accepted as evidence of the so-called tax-and-spend hypothesis. On the other hand, the revenue-expenditure nexus running from expenditures to revenues is known in the literature as the spend-and-tax hypothesis. The objective of this study is to analyze empirically the relationship between government revenues and expenditures in four of the transitional economies, i.e. Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation. The empirical findings of this study, which are based on Granger causality tests, indicate evidence supporting the tax-and-spend hypothesis in Belarus and the Russian Federation and fiscal synchronization in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. The empirical support for the tax-and-spend hypothesis in these economies implies that increasing government revenues may not end up with lower budget deficits due to their stimulating effect on the demand for public goods and services.

  19. Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1960-81

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1982-01-01

    This bulletin presents 1960-81 data on per capita food consumption, prices, nutrient availability, food expenditures and marketing costs, and U.S. income and population. Retail food prices rose 7.9 percent, aggregate food consumption fell 1.0 percent, and personal consumption expenditures for food rose 9.7 percent. Per capita meat consumption was down 2.5 pounds in 1981, hut poultry usage rose 1.8 pounds. Dairy consumption per person was lower. Fresh fruit consumption rose 1.6 pounds per pers...

  20. Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1962-82

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1983-01-01

    This bulletin ,presents 1962-82 data on per capita food consumption, prices, nutrient availability,food expenditures and marketing costs, and U.S. income and population. Retail food prices in 1982 rose 4.0 percent, aggregate food consumption fell 0.4 percent, and personal food, consumption expenditures rose 6.3 percent from 1981. Per, capita red meat consumption was down 5.8 pounds, but poultry use rose 1.3 pounds. Dairy product consumption per person decreased. Fresh fruit consumption fell 3...

  1. SIGNIFIKANSI PREVENTIVE EXPENDITURES VALUATION DALAM BIOPROSPEKSI SUMBERDAYA GENETIK DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Great potential of Indonesian biodiversity provides benefits and challenges as well in its protection and preservation. One critical issue arise along the rapid development of biotechnology is on genetic resources commersialization. Precautionary approach as mandated by Convention on Biological Diversity alternatively can be used as an opportunity for performing sustainable use of genetic resources. However, the lack of economic valuation of national natural resources is became an obstacle. Preventive expenditures is a common expenditures spent to avoid or prevent externalities. This normative research aims to find the significance of this method, on the  basis of precautionary approach, to valuate the genetic resources within bioprospecting applications.

  2. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  3. Trends in Medicare Expenditures and Financial Status, 1966-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard S

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews expenditure growth trends over Medicare's 35-year history and comments on how the program's long-range financial outlook has changed over time. The author focuses on the various legislative, economic, and demographic factors that have affected expenditure growth and financial status. In addition, Medicare's share of total U.S. health costs is briefly reviewed. In an appended comment, the author considers whether the impact of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) was greater than intended by Congress and the Administration. The author concludes with a plea for greater attention to correcting the projected long-range deficits for the Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund.

  4. Green hypocrisy? Environmental attitudes and residential space heating expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, Laura; Lange, Ian; Moro, Mirko [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). Division of Economics

    2012-06-15

    In the UK, the largest proportion of household energy use is for space heating. Popular media make claims of a green hypocrisy: groups which have the strongest attitude towards the environment have the highest emissions. This study examines whether environmental attitudes and behaviours are associated with space heating energy use using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Results find that environmentally friendly attitudes generally do not lead to lower heating expenditures though environmentally friendly behaviours are associated with lower heating expenditure. Also, the effect of these attitudes and behaviours do not change as income increase.

  5. Silicon oxynitride: A field emission suppression coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Nimel D.

    We have studied coatings deposited using our inductively-coupled RF plasma ion implantation and desposition system to suppress field emission from large, 3-D electrode structures used in high voltage applications, like those used by Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in their DC-field photoelectron gun. Currently time and labor-intensive hand-polishing procedures are used to minimize field emission from these structures. Previous work had shown that the field emission from polished stainless steel (27 muA of field-emitted current at 15 MV/m) could be drastically reduced with simultaneous deposition of sputtered silicon dioxide during nitrogen implantation (167 pA of field-emitted current at 30 MV/m). We have determined that this unique implantation and deposition procedure produces high-purity silicon oxynitride films that can suppress field emission from stainless steel regardless of their initial surface polish. However, when this implantation procedure was applied to large, 3-D substrates, arcs occurred, damaging the coating and causing unreliable and unrepeatable field emission suppression. We have developed a novel reactive sputtering procedure to deposit high-purity silicon oxynitride coatings without nitrogen ion implantation. We can control the stoichometry and deposition rate of these coatings by adjusting the nitrogen pressure and incident RF-power. Using profilometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis, and current-voltage measurements, we have determined that the elemental composition, chemical bonding, density, and electrical properties of the reactively-sputtered silicon oxynitride coatings are similar to those produced by nitrogen implantation during silicon dioxide deposition. Furthermore, high voltage tests determined that both coatings similarly suppress field emission from 6" diameter, polished

  6. How to suppress obsessive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  7. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  8. Kink instability suppression with stochastic cooling pickup and kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Y.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    The kink instability is one of the major beam dynamics issues of the linac-ring based electron ion collider. This head-tail type instability arises from the oscillation of the electron beam inside the opposing ion beam. It must be suppressed to achieve the desired luminosity. There are various ways to suppress the instability, such as tuning the chromaticity in the ion ring or by a dedicated feedback system of the electron beam position at IP, etc. However, each method has its own limitation. In this paper, we will discuss an alternative opportunity of suppressing the kink instability of the proposed eRHIC at BNL using the existing pickup-kicker system of the stochastic cooling system in RHIC.

  9. Collective Labor Supply and Child Care Expenditures : Theory and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, Chris; Ghysels, Joris

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. For this purpose we use data of the Flemish Families and Care Survey (FFCS, 2004-2005). The main findings are, firstly, that the supply of paid labor is hardly affected

  10. Collective labor supply and child care expenditures: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Ghysels, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the

  11. National and International Income Dispersion and Aggregate Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fillat; J.F. François (Joseph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine linkages between aggregate household income, distribution of that income, and aggregate cross-country expenditure patterns. We are able to decompose income effects into international income dispersion effects (from variations in average income) and national income dispersion

  12. Accountability for Public Expenditure under "Building Schools for the Future"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Jean; Stafford, Anne; Stapleton, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the disclosure and reporting of expenditure under the UK government's "Building Schools for the Future" programme. The study finds that there is little detailed and useful financial reporting, and the public's right to know under Freedom of Information Act 2000 is very limited. The lack of such information makes it…

  13. The Constitutional Implications of Expenditure Limits in Student Government Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide student affairs professionals with an overview of the law regarding the constitutionality of expenditure limits in student government elections. Unlike campaigns for federal and state office, it is clear that the limited case law on this topic does allow universities to limit the amount of money that student…

  14. Households' incidence on malaria and expenditures to treat malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People living in the rural areas spend more to have access to malaria control tools. Location of respondent has a positive effect on expenditures and use of malaria control tools. The National Malaria Administration (NMA) and (SMA) State Malaria Administration should continually determine the access that the poorest and ...

  15. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  16. The Effects of Corruptionon Growth, Investment, and Government Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible causes and consequences of corruption. It provides a synthetic review of recent studies that analyze this phenomenon empirically. In addition, it presents further results on the effects of corruption on growth and investment, and new cross-country evidence on the link between corruption and the composition of government expenditure.

  17. 26 CFR 1.617-1 - Exploration expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.617-1 Exploration expenditures. (a) General rule. Section... deduction for depletion is allowable under section 613 (other than oil or gas) paid or incurred by the taxpayer before the beginning of the development stage of the mine or other natural deposit. Such...

  18. 26 CFR 1.616-1 - Development expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-1 Development expenditures. (a) General rule. Section... benefited in a mine or other natural deposit (regardless of the computation of the depletion allowance) in... taxpayer for the development of a mine or other natural deposit (other than an oil or gas well...

  19. 44 CFR 361.7 - General eligible expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.7 General eligible expenditures... specifically for carrying out earthquake hazards reduction activities are eligible when engaged in the...

  20. The Degree of Autonomy of the Romanian Local Public Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letitia Andronic (Bratulescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of local public spending optimization is extensively studied by those who have the power of decision towards saving. Even if the goal is to adjust the imbalance revenues/expenditures, the trend to spend more than accumulated is still a matter of concern. Our objective is that of analyzing the local governments’ functional expenditures by measuring the degree of decentralization/autonomy. The value of the paper is given by the model we applied for Romania which is based on spending management. By analyzing different types of expenses, we have highlighted that local expenditures represent instruments of strengthening or weakening local autonomy. The indicators measure the effectiveness of local expenditures by using the model published by The World Bank in 2006. We gathered information through interviewing different Town-Hall representatives from Brasov County and then we gave scores and established ranks. As the degree of autonomy reached a score of about 3 on a scale of 1-4, we identified that the class in which Romania is placed (B is mostly defined in terms of delegated powers and not decentralized competences. The study is significant for politicians, for those responsible for implementing decentralization, but also for the taxpayers who deserve the best public services.

  1. Determinants of Public Health Expenditure Growth in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Tanzania using nationally representative annual data between 1995 and 2014. It used ... 1 Corresponding Author Email: byaro2014@yahoo.com, School of Public Health, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 50110, Lusaka .... income of a country, controlling for other factors, is the major determinants of health expenditure.

  2. Analysis of differences in rural-urban households food expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... households in the study areas for an active and healthy life. Expenditure share on fruits and vegetables should therefore be increased. There is need for household size reduction through birth control and rate of dependency by other distant relationships besides providing food subsidy by the government to households.

  3. 10 CFR 603.560 - Estimate of project expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the recipient achieves them, are reliable indicators of the amount of effort the recipient expended. However, the estimate of the required expenditures need not be a precise dollar amount, as illustrated by the example in paragraph (b) of this section, if: (1) The recipient is contributing a substantial...

  4. 76 FR 36000 - Rulemaking Petition: Independent Expenditure Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... corporations and labor organizations, which make independent expenditures, in order to conform the regulation... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 109 [Notice 2011-09] Rulemaking Petition: Independent... Van Hollen. The Petition urges the Commission to revise and amend the regulations at 11 CFR 109.10(e...

  5. An actuarial perspective on healthcare expenditure in the last year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the expenditure incurred by health insurers arising from the provision of benefits during the 12 months preceding a beneficiary's death. Concern is expressed in parts of the international literature about the extent of resources directed towards those at the end of life, particularly given ...

  6. Modelling the effects of promotion expenditures on sales of pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Jaap E.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2013-01-01

    The successful innovation of pharmaceuticals requires a substantial amount of marketing support, despite concerns about the effects of these marketing efforts. This study considers prior findings that indicate that higher marketing expenditures for a brand reduce its price elasticity of demand,

  7. Effects of disability-associated low energy expenditure deconditioning syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H; Schiller, William; Chen, Ming-De

    2012-01-01

    People with neuromuscular disabilities have high rates of sedentary behavior predisposing them to severe deconditioning and significant health risk. We describe this as disability-associated low energy expenditure deconditioning syndrome and propose new approaches for promoting light-to-moderate intensity physical activity in people with disabilities.

  8. Determinants of public health expenditure growth in Tanzania: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies some major drivers of per capita public health expenditure growth in Tanzania using nationally representative annual data between 1995 and 2014. It used Bayesian model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The empirical result shows that both the real GDP per capita and ...

  9. Plant-derived food ingredients for stimulation of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Nancy Dewi; Korthout, Henrie; Wijaya, Christofora Hanny; Kim, Hye Kyong; Verpoorte, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The development of obesity is related to the regulation of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy storage in the body. Increasing energy expenditure by inducing lipolysis followed by fat oxidation is one of the alternatives which could help to reverse this increasingly widespread condition. Currently, there is no approved drug targeting on stimulation of energy expenditure available. The use of herbal medicines has become a preferred alternative, supported by the classical consensus on the innocuity of herbal medicine vs synthetic drugs, something that often lacks a scientific basis (ban on Ephedra, for example). The inclusion of functional food in the daily diet has also been promoted although its efficacy requires further investigation. This review summarizes the results of recent work focused on the investigation of edible plant materials targeted at various important pathways related to stimulation of energy expenditure. The aim is to evaluate a number of plants that may be of interest for further studies because of their potential to provide novel lead compounds or functional foods which may be used to combat obesity, but require further studies to evaluate their antiobesity activity in humans.

  10. Allometric Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinman, Thane; Cook, Robin

    2011-08-01

    Predicting energy needs in children is complicated by the wide range of patient sizes, confusing traditional estimation equations, nonobjective stress-activity factors, and so on. These complications promote errors in bedside estimates of nutritional needs by rendering the estimation methods functionally unavailable to bedside clinicians. Here, the authors develop a simple heuristic energy prediction equation that requires only body mass (not height, age, or sex) as input. Expert estimation of energy expenditure suggested a power-law relationship between mass and energy. A similar mass-energy expenditure relationship was derived from published pediatric echocardiographic data using a Monte Carlo model of energy expenditure based on oxygen delivery and consumption. A simplified form of the equation was compared with energy required for normal growth in a cohort of historical patients weighing 2 to 70 kg. All 3 methods demonstrate that variation in energy expenditure in children is dominated by mass and can be estimated by the following equation: Power(kcal/kg/d) = 200 × [Mass(kg)((-0.4))]. This relationship explains 85% of the variability in energy required to maintain expected growth over a broad range of surgical clinical contexts. A simplified power-law equation predicts real-world energy needs for growth in patients over a wide range of body sizes and clinical contexts, providing a more useful bedside tool than traditional estimators.

  11. Government Expenditure, Efficiency and Economic Growth: A Panel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fiscal situation i.e., government expenditure to surpass government revenue. The reduction in private investment has a pessimistic multiplier effect; hence may slow down economic growth. Premised on the nature of the country's taxation hypothesis, governments of the developing countries should consider the efficiency of ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.46-5 - Qualified progress expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified progress expenditures. 1.46-5 Section 1.46-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-5 Qualified progress...

  13. Energy expenditure in office workers with identified health risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To measure the daily energy expenditure in employees previously identified as having ≥2 risk factors for chronic disease, and to identify potential risk-reducing interventions for implementation within or outside the workplace. Design. A total of 122 employees with ≥2 risk factors for chronic disease identified in ...

  14. Measuring the displacement and replacement of government health expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Hanlon, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Research assessing the relationship between government health expenditure and development assistance for health channeled to governments (DAHG) has not considered that this relationship may depend on whether DAHG is increasing or decreasing. We explore this issue using general method of moments estimation and a panel of financial flows data spanning 119 countries and 16 years. Our primary concern is how DAHG affects government health expenditure as source (GHES). We disaggregate the average effect of DAHG and separately identify the effects of increases versus decreases in DAHG. We find that a $1 year-over-year increase in DAHG leads to a $0.62 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 1.09) decrease in GHES, whereas a $1 year-over-year decrease in DAHG does not have an effect on GHES that is statistically different from zero (CI: -0.67, 1.17). Simulation shows that the displacement of GHES between 1995 and 2010 reduced total government health expenditure by $152.8 billion (CI: 46.9, 277.6). Moreover, the irregular disbursement of DAHG reduced total government expenditure by $96.9 billion (CI: 0.5, 212.4). Thus, this research shows that health aid is fungible and highlights the cost of displacement and erratic aid disbursement. © 2013 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Expenditure on health research in South Africa, 1991/1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research in 1991/1992, 56,1 % by the tertiary education sector and 20,7% by the Medical Research Council. .... expenditure on health research in their annual reports. This is partiCUlarly true of institutions like the ..... Stock Exchange, exceeded R3 billion in 1991"6 These data, if correct, suggest that less than 3% of turnover ...

  16. Comparing energy expenditure between Nintendo Wii Fit™ and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children, but contributes a percentage of time to the daily recommended activity levels. Keywords: Wii sports, Body Media Sensewear, energy expenditure, childhood obesity.

  17. Determinants of health expenditure in Nigeria | Agbatogun | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the significance of the determinants of total government health expenditure in Nigeria. The various literature show that improvement of health sector is sine-qua-non to sustainable economic growth and development. Using regression analysis on macroeconomic data gathered, the results showed that ...

  18. Modelling energy expenditure of a brick layer at various postures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy utilisation at work in the labour-intensive building industry is of prime importance to contractors who match people to jobs. This paper provides an insight into modelling energy expenditure in a specific task, namely brick laying in various postures. It therefore takes previous “generic” biomechanical-energy prediction ...

  19. Government expenditure and economic growth nexus: Wagner's law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the validity of Wagner's law and Keynesian hypothesis of the long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Tanzania using annual time series data from 1978 to 2014. The data series were tested for stationarity using Phillips-Perron unit root test and the results ...

  20. Understanding household education expenditure in Sudan: do poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the factors that influence households' expenditure on education in Sudan, using the National Baseline Household Survey (NBHS) data (2009) for national, urban and rural levels. The results of Tobit model indicate that household income, head education, head age, household size, number of ...

  1. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  2. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Rasu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Methods Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL. HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS <226 and above basic (HLS ≥226. Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI. A Pvalue of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA®11.0 statistical software. Results The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%. Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83% and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P < .05. The extrapolated national

  3. Evaluating direct medical expenditures estimation methods of adults using the medical expenditure panel survey: an example focusing on head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Diarmuid; Yeh, Susan T; O'Neill, Ciaran; Frick, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    To inform policymakers of the importance of evaluating various methods for estimating the direct medical expenditures for a low-incidence condition, head and neck cancer (HNC). Four methods of estimation have been identified: 1) summing all health care expenditures, 2) estimating disease-specific expenditures consistent with an attribution approach, 3) estimating disease-specific expenditures by matching, and 4) estimating disease-specific expenditures by using a regression-based approach. A literature review of studies (2005-2012) that used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) was undertaken to establish the most popular expenditure estimation methods. These methods were then applied to a sample of 120 respondents with HNC, derived from pooled data (2003-2008). The literature review shows that varying expenditure estimation methods have been used with MEPS but no study compared and contrasted all four methods. Our estimates are reflective of the national treated prevalence of HNC. The upper-bound estimate of annual direct medical expenditures of adult respondents with HNC between 2003 and 2008 was $3.18 billion (in 2008 dollars). Comparable estimates arising from methods focusing on disease-specific and incremental expenditures were all lower in magnitude. Attribution yielded annual expenditures of $1.41 billion, matching method of $1.56 billion, and regression method of $1.09 billion. This research demonstrates that variation exists across and within expenditure estimation methods applied to MEPS data. Despite concerns regarding aspects of reliability and consistency, reporting a combination of the four methods offers a degree of transparency and validity to estimating the likely range of annual direct medical expenditures of a condition. © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Published by International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) All rights reserved.

  4. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  5. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  6. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  7. The Decline in Expenditures for Clothing Relative to Total Consumer Spending, 1929-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winakor, Geitel

    1989-01-01

    Expenditures for clothing and shoes have declined as a share of total personal consumption expenditures in nominal dollars, particularly since the end of World War II. This paper examines the drastic decline and its possible causes. (JOW)

  8. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  9. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  10. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  11. 76 FR 61254 - Interpretive Rule on When Certain Independent Expenditures Are “Publicly Disseminated” for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Certain Independent Expenditures Are ``Publicly Disseminated'' for Reporting Purposes AGENCY: Federal... issuing guidance on when independent expenditure communications that take the form of yard signs, mini... of certain reporting requirements in Commission regulations. DATES: Effective October 4, 2011. FOR...

  12. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  13. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  14. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  15. 26 CFR 1.248-1 - Election to amortize organizational expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures relate is for a fixed term of years; (ii) Expenditures connected with the transfer of assets to a... the like; necessary accounting services; expenses of temporary directors and of organizational...

  16. Health expenditures spent for prevention, economic performance, and social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu

    2016-12-01

    Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.

  17. Determinants of the Size of Public Expenditure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezebuilo Romanus Ukwueze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of public expenditure constitutes a central issue in public sector economics and public finance literature. Understanding the reasons for government spending growth has been a central concern of public sector economists. This is due to the fact that most economies of the world have consistently had increased government expenditures. Nigeria is not an exception. There is need to ascertain the determinants of size of government expenditure in Nigeria. Short-Run Error Correction Model and long-run static equation were used for comparing the influence of those variables on the size of government spending. The long-run static equation served as a test to compare short-run dynamics with the long-run relationships. Ordinary least squares (OLS estimation technique was used. The stationarity tests showed that none of the variables was stationary at level form, but only after their first difference. The results of this study show that the size of revenue and growth rate of national income (output and private investment significantly influence the size of public expenditure both in the short run and long run. External and domestic debts significantly influence the size of government expenditure only in the short run. It is recommended that the revenue base should be expanded; conducive environment should be created for private investment to thrive, and debt accumulation should be reduced and used for stabilization only in the short run. The conclusion to draw from this study is that revenue, private investment, and income boost public spending while public debts might be counterproductive.

  18. Gender progress and government expenditure as determinants of femicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Solis, Marco; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    We sought to explore the effect of economic/political factors and gender progress on femicide. An ecological and retrospective study was undertaken that focused on 61 countries and analyzed the relationships of femicide with the following statistics from the period 1990 to 1999: economic indicators (domestic consumption, gross capital formation, imports and exports per capita, unemployment rate and percentage of urban population), political indicators (government final consumption expenditure, GINI coefficient--a summary measure of the extent to which the actual distribution of income or consumption expenditure or a related variable differs from a hypothetical distribution in which each person receives an identical share--civil liberties and political rights index), and gender progress indicators (female and male unemployment rates, percentage of girls in primary education, gender ratio for primary and secondary education, and percentage of parliamentary seats occupied by women). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses (likelihood ratio) were performed to explore the relationships between these variables. The bivariate analysis revealed strong links between reductions in government final consumption expenditure per capita (odds ratio [OR] 20.83;95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.622-77.205), domestic consumption and gross capital formation (both with OR 16.67, 95% CI 4.715-58.911), and the civil liberties and political rights index (OR 7.91, 95% CI 2.526-24.747). In the multivariate stage, statistically significant associations were only observed between government expenditure per capita (OR 61.75;95% CI 7.064-539.81) and occupation of parliamentary seats by women (OR 10.95;95% CI 1.26-95.06). The reduction in government final consumption expenditure and democratic backwardness in terms of gender equality appear to be relevant factors in deaths caused by gender-based violence. To fight femicide effectively, gender-related structural, political, and

  19. The effect of climate change on electricity expenditures in Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Véliz, Karina D.; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Cleveland, Cutler J.; Stoner, Anne M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change affects consumer expenditures by altering the consumption of and price for electricity. Previous analyses focus solely on the former, which implicitly assumes that climate-induced changes in consumption do not affect price. But this assumption is untenable because a shift in demand alters quantity and price at equilibrium. Here we present the first empirical estimates for the effect of climate change on electricity prices. Translated through the merit order dispatch of existing capacity for generating electricity, climate-induced changes in daily and monthly patterns of electricity consumption cause non-linear changes in electricity prices. A 2 °C increase in global mean temperature increases the prices for and consumption of electricity in Massachusetts USA, such that the average household’s annual expenditures on electricity increase by about 12%. Commercial customers incur a 9% increase. These increases are caused largely by higher prices for electricity, whose impacts on expenditures are 1.3 and 3.6 fold larger than changes in residential and commercial consumption, respectively. This suggests that previous empirical studies understate the effects of climate change on electricity expenditures and that policy may be needed to ensure that the market generates investments in peaking capacity to satisfy climate-driven changes in summer-time consumption. - Highlights: • Climate change increases summer peak of load curve in US state of Massachusetts. • Climate change increases electricity prices more than consumption. • Previous studies understate the effect of climate change on electricity expenditures. • Adaptation that reduces electricity demand may reduce the price effect. • Adaptation may raise prices by increasing capacity but lowering utilization rate.

  20. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  1. Do Expenditures Other Than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-1 - Application of the expenditure test to expenditures to influence legislation; introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expenditures to influence legislation; introduction. 1.501(h)-1 Section 1.501(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... legislation; introduction. (a) Scope. (1) There are certain requirements an organization must meet in order to... attempting to influence legislation, (except as otherwise provided in subsection (h)).” This requirement is...

  3. The Economic Impact of UUM International Students' Expenditure on Business Activities in Changlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sallahuddin; Othman, Zalila; Sabudin, Noor Sa'adah; Mohaideen, Zalina Mohd; Hidthir, Mohamad Helmi

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the potential impact from the expenditure patterns of UUM international students in Changlun on local development particularly among Changlun businesses. For this purpose, the international students' expenditure patterns in Changlun are examined in terms of the estimated monthly expenditure, the location of spending and the…

  4. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-2 - Examples of capital expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples of capital expenditures. 1.263(a)-2...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263(a)-2 Examples of capital expenditures. The following paragraphs of this section include examples of capital expenditures: (a) The cost of...

  5. Determinants and Equity Evaluation for Health Expenditure Among Patients with Rare Diseases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Xin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: OOP health expenditure of patients with UEBMI was significantly more than that of patients without medical insurance. However, for any other medical insurance, there was no difference between OOP health expenditure of the insured patients and patients without insurance. The current reimbursement policies have increased the equity of health expenditure, but are biased toward high-income people.

  6. Travel purpose and expenditure patterns in city tourism : evidence from the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Ruben; Rouwendal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the expenditure patterns of urban tourists with different trip purposes including visiting cultural heritage. Expenditure categories include museums and theatres. We use a two-step approach, in which we first analyse the total daily amount of expenditure and then the budget

  7. 11 CFR 9035.1 - Campaign expenditure limitation; compliance and fundraising exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaign expenditure limitation; compliance and... ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS § 9035.1 Campaign... campaign for nomination, which expenditures, in the aggregate, exceed $10,000,000 (as adjusted under 2 U.S...

  8. Suppression of sympathetic detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C., Jr.; Gunger, M. E.; Craig, B. G.; Parsons, G. H.

    1984-08-01

    There are two basic approaches to suppression of sympathetic detonation. Minimizing the shock sensitivity of the explosive to long duration pressure will obviously reduce interround separation distances. However, given that the explosive sensitivity is fixed, then much can be gained through the use of simple barriers placed between the rounds. Researchers devised calculational methods for predicting shock transmission; experimental methods have been developed to characterize explosive shock sensitivity and observe the response of acceptors to barriers. It was shown that both EAK and tritonal can be initiated to detonation with relatively low pressure shocks of long durations. It was also shown that to be an effective barrier between the donor and acceptor, the material must attenuate shock and defect fragments. Future actions will concentrate on refining the design of barriers to minimize weight, volume, and cost.

  9. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz Seher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning, forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate

  10. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project ‘European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’ – http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods A model was built to assess policy scenarios’ impact on the pharmaceutical budgets of seven member states of the EU, namely France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The following scenarios were tested: expanding the UK policies to EU, changing time to market access, modifying generic price and penetration, shifting the distribution chain of biosimilars (retail/hospital). Results Applying the UK policy resulted in dramatic savings for Germany (10 times the base case forecast) and substantial additional savings for France and Portugal (2 and 4 times the base case forecast, respectively). Delaying time to market was found be to a very powerful tool to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Applying the EU transparency directive (6-month process for pricing and reimbursement) increased pharmaceutical expenditure for all countries (from 1.1 to 4 times the base case forecast), except in Germany (additional savings). Decreasing the price of generics and boosting the penetration rate, as well as shifting distribution of biosimilars through hospital chain were also key methods to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Change in the level of reimbursement rate to 100% in all countries led to an important increase in the pharmaceutical budget. Conclusions Forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure is a critical exercise to inform policy decision makers. The most important leverages identified by the model on pharmaceutical budget were driven by generic and biosimilar prices, penetration rate

  11. An analysis of Malaysia's corporate income tax expenditures and negative income tax expenditures using accounting standards as the benchmark tax base

    OpenAIRE

    Yussof, Salwa Hana

    2017-01-01

    Tax expenditures are government indirect spending, hidden in the tax system, often used to support government’s social and economic objectives. Instead of directly allocating money for a particular objective, the government forgoes tax revenues from those who undertake activities that could achieve the objective. Therefore, tax expenditures should be analysed as government spending programs. Tax expenditure reporting and analysis has been a regular practice among many countries in the worl...

  12. Exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals during gestation lowers energy expenditure and impairs skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Erin J; Ragauskas, Alyse; Jaligama, Sridhar; Redd, JeAnna R; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Peloquin, Matthew J; Saravia, Jordy; Han, Joan C; Cormier, Stephania A; Bridges, Dave

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of in utero exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on growth, metabolism, energy utilization, and skeletal muscle mitochondria in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Pregnant mice were treated with laboratory-generated, combustion-derived particular matter (MCP230). The adult offspring were placed on a high-fat diet for 12 wk, after which we observed a 9.8% increase in their body weight. The increase in body size observed in the MCP230-exposed mice was not associated with increases in food intake but was associated with a reduction in physical activity and lower energy expenditure. The reduced energy expenditure in mice indirectly exposed to MCP230 was associated with reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, lower mRNA levels of electron transport genes, and reduced citrate synthase activity. Upregulation of key genes involved in ameliorating oxidative stress was also observed in the muscle of MCP230-exposed mice. These findings suggest that gestational exposure to MCP230 leads to a reduction in energy expenditure at least in part through alterations to mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. National Competitiveness and Expenditure on Education, Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verner Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available National (macroeconomic competitiveness is one of words in vogue that is mostly used by politicians, economists among others in today’s globalized world. However, the concept of competitiveness is also a very controversial issue. There are lots of concepts and approaches to a country’s overall competitiveness. In this paper, the author applies a comprehensive and established indicator used by The United Nations – The Human development index, to measure competitiveness at the national level. The main goal of this paper is to find whether higher expenditure on education, research and development leads to higher competitiveness. In evaluating the relationship, countries such as the United States, Japan and European Union countries (27 - the Triad countries were used. The panel data analysis was used to investigate the relationship and it was found that, expenditure on education and R & D positively leads to national competitiveness.

  14. Productivity Measurement in Manufacturing and the Expenditure Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    year. Consequently, convergence parameters and dispersion of productivity across countries should also be unaffected by this choice. The results are disappointing: relative measures of productivity depend heavily of the choice of base year and change systematically as the base years roll forward......This paper studies conversion factors based on the expenditure approach and evaluates the appropriateness for international comparisons of output levels in manufacturing. We apply a consistency check based on the insight that relative productivity levels should be invariant to the choice of base....... The conclusion is insensitive to the applied method for developing conversion factors. The implication is that we cannot measure relative productivity levels in manufacturing across countries using the expenditure approach....

  15. A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türközü, Duygu; Tek, Nilüfer Acar

    2017-01-22

    In recent years, individuals have begun to tend more frequently to some natural and herbal products to be used alone or as a combination with diet and exercise for ensuring the weight loss. Green tea is the leading one of these products. In some studies, it is reported that the green tea causes an increase in thermogenesis and substrate with fat oxidation by affecting on the sympathetic nervous system. It is reported that green tea has two main components that are associated with energy expenditure. One of them is caffeine and the other is catechin content. Each of these two components has an impact on energy mechanism separately. In this minireview article, mechanisms of action and effects of caffeine and catechin, which are found in green tea composition, on energy expenditure are assessed.

  16. Ecolabeled paper towels: consumer valuation and expenditure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arun K; Blomquist, Glenn C

    2009-01-01

    Ecolabeled paper towels are manufactured using post-consumer recycled material and sold in markets using a recycle logo. Environmentally conscious consumers purchase these paper towels and thereby contribute to improving environmental quality. In this paper, we estimate the implicit value placed by consumers on ecolabeled paper towels using a hedonic price function and conduct an expenditure analysis using Heckman's selection model. Using the data set from the Internet-based grocery stores called as Peapod we find that some consumers recognize ecolabels on paper towels and place a substantial, positive price premium on them. The expenditure analysis indicates that for the preferred functional form, the demand for ecolabeled paper towels is inelastic for environmentally conscious consumers. The simulated results from the selection model indicate that a small subsidy for ecolabeled paper towels will not substantially change consumers' purchase decisions.

  17. Pressure suppression of electron correlation in the collapsed tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2 : A DFT-DMFT investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Subhasish; Cohen, R. E.; Haule, K.

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies reveal a pressure induced transition from a paramagnetic tetragonal phase (T) to a collapsed tetragonal phase (CT) in CaFe 2 As 2 , which was found to be superconducting with pressure at low temperature. We have investigated the effects of electron correlation and a local fluctuating moment in both tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases of the paramagnetic CaFe 2 As 2 using self-consistent DFT-DMFT with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo as the impurity solver. From the computed optical conductivity, we find a gain in the optical kinetic energy due to the loss in Hund's rule coupling energy in the CT phase. We find that the transition from T to CT turns CaFe 2 As 2 from a bad metal into a good metal. Computed mass enhancement and local moments also show a significant decrease in the CT phase, which confirms the suppression of the electron correlation in the CT phase of CaFe 2 As 2 .

  18. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Tsuneishi; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Takuo Ishii

    2013-01-01

    Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating t...

  19. Georgia Public Expenditure Review : Building a Sustainable Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This Public Expenditure Review (PER) was prepared at the request of the Ministry of Finance of Georgia; its analysis of public spending is designed to inform the Georgian authorities on the fiscal policies that support growth and equity. As Georgia strives to meet the challenges of a fluid global economic environment, this PER is intended to support the government’s efforts to secure macro...

  20. Public Expenditure and Human Development in the Italian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Capriati

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the relationship between public expenditure and human development in Italy’s administrative Regions. The main results show a geography of regional human development which is different from the one based on Gdp per capita. Convergence of wealth across the Regions appears for the period considered, although of a minor intensity. Regional human development seems to have close positive correlation with social security, the environment and human capital, while transfers ...

  1. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  2. Tax Structure and Government Expenditures under Tax Equity Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Koenig; Andreas Wagener

    2010-01-01

    We augment a standard tax model by concerns about tax equity: people get upset when labour is taxed more heavily than capital. Even the slightest concern for tax equity invalidates the common recommendation for small open economies that capital should remain tax-exempt. This holds for exogenous as well as for endogenous government expenditures and irrespective of whether concerns with tax equity only cause emotional discomfort or also impact on work incentives. If concerns with tax equity get...

  3. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  4. Obesity and people with disabilities: the implications for health care expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne L; Wiener, Joshua M; Khatutsky, Galina; Armour, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    This study estimates additional average health care expenditures for overweight and obesity for adults with disabilities vs. without. Descriptive and multivariate methods were used to estimate additional health expenditures by service type, age group, and payer using 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. In 2007, 37% of community-dwelling Americans with disabilities were obese vs. 27% of the total population. People with disabilities had almost three times ($2,459) the additional average obesity cost of people without disabilities ($889). Prescription drug expenditures for obese people with disabilities were three times as high and outpatient expenditures were 74% higher. People with disabilities in the 45- to 64-year age group had the highest obesity expenditures. Medicare had the highest additional average obesity expenditures among payers. Among people with prescription drug expenditures, obese people with disabilities had nine times the prevalence of diabetes as normal weight people with disabilities. Overweight people with and without disabilities had lower expenditures than normal-weight people with and without disabilities. Obesity results in substantial additional health care expenditures for people with disabilities. These additional expenditures pose a serious current and future problem, given the potential for higher obesity prevalence in the coming decade. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Surgical Cost Disclosure May Reduce Operating Room Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Luke S; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Ong, Alvin C; Lombardi, Nicholas J; Wowkanech, Charles D; Mehnert, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Health care expenditures are rising in the United States. Recent policy changes are attempting to reduce spending through the development of value-based payment systems that rely heavily on cost transparency. This study was conducted to investigate whether cost disclosure influences surgeons to reduce operating room expenditures. Beginning in 2012, surgeon scorecards were distributed at a regional health care system. The scorecard reported the actual direct supply cost per case for a specific procedure and compared each surgeon's data with those of other surgeons in the same subspecialty. Rotator cuff repair was chosen for analysis. Actual direct supply cost per case was calculated quarterly and collected over a 2-year period. Surgeons were given a questionnaire to determine their interest in the scorecard. Actual direct supply cost per rotator cuff repair procedure decreased by $269 during the study period. A strong correlation (R 2 =0.77) between introduction of the scorecards and cost containment was observed. During the study period, a total of $39,831 was saved. Of the surgeons who were queried, 89% were interested in the scorecard and 56% altered their practice as a result. Disclosure of surgical costs may be an effective way to control operating room spending. The findings suggest that providing physicians with knowledge about their surgical charges can alter per-case expenditures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e269-e274.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. [Energy expenditure prediction equations in burn patients; bibliographic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Villaveirán, Teresa; Sánchez, Manuel; Millán, Pablo; Martínez-Méndez, Jose Ramón; Iglesias, Carmen; Casado-Pérez, César; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo

    2014-06-01

    The estimation of the caloric requirements of the burn patient is based on the measurement of his resting energy expenditure (REE) via indirect calorimetry, which is not available in all Burn Units, or its estimation by means of predictive equations. we analyze the history and state of art of the use of REE predictive equations in burn patients, and determine their validity. bibliographic review of the studies and reviews written in English and Spanish between 1989 and 2013. More than 190 equations have been designed to estimate energy expenditure. These equations can be imprecise because they are based on measurements with a heterogeneous methodology and in heterogeneous groups. We describe the different parameters that are used in the different equations (stress and activity factors, total burn surface area, post-burn day, lean body mass), the influence of age in the calculation of the caloric requirements, and the most commonly used equations nowadays. We also describe the articles that evaluate the accuracy of the predictive equations when compared to REE indirect calorimetry measurements. Predictive equations are not precise in general in the burn patient. Until more accurate predictive equations are developed, we recommend calculation of the nutritional requirements in burn patients based on the energy expenditure measurement via indirect calorimetry. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Energetic expenditure of the referee and the assistant soccer referee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inácio da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate the energetic expenditure of the soccer referee and the assistant soccer referee during a soccer game. Fourteen soccer referees from Curitiba city were observed, 9 acting as referees (mean age of 36.3 years and body mass of 82 kg and 5 as assistant referees (mean age of 30 years and body mass of 77 kg. They were filmed during official state and national games. The time spent by the referees in each motor action was chronometered by watching the tapes. The energetic expenditure was estimated determining oxygen consumption through the equation suggested by the ACSM (1980 for running and sprinting and the equation suggested by Bubb, Martin and Howley apud Vivacqua e Hespanha (1992 for walking and jogging. The oxygen consumption is a function that depends on the intensity of the realized work and on the dislocated mass. The value of consumed O2 was transformed in kcal multiplying it by 5 (constant kcal per liter of O2. A mean energetic expenditure of 740.42 kcal and 494.64 kcal were observed as results for the referees and assistants, respectively. In conclusion, their physical activity is of moderate intensity, as the performance of the referee and the assistant represented an oxygen consumption equal or less than 16.17 ml/kg/min in 73.98% and 89.97% of the total game time, respectively.

  8. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-02-01

    Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Can eHealth Reduce Medical Expenditures of Chronic Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masatsugu; Taher, Sheikh Abu; Kinai, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate empirically the effectiveness of eHealth in Nishi-aizu Town, Fukushima Prefecture, based on a mail survey to the residents and their receipt data of National Health Insurance from November 2006 to February 2007. The residents were divided into two groups, users and non-users, and sent questionnaires to ask their characteristics or usage of the system. Their medical expenditures paid by National Health Insurance for five years from 2002 to 2006 are examined. The effects were analyzed by comparison of medical expenditures between users and non-users. The interests are focused on four chronic diseases namely heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, and strokes. A regression analysis is employed to estimate the effect of eHealth to users who have these diseases and then calculate the monetary effect of eHealth on reduction of medical expenditures. The results are expected to be valid for establishment of evidence-based policy such as reimbursement from medical insurance to eHealth.

  10. Validity of occupational energy expenditure assessed by interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernold, Gunilla; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus; Wiktorin, Christina; Mortimer, Monica; Karlsson, Eva; Kilbom, Asa; Vingård, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Measuring physical activity at work has been a field of growing interest in recent decades, and there is a need for reliable, standardized assessment instruments for application in large population studies. The present study examined the validity of a task-oriented interview for assessing energy expenditure in occupational work. The interview was developed for use in the MUSIC-Norrtälje study, a population study with the overall aim of identifying risk and preventive factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Twenty-seven persons were included in the study. Each respondent defined all tasks performed during a typical workday and estimated their durations. For each task the interviewer then assessed the level of energy expenditure in multiples of the resting metabolic rate (MET) and calculated a time-weighted average MET (TWA-MET) for a typical workday. Measurements of oxygen consumption and observations of duration of each work task were performed during 2 workdays in all the interviewed subjects. The validity was tested by comparing TWA-MET derived from the interviews with those derived from measurements; the product moment correlation coefficient was 0.70. The interview may offer sufficient validity for assessment of energy expenditure in large population studies.

  11. Income and Technology as Drivers of Australian Healthcare Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaohui; Okunade, Albert A

    2017-07-01

    The roles of income and technology as the major determinants of aggregate healthcare expenditure (HEXP) continue to interest economists and health policy researchers. Concepts and measures of medical technologies remain complex; however, income (on the demand side) and technology (on the supply side) are important drivers of HEXP. This paper presents analysis of Australia's HEXP, using time-series econometrics modeling techniques applied to 1971-2011 annual aggregate data. Our work fills two important gaps in the literature. First, we model the determinants of Australia's HEXP using the latest and longest available data series. Second, this novel study investigates several alternative technology proxies (input and output measures), including economy-wide research and development expenditures, hospital research expenditures, mortality rate, and two technology indexes based on medical devices. We then apply the residual component method and the technology proxy approach to quantify the technology effects on HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that Australian aggregate healthcare is a normal good and a technical necessity with the income elasticity estimates ranging from 0.51 to 0.97, depending on the model. The estimated technology effects on HEXP falling in the 0.30-0.35 range and mimicking those in the literature using the US data, reinforce the global spread of healthcare technology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  13. Use of expenditure analysis to enhance returns on investments in HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honermann, Brian; O'Hagan, Richael

    2017-09-01

    Globally, the response to the HIV epidemic is at a crisis point. International investments in the HIV response have been essentially flat for 8 years and domestic budgets in low and middle-income countries - still recovering from the global recession - have not been able to fill the resource gap to drive a full-fledged HIV response. Still, efficiencies and prioritization of evidence-based interventions enable a significant scale-up of treatment, but millions more people remain without treatment. This review looks at recent data and research to evaluate interventions that may help close gaps in service provision that undermine testing and treatment programs. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief recently began publicly releasing vast programmatic and expenditure data. These data reveal potential efficiency gaps in testing and treatment programs, particularly in the area of linkage and retention. Interventions such as HIV self-testing have been proposed to help, but whether they can deliver better results remains unclear. Same-day initiation on treatment improves initiation, retention, and viral suppression rates. Near real-time analysis of data and active response is critical in improving efficiencies in programs. More investment in implementation research is necessary to improve linkage to care and treatment to reach 90-90-90 goals.

  14. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Ohnuki, T.; Spooner, N.; Lehner, M.

    2000-01-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 μm has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with zero magnetic field. The method can provide high spatial resolution in detectors with long drift distances and zero magnetic field. Negative ion drift chambers would be particularly useful at low pressures and in situations such as space-based or underground experiments where detector size scaleability is important and cost, space, or power constraints preclude the use of a magnetic field

  15. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Martoff, C J; Ohnuki, T; Spooner, N J C; Lehner, M

    2000-01-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 mu m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with ze...

  16. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S

    2013-06-01

    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, B.A.; Westerhof, E.; Nuij, Pwjm; M.R. de Baar,; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of tearing modes is essential for the operation of tokamaks. This paper describes the design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak. The two main control tasks of this feedback control system are the radial alignment of electron

  18. The Role of Agency and Institutional Theory in the Planning and Realization for Capital Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Hifni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The capital expenditures are part of direct expenditure in the regional budget. The other elements of capital expenditures are: personnel expenditure, and spending on goods and services. Planning and realization for capital expenditure in the regional budget for each Government Regional Work Units is a part of policy regional financial management in fiscal decentralization policy which need be increased to achieve value significantly over time. Increasing in planning and realization of capital expenditures is directly related to the amount of capital expenditure element that strengthens physical infrastructure which would strengthen economic growth for social welfare, regional competitiveness for facilitation and liberalization a single market and production base in AEC era. This study examines the role of agency theory and institutional theory in relation with planning and realization of capital expenditures of 82 (Eighty Two Government Work Units of 3 (Three regional government, namely Banjarmasin City, Banjar District, and Tanah Laut District in South Kalimantan Province. This study contributes to the accounting literature to assess role of conceptual framework with agency theory and institutional theory. The result of study showed: there are differences in the implementation of capital expenditure to meet AEC pillars and social welfare purposes by increasing capital expenditure through the role of the agency theory, and institutional theory. Relationship of agency theory and institutional theory with social welfare and AEC with the amount of C Contingency coefficient 0,313 and Cramer Coefficient of Association 0.191 indicates there are Moderate correlation: substantial relationship and Small correlation; Lower relationship association.

  19. Validating self-reported food expenditures against food store and eating-out receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Aggarwal, A; Liu, Z; Acheson, M; Rehm, C D; Moudon, A V; Drewnowski, A

    2016-03-01

    To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. The Seattle Obesity Study II was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007 to 2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared with receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots and κ-statistics. Bias by sociodemographics was also examined. Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores or eating out. However, the highest-income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland-Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods-mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: -123.5 to 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores and mean difference 1.7 for eating out. The κ-statistics showed good agreement for each (κ 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high-income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts.

  20. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  1. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  2. In vivo Treg suppression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Creg J; Collison, Lauren W; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R; Rehg, Jerold E; Vignali, Dario A A

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of T(regs) upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model including resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  3. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  4. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  5. Burst Suppression for ICP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  6. THEORETICAL ASPECTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENDITURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLT ALINA GEORGIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air and water quality are vital for human life and our societies devote large sums of money to reduce pollution and conserve a healthy environment. Much of the financial resources mobilized to finance environmental protection come from private sources - entrepreneurs pay to eliminate environmentally harmful waste safely, or to mitigate the effects of polluting production processes. But while technology standards, environmental permits, pollution taxes play an important role in correcting the behavior of society, public expenditure presents also a very important variable in efforts to support the environment.

  7. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    to evaluate amount of oxidized fat during embryonic development and to compare daily fat oxidation with changes in the fat content of eggs. The experiment comprised 48 embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA) of White Plymouth Rock. The O2...... fat contributing with nearly 100 % to the total EE. Since oxidised fat was the main energy fuel the content of fat in eggs decreased with 2.0 (RO) and 1.6 g (LA) during the incubation period. It can be concluded that the pattern of gas exchange and thereby the pattern of energy expenditure...

  8. Tightening the rules for local expenditure in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva Moll

    . For decades, this challenge has been handled through agreements between the government and the local government associations containing collective targets for local expenditure and taxing. These agreements are handled in an institutional arrangement known as the ‘budgetary cooperation’. This arrangement...... governments and their associations to coordinate their budgets so the collective targets could be met. However, in recent years, the budgetary cooperation has been embedded in a set of laws that tightens the government’s control of local budgets and economic performance. In 2012, the changes were consolidated...... interviews with representatives of central ministries, local government associations and local governments....

  9. An empirical analysis for national energy R and D expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiutian Zhang; Ying Fan; Yiming Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the government R and D expenditures and analyses the dynamic reaction patterns of energy R and D in several countries to oil shocks and shows that the oil shocks served as a strong incentive to promote energy R and D. But on the other hand, it suggests the myopic behaviour of government in energy R and D. We further analyse the trends of energy R and D portfolio in both technology dimension and country. The result shows a trend of technological variety, but fewer countries have invested in energy R and D, and those countries tend to invest in their favoured technologies. (Author)

  10. Intergovernmental Grants and Public Expenditures: Evidence from a Survey Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin; Kjærgaard, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between intergovernmental grants and public expenditures is one of the most studied phenomena in the local public finance literature. However, little is known about whether the impact of unconditional grants is fundamentally different from that of other sources of municipal revenue....... We study this question by means of a large-scale randomized survey experiment among Danish local politicians, which allows for a comparison of the impact of changes in various sources of municipal revenue. Our findings challenge the conventional conception in the public finance literature that money...

  11. Analysis of Historical Artillery Expenditures (AHART) Study - CY 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-30

    artillery expenditures. Beyond these there is little else on this subject. Mr. Les Miller of the library staiff conducted an extensive search of library...References maintained by this office were available locally through library sources. (3) Aromant , Material, and Chemical Command - Rock Island... le m l, aa .....==;.......... = == o..°..o = ; = o . = == ° o of, 4, ob 6 .6 O a* 1.6 Itil •00 06 so 0 Z 0 6 ~~~~~~0 ale *I ioo, , So F-53 aI CAA-TP-87

  12. The influence of health expenditures on household impoverishment in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Posenato, Leila Garcia; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the variation in the proportion of households living below the poverty line in Brazil and the factors associated with their impoverishment. METHODS Income and expenditure data from the Household Budget Survey, which was conducted in Brazil between 2002-2003 (n = 48,470 households) and 2008-2009 (n = 55,970 households) with a national sample, were analyzed. Two cutoff points were used to define poverty. The first cutoff is a per capita monthly income below R$100.00 in 2002-2003 and R$140.00 in 2008-2009, as recommended by the Bolsa Família Program. The second, which is proposed by the World Bank and is adjusted for purchasing power parity, defines poverty as per capita income below US$2.34 and US$3.54 per day in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the impoverishment of households. RESULTS After subtracting health expenditures, there was an increase in households living below the poverty line in Brazil. Using the World Bank poverty line, the increase in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 was 2.6 percentage points (6.8%) and 2.3 percentage points (11.6%), respectively. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the increase was 1.6 (11.9%) and 1.3 (17.3%) percentage points, respectively. Expenditure on prescription drugs primarily contributed to the increase in poor households. According to the World Bank poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation, a household headed by an individual with low education, the presence of children, and the absence of older adults. Using the Bolsa Família Program poverty line, the factors associated with impoverishment include a worse-off financial situation and the presence of children. CONCLUSIONS Health expenditures play an important role in the impoverishment of segments of the Brazilian population, especially among the most disadvantaged. PMID:25372171

  13. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  14. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumul......By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed...

  15. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  16. Association between fee-for-service expenditures and morbidity burden in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Olsen, Kim Rose; Schroll, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In primary care, fee-for-services (FFS) tariffs are often based on political negotiation rather than costing systems. The potential for comprehensive measures of patient morbidity to explain variation in negotiated FFS expenditures has not previously been examined. OBJECTIVES......: To examine the relative explanatory power of morbidity measures and related general practice (GP) clinic characteristics in explaining variation in politically negotiated FFS expenditures. METHODS: We applied a multilevel approach to consider factors that explain FFS expenditures among patients and GP...... in expenditures was related to the GP clinic in which the patient was treated. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity measures were significant patient-related FFS expenditure drivers. The association between FFS expenditure and morbidity burden appears to be at the same level as similar studies in the hospital sector, where...

  17. [Catastrophic health expenditures in Mexico: comparative study by social exclusion level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rico, Raymundo; Sesma-Vázquez, Sergio; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban

    2005-01-01

    To describe the differences in catastrophic health expenditures in five Mexican states. This study included five states selected by convenience according to their social exclusion level. Household catastrophic health expenditures attributable to the three components of out of pocket health expenditures (ambulatory care, medication, and inpatient care) were calculated. The risk of impoverishment at the national level was greater in the most vulnerable households, namely, in the 20% poorest, rural, and uninsured households. Nevertheless, in states like Aguascalientes, Guerrero, Sinaloa, and Morelos the results were different. Over 70% of catastrophic health expenditures were attributable to medication and outpatient care expenditures in the poorest states. The differences found among states show that the implementation of local health policies to reduce catastrophic health expenditures should be based on evidence generated from analyses at the state level.

  18. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input-output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are examined with regression analysis, and are compared and interpreted on the basis of insight at the product level. With data from the Netherlands in the year 2000, we find that environmental impact increases with increasing household expenditures, although the degree to which the environmental impact increases differs per impact category. Climate change and eutrophication increase less than proportionally with increasing expenditures. Acidification increases nearly proportionally with increasing expenditures, whereas smog formation increases more than proportionally. It appears that the mix of necessities and luxuries to which an environmental impact is related is essential in explaining the relationship. (author)

  19. Trends in Australian government health expenditure by age: a fiscal incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Alan; Phillimore, John

    2014-11-01

    Australian government health expenditure per capita has grown steadily across the past few decades, but little is known about trends in the age distribution of health expenditure. In this paper, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) fiscal incidence studies, which track expenditure at the household level between 1984 and 2010, are used to shed light on this topic. The main finding was that spending has shifted focus from the younger half to the older half of the population. This shift is evident in three areas: (1) acute care (hospitals); (2) community health services (doctors); and (3) pharmaceuticals. Together, these areas account for approximately 88% of expenditure. The trend is independent of demographic aging. It is unlikely to reflect changes in population health. Its explanation is open to debate. Growth in expenditure per household has been more than threefold faster for elderly than young households. Across this period, expenditure per household per week has increased by 51% for the young, by 79% for the middle aged and by 179% for the elderly. This age-related growth is most prominent in expenditure on acute care, community health services and pharmaceuticals. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The Productivity Commission has published figures that relate age and Australian heath expenditure. However, there has been no published study of age-related trends in Australian health expenditure. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: In addition to tracking age-related trends across 26 years, this paper adds a breakdown of those trends into four categories of expenditure, namely acute care, community health services, pharmaceutical benefits, and other. This breakdown shows that the trends vary by expenditure type. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS?: The paper shows that forward projections in health expenditure need to take into account age-related trends as well as demographic trends.

  20. Activity limitations predict health care expenditures in the general population in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, Johan; Van Oyen, Herman; Berger, Nicolas; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Herck, Koen

    2015-03-19

    Disability and chronic conditions both have an impact on health expenditures and although they are conceptually related, they present different dimensions of ill-health. Recent concepts of disability combine a biological understanding of impairment with the social dimension of activity limitation and resulted in the development of the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI). This paper reports on the predictive value of the GALI on health care expenditures in relation to the presence of chronic conditions. Data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey 2008 were linked with data from the compulsory national health insurance (n = 7,286). The effect of activity limitation on health care expenditures was assessed via cost ratios from multivariate linear regression models. To study the factors contributing to the difference in health expenditure between persons with and without activity limitations, the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was used. Activity limitations are a strong determinant of health care expenditures. People with severe activity limitations (5.1%) accounted for 16.9% of the total health expenditure, whereas those without activity limitations (79.0%), were responsible for 51.5% of the total health expenditure. These observed differences in health care expenditures can to some extent be explained by chronic conditions, but activity limitations also contribute substantially to higher health care expenditures in the absence of chronic conditions (cost ratio 2.46; 95% CI 1.74-3.48 for moderate and 4.45; 95% CI 2.47-8.02 for severe activity limitations). The association between activity limitation and health care expenditures is stronger for reimbursed health care costs than for out-of-pocket payments. In the absence of chronic conditions, activity limitations appear to be an important determinant of health care expenditures. To make projections on health care expenditures, routine data on activity limitations are essential and complementary to data

  1. The Effect of Corruption on Government Expenditure Allocation in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Jajkowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effect of corruption on the allocation of government expenditures by function. Equations using pooled panel dataset for 21 OECD countries between 1998 and 2011 were tested, and the findings show that government expenditure on defense and general public services increase, while government expenditures on education, health, recreation, culture and religion decline with higher levels of corruption. This paper presents new results and new evidence on the link between corruption and allocation of government expenditures in OECD countries.

  2. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  3. Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Household Impoverishment: a case of NCDs prevalence in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mwai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and problem: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Their claim on financial and time resources adversely affects household welfare. Health care cost for NCDs in Kenya is predominantly paid by households as OOP. Health expenditure on NCD stands at 6.2% of Total Health Expenditure which is 0.4 % of the total gross domestic product of the country. This expenditure scenario could have implications on household welfare through catastrophic expenditure in Kenya. Most studies done on catastrophic expenditure in Kenya have not looked at the effect of NCD on poverty. Methodology: The paper has investigated the determinants of catastrophic health spending in a household with special focus on the NCDs. It has also investigated the effect of catastrophic expenditure on household welfare.A National household level survey data on expenditure and utilization is used. Controlling for endogeneity, the results revealed that NCDs and communicable diseases contribute significantly to the likelihood of a household incurring catastrophic expenditure. Results: Although all types of sicknesses have negative effects on household welfare, NCDs have more severe impacts on impoverishment. Policy wise, government and development partners should put in place a health financing plan entailing health insurance and resource pooling as a mean towards social protection. Key words:  Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD, Catastrophic Health Expenditure, endogeneity Impoverishment

  4. Latino disparities in prescription drug use and expenditures: a nationally representative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Fang, Hai; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Rizzo, John A; Ortega, Alexander N

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are disproportionately affected by the lack of affordable prescription drugs. Within the Latino population, there are significant heterogeneities in the patterns of prescription drug expenditures and use. However, studies have traditionally treated them as a single, monolithic group. To identify and quantify factors associated with disparities in drug use and expenditures between non-Latino whites and Latino subgroups. We examined trends in prescription drug use, total prescription drug expenditures, and the proportion of out-of-pocket (OOP) payment to total drug expenditures for whites and Latino subgroups using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 1999 to 2006. Multivariate regressions were used to adjust for confounding factors that may also affect drug use and expenditures. Latinos were significantly less likely to use drugs compared to whites. Mexicans had significantly lower prescription drug costs and a higher proportion of OOP expenditures compared to whites after socioeconomic and demographic factors were controlled. Usual source of care, health insurance, and limited English proficiency were the most important factors associated with these disparities. Among the Latino subgroups, Puerto Ricans had drug expenditures and use patterns most similar to those of whites. Substantive disparities in prescription drug expenditures and use existed between whites and specific Latinos groups, with Mexicans faring the worst. Future health studies should examine Latino subgroups separately, rather than treating Latinos as a homogeneous group. Policies aimed at expanding insurance coverage and access to a usual source of care, as well as addressing language barriers, should substantially reduce these disparities.

  5. Relationship between government expenditure and output in the problematic regions in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic and debt crisis has increased the attention paid to the development of government expenditure in problematic regions in the European Union. The goal of the article is to provide direct empirical evidence on cyclicality and the long-term and short-term relationship between government expenditure and output in the Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain in a period 1995–2011. We have applied Johansen cointegration test and the error correction model on adjusted annual data of GDP and government expenditure in compliance with the COFOG international standard. Research confirms procyclical development of government expenditure functions on GDP in the selected countries; this procyclicality is in line with development typical for developing countries. Moreover, output and government expenditure are cointegrated for at least six of the expenditure categories in every country and it implies a long-term relationship between government expenditure and output consistent with Wagner’s law. The values of the coefficients for the short-run relationship between expenditure and output confirm the voracity hypothesis, as they suggest that in response to a given shock to real GDP, government expenditure rises by even more in percentage points.

  6. Determinating The Value of Capital Expenditure Allocation in Indonesia Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahameru Rosy Rochmatullah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capital expenditure allocation is aimed to preservation and expansion of local government fixed assets that provide long-term benefit. This paper investigates the factors that affect the capital expenditure allocation in Indonesian local government. Employing a panel pooled data-regression (fixed effect, our results reveal that local productivity, local funding, local budget requirement, and local establishment status are related to the value of capital expenditure. This research found that efficiency of capital expenditure management is related with fiscal dependence.

  7. Health Care Expenditures and Length of Disability Across Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Catherine S; Ethiraj, Rajesh K; Berenji, Manijeh; Gaspar, Fraser W

    2018-02-19

    To describe the relationship between the length of short-term disability (STD) and health care spending. Medical claims for insured US employees on STD were evaluated to describe the distribution of disability durations and health expenditures across major diagnostic categories and common medical conditions. Correlations between health expenditures and disability durations were examined. The most expensive 10% of cases accounted for more than half of total health spending. The longest 10% of cases accounted for more than one-third of total disability time. Only one-third of the most expensive cases were also among the longest in duration. Disability durations were moderately correlated with medical spending and this relationship was modified by comorbid conditions and age. Psychosocial barriers, in addition to biomedical factors, should be considered to achieve optimal functional outcomes and well-being of patients.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  8. Productivity, social expenditure and income distribution in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO CIMOLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper discusses the role of institutions and structural change in shaping income inequality. It is argued that while social expenditure and direct redistribution are crucial for improving income distribution, sustainable equality requires structural change. The relative importance of these variables in different countries is analyzed and a typology suggested. It is argued that the most equal countries in the world combine strong institutions in favor of redistribution and knowledge-intensive production structures that sustain growth and employment in the long run. Both institutions and the production structure in Latin America fail to foster equality and this explains its extremely high levels of inequality. The paper presents empirical evidence that supports this view, based on a sample of developed and developing countries for the period 1990-2010. Institutions for redistribution are captured through social expenditures as a percentage of GDP, while the role of structural change is captured by indicators of the technological intensity of production and the evolution of labor productivity. The technological intensity of the production structure is proxied through two indicators, the Economic Complexity Index and the ECLAC Index of Technological Intensity.

  9. Tax expenditures and the efficiency of Croatian value added tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of value added taxation in Croatia along with main changes in relevant legislation and to estimate total amount of tax expenditures. Results show that the proportion of tax expenditures in GDP in Croatia in 2010 amounted to less than 4%, a proportion lower than in any of the EU new member states, as well as almost twice as low as the EU-27 average. It can be concluded that the Croatian value added taxation system is efficient in this way, as was additionally shown by an analysis according to which Croatia in 2010 had better efficiency indicators than all the observed EU member states. The Croatian VAT system is mainly harmonized with EU directives, but abolition of the zero rate is still expected; this will increase government revenue by approximately 0.4-0.8% of GDP, depending on a chosen scenario. It has been suggested that a detailed analysis of the overall value added taxation system should be initiated, with the aim of optimizing cost-benefits. The main focus should be placed on the determination of the optimal VAT registration threshold, the costs and benefits of the introduced reliefs and exemptions in the tax system and the potential effects of the repeal of the zero rate.

  10. Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to Tai Chi Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa L; Wherry, Sarah J; Larkey, Linda K; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Swan, Pamela D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory response and energy expenditure during the practice of Tai Chi Easy (TCE). TCE has been proposed as a low-intensity alternative to traditional physical activity. Oxygen cost data were collected from 10 healthy adult women (mean age of 47.9 ± 12.8 years) at rest and during a 30-min session of TCE using an automated metabolic cart and heart rate (HR) telemetry. The Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was utilized to measure subjective intensity of the TCE movements. The mean oxygen consumption (VO(2)) for the movements ranged from 4.3 ml kg(-1)min(-1) to 5.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1) with an overall mean of 5.0 ml kg(-1)min(-1). The mean HR for all activity was 67.0 beats per minute and the mean energy expenditure (EE) was 1.6 Kcal min(-1). Cardiorespiratory and EE responses to TCE indicate that this a low intensity exercise appropriate for individuals requiring activity prescriptions of approximately 2 metabolic equivalents (METs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent girls' energy expenditure during dance simulation active computer gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha G; Niven, Alisa; Thin, Alasdair G; Macdonald, Mhairi J; Oakes, Jemma R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy expended and intensity of physical activity achieved by adolescent girls while playing on a dance simulation game. Twenty adolescent girls were recruited from a local secondary school. Resting oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate were analysed while sitting quietly and subsequently during approximately 30 min of game play, with 10 min at each of three increasing levels of difficulty. Energy expenditure was predicted from VO(2) at rest and during game play at three levels of play, from which the metabolic equivalents (METS) of game playing were derived. Mean +/- standard deviation energy expenditure for levels 1, 2, and 3 was 3.63 +/- 0.58, 3.65 +/- 0.54, and 4.14 +/- 0.71 kcal . min(-1) respectively, while mean activity for each level of play was at least of moderate intensity (>3 METS). Dance simulation active computer games provide an opportunity for most adolescent girls to exercise at moderate intensity. Therefore, regular playing might contribute to daily physical activity recommendations for good health in this at-risk population.

  12. Energy expenditure on recreational visits to different natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lewis R; White, Mathew P; Taylor, Adrian H; Herbert, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity poses a significant challenge to physical and mental health. Environmental approaches to tackle physical inactivity have identified natural environments as potentially important public health resources. Despite this, little is known about characteristics of the activity involved when individuals visit different types of natural environment. Using Natural England's Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey, we examined 71,603 English respondents' recreational visits to natural environments in the past week. Specifically, we examined the intensity of the activities they undertook on the visits (METs), the duration of their visit, and the associated total energy expenditure (MET minutes). Visits to countryside and urban greenspace environments were associated with more intense activities than visits to coastal environments. However, visits to coastal environments were associated with the most energy expenditure overall due to their relatively long duration. Results differed by the urbanity or rurality of the respondent's residence and also how far respondents travelled to their destination. Knowledge of what types of natural environment afford the highest volumes and intensities of physical activity could inform landscape architecture and exercise prescriptions. Isolating activity-supporting characteristics of natural environments that can be translated into urban design is important in providing physical activity opportunities for those less able to access expansive environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy expenditure in the acute renal failure patient mechanically ventilated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Y; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Delafosse, B; Guillaume, C; Motin, J

    1987-01-01

    Twenty mechanically ventilated patients with acute renal failure were studied on 31 occasions to determine their energy expenditure (EE) during a 2 h period before a hemodialysis. Oxygen consumption and CO2 elimination were measured continuously with a mass spectrometer system. EE (1660 +/- 48 kcal day-1) was close to the total caloric intake (1682 +/- 83 kcal day-1) and represented 1.19 +/- 0.03 times the predicted resting energy expenditure (PREE) with large inter-individual variations (0.7-1.7 PREE). EE/PREE was higher when sepsis was present (1.31 +/- 0.03 versus 1.14 +/- 0.02; p less than 0.05). Glucose oxidation rate (4.35 mg kg-1 min-1) exceeded glucose intake (2.6 mg kg-1 min-1). Respiratory quotient was 1.02 +/- 0.01. Nitrogen loss was 17.3 +/- 1.7 g day-1 and nitrogen balance -11.9 +/- 1.9 g day-1. In conclusion, EE values were scattered but never exceeded 1.7 times the PREE. Sepsis increased EE. With a nutritional support covering EE, nitrogen balance remained markedly negative and a preferential utilisation of glucose and lipogenesis occurred.

  14. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of

  15. Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF

  16. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  17. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  18. The generation and suppression of synchrotron sidebands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of FEL lasing differ in the degree to which they approximate real experiments. One of the FEL codes used extensively at Los Alamos takes account of the features of each electron micropulse and follows the growth and saturation of the optical micropulse. With no additional adjustments, this code displays the development of sidebands and demonstrates their control when optical filters of various kinds are used. Other codes that do not include a description of the micropulse do not automatically display sidebands but need to have artificial noise of some kind added. This is not unexpected because sidebands are generated by an FEL instability; instabilities, in general, need some kind of initiating disturbance. In this paper we: identify the disturbance that triggers the instability in the pulse code; discuss a practical way to suppress the instability without using filters; compare these results with experiments; and discuss these findings. 22 refs., 9 figs

  19. Electronic Resource Expenditure and the Decline in Reference Transaction Statistics in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates factors influencing increase in reference transactions in a typical week in academic libraries across the United States of America. Employing multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, variables of interest from the "Academic Library Survey (ALS) 2006" survey (sample size 3960 academic libraries) were…

  20. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  1. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does the pharmacy expenditure of patients always correspond with their morbidity burden? Exploring new approaches in the interpretation of pharmacy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad-Díez José

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The computerisation of primary health care (PHC records offers the opportunity to focus on pharmacy expenditure from the perspective of the morbidity of individuals. The objective of the present study was to analyse the behaviour of pharmacy expenditure within different morbidity groups. We paid special attention to the identification of individuals who had higher values of pharmacy expenditure than their morbidity would otherwise suggest (i.e. outliers. Methods Observational study consisting of 75,574 patients seen at PHC centres in Zaragoza, Spain, at least once in 2005. Demographic and disease variables were analysed (ACG® 8.1, together with a response variable that we termed 'total pharmacy expenditure per patient'. Outlier patients were identified based on boxplot methods, adjusted boxplot for asymmetric distributions, and by analysing standardised residuals of tobit regression models. Results The pharmacy expenditure of up to 7% of attendees in the studied PHC centres during one year exceeded expectations given their morbidity burden. This group of patients was responsible for up to 24% of the total annual pharmacy expenditure. There was a significantly higher number of outlier patients within the low-morbidity band which matched up with the higher variation coefficient observed in this group (3.2 vs. 2.0 and 1.3 in the moderate- and high-morbidity bands, respectively. Conclusions With appropriate validation, the methodologies of the present study could be incorporated in the routine monitoring of the prescribing profile of general practitioners. This could not only enable evaluation of their performance, but also target groups of outlier patients and foster analyses of the causes of unusually high pharmacy expenditures among them. This interpretation of pharmacy expenditure gives new clues for the efficiency in utilisation of healthcare resources, and could be complementary to management interventions focused on

  3. Expenditures and Postsecondary Graduation: An Investigation Using Individual-Level Data from the State of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Using detailed individual-level data from public universities in the state of Ohio, I estimate the effect of various institutional expenditures on the probability of graduating from college. Using a competing risks regression framework, I find differential impacts of expenditure categories across student characteristics. I estimate that student…

  4. 26 CFR 56.4911-1 - Tax on excess lobbying expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess lobbying expenditures. 56.4911-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PUBLIC CHARITY EXCISE TAXES § 56.4911-1 Tax on excess lobbying expenditures. (a) In general. Section 4911(a) imposes an excise tax of 25 percent on the excess lobbying...

  5. 25 CFR 117.7 - Disbursement or expenditure of surplus funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.7 Disbursement or expenditure of surplus funds. Except as provided in the regulations in this part, no disbursement or expenditure of surplus funds of Indians shall be made without the... attachments such as court orders, decrees or other papers. Such application shall contain full information...

  6. 78 FR 73753 - Partnerships; Start-Up Expenditures; Organization and Syndication Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... organizational expenditures under section 709 as analogous to other intangible business assets described in... is deemed to occur: the partnership contributes all of its assets and liabilities to a new... otherwise provided in section 195, no deduction shall be allowed for start-up expenditures (as defined in...

  7. Analysis of exploration expenditure for unconventional gas : how investing in exploration would improve reserves and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virine, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a method for analyzing the efficiency of exploration investment, which can improve corporate planning. Exploration expenditure is held to be a main indicator of economic activities in the oil and gas industry because exploration is supposed to lead to booking more reserves and increased production. A model was developed for analyzing the correlation between exploration expenditure and producer's reserves and production for conventional and unconventional gas plays in the United States. The model was used to quantitatively assess the exploration expenditures production and reserves of different producers for various conventional and unconventional gas plays. Producer's booked reserves, production from public sources, and reserves and production forecasts were incorporated into the model, which was used to analyze different types of exploration expenditure (land, drilling, and seismic) incurred at various times prior to reserves and production being booked. There was an overall positive correlation between exploration expenditure and reserves and production, but there was significant variance in the correlation between various producers operating in different plays. Unproved land acquisition was strongly correlated to the booking of proved reserves, but there was no correlation between unproved land acquisition and exploration expenditure ratio, reserves, or production. A number of companies had a high exploration expenditure to overall expenditure ratio, but the resulting payoffs were inconsistent. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  8. Oxytocin in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus reduces feeding and acutely increases energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Emily E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-09-15

    Central oxytocin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is associated with energy balance and contains a high density of oxytocin receptors. We hypothesized that oxytocin in the VMN is a negative regulator of energy balance acting to reduce feeding and increase energy expenditure. To test this idea, oxytocin or vehicle was injected directly into the VMN of Sprague-Dawley rats during fasted and nonfasted conditions. Energy expenditure (via indirect calorimetry) and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were recorded simultaneously. Animals were also exposed to a conditioned taste aversion test, to determine whether oxytocin's effects on food intake were associated with malaise. When food was available during testing, oxytocin-induced elevations in energy expenditure lasted for 1 h, after which overall energy expenditure was reduced. In the absence of food during the testing period, oxytocin similarly increased energy expenditure during the first hour, but differences in 12-h energy expenditure were eliminated, implying that the differences may have been due to the thermic effects of feeding (digestion, absorption, and metabolic processing). Oxytocin acutely elevated SPA and reduced feeding at doses that did not cause a conditioned taste aversion during both the fed and fasted states. Together, these data suggest that oxytocin in the VMN promotes satiety and acutely elevates energy expenditure and SPA and implicates the VMN as a relevant site for the antiobesity effects of oxytocin.

  9. National expenditure on health research in South Africa: What is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Health Research Committee has performed an audit to determine whether these goals have been met, judged by: (i) health research expenditure as proportions of gross expenditure on research and development (GERD) and the gross domestic product (GDP); and (ii) the proportion of the national health and ...

  10. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  11. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.272-1 Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special treatment...

  12. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  13. Energy expenditure and muscular activation patterns through active sitting on compliant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Clark Dickin

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Compliant surfaces resulted in higher levels of muscular activation in the lower extremities facilitating increased caloric expenditure. Given the increasing trends in sedentary careers and the increases in obesity, this is an important finding to validate the merits of active sitting facilitating increased caloric expenditure and muscle activation.

  14. Utilization and expenditures on chiropractic care in the United States from 1997 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Sirovich, Brenda E; Weeks, William B

    2010-06-01

    To investigate national utilization and expenditures on chiropractic care between 1997 and 2006. The nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We performed descriptive analyses and generated national estimates from data obtained from U.S. adult (>or=18 years) MEPS respondents who reported having visited a chiropractor (annual sample size between 789 and 1,082). For each year, we examined the estimated total national expenditure, the total number of U.S. adults who received chiropractic care, the total number of ambulatory visits to U.S. chiropractors, and the inflation-adjusted charges and expenditures per U.S. adult chiropractic patient. The total number of U.S. adults who visited a chiropractor increased 57 percent from 7.7 million in 2000 to 12.1 million in 2003. From 1997 to 2006, the inflation-adjusted national expenditures on chiropractic care increased 56 percent from U.S.$3.8 billion to U.S.$5.9 billion. Inflation-adjusted total mean expenditures per patient and expenditures per office visit remained unchanged. The large increase in U.S. adult expenditures on chiropractic care between 1997 and 2006 was due to a 57 percent increase in the total number of U.S. adult chiropractic patients that occurred from 2000 to 2003. From 2003 to 2006, the total number of U.S. adult chiropractic patients has remained stable.

  15. 42 CFR 457.622 - Rate of FFP for State expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of FFP for State expenditures. 457.622 Section 457.622 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) Expenditures for health services initiatives under the State child health assistance plan for improving the...

  16. Energy Expenditure during Physically Interactive Video Game Playing in Male College Students with Different Playing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katie; Lillie, Tia; Taylor, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Participants and Methods: Nineteen male college students-12 experienced "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) players and 7…

  17. Exploring metrics to express energy expenditure of physical activity in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determin...

  18. 11 CFR 100.155 - Uncompensated Internet activity by individuals that is not an expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... income from its Internet activities. (e) This section does not exempt from the definition of expenditure... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uncompensated Internet activity by individuals... GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.155 Uncompensated Internet...

  19. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PUBLIC CHARITY EXCISE TAXES § 56.4911-3 Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots...

  20. 76 FR 80803 - Independent Expenditures and Electioneering Communications by Corporations and Labor Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... interest in preventing corruption or the appearance of corruption, ``independent expenditures, including those made by corporations, do not give rise to corruption or the appearance of corruption.'' Id. at 909... particular cause). Expenditures that are not for communications would also be permitted under Alternative A...

  1. The effect of population aging on health expenditure growth : A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, C.; Wouterse, B.; Polder, J.J.; Koopmanschap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the consequences of population aging for growth in health expenditures have been widely investigated, research on this topic is rather fragmented. Therefore, these consequences are not fully understood. This paper reviews the consequences of population aging for health expenditure growth in

  2. Higher Education Research Expenditure in South Africa: A Review of the New Funding Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.; Ntenga, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The trends and the trajectory of higher education research expenditure in South Africa since the introduction of the New Funding Formula in 2004 have been analysed. The paper also compares the level of South Africa's total gross expenditure on research and development with those of other selected economies. The findings show that following…

  3. 26 CFR 53.4952-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on taxable expenditures... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4952-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on taxable expenditures. (a) In general. Section...

  4. When Education Expenditure Matters: An Empirical Analysis of Recent International Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Emiliana; Coffin, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the diminishing correlations between education expenditure and learning outcomes to address two fundamental questions: Do education systems with different levels of education spending have different student achievement levels? If so, at what amount of education spending does the relationship between increased expenditure and student…

  5. School Expenditure and School Performance: Evidence from New South Wales Schools Using a Dynamic Panel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, G.; Mangan, J.; Blackburn, V.; Radicic, D.

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of school expenditure on school performance in government secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2006-2010. It uses dynamic panel analysis to exploit time series data on individual schools that only recently has become available. We find a significant but small effect of expenditure on…

  6. Energy Expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks in 2 cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis J. Suau; Myron F. Floyd; John O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster

    2012-01-01

    Context: Availability of public neighborhood parks is associated with physical activity. Little is known about how parks contribute to population energy balance. Purpose: This study estimated energy expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks and compared energy expenditure by activity areas within parks and by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income....

  7. THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES OF GOVERNMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOZIEH JEYHOON TABAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Using the annual data of Iran’s economy from 1981-2012, this study examines Wagner’s law and the Keynesian hypothesis about the relationship between the real government expenditure and the real GDP. In this regard, this paper investigated the relationship between the total government expenditure, the GDP and the relationship between government educational expenditure and GDP using bivariate and multivariate models. The multivariate model is used to reduce the specified error issues that has not been considered in many studies. The co-integration was examined using the auto regressive distributive lag method (ARDL of both long-term and short-term relationships. In making the estimations of the Wagner’s view, the variables: real GDP, capital stock and labor force stock respectively, had a positive, a negative, and a positive impact on total government expenditure and the long-term relationship is true in this regard. Additionally, in the estimation of Keynesian model, the educational expenditures, unlike real expenditures of government, had a long-term relationship. In addition, the variable, capital, in both models had a similar effect on the real GDP, and the labor force coefficient in the presence of the total expenditures and educational expenditures were negative and positive respectively.

  8. 34 CFR 76.655 - Level of expenditures for students enrolled in private schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Level of expenditures for students enrolled in private schools. 76.655 Section 76.655 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE... Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.655 Level of expenditures for students enrolled in private schools. (a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.174-1 - Research and experimental expenditures; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.174-1 Research and experimental expenditures; in general. Section 174 provides two methods... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research and experimental expenditures; in...

  10. 11 CFR 110.14 - Contributions to and expenditures by delegates and delegate committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mail or similar types of general public communication or political advertising. (ii) Such expenditures... public political advertising. A delegate may make expenditures to defray costs incurred in the use of... or political advertising to advocate his or her selection and also include information on or...

  11. 26 CFR 1.162-14 - Expenditures for advertising or promotion of good will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising in programs of certain conventions of political parties, or in publications part of the proceeds... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditures for advertising or promotion of... and Corporations § 1.162-14 Expenditures for advertising or promotion of good will. A corporation...

  12. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the aggregate amount...

  13. Geographic variation in expenditures for workers' compensation physician claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T R; Levy, D T

    1997-07-01

    We examine interstate variations in the cost of claims for physician care using injury claims from Worker's Compensation, and consider some of the factors that may explain cost differences. Multivariate regression analysis is used to isolate state variations, while controlling for personal and injury characteristics, and state characteristics. Statistical analyses reveal considerable variation in expenditures for physician care of injuries across states, even after controlling for case mix and state characteristics. We also find that the presence of HMOs and of general practitioners as a percent of physicians are associated with lower claims, and that the percent of the state that is urban is associated with higher claims. The large variation in costs suggests a potential to affect the costs of physician care for work-related injuries.

  14. The Consequences of IMF Conditionality for Government Expenditure on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Moosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Monetary Fund (IMF was established in 1944 to supervise the international monetary system that collapsed in 1971. Since then, the Fund has reinvented itself as some sort of a “development agency,” providing loans with strings attached. Any country that wishes to obtain loans must follow the IMF-prescribed policies that reflect the neoliberal ideas of the Washington Consensus. As these policies are typically contractionary and involve austerity, the IMF has been accused of pursuing policies that exhibit a negative impact on health expenditure, with dire consequences for the population. Although the empirical evidence on this issue is mixed, it is well known that the IMF operations are more likely to exert a negative effect than a positive effect on government spending on health.

  15. EXPENDITURES AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR OF THE TOURISM SPORTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răbonţu Cecilia Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, scale sports tourism gets well deserved lately. Tourism and sport has a close relationship since the beginning of their existence, and today we are witnessing a strengthening of it, because we talk about quality of life and greatly enhanced awareness of the beneficial effects of tourism and sport, both contributing to the restoration of working capacity, to increase the health of the population and spending free time pleasant and useful. We have proposed in this paper to analyze consumer behavior of sports tourism in Romania but also places where the cost of sports activities in total expenditures grouped according to several criteria. We conducted a preliminary conceptualization of the notion of tourism and tourist sports, controversial and difficult concept to define. We used for this purpose an extensive bibliographic material and statistical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  16. What do international comparisons of health care expenditures really show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, D W; McGuire, A J; Yule, B F

    1989-05-01

    There is much interest in international comparisons of health care expenditures, in particular their relation to national income. They have been widely used to judge countries' performance in cost-containment, and in the United Kingdom have been widely quoted in debates about the funding of the National Health Service. This paper challenges conclusions drawn from simple analyses of this topic, which have used dubious and inappropriate data, questionable methods and assumptions, and simplistic ad-hoc reasoning. It looks particularly at price differences between countries, which have usually been hidden by using exchange rates to standardize national figures. When more appropriate conversion factors called purchasing power parities are used, many of the simple and conventionally-accepted conclusions no longer appear so obvious. The attempt to create apparent scientific facts for policy debates has been based on a misuse of international comparisons.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE IN ROMANIA, PERIOD 2009-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂLDAN FLORENTINA CRISTINA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper „Analysis of consumption expenditure in Romania, period 2009-2015” is highlighting a very important phenomenon for the Romanian economy, consumption. The financial and economic crisis determined a change in the income repartition for the basic products and services. The most influent stimulus at which the Romanian consumers are deciding a product acquisition is the price, therefore they were migrating to product segments with low prices, the quality of life being on a decreasing trend. The level of alimentary products consumption depends in a big extent on the macroeconomic policies, that through numerous leverages is influencing the population consumption behavior. From these leverages we may document the income policy, loan policy, monetary and exchange rate policies, social assistance policy, etc.

  18. Private finance and sustainable growth of national health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Hill, James; Levey, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    This analysis explores the role of the private sector relative to all health spending among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Bi-variate regression was employed for 31 countries using current data. It was found that the share of GDP allocated to health varies among countries, ranging from 5 percent in Turkey to 14 percent in the United States. Variation in per capita income explains much of this difference but other factors are important too. One appears to be the role of the private sector in financing health expenditures. Our analysis concludes that concern about rising health sector costs should be placed in a larger context: rising health care costs may be justified if benefits are large enough and cover the opportunity costs of alternative uses of resources.

  19. Graphical Calculation of Estimated Energy Expenditure in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; Manders, Ernest C; Manders, Ernest K

    2018-03-01

    Historically, estimated energy expenditure (EEE) has been related to the percent of body surface area burned. Subsequent evaluations of these estimates have indicated that the earlier formulas may overestimate the amount of caloric support necessary for burn-injured patients. Ireton-Jones et al derived 2 equations for determining the EEE required to support burn patients, 1 for ventilator-dependent patients and 1 for spontaneously breathing patients. Evidence has proved their reliability, but they remain challenging to apply in a clinical setting given the difficult and cumbersome mathematics involved. This study aims to introduce a graphical calculation of EEE in burn patients that can be easily used in the clinical setting. The multivariant linear regression analysis from Ireton-Jones et al yielded equations that were rearranged into the form of a simple linear equation of the type y = mx + b. By choosing an energy expenditure and the age of the subject, the weight was calculated. The endpoints were then calculated, and a graph was mapped by means of Adobe FrameMaker. A graphical representation of Ireton-Jones et al's equations was obtained by plotting the weight (kg) on the y axis, the age (years) on the x axis, and a series of parallel lines representing the EEE in burn patients. The EEE has been displayed graphically on a grid to allow rapid determination of the EEE needed for a given patient of a designated weight and age. Two graphs were plotted: 1 for ventilator-dependent patients and 1 for spontaneously breathing patients. Correction factors for sex, the presence of additional trauma, and obesity are indicated on the graphical calculators. We propose a graphical tool to calculate caloric requirements in a fast, easy, and portable manner.

  20. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  1. Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2008-02-01

    Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the modifiable component of total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from all activities, both volitional and nonvolitional. Because AEE may affect health, there is interest in its estimation in free-living people. Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) could be a feasible approach to AEE estimation in large populations, but it is unclear whether or not any PAQ is valid for this purpose. Our aim was to explore the validity of existing PAQs for estimating usual AEE in adults, using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a criterion measure. We reviewed 20 publications that described PAQ-to-DLW comparisons, summarized study design factors, and appraised criterion validity using mean differences (AEE(PAQ) - AEE(DLW), or TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)), 95% limits of agreement, and correlation coefficients (AEE(PAQ) versus AEE(DLW) or TEE(PAQ) versus TEE(DLW)). Only 2 of 23 PAQs assessed most types of activity over the past year and indicated acceptable criterion validity, with mean differences (TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)) of 10% and 2% and correlation coefficients of 0.62 and 0.63, respectively. At the group level, neither overreporting nor underreporting was more prevalent across studies. We speculate that, aside from reporting error, discrepancies between PAQ and DLW estimates may be partly attributable to 1) PAQs not including key activities related to AEE, 2) PAQs and DLW ascertaining different time periods, or 3) inaccurate assignment of metabolic equivalents to self-reported activities. Small sample sizes, use of correlation coefficients, and limited information on individual validity were problematic. Future research should address these issues to clarify the true validity of PAQs for estimating AEE.

  2. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population Care [$28.57 95% CI($14.00, $43.15)]. Most children enrolled in WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Total energy expenditure estimated using foot-ground contact pedometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Reed W; Buller, Mark J; Santee, William R; Yokota, Miyo; Weyand, Peter G; Delany, James P

    2004-02-01

    Routine walking and running, by increasing daily total energy expenditure (TEE), can play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of obesity. The objective of this field study was to compare TEE estimated using foot-ground contact time (Tc)-pedometry (TEE(PEDO)) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers [27 +/- 4 years of age (mean +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9%] engaged in a field training exercise were studied over 2 days. TEE(PEDO) was defined as (calculated resting energy expenditure + estimated thermic effect of food + metabolic cost of physical activity), where physical activity was estimated by Tc-pedometry. Tc-pedometry was used to differentiate inactivity, activity other than exercise (i.e., non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT), and the metabolic cost of locomotion (M(LOCO)), where M(LOCO) was derived from total weight (body weight + load weight) and accelerometric measurements of Tc. TEE(PEDO) data were compared with TEEs measured by the DLW (2H2(18)O) method (TEE(DLW)): TEE(DLW) = 15.27 +/- 1.65 MJ/day and TEE(PEDO) = 15.29 +/- 0.83 MJ/day. Mean bias (i.e., TEE(PEDO) - TEE(DLW)) was 0.02 MJ, and mean error (SD of individual differences between TEE(PEDO) and TEE(DLW)) was 1.83 MJ. The Tc-pedometry method provided a valid estimate of the average TEE of a small group of physically active subjects where walking was the dominant activity.

  4. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  5. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung: Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  6. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  7. Pure, White and Deadly… Expensive: A Bitter Sweetness in Health Care Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vitor

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyses the impact of sugar availability/intake on diabetes expenditure and on total health care expenditure. Building this macroeconomic analysis upon the literature on the determinants of health care expenditure, we estimate a dynamic panel data model over a sample of 156 countries for the period 1995-2014. After controlling for the traditional determinants of health care spending, we find that an increase in sugar availability/intake leads to a significant rise in diabetes expenditure (per capita and per diabetic) and in the growth rate of total health care expenditure per capita. Moreover, we show that this causal relation is present in both developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  9. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  10. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-08-01

    Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake - expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795.

  11. MACROECONOMIC IMPACT OF EXPENDITURES ON HIGHER EDUCATION: REGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna Vltavska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the regional input-output analysis and its application to evaluation of the macro-economic impact of expenditures on higher education. Regional input-output tables represent newly developed tool which can be used for the assessment of the regional economic impact of the particular industry and its institutions. The regional input-output tables were experimentally constructed by the Department of Economic Statistics at the University of Economics for all 14 Czech regions. Employing them, we can demonstrate the impact of expenditures on higher education on the macro-economic indicators and employment. This paper deals with 1 billion Czech crowns expenditures on higher education sent by the Ministry to the hypothetical higher education institution. Finally, the impact of higher education expenditures is compared with the impact of expenditures to another industries (ICT, R&D and tourism.

  12. Modification of a whole room indirect calorimeter for measurement of rapid changes in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Reed, G W; Hill, J O

    1994-06-01

    Whole room indirect calorimeters are among the most accurate devices for measurement of human energy expenditure and have provided useful data about determinants of total daily energy expenditure. However, a limitation of whole room indirect calorimeters has been the inability to detect acute (usually calorimeter (respiratory chamber) to allow accurate measurement of energy expenditure over time periods as short as 1 min. The modifications involve changes in the system design and use of signal processing techniques. With these modifications, we can measure energy expenditure in 1-min intervals throughout the day. This allows accurate study of the acute effects of food, exercise, or drugs on energy expenditure in subjects moving freely inside the respiratory chamber. The ability to use respiratory chambers for these types of studies should improve our understanding of how body weight is regulated.

  13. Household expenditures as a measure of socioeconomic status among Iraqis displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, James R; Doocy, Shannon; Frattaroli, Shannon; McGready, John

    2012-01-01

    Various measures are used to represent socioeconomic status (SES) in health research, including income. However, reliability of income data can be low. Household expenditures are an accepted proxy for income as a more reliable measure but have been studied little in refugee populations. Health and SES measures from cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi refugees in Jordan and Syria were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the interchangeability of household income and expenditures. In Jordan, odds ratios in the regression models including income quartiles were frequently similar to odds ratios found in the models including expenditure quartiles, indicating interchangeability. In Syria, fewer similarities were observed. This study provides some evidence that household expenditures may be used interchangeably with household income for some populations, allowing for the potential collection and use of data related to expenditures as a measure of SES, similar in importance to that of income.

  14. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  15. Household expenditure in dental health care: national estimations in Mexico for 2000, 2002, and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Vargas-Palacios, Armando; Ochoa-Moreno, Ivan; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the expenditure on dental care of Mexican households, analyze their trends, and determine the factors associated with the decision to spend and the amount of money spent in 2000, 2002, and 2004. Using the National Survey of Household Income and Expenditure for 2000, 2002, and 2004, the national dental health care expenditure was calculated. To facilitate comparability across years, all expenditure was converted to pesos of 2004, using the National Consumer Price Index (11.201 pesos per USD). Proportion of households incurring catastrophic expenditures was also estimated. To evaluate the association between environmental, household, and individual characteristics with the amount of dental health care expenditure, the Heckman regression model was used to control for self-selection bias. More than 6,467 million pesos (MP) were spent in 2000 (8.5 percent of all households had some expenditure), over 3,925 MP in 2002 (4 percent households), and above 5,136 MP in 2004 (5 percent households), with an average expenditure of $806, $1,000, and $987 pesos, respectively. Prevalence of catastrophic expenditure because of dental health care was 0.8 percent in 2000 compared to 0.01 and 1.8 percent in 2002 and 2004, respectively. The Heckman model showed that municipal development, stratum, and age of the head of household significantly influenced the amount spent on dental care in all 3 years. Household capacity to pay and wealth index had a positive and statistically significant association in the 3 years with the preceding decision to spend. Variables associated with the amount of expenditure and the decision of spending support the existence of inequities in health care financing in the Mexican population.

  16. Telephone Encounters Predict Future High Financial Expenditures in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click, Benjamin; Anderson, Alyce M; Ramos Rivers, Claudia; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Hashash, Jana G; Dunn, Michael A; Schwartz, Marc; Swoger, Jason; Barrie, Arthur; Szigethy, Eva; Regueiro, Miguel; Schoen, Robert E; Binion, David G

    2018-04-01

    Telephone activity is essential in management of complex chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Telephone encounters logged in the electronic medical record have recently been proposed as a surrogate marker of disease activity and impending health care utilization; however, the association between telephone calls and financial expenditures has not been evaluated. We performed a 3-year prospective observational study of telephone encounters logged at a tertiary referral IBD center. We analyzed patient demographics, disease characteristics, comorbidities, clinical activity, and health care financial charges by telephone encounter frequency. Eight hundred one patients met inclusion criteria (52.3% female; mean age, 44.1 y), accounted for 12,669 telephone encounters, and accrued $70,513,449 in charges over 3 years. High telephone encounter frequency was associated with female gender (P=0.003), anxiety/depression (Pfinancial charges the following year after controlling for demographic, utilization, and medication covariates. Increased telephone encounters are associated with significantly higher health care utilization and financial expenditures. Increased call frequency is predictive of future health care spending. Telephone encounters are a useful tool to identify patients at risk of clinical deterioration and large financial expense.

  17. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  18. 10 CFR 603.300 - Difference between an expenditure-based and a fixed-support TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Requirements for Expenditure-Based and Fixed-Support Technology Investment... requirements in this subpart. The fundamental difference between an expenditure-based and a fixed-support TIA...

  19. Suppression of the ferromagnetic state by disorder in the Kondo lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisan, M.; Popoviciu, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that ferromagnetic ground state of a Kondo lattice with a low concentration of conduction electrons is ferromagnetic. Assuming the existence of disorder in the Fermi liquid of the conduction electrons the authors show that the ferromagnetic state can be suppressed by the effect of the spin fluctuations of the disordered Fermi liquid

  20. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  1. A comparison of income, expenditures, and home market value distributions using Luxembourg Income Study data from the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Sierminska, Eva; Garner, Thesia I.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review recent data made available through the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) that include expenditures and asset valuations. The LIS data are augmented with comparable data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey. The surveys with expenditure data are reviewed in terms of collection units and variable definitions. Inequality statistics are produced and compared using income, expenditures, and market value of owned home. Rankings of countries by income and expe...

  2. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Timothy J.

    2017-07-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error to the rms vibrational amplitudes of carbon atoms in bulk graphite. Our first-principles calculations of the phonon bands in graphene/hBN heterostructures show that the flexural acoustic phonon mode is localized predominantly in the hBN layer. Consequently, the flexural displacement of the atoms in the graphene layer is strongly suppressed when it is supported by hBN, and this effect increases when graphene is fully encapsulated.

  3. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  4. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope... in § 56.4911-7(e)) either normally makes lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying ceiling...

  6. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  7. 32 CFR 37.300 - What is the difference between an expenditure-based and fixed-support TIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Expenditure-Based and Fixed-Support Technology Investment Agreements § 37.300 What is the difference between an expenditure-based and fixed-support TIA? The fundamental difference between an expenditure-based and fixed...

  8. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  9. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  10. Suppressing Quantum Fluctuations in Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Vikman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum quantum fluctuations of simple Nambu-Goldstone bosons - derivatively coupled single scalar-field theories possessing shift-symmetry in field space. We argue that quantum fluctuations of the interacting field can be drastically suppressed with respect to the free-field case. Moreover, the power-spectrum of these fluctuations can soften to become red for sufficiently small scales. In quasiclassical approximation, we demonstrate that this suppression can only occur for those theories that admit such classical static backgrounds around which small perturbations propagate faster than light. Thus a quasiclassical softening of quantum fluctuations is only possible for theories which classicalize instead of having a usual Lorentz invariant and local Wilsonian UV- completion. We illustrate our analysis by estimating the quantum fluctuations for the DBI-like theories.

  11. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  13. Parkinson’s Disease and Home Healthcare Use and Expenditures among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated excess home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries (age ≥ 65 years with Parkinson’s disease (PD compared to those without PD and analyzed the extent to which predisposing, enabling, need factors, personal health choice, and external environment contribute to the excess home healthcare use and expenditures among individuals with PD. A retrospective, observational, cohort study design using Medicare 5% sample claims for years 2006-2007 was used for this study. Logistic regressions and Ordinary Least Squares regressions were used to assess the association of PD with home health use and expenditures, respectively. Postregression nonlinear and linear decomposition techniques were used to understand the extent to which differences in home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with and without PD can be explained by individual-level factors. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries with PD had higher home health use and expenditures compared to those without PD. 27.5% and 18% of the gap in home health use and expenditures, respectively, were explained by differences in characteristics between the PD and no PD groups. A large portion of the differences in home healthcare use and expenditures remained unexplained.

  14. The Role of Expenditure Components in Determination of Import Demand: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Chani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at in-depth empirical analysis of impact of final expenditure components on import demand in Pakistan. ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration is used to analyze the long run relationship of import demand, relative prices of imports and components of final expenditure like household consumption,investment, exports and government consumption expenditures. Empirical results show that there exists a long run relationship between import demand and the macro components of final expenditure and relative prices. Long run coefficients indicate thatelasticity of import demand with respect to different macro components of final expenditure is different. The impact of the all expenditure components on import demand is positive and significant. The relative prices have negative but insignificant relationshipwith import demand in Pakistan. For the analysis of Short Run dynamics, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM has been used. The results show that all expenditure components have positive and significant impact on import demand in Pakistan while theeffect of relative prices is also statistically insignificant in short run.

  15. Physical activity, sleep pattern and energy expenditure in double-handed offshore sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, C; Ardigò, L P; Alberti, M; Daniele, F; Capelli, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify total energy expenditure, activity energy expenditure and time spent at three levels of physical activity (low, moderate, high intensity) in four two-person crews during a 500-mile double-handed sailing regatta. Physical activity intensity and energy expenditure were assessed during a 500-nautical-mile double-handed offshore competition in eight male sailors (46.3±3.4 years; 180±13 cm; 85.4±12.5 kg). During the whole regatta, they wore an activity monitor that estimated energy expenditure and minutes spent at each level of intensity (sedentary, 6.0 METs). The sailors spent longer periods (Psleeping period. The total energy expenditure was 14.26±1.89 MJ/day and the activity energy expenditure was 5.06±1.42 MJ/day. Activity energy expenditure was significantly correlated with total sleep time, boat speed, and distance covered each day (Psleep during the competition rather than of the bouts of moderate and vigorous physical activities.

  16. Higher pharmaceutical public expenditure after direct price control: improved access or induced demand? The Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I; Soto, Victoria E; Andia, Tatiana S; Vaca, Claudia P; Morales, Álvaro A; Márquez, Sergio R; Gaviria, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    High pharmaceutical expenditure is one of the main concerns for policymakers worldwide. In Colombia, a middle-income country, outpatient prescription represents over 10% of total health expenditure in the mandatory benefits package (POS), and close to 90% in the complementary government fund (No POS). In order to control expenditure, since 2011, the Ministry of Health introduced price caps on inpatient drugs reimbursements by active ingredient. By 2013, more than 400 different products, covering 80% of public pharmaceutical expenditure were controlled. This paper investigates the effects of the Colombian policy efforts to control expenditure by controlling prices. Using SISMED data, the official database for prices and quantities sold in the domestic market, we estimate a Laspeyres price index for 90 relevant markets in the period 2011-2015, and, then, we estimate real pharmaceutical expenditure. Results show that, after direct price controls were enacted, price inflation decreased almost - 43%, but real pharmaceutical expenditure almost doubled due mainly to an increase in units sold. Such disproportionate increase in units sold maybe attributable to better access to drugs due to lower prices, and/or to an increase in marketing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to maintain profits. We conclude that pricing interventions should be implemented along with a strong market monitoring to prevent market distortions such as inappropriate and unnecessary drug use.

  17. Health Care Expenditure and GDP in Oil Exporting Countries: Evidence from OPEC Data, 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Salehi, Masoud; Fazaeli, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature examining income in relation to health expenditures. The share of expenditures in health sector from GDP in developed countries is often larger than in non-developed countries, suggesting that as the level of economic growth increases, health spending increase, too. Objectives: This paper estimates long-run relationships between health expenditures and GDP based on panel data of a sample of 12 countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), using data for the period 1995-2012. Patients & Methods: We use panel data unit root tests, cointegration analysis and ECM model to find long-run and short-run relation. This study examines whether health is a luxury or a necessity for OPEC countries within a unit root and cointegration framework. Results: Panel data analysis indicates that health expenditures and GDP are co-integrated and have Engle and Granger causality. In addition, in oil countries that have oil export income, the share of government expenditures in the health sector is often greater than in private health expenditures similar developed countries. Conclusions: The findings verify that health care is not a luxury good and income has a robust relationship to health expenditures in OPEC countries. PMID:26383195

  18. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

    1988-06-01

    Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min-1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min-1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/- 5.7 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 ml.kg-1 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 ml.kg-1 min-1. Males were estimated to expand 54.1 +/- 8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/- 9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and ml.kg-1 min-1).

  19. Evaluation of the energy expenditure in competitive swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, T M; Fernandes, R; Keskinen, K L; Colaço, P; Cardoso, C; Silva, J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the total energy expenditure of the four competitive swimming strokes. Twenty-six swimmers of international level were submitted to an incremental set of 200-m swims (5 swimmers at Breaststroke, 5 swimmers at Backstroke, 4 swimmers at Butterfly and 12 swimmers at Front Crawl). The starting velocity was approximately 0.3 m x s (-1) less than a swimmer's best performance and thereafter increased by 0.05 m x s (-1) after each swim until exhaustion. Cardio-pulmonary and gas exchange parameters were measured breath-by-breath (BxB) for each swim to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2) and other energetic parameters by portable metabolic cart (K4b(2), Cosmed, Rome, Italy). A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and to collect breathing air samples. Blood samples from the ear lobe were collected before and after each swim to analyze blood lactate concentration (YSI 1500 L, Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA). Total energy expenditure (E(tot)), was calculated for each 200-m stage. E (tot) differed significantly between the strokes at all selected velocities. At the velocity of 1.0 m x s (-1) and of 1.2 m x s (-1) the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.4 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Backstroke than in Freestyle, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.6 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. As a conclusion, E(tot) of well-trained competitive swimmers was measured over a large range of velocities utilising a new BxB technique. Freestyle was shown to be the most economic among the competitive swimming strokes, followed by the Backstroke, the Butterfly and the Breaststroke.

  20. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it