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Sample records for suppresses protein aggregation

  1. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal; Li, Jianguo; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2011-01-01

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP's indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine's preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine's interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. A novel nuclear DnaJ protein, DNAJC8, can suppress the formation of spinocerebellar ataxia 3 polyglutamine aggregation in a J-domain independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Norie [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Kamiguchi, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Katsuya; Sokolovskya, Alice; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Yasuaki; Murai, Aiko; Yamamoto, Eri; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kochin, Vitaly [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Chiba, Susumu [Department of Neurology, Clinical Brain Research Laboratory, Toyokura Memorial Hall, Sapporo Yamano-ue Hospital (Japan); Shimohama, Shun [Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Sato, Noriyuki [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Torigoe, Toshihiko, E-mail: torigoe@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2016-06-10

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases comprise neurodegenerative disorders caused by expression of expanded polyQ-containing proteins. The cytotoxicity of the expanded polyQ-containing proteins is closely associated with aggregate formation. In this study, we report that a novel J-protein, DNAJ (HSP40) Homolog, Subfamily C, Member 8 (DNAJC8), suppresses the aggregation of polyQ-containing protein in a cellular model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), which is also known as Machado-Joseph disease. Overexpression of DNAJC8 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells significantly reduced the polyQ aggregation and apoptosis, and DNAJC8 was co-localized with the polyQ aggregation in the cell nucleus. Deletion mutants of DNAJC8 revealed that the C-terminal domain of DNAJC8 was essential for the suppression of polyQ aggregation, whereas the J-domain was dispensable. Furthermore, 22-mer oligopeptide derived from C-termilal domain could suppress the polyQ aggregation. These results indicate that DNAJC8 can suppress the polyQ aggregation via a distinct mechanism independent of HSP70-based chaperone machinery and have a unique protective role against the aggregation of expanded polyQ-containing proteins such as pathogenic ataxin-3 proteins.

  4. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  5. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  7. Cellular strategies to cope with protein aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scior, Annika; Juenemann, Katrin; Kirstein, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Nature has evolved several mechanisms to detoxify intracellular protein aggregates that arise upon proteotoxic challenges. These include the controlled deposition of misfolded proteins at distinct cellular sites, the protein disaggregation and refolding by molecular chaperones and/or degradation of

  8. DENDRIMER CONJUGATES FOR SELECTIVE OF PROTEIN AGGREGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  9. Protein aggregation and misfolding: good or evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Annalisa; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2012-06-01

    Protein aggregation and misfolding have important implications in an increasing number of fields ranging from medicine to biology to nanotechnology and material science. The interest in understanding this field has accordingly increased steadily over the last two decades. During this time the number of publications that have been dedicated to protein aggregation has increased exponentially, tackling the problem from several different and sometime contradictory perspectives. This review is meant to summarize some of the highlights that come from these studies and introduce this topical issue on the subject. The factors that make a protein aggregate and the cellular strategies that defend from aggregation are discussed together with the perspectives that the accumulated knowledge may open.

  10. Protein aggregation and misfolding: good or evil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, Annalisa; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2012-01-01

    Protein aggregation and misfolding have important implications in an increasing number of fields ranging from medicine to biology to nanotechnology and material science. The interest in understanding this field has accordingly increased steadily over the last two decades. During this time the number of publications that have been dedicated to protein aggregation has increased exponentially, tackling the problem from several different and sometime contradictory perspectives. This review is meant to summarize some of the highlights that come from these studies and introduce this topical issue on the subject. The factors that make a protein aggregate and the cellular strategies that defend from aggregation are discussed together with the perspectives that the accumulated knowledge may open. (topical review)

  11. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  12. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  13. Disaggregases, molecular chaperones that resolubilize protein aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Mokry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of folding is a seminal event in the life of a protein, as it is essential for proper protein function and therefore cell physiology. Inappropriate folding, or misfolding, can not only lead to loss of function, but also to the formation of protein aggregates, an insoluble association of polypeptides that harm cell physiology, either by themselves or in the process of formation. Several biological processes have evolved to prevent and eliminate the existence of non-functional and amyloidogenic aggregates, as they are associated with several human pathologies. Molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins are specialized in controlling the quality of the proteins in the cell, specifically by aiding proper folding, and dissolution and clearance of already formed protein aggregates. The latter is a function of disaggregases, mainly represented by the ClpB/Hsp104 subfamily of molecular chaperones, that are ubiquitous in all organisms but, surprisingly, have no orthologs in the cytosol of metazoan cells. This review aims to describe the characteristics of disaggregases and to discuss the function of yeast Hsp104, a disaggregase that is also involved in prion propagation and inheritance.

  14. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Prion Protein Aggregation in Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Florio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer’s, Huntington, and prion diseases, the deposition of aggregated misfolded proteins is believed to be responsible for the neurotoxicity that characterizes these diseases. Prion protein (PrP, the protein responsible of prion diseases, has been deeply studied for the peculiar feature of its misfolded oligomers that are able to propagate within affected brains, inducing the conversion of the natively folded PrP into the pathological conformation. In this review, we summarize the available experimental evidence concerning the relationship between aggregation status of misfolded PrP and neuronal death in the course of prion diseases. In particular, we describe the main findings resulting from the use of different synthetic (mainly PrP106-126 and recombinant PrP-derived peptides, as far as mechanisms of aggregation and amyloid formation, and how these different spatial conformations can affect neuronal death. In particular, most data support the involvement of non-fibrillar oligomers rather than actual amyloid fibers as the determinant of neuronal death.

  16. Protein aggregation in aqueous casein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    From the vast amount of research efforts dealing with various aspects of radiation effects on foods and food components (11, 18, 5, 12, 19, 8, 9, 6, 13, 15, 17, 20), it is apparent up to now that much remains to be studied in depth, much may have to be added or corrected about radiation-induced physico-chemical changes in foods. A great many reactions that take place when foodstuffs are subjected to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. The better understanding of some of the radiation-induced changes in pure proteins as such or in mixture with other food constituents could yield much data which could be meaningfully extrapolated to intact foods and consequently could help to improve the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. It was the purpose of our investigations to elucidate some of the changes in the chemical structure of a pure protein (casein), irradiated as such or which added carbohydrate and/or lipid. The effect of subsequent storage of the irradiated solutions has been also examined. The formation of protein aggregates was studied by gel filtration technique. The application of thin-layer gel filtration, its speed and adaptability to very small samples facilitated the measurements of the extent of aggregation which occurred in protein molecules after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  17. Cellular Handling of Protein Aggregates by Disaggregation Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, Axel; Bukau, Bernd; Kampinga, Harm H

    2018-01-18

    Both acute proteotoxic stresses that unfold proteins and expression of disease-causing mutant proteins that expose aggregation-prone regions can promote protein aggregation. Protein aggregates can interfere with cellular processes and deplete factors crucial for protein homeostasis. To cope with these challenges, cells are equipped with diverse folding and degradation activities to rescue or eliminate aggregated proteins. Here, we review the different chaperone disaggregation machines and their mechanisms of action. In all these machines, the coating of protein aggregates by Hsp70 chaperones represents the conserved, initializing step. In bacteria, fungi, and plants, Hsp70 recruits and activates Hsp100 disaggregases to extract aggregated proteins. In the cytosol of metazoa, Hsp70 is empowered by a specific cast of J-protein and Hsp110 co-chaperones allowing for standalone disaggregation activity. Both types of disaggregation machines are supported by small Hsps that sequester misfolded proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and pulmonary metastasis by a single-chain antibody variable region fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Morioka, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Almost all highly metastatic tumor cells possess high platelet aggregating abilities, thereby form large tumor cell-platelet aggregates in the microvasculature. Embolization of tumor cells in the microvasculature is considered to be the first step in metastasis to distant organs. We previously identified the platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed on the surfaces of highly metastatic tumor cells and named as Aggrus. Aggrus was observed to be identical to the marker protein podoplanin (alternative names, T1α, OTS-8, and others). Aggrus is frequently overexpressed in several types of tumors and enhances platelet aggregation by interacting with the platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Here, we generated a novel single-chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) by linking the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the neutralizing anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody MS-1 with a flexible peptide linker. Unfortunately, the generated KM10 scFv failed to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, we performed phage display screening and finally obtained a high-affinity scFv, K-11. K-11 scFv was able to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Moreover, K-11 scFv prevented the formation of pulmonary metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that K-11 scFv may be useful as metastasis inhibitory scFv and is expected to aid in the development of preclinical and clinical examinations of Aggrus-targeted cancer therapies

  19. Exploring new biological functions of amyloids: bacteria cell agglutination mediated by host protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Torrent

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs are important effectors of the innate immune system that play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Recent advances have highlighted the similarity between AMPs and amyloid proteins. Using the Eosinophil Cationic Protein as a model, we have rationalized the structure-activity relationships between amyloid aggregation and antimicrobial activity. Our results show how protein aggregation can induce bacteria agglutination and cell death. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we have tracked the formation in situ of protein amyloid-like aggregates at the bacteria surface and on membrane models. In both cases, fibrillar aggregates able to bind to amyloid diagnostic dyes were detected. Additionally, a single point mutation (Ile13 to Ala can suppress the protein amyloid behavior, abolishing the agglutinating activity and impairing the antimicrobial action. The mutant is also defective in triggering both leakage and lipid vesicle aggregation. We conclude that ECP aggregation at the bacterial surface is essential for its cytotoxicity. Hence, we propose here a new prospective biological function for amyloid-like aggregates with potential biological relevance.

  20. The proteome of neurofilament-containing protein aggregates in blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Adiutori

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation in biofluids is a poorly understood phenomenon. Under normal physiological conditions, fluid-borne aggregates may contain plasma or cell proteins prone to aggregation. Recent observations suggest that neurofilaments (Nf, the building blocks of neurons and a biomarker of neurodegeneration, are included in high molecular weight complexes in circulation. The composition of these Nf-containing hetero-aggregates (NCH may change in systemic or organ-specific pathologies, providing the basis to develop novel disease biomarkers. We have tested ultracentrifugation (UC and a commercially available protein aggregate binder, Seprion PAD-Beads (SEP, for the enrichment of NCH from plasma of healthy individuals, and then characterised the Nf content of the aggregate fractions using gel electrophoresis and their proteome by mass spectrometry (MS. Western blot analysis of fractions obtained by UC showed that among Nf isoforms, neurofilament heavy chain (NfH was found within SDS-stable high molecular weight aggregates. Shotgun proteomics of aggregates obtained with both extraction techniques identified mostly cell structural and to a lesser extent extra-cellular matrix proteins, while functional analysis revealed pathways involved in inflammatory response, phagosome and prion-like protein behaviour. UC aggregates were specifically enriched with proteins involved in endocrine, metabolic and cell-signalling regulation. We describe the proteome of neurofilament-containing aggregates isolated from healthy individuals biofluids using different extraction methods.

  1. BAG3 directly interacts with mutated alphaB-crystallin to suppress its aggregation and toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Hishiya

    Full Text Available A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene causes progressive myofibrillar myopathy in mouse and human skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder while mutations in the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB are reported to be responsible for myofibrillar myopathy. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3 directly binds to wild-type αB-crystallin and the αB-crystallin mutant R120G, via the intermediate domain of BAG3. Peptides that inhibit this interaction in an in vitro binding assay indicate that two conserved Ile-Pro-Val regions of BAG3 are involved in the interaction with αB-crystallin, which is similar to results showing BAG3 binding to HspB8 and HspB6. BAG3 overexpression increased αB-crystallin R120G solubility and inhibited its intracellular aggregation in HEK293 cells. BAG3 suppressed cell death induced by αB-crystallin R120G overexpression in differentiating C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Our findings indicate a novel function for BAG3 in inhibiting protein aggregation caused by the genetic mutation of CRYAB responsible for human myofibrillar myopathy.

  2. BAG3 Directly Interacts with Mutated alphaB-Crystallin to Suppress Its Aggregation and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishiya, Akinori; Salman, Mortada Najem; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.; Takayama, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene causes progressive myofibrillar myopathy in mouse and human skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder while mutations in the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) are reported to be responsible for myofibrillar myopathy. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3 directly binds to wild-type αB-crystallin and the αB-crystallin mutant R120G, via the intermediate domain of BAG3. Peptides that inhibit this interaction in an in vitro binding assay indicate that two conserved Ile-Pro-Val regions of BAG3 are involved in the interaction with αB-crystallin, which is similar to results showing BAG3 binding to HspB8 and HspB6. BAG3 overexpression increased αB-crystallin R120G solubility and inhibited its intracellular aggregation in HEK293 cells. BAG3 suppressed cell death induced by αB-crystallin R120G overexpression in differentiating C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Our findings indicate a novel function for BAG3 in inhibiting protein aggregation caused by the genetic mutation of CRYAB responsible for human myofibrillar myopathy. PMID:21423662

  3. Targeting Protein Aggregation for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Yvonne S.; Monteiro, Cecilia; Fearns, Colleen; Encalada, Sandra E.; Wiseman, R. Luke; Powers, Evan T.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of specific proteins is hypothesized to underlie several degenerative diseases, collectively called amyloid disorders. However, the mechanistic connection between the process of protein aggregation and tissue degeneration is not yet fully understood. Here, we review current and emerging strategies to ameliorate aggregation-associated degenerative disorders, with a focus on disease-modifying strategies that prevent the formation of and/or eliminate protein aggregates. Persuasive pharmacologic and genetic evidence now support protein aggregation as the cause of post-mitotic tissue dysfunction or loss. However, a more detailed understanding of the factors that trigger and sustain aggregate formation, as well as the structure-activity relationships underlying proteotoxicity are needed to develop future disease-modifying therapies. PMID:26338154

  4. Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases

  5. The ribosome can prevent aggregation of partially folded protein intermediates: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

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    Bani Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular chaperones that support de novo folding of proteins under non stress condition are classified as chaperone 'foldases' that are distinct from chaperone' holdases' that provide high affinity binding platform for unfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation specifically under stress conditions. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine can act as a foldase chaperone that can bind unfolded proteins and release them in folding competent state. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC located in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosome (bDV RNA is the chaperoning center of the ribosome. It has been proposed that via specific interactions between the RNA and refolding proteins, the chaperone provides information for the correct folding of unfolded polypeptide chains. RESULTS: We demonstrate using Escherichia coli ribosome and variants of its domain V RNA that the ribosome can bind to partially folded intermediates of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII and lysozyme and suppress aggregation during their refolding. Using mutants of domain V RNA we demonstrate that the time for which the chaperone retains the bound protein is an important factor in determining its ability to suppress aggregation and/or support reactivation of protein. CONCLUSION: The ribosome can behave like a 'holdase' chaperone and has the ability to bind and hold back partially folded intermediate states of proteins from participating in the aggregation process. Since the ribosome is an essential organelle that is present in large numbers in all living cells, this ability of the ribosome provides an energetically inexpensive way to suppress cellular aggregation. Further, this ability of the ribosome might also be crucial in the context that the ribosome is one of the first chaperones to be encountered by a large nascent polypeptide chains that have a tendency to form partially folded intermediates immediately following their synthesis.

  6. CPAD, Curated Protein Aggregation Database: A Repository of Manually Curated Experimental Data on Protein and Peptide Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangakani, A Mary; Nagarajan, R; Kumar, Sandeep; Sakthivel, R; Velmurugan, D; Gromiha, M Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distinction between peptide sequences that can form amyloid-fibrils or amorphous β-aggregates, identification of potential aggregation prone regions in proteins, and prediction of change in aggregation rate of a protein upon mutation(s) are critical to research on protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as biotechnological production of protein based therapeutics. We have developed a Curated Protein Aggregation Database (CPAD), which has collected results from experimental studies performed by scientific community aimed at understanding protein/peptide aggregation. CPAD contains more than 2300 experimentally observed aggregation rates upon mutations in known amyloidogenic proteins. Each entry includes numerical values for the following parameters: change in rate of aggregation as measured by fluorescence intensity or turbidity, name and source of the protein, Uniprot and Protein Data Bank codes, single point as well as multiple mutations, and literature citation. The data in CPAD has been supplemented with five different types of additional information: (i) Amyloid fibril forming hexa-peptides, (ii) Amorphous β-aggregating hexa-peptides, (iii) Amyloid fibril forming peptides of different lengths, (iv) Amyloid fibril forming hexa-peptides whose crystal structures are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and (v) Experimentally validated aggregation prone regions found in amyloidogenic proteins. Furthermore, CPAD is linked to other related databases and resources, such as Uniprot, Protein Data Bank, PUBMED, GAP, TANGO, WALTZ etc. We have set up a web interface with different search and display options so that users have the ability to get the data in multiple ways. CPAD is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/CPAD/. The potential applications of CPAD have also been discussed.

  7. Fundamentals of unfolding, refolding and aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Protein functionality in food products strongly relies on the fact that proteins can undergo intermolecular interactions, called aggregation. It was found that very subtle dynamics inherent to the protein of interest can have consequences for the functional properties of proteins. The aim of this

  8. Aggregation of natively folded proteins: a theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, Antonio; Maritan, Amos; Seno, Flavio

    2007-01-01

    The reliable identification of β-aggregating stretches in protein sequences is essential for the development of therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as other pathological conditions associated with protein deposition. While the list of aggregation related diseases is growing, it has also been shown that many proteins that are normally well behaved can be induced to aggregate in vitro. This fact suggests the existence of a unified framework that could explain both folding and aggregation. By assuming this universal behaviour, we have recently introduced an algorithm (PASTA: prediction of amyloid structure aggregation), which is based on a sequence-specific energy function derived from the propensity of two residue types to be found paired in neighbouring strands within β-sheets in globular proteins. The algorithm is able to predict the most aggregation-prone portions of several proteins initially unfolded, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Here, we apply the method to a set of proteins which are known to aggregate, but which are natively folded. The quality of the prediction is again very high, corroborating the hypothesis that the amyloid structure is stabilized by the same physico-chemical determinants as those operating in folded proteins

  9. Understanding curcumin-induced modulation of protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Basir; Borana, Mohanish S; Chaudhary, Ankur P

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin, a diarylheptanoid compound, found in spice turmeric is known to alter the aggregation of proteins and reduce the toxicity of the aggregates. This review looks at the molecular basis of modulating protein aggregation and toxicity of the aggregates. Foremost, we identify the interaction of curcumin and its derivatives with proteins/peptides and the effect of their interaction on the conformational stability and unfolding/folding pathway(s). The unfolding/folding processes generate partially folded/unfolded intermediate, which serve as aggregation precursor state. Secondly, we discuss the effect of curcumin binding on the kinetics parameters of the aggregation process, which give information about the mechanism of the aggregation inhibition. We describe, in addition, that curcumin can accelerate/promote fibril formation by binding to oligomeric intermediate(s) accumulated in the aggregation pathway. Finally, we discuss the correlation of curcumin-induced monomeric and/or oligomeric precursor states with aggregate structure and toxicity. On the basis of these discussions, we propose a model describing curcumin-induced inhibition/promotion of formation of amyloid-like fibrils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein aggregate turbidity: Simulation of turbidity profiles for mixed-aggregation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien; Zhao, Ran; Dehlsen, Ian; Bloomfield, Nathaniel; Williams, Steven R; Arisaka, Fumio; Goto, Yuji; Carver, John A

    2016-04-01

    Due to their colloidal nature, all protein aggregates scatter light in the visible wavelength region when formed in aqueous solution. This phenomenon makes solution turbidity, a quantity proportional to the relative loss in forward intensity of scattered light, a convenient method for monitoring protein aggregation in biochemical assays. Although turbidity is often taken to be a linear descriptor of the progress of aggregation reactions, this assumption is usually made without performing the necessary checks to provide it with a firm underlying basis. In this article, we outline utilitarian methods for simulating the turbidity generated by homogeneous and mixed-protein aggregation reactions containing fibrous, amorphous, and crystalline structures. The approach is based on a combination of Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory and approximate forms of the Mie scattering equations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of the aggregation propensity of proteins from the primary sequence: aggregation properties of proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Virginia; Graña-Montes, Ricardo; Sabate, Raimon; Ventura, Salvador

    2011-06-01

    In the cell, protein folding into stable globular conformations is in competition with aggregation into non-functional and usually toxic structures, since the biophysical properties that promote folding also tend to favor intermolecular contacts, leading to the formation of β-sheet-enriched insoluble assemblies. The formation of protein deposits is linked to at least 20 different human disorders, ranging from dementia to diabetes. Furthermore, protein deposition inside cells represents a major obstacle for the biotechnological production of polypeptides. Importantly, the aggregation behavior of polypeptides appears to be strongly influenced by the intrinsic properties encoded in their sequences and specifically by the presence of selective short regions with high aggregation propensity. This allows computational methods to be used to analyze the aggregation properties of proteins without the previous requirement for structural information. Applications range from the identification of individual amyloidogenic regions in disease-linked polypeptides to the analysis of the aggregation properties of complete proteomes. Herein, we review these theoretical approaches and illustrate how they have become important and useful tools in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying protein aggregation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Costs of fire suppression forces based on cost-aggregation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonz& aacute; lez-Cab& aacute; Armando n; Charles W. McKetta; Thomas J. Mills

    1984-01-01

    A cost-aggregation approach has been developed for determining the cost of Fire Management Inputs (FMls)-the direct fireline production units (personnel and equipment) used in initial attack and large-fire suppression activities. All components contributing to an FMI are identified, computed, and summed to estimate hourly costs. This approach can be applied to any FMI...

  13. Strain-dependent profile of misfolded prion protein aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moda, Fabio; Diaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Chen, Baian; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V; Soto, Claudio

    2016-02-15

    Prions are composed of the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) organized in a variety of aggregates. An important question in the prion field has been to determine the identity of functional PrP(Sc) aggregates. In this study, we used equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients to separate PrP(Sc) aggregates from three hamster prion strains (Hyper, Drowsy, SSLOW) subjected to minimal manipulations. We show that PrP(Sc) aggregates distribute in a wide range of arrangements and the relative proportion of each species depends on the prion strain. We observed a direct correlation between the density of the predominant PrP(Sc) aggregates and the incubation periods for the strains studied. The relative presence of PrP(Sc) in fractions of different sucrose densities was indicative of the protein deposits present in the brain as analyzed by histology. Interestingly, no association was found between sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and aggregation profiles. Therefore, the organization of PrP molecules in terms of the density of aggregates generated may determine some of the particular strain properties, whereas others are independent from it. Our findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms of strain variation and the role of PrP(Sc) aggregates in prion-induced neurodegeneration.

  14. Conformational targeting of fibrillar polyglutamine proteins in live cells escalates aggregation and cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kvam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Misfolding- and aggregation-prone proteins underlying Parkinson's, Huntington's and Machado-Joseph diseases, namely alpha-synuclein, huntingtin, and ataxin-3 respectively, adopt numerous intracellular conformations during pathogenesis, including globular intermediates and insoluble amyloid-like fibrils. Such conformational diversity has complicated research into amyloid-associated intracellular dysfunction and neurodegeneration. To this end, recombinant single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs are compelling molecular tools that can be selected against specific protein conformations, and expressed inside cells as intrabodies, for investigative and therapeutic purposes.Using atomic force microscopy (AFM and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we report that a human scFv selected against the fibrillar form of alpha-synuclein targets isomorphic conformations of misfolded polyglutamine proteins. When expressed in the cytoplasm of striatal cells, this conformation-specific intrabody co-localizes with intracellular aggregates of misfolded ataxin-3 and a pathological fragment of huntingtin, and enhances the aggregation propensity of both disease-linked polyglutamine proteins. Using this intrabody as a tool for modulating the kinetics of amyloidogenesis, we show that escalating aggregate formation of a pathologic huntingtin fragment is not cytoprotective in striatal cells, but rather heightens oxidative stress and cell death as detected by flow cytometry. Instead, cellular protection is achieved by suppressing aggregation using a previously described intrabody that binds to the amyloidogenic N-terminus of huntingtin. Analogous cytotoxic results are observed following conformational targeting of normal or polyglutamine-expanded human ataxin-3, which partially aggregate through non-polyglutamine domains.These findings validate that the rate of aggregation modulates polyglutamine-mediated intracellular dysfunction, and caution that molecules designed to

  15. Hierarchical organization in aggregates of protein molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer

    1997-01-01

    of the solution and the density of protein are varied shows the existence of specific growth processes resulting in different branch-like structures. The resulting structures are strongly influenced by the shape of each protein molecule. Lysozyme and ribonuclease are found to form spherical structures...

  16. Dynamics of proteins aggregation. II. Dynamic scaling in confined media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Size; Shing, Katherine S.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the second in a series devoted to molecular modeling of protein aggregation, a mesoscale model of proteins together with extensive discontinuous molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the phenomenon in a confined medium. The medium, as a model of a crowded cellular environment, is represented by a spherical cavity, as well as cylindrical tubes with two aspect ratios. The aggregation process leads to the formation of β sheets and eventually fibrils, whose deposition on biological tissues is believed to be a major factor contributing to many neuro-degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diseases. Several important properties of the aggregation process, including dynamic evolution of the total number of the aggregates, the mean aggregate size, and the number of peptides that contribute to the formation of the β sheets, have been computed. We show, similar to the unconfined media studied in Paper I [S. Zheng et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 134306 (2016)], that the computed properties follow dynamic scaling, characterized by power laws. The existence of such dynamic scaling in unconfined media was recently confirmed by experiments. The exponents that characterize the power-law dependence on time of the properties of the aggregation process in spherical cavities are shown to agree with those in unbounded fluids at the same protein density, while the exponents for aggregation in the cylindrical tubes exhibit sensitivity to the geometry of the system. The effects of the number of amino acids in the protein, as well as the size of the confined media, have also been studied. Similarities and differences between aggregation in confined and unconfined media are described, including the possibility of no fibril formation, if confinement is severe.

  17. Aggregation propensity of critical regions of the protein Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthee, Micaiah; Ahmed, Azka; Larini, Luca

    The Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, which eventually leads to the ability to not able to carry out the simplest tasks. The Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the formation of protein aggregates both within and outside of the brain's cells, the neurons. Within the neurons, the aggregation of the protein tau leads to the destruction of the microtubules in the axon of the neuron. Tau belongs to a group of proteins referred to as Microtubule-Associated Proteins. It is extremely flexible and is classified as an intrinsically unstructured protein due to its low propensity to form secondary structure. Tau promotes tubulin assembly into microtubules thereby stabilizing the cytoskeleton of the axon of the neurons. The microtubule binding region of tau consists of 4 pseudo-repeats. In this study, we will focus on the aggregation propensity of two fragments. In this study we will focus on the PHF43 fragment that contains the third pseudo-repeat and has been shown experimentally to aggregate readily. Another fragment that contains the second pseudo-repeat will be considered as well. Mutations in this region are associated with various form of dementia and for this reason we will consider the mutant P301L.

  18. Evaluation of the amyloid beta-GFP fusion protein as a model of amyloid beta peptides-mediated aggregation: A study of DNAJB6 chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohamed Hussein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for disease amelioration. We recently found that DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of heat shock proteins, effectively prevented the aggregation of short aggregation-prone peptides containing large poly glutamines (associated with CAG repeat diseases both in vitro and in cells. Moreover, recent in vitro data showed that DNAJB6 can delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides. In this study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of extracellular and intracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP fusion construct and performing western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 indeed suppresses Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Unexpectedly and unlike what we found for peptide-mediated aggregation, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of the Aβ-GFP fusion protein and its J-domain was crucial for its anti-aggregation effect. In addition, other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPA1a overexpression also suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that Aβ aggregation differs from poly Q peptide induced aggregation in terms of chaperone handling and sheds doubt on the usage of Aβ-GFP fusion construct for studying Aβ peptide aggregation in cells.

  19. Disulphide bond formation in food protein aggregation and gelation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.W.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this short review we discuss the role of cysteine residues and cystine bridges for the functional aggregation of food proteins. We evaluate how formation and cleavage of disulphide bonds proceeds at a molecular level, and how inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds can be detected and modified.

  20. Competitive Protein Adsorption - Multilayer Adsorption and Surface Induced Protein Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, competitive adsorption of albumin and IgG (immunoglobulin G) from human serum solutions and protein mixtures onto polymer surfaces is studied by means of radioactive labeling. By using two different radiolabels (125I and 131I), albumin and IgG adsorption to polymer surfaces...... is monitored simultaneously and the influence from the presence of other human serum proteins on albumin and IgG adsorption, as well as their mutual influence during adsorption processes, is investigated. Exploring protein adsorption by combining analysis of competitive adsorption from complex solutions...... of high concentration with investigation of single protein adsorption and interdependent adsorption between two specific proteins enables us to map protein adsorption sequences during competitive protein adsorption. Our study shows that proteins can adsorb in a multilayer fashion onto the polymer surfaces...

  1. Suppression of Kasha's rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai; Cousins, Morgan E.; Horak, Erik H.; Wakefield, Audrey; Liptak, Matthew D.; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Although there are some proposed explanations for aggregation-induced emission, a phenomenon with applications that range from biosensors to organic light-emitting diodes, current understanding of the quantum-mechanical origin of this photophysical behaviour is limited. To address this issue, we assessed the emission properties of a series of BF2-hydrazone-based dyes as a function of solvent viscosity. These molecules turned out to be highly efficient fluorescent molecular rotors. This property, in addition to them being aggregation-induced emission luminogens, enabled us to probe deeper into their emission mechanism. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations and experimental results showed that the emission is not from the S1 state, as predicted from Kasha's rule, but from a higher energy (>S1) state. Furthermore, we found that suppression of internal conversion to the dark S1 state by restricting the rotor rotation enhances fluorescence, which leads to the proposal that suppression of Kasha's rule is the photophysical mechanism responsible for emission in both viscous solution and the solid state.

  2. Natural Biomolecules and Protein Aggregation: Emerging Strategies against Amyloidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Sgarbossa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomolecular self-assembly is a fundamental process in all organisms. As primary components of the life molecular machinery, proteins have a vast array of resources available to them for self-assembly in a functional structure. Protein self-assembly, however, can also occur in an aberrant way, giving rise to non-native aggregated structures responsible for severe, progressive human diseases that have a serious social impact. Different neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and spongiform encephalopathy diseases, have in common the presence of insoluble protein aggregates, generally termed “amyloid,” that share several physicochemical features: a fibrillar morphology, a predominantly beta-sheet secondary structure, birefringence upon staining with the dye Congo red, insolubility in common solvents and detergents, and protease resistance. Conformational constrains, hydrophobic and stacking interactions can play a key role in the fibrillogenesis process and protein–protein and peptide–peptide interactions—resulting in self-assembly phenomena of peptides yielding fibrils—that can be modulated and influenced by natural biomolecules. Small organic molecules, which possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties able to bind to peptide/protein molecules through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic and aromatic interactions, are potential candidates against amyloidogenesis. In this review some significant case examples will be critically discussed.

  3. Pocket Proteins Suppress Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myeong-Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is a common cancer in humans long known to be caused by tobacco and alcohol use, but now an increasing percentage of HNSCC is recognized to be caused by the same human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause cervical and other anogenital cancers. HPV-positive HNSCCs differ remarkably from HPV-negative HNSCCs in their clinical response and molecular properties. From studies in mice, we know that E7 is the dominant HPV oncoprotein in head and neck cancer. E7 is best known for its ability to inactivate pRb, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor susceptibility gene. However loss of pRb function does not fully account for E7’s potency in causing head and neck cancer. In this study, we characterized the cancer susceptibility of mice deficient in the expression of pRb and either of two related “pocket” proteins, p107 and p130, that are also inactivated by E7. pRb/p107 deficient mice developed head and neck cancer as frequently as do HPV16 E7 transgenic mice. The head and neck epithelia of the pRb/p107 deficient mice also displayed the same acute phenotypes and biomarker readouts as observed in the epithelia of E7 transgenic mice. Mice deficient for pRb and p130 in their head and neck epithelia showed intermediate acute and tumor phenotypes. We conclude that pRb and p107 act together to efficiently suppress head and neck cancer, and are therefore highly relevant targets of HPV16 E7 in its contribution to HPV-positive HNSCC. PMID:22237625

  4. Congo red and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Petrea; Anisimov, Sergey V; Popovic, Natalija

    2007-01-01

    Congo red is a commonly used histological dye for amyloid detection. The specificity of this staining results from Congo red's affinity for binding to fibril proteins enriched in beta-sheet conformation. Unexpectedly, recent investigations indicate that the dye also possesses the capacity to interfere with processes of protein misfolding and aggregation, stabilizing native protein monomers or partially folded intermediates, while reducing concentration of more toxic protein oligomers. Inhibitory effects of Congo red upon amyloid toxicity may also range from blockade of channel formation and interference with glycosaminoglycans binding or immune functions, to the modulation of gene expression. Particularly, Congo red exhibits ameliorative effect in models of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and prion diseases. Another interesting application of Congo red analogues is the development of imaging probes. Based on their small molecular size and penetrability through blood-brain barrier, Congo red congeners can be used for both antemortem and in vivo visualization and quantification of brain amyloids. Therefore, understanding mechanisms involved in dye-amyloidal fibril binding and inhibition of aggregation will provide instructive guides for the design of future compounds, potentially useful for monitoring and treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and neuronal cell death in a murine model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anushka

    Many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Yet, the mechanism by which oxidative stress leads to tissue damage in these disorders is unclear. Recent work from our laboratory has revealed that protein carbonylation, a major oxidative modification caused by severe and/or chronic oxidative stress conditions, is elevated in MS and EAE. Furthermore, protein carbonylation has been shown to alter protein structure leading to misfolding/aggregation. These findings prompted me to hypothesize that carbonylated proteins, formed as a consequence of oxidative stress and/or decreased proteasomal activity, promote protein aggregation to mediate neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in EAE. To test this novel hypothesis, I first characterized protein carbonylation, protein aggregation and apoptosis along the spinal cord during the course of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice [Chapter 2]. The results show that carbonylated proteins accumulate throughout the course of the disease, albeit by different mechanisms: increased oxidative stress in acute EAE and decreased proteasomal activity in chronic EAE. I discovered not only that there is a temporal correlation between protein carbonylation and apoptosis but also that carbonyl levels are significantly higher in apoptotic cells. A high number of juxta-nuclear and cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing the majority of the oxidized proteins are also present during the course of EAE, which seems to be due to reduced autophagy. In chapter 3, I show that when gluthathione levels are reduced to those in EAE spinal cord, both neuron-like PC12 (nPC12) cells and primary neuronal cultures accumulate carbonylated proteins and undergo cell death (both by necrosis and apoptosis). Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies also revealed a temporal

  6. MRP4 knockdown enhances migration, suppresses apoptosis, and produces aggregated morphology in human retinal vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Mizuki [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kusuhara, Sentaro, E-mail: kusu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Imai, Hisanori [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Uemura, Akiyoshi [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Vascular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Honda, Shigeru; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Negi, Akira [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous VEGF decreases MRP4 expression in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} MRP4 knockdown leads to enhanced cell migration. {yields} MRP4 knockdown suppresses caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis. {yields} MRP4 knockdown produces cell assembly and cell aggregation. -- Abstract: The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) MRP4/ABCC4 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that actively effluxes endogenous and xenobiotic substrates out of cells. In the rodent retina, Mrp4 mRNA and protein are exclusively expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but the angiogenic properties of Mrp4 are poorly understood so far. This study aims to explore the angiogenic properties of MRP4 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) utilizing the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. MRP4 expression was decreased at the mRNA and protein levels after stimulation with exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor in a dose-dependent manner. RNAi-mediated MRP4 knockdown in HRECs do not affect cell proliferation but enhances cell migration. Moreover, cell apoptosis induced by serum starvation was less prominent in MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs as compared to control siRNA-treated HRECs. In a Matrigel-based tube-formation assay, although MRP4 knockdown did not lead to a significant change in the total tube length, MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs assembled and aggregated into a massive tube-like structure, which was not observed in control siRNA-treated HRECs. These results suggest that MRP4 is uniquely involved in retinal angiogenesis.

  7. The Nucleation of Protein Aggregates - From Crystals to Amyloid Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    The condensation and aggregation of individual protein molecules into dense insoluble phases is of relevance in such diverse fields as materials science, medicine, structural biology and pharmacology. A common feature of these condensation phenomena is that they usually are nucleated processes, i.e. the first piece of the condensed phase is energetically costly to create and hence forms slowly compared to its subsequent growth. Here we give a compact overview of the differences and similarities of various protein nucleation phenomena, their theoretical description in the framework of colloid and polymer science and their experimental study. Particular emphasis is put on the nucleation of a specific type of filamentous protein aggregates, amyloid fibrils. The current experimentally derived knowledge on amyloid fibril nucleation is critically assessed, and we argue that it is less advanced than is generally believed. This is due to (I) the lack of emphasis that has been put on the distinction between homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in experimental studies (II) the use of oversimplifying and/or inappropriate theoretical frameworks for the analysis of kinetic data of amyloid fibril nucleation. A strategy is outlined and advocated of how our understanding of this important class of processes can be improved in the future. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Widespread protein aggregation as an inherent part of aging in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della C David

    Full Text Available Aberrant protein aggregation is a hallmark of many age-related diseases, yet little is known about whether proteins aggregate with age in a non-disease setting. Using a systematic proteomics approach, we identified several hundred proteins that become more insoluble with age in the multicellular organism Caenorhabditis elegans. These proteins are predicted to be significantly enriched in beta-sheets, which promote disease protein aggregation. Strikingly, these insoluble proteins are highly over-represented in aggregates found in human neurodegeneration. We examined several of these proteins in vivo and confirmed their propensity to aggregate with age. Different proteins aggregated in different tissues and cellular compartments. Protein insolubility and aggregation were significantly delayed or even halted by reduced insulin/IGF-1-signaling, which also slows aging. We found a significant overlap between proteins that become insoluble and proteins that influence lifespan and/or polyglutamine-repeat aggregation. Moreover, overexpressing one aggregating protein enhanced polyglutamine-repeat pathology. Together our findings indicate that widespread protein insolubility and aggregation is an inherent part of aging and that it may influence both lifespan and neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Effect of the UV modification of α-crystallin on its ability to suppress nonspecific aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellozy, A.R.; Ceger, Patricia; Wang, R.H.; Dillon, James

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that structural modifications of α-crystallin during lens aging decrease it's effectiveness as a molecular chaperone. Some of these post-translational modifications have been linked to UV radiation, and this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of UV irradiation on the ability of α-crystallin to suppress nonspecific aggregation. The effect of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) was also investigated as a model for its glucoside (3-HKG), a main lens chromophore that has been linked to photochemical changes in the human lens. Alpha- and γ-crystallin solutions (1 mg/mL, 1:0.125 wt/wt) were photolyzed (transmission above 295nm) for various time intervals. Thermal denaturation of γ-crystallin with or without α-crystallin was carried out at 70 o C and increases in light scattering were measured at 360 nm. We found that (1) irradiation of γ-crystallin increased its susceptibility to heat-induced scattering. The addition of α-crystallin protects it against thermal denaturation, although its ability to do so decreases the longer γ-crystallin is irradiated and (2) irradiation of α-crystallin decreases its ability to suppress nonspecific aggregation and the presence of 3-HK during irradiation decreases its further. Our results indicate that post-translational modifications of α-crystallin due to UV irradiation affect the sites and mechanisms by which it interacts with γ-crystallin. The kinetics of γ-crystallin unfolding during thermal denaturation were also analyzed. We found that a simple two state model applied for nonirradiated γ-crystallin. This model does not hold when γ-crystallin is irradiated in the prescence or absence of α-crystallin. In these cases, two step or multistep mechanisms are more likely. (Author)

  10. Protein corona between nanoparticles and bacterial proteins in activated sludge: Characterization and effect on nanoparticle aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, You-Peng; Xiao, Meng-Qian; Feng, Bo; Tian, Kai-Xun; Chen, Yue-Hui; Dai, You-Zhi

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the protein coronas of activated sludge proteins on TiO 2 nanoparticles (TNPs) and ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) were characterized. The proteins with high affinity to TNPs and ZNPs were identified by shotgun proteomics, and their effects of on the distributions of TNPs and ZNPs in activated sludge were concluded. In addition, the effects of protein coronas on the aggregations of TNPs and ZNPs were evaluated. Thirty and nine proteins with high affinities to TNPs and ZNPs were identified, respectively. The proteomics and adsorption isotherms demonstrated that activated sludge had a higher affinity to TNPs than to ZNPs. The aggregation percentages of ZNPs at 35, 53, and 106 mg/L of proteins were 13%, 14%, and 18%, respectively, whereas those of TNPs were 21%, 30%, 41%, respectively. The proteins contributed to ZNPs aggregation by dissolved Zn ion-bridging, whereas the increasing protein concentrations enhanced the TNPs aggregation through macromolecule bridging flocculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein aggregation and degradation during iodine labeling and its consequences for protein adsorption to biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Ndoni, Sokol

    2007-01-01

    Protein adsorption on modified and unmodified polymer surfaces investigated through radiolabeling experiments showed a tendency for higher than expected albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) adsorption. Possible enhanced protein aggregation and degradation caused by the iodine labeling method used w...

  12. Uncoupling of Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yong; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Li, Ming; Kapur, Meghan; Choi, Su Jin; Kim, Hak-June; Park, Song-Yi; Zhu, Haining; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant accumulation of protein aggregates is a pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although a buildup of protein aggregates frequently leads to cell death, whether it is the key pathogenic factor in driving neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. HDAC6, a cytosolic ubiquitin-binding deacetylase, has emerged as an important regulator of ubiquitin-dependent quality control autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradative system responsible for the disposal of misfolded protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Here, we show that in cell models HDAC6 plays a protective role against multiple disease-associated and aggregation-prone cytosolic proteins by facilitating their degradation. We further show that HDAC6 is required for efficient localization of lysosomes to protein aggregates, indicating that lysosome targeting to autophagic substrates is regulated. Supporting a critical role of HDAC6 in protein aggregate disposal in vivo, genetic ablation of HDAC6 in a transgenic SOD1G93A mouse, a model of ALS, leads to dramatic accumulation of ubiquitinated SOD1G93A protein aggregates. Surprisingly, despite a robust buildup of SOD1G93A aggregates, deletion of HDAC6 only moderately modified the motor phenotypes. These findings indicate that SOD1G93A aggregation is not the only determining factor to drive neurodegeneration in ALS, and that HDAC6 likely modulates neurodegeneration through additional mechanisms beyond protein aggregate clearance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Acid-Induced Cold Gelation of Globular Proteins: Effects of Protein Aggregate Characteristics and Disulfide Bonding on Rheological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.; Weijers, M.; Hoog, E.H.A. de; Pijpekamp, A.M. van de; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Hamer, R.J.; Kruif, C.G. de; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The process of cold gelation of ovalbumin and the properties of the resulting cold-set gels were compared to those of whey protein isolate. Under the chosen heating conditions, most protein was organized in aggregates. For both protein preparations, the aggregates consisted of covalently linked

  14. Proteins with Intrinsically Disordered Domains Are Preferentially Recruited to Polyglutamine Aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie P Wear

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein aggregation is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregates formed by polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded proteins, such as Huntingtin, adopt amyloid-like structures that are resistant to denaturation. We used a novel purification strategy to isolate aggregates formed by human Huntingtin N-terminal fragments with expanded polyQ tracts from both yeast and mammalian (PC-12 cells. Using mass spectrometry we identified the protein species that are trapped within these polyQ aggregates. We found that proteins with very long intrinsically-disordered (ID domains (≥ 100 amino acids and RNA-binding proteins were disproportionately recruited into aggregates. The removal of the ID domains from selected proteins was sufficient to eliminate their recruitment into polyQ aggregates. We also observed that several neurodegenerative disease-linked proteins were reproducibly trapped within the polyQ aggregates purified from mammalian cells. Many of these proteins have large ID domains and are found in neuronal inclusions in their respective diseases. Our study indicates that neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins are particularly vulnerable to recruitment into polyQ aggregates via their ID domains. Also, the high frequency of ID domains in RNA-binding proteins may explain why RNA-binding proteins are frequently found in pathological inclusions in various neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Wetting of nonconserved residue-backbones: A feature indicative of aggregation associated regions of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mohan R; Pal, Arumay; Hu, Zhongqiao; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Chee Keong, Kwoh; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation is an irreversible form of protein complexation and often toxic to cells. The process entails partial or major unfolding that is largely driven by hydration. We model the role of hydration in aggregation using "Dehydrons." "Dehydrons" are unsatisfied backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins that seek shielding from water molecules by associating with ligands or proteins. We find that the residues at aggregation interfaces have hydrated backbones, and in contrast to other forms of protein-protein interactions, are under less evolutionary pressure to be conserved. Combining evolutionary conservation of residues and extent of backbone hydration allows us to distinguish regions on proteins associated with aggregation (non-conserved dehydron-residues) from other interaction interfaces (conserved dehydron-residues). This novel feature can complement the existing strategies used to investigate protein aggregation/complexation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of protein-surfactant interactions on aggregation of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansted, Jon G; Wejse, Peter L; Bertelsen, Hans; Otzen, Daniel E

    2011-05-01

    The milk protein β-lactoglobulin (βLG) dominates the properties of whey aggregates in food products. Here we use spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to elucidate how anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants interact with bovine βLG and modulate its heat-induced aggregation. Alkyl trimethyl ammonium chlorides (xTAC) strongly promote aggregation, while sodium alkyl sulfates (SxS) and alkyl maltopyranosides (xM) reduce aggregation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds to non-aggregated βLG in several steps, but reduction of aggregation was associated with the first binding step, which occurs far below the critical micelle concentration. In contrast, micellar concentrations of xMs are required to reduce aggregation. The ranking order for reduction of aggregation (normalized to their tendency to self-associate) was C10-C12>C8>C14 for SxS and C8>C10>C12>C14>C16 for xM. xTAC promote aggregation in the same ranking order as xM reduce it. We conclude that SxS reduce aggregation by stabilizing the protein's ligand-bound state (the melting temperature t(m) increases by up to 10°C) and altering its charge potential. xM monomers also stabilize the protein's ligand-bound state (increasing t(m) up to 6°C) but in the absence of charged head groups this is not sufficient by itself to prevent aggregation. Although micelles of both anionic and non-ionic surfactants destabilize βLG, they also solubilize unfolded protein monomers, leaving them unavailable for protein-protein association and thus inhibiting aggregation. Cationic surfactants promote aggregation by a combination of destabilization and charge neutralization. The food compatible surfactant sodium dodecanoate also inhibited aggregation well below the cmc, suggesting that surfactants may be a practical way to modulate whey protein properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Finite size effects in simulations of protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Pawar

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the soluble protofibrillar species that proceed amyloid fibril formation are associated with a range of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. Computer simulations of the processes that lead to the formation of these oligomeric species are starting to make significant contributions to our understanding of the determinants of protein aggregation. We simulate different systems at constant concentration but with a different number of peptides and we study the how the finite number of proteins affects the underlying free energy of the system and therefore the relative stability of the species involved in the process. If not taken into account, this finite size effect can undermine the validity of theoretical predictions regarding the relative stability of the species involved and the rates of conversion from one to the other. We discuss the reasons that give rise to this finite size effect form both a probabilistic and energy fluctuations point of view and also how this problem can be dealt by a finite size scaling analysis.

  18. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Coquel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian. Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on

  19. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C; Uang, B J; Tsai, C Y; Wu, H L; Lin, B R; Lee, C S; Chen, Y J; Chang, C H; Tsai, Y L; Kao, C J; Jeng, J H

    2007-09-01

    Platelet hyperactivity is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Betel leaf (PBL) is consumed by 200-600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Hydroxychavicol (HC), a betel leaf component, was tested for its antiplatelet effect. We tested the effect of HC on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, ex vivo platelet aggregation and mouse bleeding time and platelet plug formation in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of HC in rats was also assessed. HC inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) production. HC inhibited the thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not platelet aggregation. SQ29548, suppressed collagen- and thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. HC also suppressed COX-1/COX-2 enzyme activity and the AA-induced ROS production and Ca(2+) mobilization. HC further inhibited the ex vivo platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (>100 nmole/mouse) and prolonged platelet plug formation (>300 nmole/mouse) in mesenteric microvessels, but showed little effect on bleeding time in mouse tail. Moreover, pharmacokinetics analysis found that more than 99% of HC was metabolized within 3 min of administration in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. HC is a potent COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, ROS scavenger and inhibits platelet calcium signaling, TXB(2) production and aggregation. HC could be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects, without effects on haemostatic functions.

  20. Protein aggregation in bacteria: the thin boundary between functionality and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Natalia G; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Van Eldere, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins have a negative impact on all living organisms. In recent years, aggregation has been studied in detail due to its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and type II diabetes--all associated with accumulation of amyloid fibrils. This research highlighted the central importance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis for short, defined as the cellular state in which the proteome is both stable and functional. It implicates an equilibrium between synthesis, folding, trafficking, aggregation, disaggregation and degradation. In accordance with the eukaryotic systems, it has been documented that protein aggregation also reduces fitness of bacterial cells, but although our understanding of the cellular protein quality control systems is perhaps most detailed in bacteria, the use of bacterial proteostasis as a drug target remains little explored. Here we describe protein aggregation as a normal physiological process and its role in bacterial virulence and we shed light on how bacteria defend themselves against the toxic threat of aggregates. We review the impact of aggregates on bacterial viability and look at the ways that bacteria use to maintain a balance between aggregation and functionality. The proteostasis in bacteria can be interrupted via overexpression of proteins, certain antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, as well as antimicrobial peptides--all leading to loss of cell viability. Therefore intracellular protein aggregation and disruption of proteostatic balance in bacteria open up another strategy that should be explored towards the discovery of new antimicrobials.

  1. Formation of truncated proteins and high-molecular-mass aggregates upon soft illumination of photosynthetic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Campostrini, Natascia; Antonioli, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Different spot profiles were observed in 2D gel electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes performed either under complete darkness or by leaving the sample for a short time to low visible light. In the latter case, a large number of new spots with lower molecular masses, ranging between 15,000 and 25......,000 Da, were observed, and high-molecular-mass aggregates, seen as a smearing in the upper part of the gel, appeared in the region around 250 kDa. Identification of protein(s) contained in these new spots by MS/MS revealed that most of them are simply truncated proteins deriving from native ones...

  2. CELLS OVEREXPRESSING HSP27 SHOW ACCELERATED RECOVERY FROM HEAT-INDUCED NUCLEAR-PROTEIN AGGREGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; BRUNSTING, JF; STEGE, GJJ; KONINGS, AWT; LANDRY, J

    1994-01-01

    Protein denaturation/aggregation upon cell exposure to heat shock is a likely cause of cell death. in the nucleus, protein aggregation has often been correlated to inhibition of nuclear located processes and heat-induced cell killing. in Chinese hamster 023 cells made thermotolerant by a prior

  3. Age- and Hypertension-Associated Protein Aggregates in Mouse Heart Have Similar Proteomic Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Mercanti, Federico; Wang, Xianwei; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Tackett, Alan J; Prayaga, Sastry V S; Romeo, Francesco; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2016-05-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are largely defined by protein aggregates in affected tissues. Aggregates contain some shared components as well as proteins thought to be specific for each disease. Aggregation has not previously been reported in the normal, aging heart or the hypertensive heart. Detergent-insoluble protein aggregates were isolated from mouse heart and characterized on 2-dimensional gels. Their levels increased markedly and significantly with aging and after sustained angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Of the aggregate components identified by high-resolution proteomics, half changed in abundance with age (392/787) or with sustained hypertension (459/824), whereas 30% (273/901) changed concordantly in both, each Phypertensive hearts, we posited that aging of fibroblasts may contribute to the aggregates observed in cardiac tissue. Indeed, as cardiac myofibroblasts "senesced" (approached their replicative limit) in vitro, they accrued aggregates with many of the same constituent proteins observed in vivo during natural aging or sustained hypertension. In summary, we have shown for the first time that compact (detergent-insoluble) protein aggregates accumulate during natural aging, chronic hypertension, and in vitro myofibroblast senescence, sharing many common proteins. Thus, aggregates that arise from disparate causes (aging, hypertension, and replicative senescence) may have common underlying mechanisms of accrual. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. High-efficiency pyrene-based blue light emitting diodes: Aggregation suppression using a calixarene 3D-scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Khaileok

    2012-01-01

    An efficient blue light emitting diode based on solution processable pyrene-1,3-alt-calix[4]arene is demonstrated, providing a record current efficiency of 10.5 cd A -1 in a simple non-doped OLED configuration. Complete suppression of pyrene aggregation in the solid state is achieved by controlling chromophore dispersion using the 1,3-alt-calix[4]arene scaffold. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Aspirin-Mediated Acetylation Protects Against Multiple Neurodegenerative Pathologies by Impeding Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Kakraba, Samuel; Alla, Ramani; Mehta, Jawahar L; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2017-12-10

    Many progressive neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease (PD), are characterized by accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. In prospective trials, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) reduced the risk of AD and PD, as well as cardiovascular events and many late-onset cancers. Considering the role played by protein hyperphosphorylation in aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases, and aspirin's known ability to donate acetyl groups, we asked whether aspirin might reduce both phosphorylation and aggregation by acetylating protein targets. Aspirin was substantially more effective than salicylate in reducing or delaying aggregation in human neuroblastoma cells grown in vitro, and in Caenorhabditis elegans models of human neurodegenerative diseases in vivo. Aspirin acetylates many proteins, while reducing phosphorylation, suggesting that acetylation may oppose phosphorylation. Surprisingly, acetylated proteins were largely excluded from compact aggregates. Molecular-dynamic simulations indicate that acetylation of amyloid peptide energetically disfavors its association into dimers and octamers, and oligomers that do form are less compact and stable than those comprising unacetylated peptides. Hyperphosphorylation predisposes certain proteins to aggregate (e.g., tau, α-synuclein, and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 [TDP-43]), and it is a critical pathogenic marker in both cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. We present novel evidence that acetylated proteins are underrepresented in protein aggregates, and that aggregation varies inversely with acetylation propensity after diverse genetic and pharmacologic interventions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aspirin inhibits protein aggregation and the ensuing toxicity of aggregates through its acetyl-donating activity. This mechanism may contribute to the neuro-protective, cardio

  6. Analysis of Tospovirus NSs Proteins in Suppression of Systemic Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Sterken, Mark G; de Ronde, Dryas; Lohuis, Dick; Kormelink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific gene regulation mechanism that in plants also acts antiviral. In order to counteract antiviral RNA silencing, viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). In the case of tospoviruses, the non-structural NSs protein has been identified as the RSS. Although the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) tospovirus NSs protein has been shown to exhibit affinity to long and small dsRNA molecules, its ability to suppress the non-cell autonomous part of RNA silencing has only been studied to a limited extent. Here, the NSs proteins of TSWV, groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), representatives for three distinct tospovirus species, have been studied on their ability and strength to suppress local and systemic silencing. A system has been developed to quantify suppression of GFP silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana 16C lines, to allow a comparison of relative RNA silencing suppressor strength. It is shown that NSs of all three tospoviruses are suppressors of local and systemic silencing. Unexpectedly, suppression of systemic RNA silencing by NSsTYRV was just as strong as those by NSsTSWV and NSsGRSV, even though NSsTYRV was expressed in lower amounts. Using the system established, a set of selected NSsTSWV gene constructs mutated in predicted RNA binding domains, as well as NSs from TSWV isolates 160 and 171 (resistance breakers of the Tsw resistance gene), were analyzed for their ability to suppress systemic GFP silencing. The results indicate another mode of RNA silencing suppression by NSs that acts further downstream the biogenesis of siRNAs and their sequestration. The findings are discussed in light of the affinity of NSs for small and long dsRNA, and recent mutant screen of NSsTSWV to map domains required for RSS activity and triggering of Tsw-governed resistance.

  7. Protein aggregation studied by forward light scattering and light transmission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Breitkreuz, H.; Wolf, E.

    2007-12-01

    The aggregation of the circadian blue-light photo-receptor cryptochrome from Drosophila melanogaster (dCry) is studied by transmission and forward light scattering measurement in the protein transparent wavelength region. The light scattering in forward direction is caused by Rayleigh scattering which is proportional to the degree of aggregation. The light transmission through the samples in the transparent region is reduced by Mie light scattering in all directions. It depends on the degree of aggregation and the monomer volume fill factor of the aggregates (less total scattering with decreasing monomer volume fill factor of protein globule) allowing a distinction between tightly packed protein aggregation (monomer volume fill factor 1) and loosely packed protein aggregation (monomer volume fill factor less than 1). An increase in aggregation with temperature, concentration, and blue-light exposure is observed. At a temperature of 4 °C and a protein concentration of less than 0.135 mM no dCry aggregation was observed, while at 24 °C and 0.327 mM gelation occurred (loosely packed aggregates occupying the whole solution volume).

  8. The effect of carbohydrates and lipids on the radiation-induced aggregation of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1977-01-01

    Myoglobin, ovalbumin and serum albumin have been irradiated in aqueous solution in the presence of varying amounts of carbohydrates and lipids, simulating a model food. Gel chromatography revealed the induction of protein aggregates, the formation of which depended strongly on protein concentration. The addition of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch) greatly reduced the amount of radiation-induced aggregates, whereas the addition of lipids (sunflower oil) had practically no effect on aggregate formation. However, if both carbohydrates and lipids were added, the decrease in aggregation caused by the carbohydrate addition was counteracted by the addition of the lipid; as increasing amounts of lipid were added, the effect of carbohydrate addition became smaller. (author)

  9. Protein aggregates as depots for the release of biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, Natalya V; Kasakov, Alexei S; Bumagina, Zoya M; Lyutova, Elena M; Gurvits, Bella Ya

    2008-12-12

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is one of the most serious problems in cell biology, molecular medicine, and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins interact with each other or with other proteins in non-productive or damaging ways. However, a new paradigm arises that protein aggregation may be exploited by nature to perform specific functions in different biological contexts. From this consideration, acceleration of stress-induced protein aggregation triggered by any factor resulting in the formation of soluble aggregates may have paradoxical positive consequences. Here, we suggest that amorphous aggregates can act as a source for the release of biologically active proteins after removal of stress conditions. To address this concept, we investigated the kinetics of thermal aggregation in vitro of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as a model substrate in the presence of two amphiphilic peptides: Arg-Phe or Ala-Phe-Lys. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and turbidimetry, we have demonstrated that under mild stress conditions the concentration-dependent acceleration of ADH aggregation by these peptides results in formation of large but soluble complexes of proteins prone to refolding.

  10. Analysis of Tospovirus NSs Proteins in Suppression of Systemic Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Hedil, Marcio; Sterken, Mark G.; de Ronde, Dryas; Lohuis, Dick; Kormelink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific gene regulation mechanism that in plants also acts antiviral. In order to counteract antiviral RNA silencing, viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). In the case of tospoviruses, the non-structural NSs protein has been identified as the RSS. Although the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) tospovirus NSs protein has been shown to exhibit affinity to long and small dsRNA molecules, its ability to suppress the non-cell autonomous part of RNA silen...

  11. Protein aggregation in food models: effect of γ-irradiation and lipid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Paul, P.

    1981-01-01

    Myoglobin and serum albumin have been irradiated in aqueous solution in the presence of varying amounts of carbohydrates and lipids, and the yield of protein aggregates has been determined by gel filtration. With myoglobin the formation of aggregates evolving from the reaction with oxidizing lipids was observed, which was not found for serum albumin. The production of protein-lipid complexes, in which lipid material was occluded in the high-molecular aggregates by physical forces was demonstrated. Gel filtration and gel electrophoresis, both in the presence of SDS, and thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed distinct structural differenes between the protein aggregates induced by irradiation and the aggregates formed by interaction with oxidizing lipids

  12. Pharmacological chaperone reshapes the energy landscape for folding and aggregation of the prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amar Nath; Neupane, Krishna; Rezajooei, Negar; Cortez, Leonardo M.; Sim, Valerie L.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-06-01

    The development of small-molecule pharmacological chaperones as therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases has proven challenging, partly because their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we study Fe-TMPyP, a tetrapyrrole that binds to the prion protein PrP and inhibits misfolding, examining its effects on PrP folding at the single-molecule level with force spectroscopy. Single PrP molecules are unfolded with and without Fe-TMPyP present using optical tweezers. Ligand binding to the native structure increases the unfolding force significantly and alters the transition state for unfolding, making it more brittle and raising the barrier height. Fe-TMPyP also binds the unfolded state, delaying native refolding. Furthermore, Fe-TMPyP binding blocks the formation of a stable misfolded dimer by interfering with intermolecular interactions, acting in a similar manner to some molecular chaperones. The ligand thus promotes native folding by stabilizing the native state while also suppressing interactions driving aggregation.

  13. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Native and Aggregated x-Synuclein Protein Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarik, Michal; Stobiecka, Agata; Kizek, René; Jelen, Frantisek; Pechan, Zdenk; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Subramaniam, Vinod; Palecek, Emil

    2004-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein, a 14 kDa protein, is involved in several human neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. We studied native and in vitro aggregated α-synuclein by circular dichroism (CD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods. We used constant

  14. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Fractionation and Identification of Aggregating Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the dominant aggregating peptides from a whey protein hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis of 6.8%) obtained with Bacillus licheniformis protease. The aggregating peptides were fractionated with preparative reversed-phase chromatography and identified with

  15. The effect of oil type on network formation by protein aggregates into oleogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oil type on the network formation of heat-set protein aggregates in liquid oil. The gelling properties of such aggregates to structure oil into so-called ‘oleogels’ are related to both the particle-particle and particle-solvent interactions. To

  16. Effects of Polymer Hydrophobicity on Protein Structure and Aggregation Kinetics in Crowded Milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breydo, Leonid; Sales, Amanda E; Frege, Telma; Howell, Mark C; Zaslavsky, Boris Y; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-05-19

    We examined the effects of water-soluble polymers of various degrees of hydrophobicity on the folding and aggregation of proteins. The polymers we chose were polyethylene glycol (PEG) and UCON (1:1 copolymer of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol). The presence of additional methyl groups in UCON makes it more hydrophobic than PEG. Our earlier analysis revealed that similarly sized PEG and UCON produced different changes in the solvent properties of water in their solutions and induced morphologically different α-synuclein aggregates [Ferreira, L. A., et al. (2015) Role of solvent properties of aqueous media in macromolecular crowding effects. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn., in press]. To improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms defining behavior of proteins in a crowded environment, we tested the effects of these polymers on secondary and tertiary structure and aromatic residue solvent accessibility of 10 proteins [five folded proteins, two hybrid proteins; i.e., protein containing ordered and disordered domains, and three intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs)] and on the aggregation kinetics of insulin and α-synuclein. We found that effects of both polymers on secondary and tertiary structures of folded and hybrid proteins were rather limited with slight unfolding observed in some cases. Solvent accessibility of aromatic residues was significantly increased for the majority of the studied proteins in the presence of UCON but not PEG. PEG also accelerated the aggregation of protein into amyloid fibrils, whereas UCON promoted aggregation to amyloid oligomers instead. These results indicate that even a relatively small change in polymer structure leads to a significant change in the effect of this polymer on protein folding and aggregation. This is an indication that protein folding and especially aggregation are highly sensitive to the presence of other macromolecules, and an excluded volume effect is insufficient to describe their effect.

  17. Fibrillar Structure and Charge Determine the Interaction of Polyglutamine Protein Aggregates with the Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, R. Sean; Lauckner, Jane E.; Sourigues, Yannick; Pearce, Margaret M.; Bousset, Luc; Melki, Ronald; Kopito, Ron R.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible diseases like prion encephalopathy, inherited disorders like Huntington disease, and sporadic diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, is intimately linked to the formation of fibrillar protein aggregates. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that prion-like intercellular transmission of protein aggregates can contribute to the stereotypical spread of disease pathology within the brain, but the mechanisms underlying the binding and uptake of protein aggregates by mammalian cells are largely uninvestigated. We have investigated the properties of polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregates that endow them with the ability to bind to mammalian cells in culture and the properties of the cell surface that facilitate such uptake. Binding and internalization of polyQ aggregates are common features of mammalian cells and depend upon both trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant saturable sites on the cell surface, suggesting the involvement of cell surface proteins in this process. polyQ aggregate binding depends upon the presence of a fibrillar amyloid-like structure and does not depend upon electrostatic interaction of fibrils with the cell surface. Sequences in the huntingtin protein that flank the amyloid-forming polyQ tract also influence the extent to which aggregates are able to bind to cell surfaces. PMID:22753412

  18. Role of foam drainage in producing protein aggregates in foam fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuran; Chang, Yunkang; Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yanji; Chen, Xiang'e; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    It is essential to obtain a clear understanding of the foam-induced protein aggregation to reduce the loss of protein functionality in foam fractionation. The major effort of this work is to explore the roles of foam drainage in protein aggregation in the entire process of foam fractionation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results show that enhancing foam drainage increased the desorption of BSA molecules from the gas-liquid interface and the local concentration of desorbed molecules in foam. Therefore, it intensified the aggregation of BSA in foam fractionation. Simultaneously, it also accelerated the flow of BSA aggregates from rising foam into the residual solution along with the drained liquid. Because enhancing foam drainage increased the relative content of BSA molecules adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, it also intensified the aggregation of BSA during both the defoaming process and the storage of the foamate. Furthermore, enhancing foam drainage more readily resulted in the formation of insoluble BSA aggregates. The results are highly important for a better understanding of foam-induced protein aggregation in foam fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Robustness of the Process of Nucleoid Exclusion of Protein Aggregates in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeli-Venkata, Ramakanth; Martikainen, Antti; Gupta, Abhishekh; Gonçalves, Nadia; Fonseca, Jose

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. Combined with cell divisions, this generates heterogeneous aggregate distributions in subsequent cell generations. We studied the robustness of this process with differing medium richness and antibiotics stress, which affect nucleoid size, using multimodal, time-lapse microscopy of live cells expressing both a fluorescently tagged chaperone (IbpA), which identifies in vivo the location of aggregates, and HupA-mCherry, a fluorescent variant of a nucleoid-associated protein. We find that the relative sizes of the nucleoid's major and minor axes change widely, in a positively correlated fashion, with medium richness and antibiotic stress. The aggregate's distribution along the major cell axis also changes between conditions and in agreement with the nucleoid exclusion phenomenon. Consequently, the fraction of aggregates at the midcell region prior to cell division differs between conditions, which will affect the degree of asymmetries in the partitioning of aggregates between cells of future generations. Finally, from the location of the peak of anisotropy in the aggregate displacement distribution, the nucleoid relative size, and the spatiotemporal aggregate distribution, we find that the exclusion of detectable aggregates from midcell is most pronounced in cells with mid-sized nucleoids, which are most common under optimal conditions. We conclude that the aggregate management mechanisms of E. coli are significantly robust but are not immune to stresses due to the tangible effect that these have on nucleoid size. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. From live single-cell microscopy studies of the robustness of this process to various stresses known to affect nucleoid size, we find that nucleoid size and aggregate preferential locations change concordantly between conditions. Also, the degree of influence of the nucleoid

  20. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  1. Analyzing modifiers of protein aggregation in C. elegans by native agarose gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, Mats; Nollen, Ellen A A; Hatters, Danny M.; Hannan, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of specific aggregation-prone proteins during aging is thought to be involved in several diseases, most notably Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as polyglutamine expansion disorders such as Huntington's disease. Caenorhabditis elegans disease models with transgenic

  2. Localization of aggregating proteins in bacteria depends on the rate of addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl eScheu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins are observed to localize to specific subcellular regions within bacteria. Recent experiments have shown that proteins that have self-interactions that lead them to aggregate tend to localize to the poles. Theoretical modeling of the localization of aggregating protein within bacterial cell geometries shows that aggregates can spontaneously localize to the pole due to nucleoid occlusion. The resulting polar localization, whether it be to a single pole or to both was shown to depend on the rate of protein addition. Motivated by these predictions we selected a set of genes from E. coli, whose protein products have been reported to localize when tagged with GFP, and explored the dynamics of their localization. We induced protein expression from each gene at different rates and found that in all cases unipolar patterning is favored at low rates of expression whereas bipolar is favored at higher rates of expression. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of the model, suggesting that localization may be due to aggregation plus nucleoid occlusion. When we expressed GFP by itself under the same conditions, no localization was observed. These experiments highlight the potential importance of protein aggregation, nucleoid occlusion and rate of protein expression in driving polar localization of functional proteins in bacteria.

  3. Enzyme-induced aggregation of whey proteins with Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins are commonly used as ingredient in food. In relation with the gelation properties of whey proteins, this thesis deals with understanding the mechanism of peptide-induced aggregation of whey protein hydrolysates made with Bacillus licheniformis protease (BLP). The results show that BLP

  4. Solid-state NMR analysis of membrane proteins and protein aggregates by proton detected spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Donghua H.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Comellas, Gemma; Sperling, Lindsay J.; Tang, Ming; Shah, Gautam J.; Brea, Elliott J.; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state NMR has emerged as an important tool for structural biology and chemistry, capable of solving atomic-resolution structures for proteins in membrane-bound and aggregated states. Proton detection methods have been recently realized under fast magic-angle spinning conditions, providing large sensitivity enhancements for efficient examination of uniformly labeled proteins. The first and often most challenging step of protein structure determination by NMR is the site-specific resonance assignment. Here we demonstrate resonance assignments based on high-sensitivity proton-detected three-dimensional experiments for samples of different physical states, including a fully-protonated small protein (GB1, 6 kDa), a deuterated microcrystalline protein (DsbA, 21 kDa), a membrane protein (DsbB, 20 kDa) prepared in a lipid environment, and the extended core of a fibrillar protein (α-synuclein, 14 kDa). In our implementation of these experiments, including CONH, CO(CA)NH, CANH, CA(CO)NH, CBCANH, and CBCA(CO)NH, dipolar-based polarization transfer methods have been chosen for optimal efficiency for relatively high protonation levels (full protonation or 100 % amide proton), fast magic-angle spinning conditions (40 kHz) and moderate proton decoupling power levels. Each H–N pair correlates exclusively to either intra- or inter-residue carbons, but not both, to maximize spectral resolution. Experiment time can be reduced by at least a factor of 10 by using proton detection in comparison to carbon detection. These high-sensitivity experiments are especially important for membrane proteins, which often have rather low expression yield. Proton-detection based experiments are expected to play an important role in accelerating protein structure elucidation by solid-state NMR with the improved sensitivity and resolution.

  5. Aggregation of egg white proteins with pulsed electric fields and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Yan, Wenxu; Sun, Qianyan

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is progressing towards application for liquid egg to ensure microbial safety. However, it usually causes protein aggregation, and the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, egg white protein was applied to investigate the changes in protein structure and mechanism of aggregates formation and a comparison was made with thermal treatment. Soluble protein content decreased with the increase of turbidity after both treatments. Fluorescence intensity and free sulfhydryl content were increased after being treated at 70 °C for 4 min. Less-remarkable changes of hydrophobicity were observed after PEF treatments (30 kV cm(-1) , 800 µs). Soluble and insoluble aggregates were observed by thermal treatment, and disulfide bonds were the main binding forces. The main components of insoluble aggregates formed by thermal treatment were ovotransferrin (30.58%), lysozyme (18.47%) and ovalbumin (14.20%). While only insoluble aggregates were detected during PEF processes, which consists of ovotransferrin (11.86%), lysozyme (21.11%) and ovalbumin (31.07%). Electrostatic interaction played a very important role in the aggregates formation. PEF had a minor impact on the structure of egg white protein. PEF had insignificant influence on heat-sensitive protein, indicating that PEF has potential in processing food with high biological activity and heat sensitive properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Heat-Induced Soluble Protein Aggregates from Mixed Pea Globulins and β-Lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihi, Mohamed-Lazhar; Mession, Jean-luc; Sok, Nicolas; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-04-06

    The present work investigates the formation of protein aggregates (85 °C, 60 min incubation) upon heat treatment of β-lactoglobulin (βlg)-pea globulins (Glob) mixtures at pH 7.2 and 5 mM NaCl from laboratory-prepared protein isolates. Various βlg/Glob weight ratios were applied, for a total protein concentration of 2 wt % in admixture. Different analytical methods were used to determine the aggregation behavior of "mixed" aggregates, that is, surface hydrophobicity and also sulfhydryl content, protein interactions by means of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and molecule size distribution by DLS and gel filtration. The production of "mixed" thermal aggregates would involve both the formation of new disulfide bonds and noncovalent interactions between the denatured βlg and Glob subunits. The majority of "mixed" soluble aggregates displayed higher molecular weight and smaller diameter than those for Glob heated in isolation. The development of pea-whey protein "mixed" aggregates may help to design new ingredients for the control of innovative food textures.

  7. Distinct role of hydration water in protein misfolding and aggregation revealed by fluctuating thermodynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2015-04-21

    Protein aggregation in aqueous cellular environments is linked to diverse human diseases. Protein aggregation proceeds through a multistep process initiated by conformational transitions, called protein misfolding, of monomer species toward aggregation-prone structures. Various forms of aggregate species are generated through the association of misfolded monomers including soluble oligomers and amyloid fibrils. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms and driving forces involved in the misfolding and subsequent association has been a central issue for understanding and preventing protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and type II diabetes. In this Account, we provide a thermodynamic perspective of the misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics. This approach "dissects" the conventional thermodynamic characterization of the end states into the one of the fluctuating processes connecting them, and enables one to analyze variations in the thermodynamic functions that occur during the course of protein conformational changes. The central quantity in this approach is the solvent-averaged effective energy, f = Eu + Gsolv, comprising the protein potential energy (Eu) and the solvation free energy (Gsolv), whose time variation reflects the protein dynamics on the free energy landscape. Protein configurational entropy is quantified by the magnitude of fluctuations in f. We find that misfolding of the Aβ monomer when released from a membrane environment to an aqueous phase is driven by favorable changes in protein potential energy and configurational entropy, but it is also accompanied by an unfavorable increase in solvation free energy. The subsequent dimerization of the misfolded Aβ monomers occurs in two steps. The first step, where two widely separated monomers come into contact distance, is driven by water-mediated attraction, that is, by a

  8. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S.F.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4 deg. C

  9. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S.F.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2004-10-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4 deg. C.

  10. Structure based descriptors for the estimation of colloidal interactions and protein aggregation propensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brunsteiner

    Full Text Available The control of protein aggregation is an important requirement in the development of bio-pharmaceutical formulations. Here a simple protein model is proposed that was used in molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a quantitative assessment of the relative contributions of proteins' net-charges, dipole-moments, and the size of hydrophobic or charged surface patches to their colloidal interactions. The results demonstrate that the strength of these interactions correlate with net-charge and dipole moment. Variation of both these descriptors within ranges typical for globular proteins have a comparable effect. By comparison no clear trends can be observed upon varying the size of hydrophobic or charged patches while keeping the other parameters constant. The results are discussed in the context of experimental literature data on protein aggregation. They provide a clear guide line for the development of improved algorithms for the prediction of aggregation propensities.

  11. Characterization of two second-site mutations preventing wild type protein aggregation caused by a dominant negative PMA1 mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Eraso

    Full Text Available The correct biogenesis and localization of Pma1 at the plasma membrane is essential for yeast growth. A subset of PMA1 mutations behave as dominant negative because they produce aberrantly folded proteins that form protein aggregates, which in turn provoke the aggregation of the wild type protein. One approach to understand this dominant negative effect is to identify second-site mutations able to suppress the dominant lethal phenotype caused by those mutant alleles. We isolated and characterized two intragenic second-site suppressors of the PMA1-D378T dominant negative mutation. We present here the analysis of these new mutations that are located along the amino-terminal half of the protein and include a missense mutation, L151F, and an in-frame 12bp deletion that eliminates four residues from Cys409 to Ala412. The results show that the suppressor mutations disrupt the interaction between the mutant and wild type enzymes, and this enables the wild type Pma1 to reach the plasma membrane.

  12. Sulfur dioxide induced aggregation of wine thaumatin-like proteins: Role of disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ricardo; Laia, César A T; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Ferreira, Luísa M

    2018-09-01

    Aggregation of heat unstable wine proteins is responsible for the economically and technologically detrimental problem called wine protein haze. This is caused by the aggregation of thermally unfolded proteins that can precipitate in bottled wine. To study the influence of SO 2 in this phenomenon, wine proteins were isolated and thaumatins were identified has the most prone to aggregate in the presence of this compound. Isolated wine thaumatins aggregation was followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Our experimental results demonstrate that protein thermal unfolding after exposure of the protein to 70 °C does not present differences whether SO 2 is present or not. Conversely, when the protein solution is cooled to 15 °C (after heat stress) significant analytical changes can be observed between samples with and without SO 2 . A remarkable change of circular dichroism spectra in the region 220-230 nm is observed (which can be related to S-S torsion angles), as well as an increase in tryptophan fluorescence intensity (absence of fluorescence quenching by S-S bonds). Formation of covalently-linked dimeric and tetrameric protein species were also detected by SEC. The ability to dissolve the aggregates with 8 M urea seems to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are prevalent in the formed aggregates. Also, the reduction of these aggregates with tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) to only monomeric species reveals the presence of intermolecular S-S bonds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aggregation in concentrated protein solutions: Insights from rheology, neutron scattering and molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica

    Aggregation of therapeutic proteins is currently one of the major challenges in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, because aggregates could induce immunogenic responses and compromise the quality of the product. Current scientific efforts, both in industry and academia, are focused on developing rational approaches to screen different drug candidates and predict their stability under different conditions. Moreover, aggregation is promoted in highly concentrated protein solutions, which are typically required for subcutaneous injection. In order to gain further understanding about the mechanisms that lead to aggregation, an approach that combined rheology, neutron scattering, and molecular simulations was undertaken. Two model systems were studied in this work: Bovine Serum Albumin in surfactant-free Phosphate Buffered Saline at pH = 7.4 at concentrations from 11 mg/mL up to ˜519 mg/mL, and a monoclonal antibody in 20 mM Histidine/Histidine Hydrochloride at pH = 6.0 with 60 mg/mL trehalose and 0.2 mg/mL polysorbate-80 at concentrations from 53 mg/mL up to ˜220 mg/mL. The antibody used here has three mutations in the CH2 domain, which result in lower stability upon incubation at 40 °C with respect to the wild-type protein, based on size-exclusion chromatography assays. This temperature is below 49 °C, where unfolding of the least stable, CH2 domain occurs, according to differential scanning calorimetry. This dissertation focuses on identifying the role of aggregation on the viscosity of protein solutions. The protein solutions of this work show an increase in the low shear viscosity in the absence of surfactants, because proteins adsorb at the air/water interface forming a viscoelastic film that affects the measured rheology. Stable surfactant-laden protein solutions behave as simple Newtonian fluids. However, the surfactant-laden antibody solution also shows an increase in the low shear viscosity from bulk aggregation, after prolonged incubation at 40 °C. Small

  14. Aggregation of the protein TRIOBP-1 and its potential relevance to schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Bradshaw

    Full Text Available We have previously proposed that specific proteins may form insoluble aggregates as a response to an illness-specific proteostatic dysbalance in a subset of brains from individuals with mental illness, as is the case for other chronic brain conditions. So far, established risk factors DISC1 and dysbindin were seen to specifically aggregate in a subset of such patients, as was a novel schizophrenia-related protein, CRMP1, identified through a condition-specific epitope discovery approach. In this process, antibodies are raised against the pooled insoluble protein fractions (aggregomes of post mortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients, followed by epitope identification and confirmation using additional techniques. Pursuing this epitope discovery paradigm further, we reveal TRIO binding protein (TRIOBP to be a major substrate of a monoclonal antibody with a high specificity to brain aggregomes from patients with chronic mental illness. TRIOBP is a gene previously associated with deafness which encodes for several distinct protein species, each involved in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. The 3' splice variant TRIOBP-1 is found to be the antibody substrate and has a high aggregation propensity when over-expressed in neuroblastoma cells, while the major 5' splice variant, TRIOBP-4, does not. Endogenous TRIOBP-1 can also spontaneously aggregate, doing so to a greater extent in cell cultures which are post-mitotic, consistent with aggregated TRIOBP-1 being able to accumulate in the differentiated neurons of the brain. Finally, upon expression in Neuroscreen-1 cells, aggregated TRIOBP-1 affects cell morphology, indicating that TRIOBP-1 aggregates may directly affect cell development, as opposed to simply being a by-product of other processes involved in major mental illness. While further experiments in clinical samples are required to clarify their relevance to chronic mental illness in the general population, TRIOBP-1 aggregates are thus

  15. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP....

  16. Intrinsically disordered proteins aggregate at fungal cell-to-cell channels and regulate intercellular connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Julian; Koh, Chuan Hock; Tjota, Monika; Pieuchot, Laurent; Raman, Vignesh; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Yang, Daiwen; Wong, Limsoon; Jedd, Gregory

    2012-09-25

    Like animals and plants, multicellular fungi possess cell-to-cell channels (septal pores) that allow intercellular communication and transport. Here, using a combination of MS of Woronin body-associated proteins and a bioinformatics approach that identifies related proteins based on composition and character, we identify 17 septal pore-associated (SPA) proteins that localize to the septal pore in rings and pore-centered foci. SPA proteins are not homologous at the primary sequence level but share overall physical properties with intrinsically disordered proteins. Some SPA proteins form aggregates at the septal pore, and in vitro assembly assays suggest aggregation through a nonamyloidal mechanism involving mainly α-helical and disordered structures. SPA loss-of-function phenotypes include excessive septation, septal pore degeneration, and uncontrolled Woronin body activation. Together, our data identify the septal pore as a complex subcellular compartment and focal point for the assembly of unstructured proteins controlling diverse aspects of intercellular connectivity.

  17. Myofibrillar protein oxidation affects filament charges, aggregation and water-holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Yulong; Boeren, Sjef; Ertbjerg, Per

    2018-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is a strong oxidant that is able to mediate protein oxidation. In order to study the effect of oxidation on charges, aggregation and water-holding of myofibrillar proteins, extracted myofibrils were oxidized by incubation with different concentrations of HClO (0, 1, 5,

  18. CAG Expansions Are Genetically Stable and Form Nontoxic Aggregates in Cells Lacking Endogenous Polyglutamine Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Zurawel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteins containing polyglutamine (polyQ regions are found in almost all eukaryotes, albeit with various frequencies. In humans, proteins such as huntingtin (Htt with abnormally expanded polyQ regions cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease (HD. To study how the presence of endogenous polyQ aggregation modulates polyQ aggregation and toxicity, we expressed polyQ expanded Htt fragments (polyQ Htt in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In stark contrast to other unicellular fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. pombe is uniquely devoid of proteins with more than 10 Q repeats. We found that polyQ Htt forms aggregates within S. pombe cells only with exceedingly long polyQ expansions. Surprisingly, despite the presence of polyQ Htt aggregates in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, no significant growth defect was observed in S. pombe cells. Further, PCR analysis showed that the repetitive polyQ-encoding DNA region remained constant following transformation and after multiple divisions in S. pombe, in contrast to the genetic instability of polyQ DNA sequences in other organisms. These results demonstrate that cells with a low content of polyQ or other aggregation-prone proteins can show a striking resilience with respect to polyQ toxicity and that genetic instability of repetitive DNA sequences may have played an important role in the evolutionary emergence and exclusion of polyQ expansion proteins in different organisms.

  19. Protofibrils, pores, fibrils, and neurodegeneration: separating the responsible protein aggregates from the innocent bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Byron; Lansbury, Peter T

    2003-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases), are characterized at autopsy by neuronal loss and protein aggregates that are typically fibrillar. A convergence of evidence strongly suggests that protein aggregation is neurotoxic and not a product of cell death. However, the identity of the neurotoxic aggregate and the mechanism by which it disables and eventually kills a neuron are unknown. Both biophysical studies aimed at elucidating the precise mechanism of in vitro aggregation and animal modeling studies support the emerging notion that an ordered prefibrillar oligomer, or protofibril, may be responsible for cell death and that the fibrillar form that is typically observed at autopsy may actually be neuroprotective. A subpopulation of protofibrils may function as pathogenic amyloid pores. An analogous mechanism may explain the neurotoxicity of the prion protein; recent data demonstrates that the disease-associated, infectious form of the prion protein differs from the neurotoxic species. This review focuses on recent experimental studies aimed at identification and characterization of the neurotoxic protein aggregates.

  20. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  1. Effect of dynamic high pressure homogenization on the aggregation state of soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerati-U-Rai, Maneephan; Corredig, Milena

    2009-05-13

    Although soy proteins are often employed as functional ingredients in oil-water emulsions, very little is known about the aggregation state of the proteins in solution and whether any changes occur to soy protein dispersions during homogenization. The effect of dynamic high pressure homogenization on the aggregation state of the proteins was investigated using microdifferential scanning calorimetry and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering. Soy protein isolates as well as glycinin and beta-conglycinin fractions were prepared from defatted soy flakes and redispersed in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The dispersions were then subjected to homogenization at two different pressures, 26 and 65 MPa. The results demonstrated that dynamic high pressure homogenization causes changes in the supramolecular structure of the soy proteins. Both beta-conglycinin and glycinin samples had an increased temperature of denaturation after homogenization. The chromatographic elution profile showed a reduction in the aggregate concentration with homogenization pressure for beta-conglycinin and an increase in the size of the soluble aggregates for glycinin and soy protein isolate.

  2. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells plays a central role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, on the EMT in RPE cells. In this study, EMT-associated formation of cellular aggregates was induced by co-stimulation of cultured ARPE-19 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (10 ng/ml and transforming growth factor (TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a potent activator of AMPK, significantly suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β2-induced cellular aggregate formation (p < 0.01. Dipyridamole almost completely reversed the suppressive effect of AICAR, whereas 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine restored aggregate formation by approximately 50%. AICAR suppressed the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin by TNF-α and TGF-β2. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly decreased by AICAR. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways, but not the Smad pathway, was inhibited by AICAR. These findings indicate that AICAR suppresses the EMT in RPE cells at least partially via activation of AMPK. AMPK is a potential target molecule for the prevention and treatment of PVR, so AICAR may be a promising candidate for PVR therapy.

  3. Adsorption, aggregation, and desorption of proteins on smectite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Krzysztof; Makowski, Marcin M; Golriz, Ali A; Kappl, Michael; Pigłowski, Jacek; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Kiersnowski, Adam

    2014-10-07

    We report on adsorption of lysozyme (LYS), ovalbumin (OVA), or ovotransferrin (OVT) on particles of a synthetic smectite (synthetic layered aluminosilicate). In our approach we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to study the protein-smectite systems in water solutions at pH ranging from 4 to 9. The AFM provided insights into the adhesion forces of protein molecules to the smectite particles, while the QCM measurements yielded information about the amounts of the adsorbed proteins, changes in their structure, and conditions of desorption. The binding of the proteins to the smectite surface was driven mainly by electrostatic interactions, and hence properties of the adsorbed layers were controlled by pH. At high pH values a change in orientation of the adsorbed LYS molecules and a collapse or desorption of OVA layer were observed. Lowering pH to the value ≤ 4 caused LYS to desorb and swelling the adsorbed OVA. The stability of OVT-smectite complexes was found the lowest. OVT revealed a tendency to desorb from the smectite surface at all investigated pH. The minimum desorption rate was observed at pH close to the isoelectric point of the protein, which suggests that nonspecific interactions between OVT and smectite particles significantly contribute to the stability of these complexes.

  4. Surface properties of heat-induced soluble soy protein aggregates of different molecular masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengxian; Xiong, Youling L; Qin, Fang; Jian, Huajun; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Suspensions (2% and 5%, w/v) of soy protein isolate (SPI) were heated at 80, 90, or 100 °C for different time periods to produce soluble aggregates of different molecular sizes to investigate the relationship between particle size and surface properties (emulsions and foams). Soluble aggregates generated in these model systems were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heat treatment increased surface hydrophobicity, induced SPI aggregation via hydrophobic interaction and disulfide bonds, and formed soluble aggregates of different sizes. Heating of 5% SPI always promoted large-size aggregate (LA; >1000 kDa) formation irrespective of temperature, whereas the aggregate size distribution in 2% SPI was temperature dependent: the LA fraction progressively rose with temperature (80→90→100 °C), corresponding to the attenuation of medium-size aggregates (MA; 670 to 1000 kDa) initially abundant at 80 °C. Heated SPI with abundant LA (>50%) promoted foam stability. LA also exhibited excellent emulsifying activity and stabilized emulsions by promoting the formation of small oil droplets covered with a thick interfacial protein layer. However, despite a similar influence on emulsion stability, MA enhanced foaming capacity but were less capable of stabilizing emulsions than LA. The functionality variation between heated SPI samples is clearly related to the distribution of aggregates that differ in molecular size and surface activity. The findings may encourage further research to develop functional SPI aggregates for various commercial applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Aggregated forms of bull seminal plasma proteins and their heparin-binding activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Ryšlavá, H.; Liberda, J.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 616-630 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : bull seminal plasma proteins * heparin-binding proteins * aggregated forms of proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  6. Revealing Linear Aggregates of Light Harvesting Antenna Proteins in Photosynthetic Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yufan; Zeng, Xiaohua; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Rajapaksha, Suneth; Kaplan, Samuel; Lu, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    How light energy is harvested in a natural photosynthetic membrane through energy transfer is closely related to the stoichiometry and arrangement of light harvesting antenna proteins in the membrane. The specific photosynthetic architecture facilitates a rapid and efficient energy transfer among the light harvesting proteins (LH2 and LH1) and to the reaction center. Here we report the identification of linear aggregates of light harvesting proteins, LH2, in the photosynthetic membranes under...

  7. Small surfactant-like peptides can drive soluble proteins into active aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bihong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactive protein inclusion bodies occur commonly in Escherichia coli (E. coli cells expressing heterologous proteins. Previously several independent groups have found that active protein aggregates or pseudo inclusion bodies can be induced by a fusion partner such as a cellulose binding domain from Clostridium cellulovorans (CBDclos when expressed in E. coli. More recently we further showed that a short amphipathic helical octadecapeptide 18A (EWLKAFYEKVLEKLKELF and a short beta structure peptide ELK16 (LELELKLKLELELKLK have a similar property. Results In this work, we explored a third type of peptides, surfactant-like peptides, for performing such a "pulling-down" function. One or more of three such peptides (L6KD, L6K2, DKL6 were fused to the carboxyl termini of model proteins including Aspergillus fumigatus amadoriase II (AMA, all three peptides were used, Bacillus subtilis lipase A (LipA, only L6KD was used, hereinafter the same, Bacillus pumilus xylosidase (XynB, and green fluorescent protein (GFP, and expressed in E. coli. All fusions were found to predominantly accumulate in the insoluble fractions, with specific activities ranging from 25% to 92% of the native counterparts. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM and confocal fluorescence microscopic analyses confirmed the formation of protein aggregates in the cell. Furthermore, binding assays with amyloid-specific dyes (thioflavin T and Cong red to the AMA-L6KD aggregate and the TEM analysis of the aggregate following digestion with protease K suggested that the AMA-L6KD aggregate may contain structures reminiscent of amyloids, including a fibril-like structure core. Conclusions This study shows that the surfactant-like peptides L6KD and it derivatives can act as a pull-down handler for converting soluble proteins into active aggregates, much like 18A and ELK16. These peptide-mediated protein aggregations might have important implications for protein aggregation in

  8. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: a common mechanism for aggregated proteins to initially attack membranes without needing aggregates [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Unexpectedly, despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging. The number and degree of the membrane attacks by aggregated proteins may

  9. Pulsed electric field (PEF)-induced aggregation between lysozyme, ovalbumin and ovotransferrin in multi-protein system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Yan, Wenxu

    2015-05-15

    The aggregation of multi-proteins is of great interest in food processing and a good understanding of the formation of aggregates during PEF processing is needed for the application of the process to pasteurize protein-based foods. The aggregates formation of a multi-protein system (containing ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme) was studied through turbidity, size exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE patterns for interaction studies and binding forces. Results from size exclusion chromatography indicated that there was no soluble aggregates formed during PEF processing. The existence of lysozyme was important to form insoluble aggregates in the chosen ovalbumin solution. The results of SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that lysozyme was prone to precipitate, and was relatively the higher component of aggregates. Citric acid could be effective in inhibiting lysozyme from interacting with other proteins during PEF processing. Blocking the free sulphydryl by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) did not affect aggregation inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclodextrins as Protective Agents of Protein Aggregation: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Valentina; Vecchio, Graziella

    2016-06-06

    Cyclodextrins are extensively used in different fields (e.g., catalysis, chromatography, pharma, supramolecular chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, and bioinorganic chemistry), and their applications have been widely reviewed. Their main application in the field of pharmaceutical is as a drug carrier. This review overviews, for the first time, the use of cyclodextrins and their derivatives as antiaggregant agents in a number of proteins (e.g., amyloid-β, insulin, recombinant human growth hormone, prion protein, transthyretin, and α-synuclein) and some multimeric enzymes. There are many diseases that are correlated to protein misfolding and amyloid formation processes affecting numerous organs and tissues. There are over 30 different amyloid proteins and a number of corresponding diseases. Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Treatment of these diseases is still a goal to reach, and many molecules are studied in this perspective. Cyclodextrins have also been studied, and they show great potential; as such, further studies could be very promising. This review aims to be a stimulus for the design of new cyclodextrin derivatives to obtain multifunctional systems with antiaggregant activity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Role of Aggregates of Therapeutic Protein Products in Immunogenicity: An Evaluation by Mathematical Modeling

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    Liusong Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic protein products (TPP have been widely used to treat a variety of human diseases, including cancer, hemophilia, and autoimmune diseases. However, TPP can induce unwanted immune responses that can impact both drug efficacy and patient safety. The presence of aggregates is of particular concern as they have been implicated in inducing both T cell-independent and T cell-dependent immune responses. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate several mechanisms through which aggregates of TPP could contribute to the development of immunogenicity. Modeling interactions between aggregates and B cell receptors demonstrated that aggregates are unlikely to induce T cell-independent immune responses by cross-linking B cell receptors because the amount of signal transducing complex that can form under physiologically relevant conditions is limited. We systematically evaluate the role of aggregates in inducing T cell-dependent immune responses using a recently developed multiscale mechanistic mathematical model. Our analysis indicates that aggregates could contribute to T cell-dependent immune response by inducing high affinity epitopes which may not be present in the nonaggregated TPP and/or by enhancing danger signals to break tolerance. In summary, our computational analysis is suggestive of novel insights into the mechanisms underlying aggregate-induced immunogenicity, which could be used to develop mitigation strategies.

  12. Heavy metals and metalloids as a cause for protein misfolding and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Markus J; Sharma, Sandeep K; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Jacobson, Therese; Christen, Philipp

    2014-02-25

    While the toxicity of metals and metalloids, like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and chromium, is undisputed, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. General consensus holds that proteins are the prime targets; heavy metals interfere with the physiological activity of specific, particularly susceptible proteins, either by forming a complex with functional side chain groups or by displacing essential metal ions in metalloproteins. Recent studies have revealed an additional mode of metal action targeted at proteins in a non-native state; certain heavy metals and metalloids have been found to inhibit the in vitro refolding of chemically denatured proteins, to interfere with protein folding in vivo and to cause aggregation of nascent proteins in living cells. Apparently, unfolded proteins with motile backbone and side chains are considerably more prone to engage in stable, pluridentate metal complexes than native proteins with their well-defined 3D structure. By interfering with the folding process, heavy metal ions and metalloids profoundly affect protein homeostasis and cell viability. This review describes how heavy metals impede protein folding and promote protein aggregation, how cells regulate quality control systems to protect themselves from metal toxicity and how metals might contribute to protein misfolding disorders.

  13. Inhibition of protein aggregation: supramolecular assemblies of arginine hold the key.

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    Utpal Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggregation of unfolded proteins occurs mainly through the exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Any mechanism of inhibition of this aggregation should explain the prevention of these hydrophobic interactions. Though arginine is prevalently used as an aggregation suppressor, its mechanism of action is not clearly understood. We propose a mechanism based on the hydrophobic interactions of arginine. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed arginine solution for its hydrotropic effect by pyrene solubility and the presence of hydrophobic environment by 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid fluorescence. Mass spectroscopic analyses show that arginine forms molecular clusters in the gas phase and the cluster composition is dependent on the solution conditions. Light scattering studies indicate that arginine exists as clusters in solution. In the presence of arginine, the reverse phase chromatographic elution profile of Alzheimer's amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta(1-42 peptide is modified. Changes in the hydrodynamic volume of Abeta(1-42 in the presence of arginine measured by size exclusion chromatography show that arginine binds to Abeta(1-42. Arginine increases the solubility of Abeta(1-42 peptide in aqueous medium. It decreases the aggregation of Abeta(1-42 as observed by atomic force microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experimental results we propose that molecular clusters of arginine in aqueous solutions display a hydrophobic surface by the alignment of its three methylene groups. The hydrophobic surfaces present on the proteins interact with the hydrophobic surface presented by the arginine clusters. The masking of hydrophobic surface inhibits protein-protein aggregation. This mechanism is also responsible for the hydrotropic effect of arginine on various compounds. It is also explained why other amino acids fail to inhibit the protein aggregation.

  14. Small molecule proteostasis regulators that reprogram the ER to reduce extracellular protein aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Lars; Cooley, Christina B; Chen, John J; Paxman, Ryan J; Gallagher, Ciara M; Madoux, Franck; Genereux, Joseph C; Dobbs, Wesley; Garza, Dan; Spicer, Timothy P; Scampavia, Louis; Brown, Steven J; Rosen, Hugh; Powers, Evan T; Walter, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Wiseman, R Luke; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2016-01-01

    Imbalances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis are associated with etiologically-diverse degenerative diseases linked to excessive extracellular protein misfolding and aggregation. Reprogramming of the ER proteostasis environment through genetic activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)-associated transcription factor ATF6 attenuates secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we employed a screening approach that included complementary arm-specific UPR reporters and medium-throughput transcriptional profiling to identify non-toxic small molecules that phenocopy the ATF6-mediated reprogramming of the ER proteostasis environment. The ER reprogramming afforded by our molecules requires activation of endogenous ATF6 and occurs independent of global ER stress. Furthermore, our molecules phenocopy the ability of genetic ATF6 activation to selectively reduce secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. These results show that small molecule-dependent ER reprogramming, achieved through preferential activation of the ATF6 transcriptional program, is a promising strategy to ameliorate imbalances in ER function associated with degenerative protein aggregation diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15550.001 PMID:27435961

  15. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-β peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  16. The inhibition of IGF-1 signaling promotes proteostasis by enhancing protein aggregation and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Lorna; Ben-Gedalya, Tziona; Reuveni, Hadas; Cohen, Ehud

    2016-04-01

    The discovery that the alteration of aging by reducing the activity of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) cascade protects nematodes and mice from neurodegeneration-linked, toxic protein aggregation (proteotoxicity) raises the prospect that IIS inhibitors bear therapeutic potential to counter neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that NT219, a highly efficient IGF-1 signaling inhibitor, protects model worms from the aggregation of amyloid β peptide and polyglutamine peptides that are linked to the manifestation of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, respectively. Here, we employed cultured cell systems to investigate whether NT219 promotes protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in mammalian cells and to explore its underlying mechanisms. We found that NT219 enhances the aggregation of misfolded prion protein and promotes its deposition in quality control compartments known as "aggresomes." NT219 also elevates the levels of certain molecular chaperones but, surprisingly, reduces proteasome activity and impairs autophagy. Our findings show that IGF-1 signaling inhibitors in general and NT219 in particular can promote proteostasis in mammalian cells by hyperaggregating hazardous proteins, thereby bearing the potential to postpone the onset and slow the progression of neurodegenerative illnesses in the elderly.-Moll, L., Ben-Gedalya, T., Reuveni, H., Cohen, E. The inhibition of IGF-1 signaling promotes proteostasis by enhancing protein aggregation and deposition. © FASEB.

  17. Conformational Analysis of Misfolded Protein Aggregation by FRET and Live-Cell Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kitamura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular homeostasis is maintained by several types of protein machinery, including molecular chaperones and proteolysis systems. Dysregulation of the proteome disrupts homeostasis in cells, tissues, and the organism as a whole, and has been hypothesized to cause neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Huntington’s disease (HD. A hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders is formation of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in neurons, suggesting that the aggregation process of misfolded proteins changes during disease progression. Hence, high-throughput determination of soluble oligomers during the aggregation process, as well as the conformation of sequestered proteins in inclusion bodies, is essential for elucidation of physiological regulation mechanism and drug discovery in this field. To elucidate the interaction, accumulation, and conformation of aggregation-prone proteins, in situ spectroscopic imaging techniques, such as Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC have been employed. Here, we summarize recent reports in which these techniques were applied to the analysis of aggregation-prone proteins (in particular their dimerization, interactions, and conformational changes, and describe several fluorescent indicators used for real-time observation of physiological states related to proteostasis.

  18. Dynamics of protein aggregation and oligomer formation governed by secondary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T., E-mail: tctm3@cam.ac.uk; Lazell, Hamish W.; Arosio, Paolo; Knowles, Tuomas P. J., E-mail: tpjk2@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-07

    The formation of aggregates in many protein systems can be significantly accelerated by secondary nucleation, a process where existing assemblies catalyse the nucleation of new species. In particular, secondary nucleation has emerged as a central process controlling the proliferation of many filamentous protein structures, including molecular species related to diseases such as sickle cell anemia and a range of neurodegenerative conditions. Increasing evidence suggests that the physical size of protein filaments plays a key role in determining their potential for deleterious interactions with living cells, with smaller aggregates of misfolded proteins, oligomers, being particularly toxic. It is thus crucial to progress towards an understanding of the factors that control the sizes of protein aggregates. However, the influence of secondary nucleation on the time evolution of aggregate size distributions has been challenging to quantify. This difficulty originates in large part from the fact that secondary nucleation couples the dynamics of species distant in size space. Here, we approach this problem by presenting an analytical treatment of the master equation describing the growth kinetics of linear protein structures proliferating through secondary nucleation and provide closed-form expressions for the temporal evolution of the resulting aggregate size distribution. We show how the availability of analytical solutions for the full filament distribution allows us to identify the key physical parameters that control the sizes of growing protein filaments. Furthermore, we use these results to probe the dynamics of the populations of small oligomeric species as they are formed through secondary nucleation and discuss the implications of our work for understanding the factors that promote or curtail the production of these species with a potentially high deleterious biological activity.

  19. A protein interaction mechanism for suppressing the mechanosensitive Piezo channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingxin; Chi, Shaopeng; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Qiancheng; Xiao, Bailong

    2017-11-27

    Piezo proteins are bona fide mammalian mechanotransduction channels for various cell types including endothelial cells. The mouse Piezo1 of 2547 residues forms a three-bladed, propeller-like homo-trimer comprising a central pore-module and three propeller-structures that might serve as mechanotransduction-modules. However, the mechanogating and regulation of Piezo channels remain unclear. Here we identify the sarcoplasmic /endoplasmic-reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase (SERCA), including the widely expressed SERCA2, as Piezo interacting proteins. SERCA2 strategically suppresses Piezo1 via acting on a 14-residue-constituted intracellular linker connecting the pore-module and mechanotransduction-module. Mutating the linker impairs mechanogating and SERCA2-mediated modulation of Piezo1. Furthermore, the synthetic linker-peptide disrupts the modulatory effects of SERCA2, demonstrating the key role of the linker in mechanogating and regulation. Importantly, the SERCA2-mediated regulation affects Piezo1-dependent migration of endothelial cells. Collectively, we identify SERCA-mediated regulation of Piezos and the functional significance of the linker, providing important insights into the mechanogating and regulation mechanisms of Piezo channels.

  20. BAG3 Directly Interacts with Mutated alphaB-Crystallin to Suppress Its Aggregation and Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hishiya, Akinori; Salman, Mortada Najem; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.; Takayama, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    A homozygous disruption or genetic mutation of the bag3 gene causes progressive myofibrillar myopathy in mouse and human skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder while mutations in the small heat shock protein aB-crystallin gene ( CRYAB) are reported to be responsible for myofibrillar myopathy. Here, we

  1. Lysosomal membrane permeability stimulates protein aggregate formation in neurons of a lysosomal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micsenyi, Matthew C; Sikora, Jakub; Stephney, Gloria; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Walkley, Steven U

    2013-06-26

    Protein aggregates are a common pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases and several lysosomal diseases, but it is currently unclear what aggregates represent for pathogenesis. Here we report the accumulation of intraneuronal aggregates containing the macroautophagy adapter proteins p62 and NBR1 in the neurodegenerative lysosomal disease late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease). CLN2 disease is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase I, which results in aberrant lysosomal storage of catabolites, including the subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS). In an effort to define the role of aggregates in CLN2, we evaluated p62 and NBR1 accumulation in the CNS of Cln2(-/-) mice. Although increases in p62 and NBR1 often suggest compromised degradative mechanisms, we found normal ubiquitin-proteasome system function and only modest inefficiency in macroautophagy late in disease. Importantly, we identified that SCMAS colocalizes with p62 in extra-lysosomal aggregates in Cln2(-/-) neurons in vivo. This finding is consistent with SCMAS being released from lysosomes, an event known as lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). We predicted that LMP and storage release from lysosomes results in the sequestration of this material as cytosolic aggregates by p62 and NBR1. Notably, LMP induction in primary neuronal cultures generates p62-positive aggregates and promotes p62 localization to lysosomal membranes, supporting our in vivo findings. We conclude that LMP is a previously unrecognized pathogenic event in CLN2 disease that stimulates cytosolic aggregate formation. Furthermore, we offer a novel role for p62 in response to LMP that may be relevant for other diseases exhibiting p62 accumulation.

  2. The missing piece in the puzzle: Prediction of aggregation via the protein-protein interaction parameter A∗2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Ellen; Schroeder, Rudolf; Brezesinski, Gerald; Friess, Wolfgang

    2018-07-01

    The tendency of protein pharmaceuticals to form aggregates is a major challenge during formulation development, as aggregation affects quality and safety of the product. In particular, the formation of large native-like particles in the context of liquid-air interfacial stress is a well-known but not fully understood problem. Focusing on the two most fundamental criteria of protein formulation affecting protein-protein interaction, the impact of pH and ionic strength on the interaction parameter A ∗ 2 and its link to aggregation upon mechanical stress was investigated. A ∗ 2 of two monoclonal antibodies (mABs) and a polyclonal IgG was determined using dynamic light scattering and was correlated to the number of particles formed upon shaking in vials analyzed by visual inspection, turbidity analysis, light obscuration and micro-flow imaging. A good correlation between aggregation induced by interfacial stress and formulation pH was given. It could be shown that A ∗ 2 was highest for mAB 1 and lowest for IgG, what was in good accordance with the number of particles formed. Shaking of IgG resulted in overall higher numbers of particles compared to the two mABs. A ∗ 2 decreased and particle numbers increased with increasing pH. Different to pH, ionic strength only slightly affected A ∗ 2 . Nevertheless, at high ionic (100 mM) strength the samples exhibited more pronounced particle formation, particularly of large particles >25 µm, which was most pronounced at high pH. Protein solutions were identified to form continuous films with an inhomogeneous protein distribution at the liquid-air interface. These areas of agglomerated, native-like protein material can be transferred into the bulk solution by compression-decompression of the interface. Whether or not those clusters lead to the appearance of large protein aggregates or fall apart depends on the attractive or repulsive forces between protein molecules. Thus, protein aggregation due to interfacial

  3. Influence of Pea Protein Aggregates on the Structure and Stability of Pea Protein/Soybean Polysaccharide Complex Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS, and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  4. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-03-20

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  5. Active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide ELK16 in Escherichia coli

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    Zhou Bihong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs could be biologically active. In particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, D-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active IBs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP1, or the human β-amyloid peptide Aβ42(F19D. As active IBs may have many attractive advantages in enzyme production and industrial applications, it is of considerable interest to explore them further. Results In this paper, we report that an ionic self-assembling peptide ELK16 (LELELKLK2 was able to effectively induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli when attached to the carboxyl termini of four model proteins including lipase A, amadoriase II, β-xylosidase, and green fluorescent protein. These aggregates had a general appearance similar to the usually reported cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs under transmission electron microscopy or fluorescence confocal microscopy. Except for lipase A-ELK16 fusion, the three other fusion protein aggregates retained comparable specific activities with the native counterparts. Conformational analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of newly formed antiparallel beta-sheet structures in these ELK16 peptide-induced inclusion bodies, which is consistent with the reported assembly of the ELK16 peptide. Conclusions This has been the first report where a terminally attached self-assembling β peptide ELK16 can promote the formation of active inclusion bodies or active protein aggregates in E. coli. It has the potential to render E. coli and other recombinant hosts more efficient as microbial cell factories for protein production. Our observation might

  6. Formation of nucleoplasmic protein aggregates impairs nuclear function in response to SiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Mikecz, Anna von

    2005-01-01

    Despite of their exponentially growing use, little is known about cell biological effects of nanoparticles. Here, we report uptake of silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles to the cell nucleus where they induce aberrant clusters of topoisomerase I (topo I) in the nucleoplasm that additionally contain signature proteins of nuclear domains, and protein aggregation such as ubiquitin, proteasomes, cellular glutamine repeat (polyQ) proteins, and huntingtin. Formation of intranuclear protein aggregates (1) inhibits replication, transcription, and cell proliferation; (2) does not significantly alter proteasomal activity or cell viability; and (3) is reversible by Congo red and trehalose. Since SiO 2 nanoparticles trigger a subnuclear pathology resembling the one occurring in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders, we suggest that integrity of the functional architecture of the cell nucleus should be used as a read out for cytotoxicity and considered in the development of safe nanotechnology

  7. Effect of electrostatics on aggregation of prion protein Sup35 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo, Alexander M; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembly of misfolded proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is a fundamental property of a wide range of proteins and peptides. This property is also linked with the development of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Environmental conditions modulate the misfolding and aggregation processes. We used a peptide, CGNNQQNY, from yeast prion protein Sup35, as a model system to address effects of environmental conditions on aggregate formation. The GNNQQNY peptide self-assembles in fibrils with structural features that are similar to amyloidogenic proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay were employed to follow the aggregation process at various pHs and ionic strengths. We also used single molecule AFM force spectroscopy to probe interactions between the peptides under various conditions. The ThT fluorescence data showed that the peptide aggregates fast at pH values approaching the peptide isoelectric point (pI = 5.3) and the kinetics is 10 times slower at acidic pH (pH 2.0), suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to the peptide self-assembly into aggregates. This hypothesis was tested by experiments performed at low (11 mM) and high (150 mM) ionic strengths. Indeed, the aggregation lag time measured at pH 2 at low ionic strength (11 mM) is 195 h, whereas the lag time decreases ∼5 times when the ionic strength is increased to 150 mM. At conditions close to the pI value, pH 5.6, the aggregation lag time is 12 ± 6 h under low ionic strength, and there is minimal change to the lag time at 150 mM NaCl. The ionic strength also influences the morphology of aggregates visualized with AFM. In pH 2.0 and at high ionic strength, the aggregates are twofold taller than those formed at low ionic strength. In parallel, AFM force spectroscopy studies revealed minimal contribution of electrostatics to dissociation of transient peptide dimers. (paper)

  8. Sensitive electrochemical detection of native and aggregated alpha-synuclein protein involved in Parkinson's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masařík, Michal; Stobiecka, A.; Kizek, René; Jelen, František; Pechan, Zdeněk; Hoyer, W.; Jovin, T.; Subramaniam, V.; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, 13-14 (2004), s. 1172-1181 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemistry of proteins * alpha-synuclein aggregation * adsorptive transfer stripping Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2004

  9. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6 Protein Aggregates Cause Deficits in Motor Learning and Cerebellar Plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, Melanie D; Krause, Martin; Boele, Henk-Jan; Kruse, Wolfgang; Pollok, Stefan; Kuner, Thomas; Dalkara, Deniz; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Herlitze, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is linked to poly-glutamine (polyQ) within the C terminus (CT) of the pore-forming subunits of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels (Cav2.1) and is characterized by CT protein aggregates found in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). One hypothesis regarding SCA6 disease is that

  10. Photodamaging mechanisms of the eye structure: the aggregates appearance at UV-illumination of lens proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El'chaninov, V.V.; Fedorovich, I.B.

    1989-01-01

    UV-light injury of individual crystallines (water soluble proteins of the cattle eye crystalline lens) were studied by SDS PSSG technique. Photodamage resulted in olygomer formation. The appearance of high molecular aggregates with the molecular mass as large as 10 5 D were seen in all fractions of the crystalline

  11. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, K.; Meister, M.; Dugbartey, G. J.; Zijlstra, M. P.; Vinet, J.; Brunt, E. R. P.; van Leeuwen, F. W.; Rueb, U.; Kampinga, H. H.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2012-01-01

    K. Seidel, M. Meister, G. J. Dugbartey, M. P. Zijlstra, J. Vinet, E. R. P. Brunt, F. W. van Leeuwen, U. Rub, H. H. Kampinga and W. F. A. den Dunnen (2012) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology38, 548558 Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type

  12. Altering protein surface charge with chemical modification modulates protein–gold nanoparticle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, Jennifer A.; Bryant, Erika L.; Kadali, Shyam B.; Wong, Michael S.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Calabretta, Michelle K.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can interact with a wide range of molecules including proteins. Whereas significant attention has focused on modifying the nanoparticle surface to regulate protein–AuNP assembly or influence the formation of the protein “corona,” modification of the protein surface as a mechanism to modulate protein–AuNP interaction has been less explored. Here, we examine this possibility utilizing three small globular proteins—lysozyme with high isoelectric point (pI) and established interactions with AuNP; α-lactalbumin with similar tertiary fold to lysozyme but low pI; and myoglobin with a different globular fold and an intermediate pI. We first chemically modified these proteins to alter their charged surface functionalities, and thereby shift protein pI, and then applied multiple methods to assess protein–AuNP assembly. At pH values lower than the anticipated pI of the modified protein, AuNP exposure elicits changes in the optical absorbance of the protein–NP solutions and other properties due to aggregate formation. Above the expected pI, however, protein–AuNP interaction is minimal, and both components remain isolated, presumably because both species are negatively charged. These data demonstrate that protein modification provides a powerful tool for modulating whether nanoparticle–protein interactions result in material aggregation. The results also underscore that naturally occurring protein modifications found in vivo may be critical in defining nanoparticle–protein corona compositions.

  13. Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters RNA binding proteins and impairs RNA granules formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsyama@restaff.chiba-u.jp

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters ALS-associated RNA-binding proteins (FUS wt, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2). • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters SMN1 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of speckles in the nucleus. • Overproduced ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of processing-bodies (PBs). - Abstract: Protein aggregate/inclusion is one of hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS/TLS, one of causative genes for familial ALS, encodes a multifunctional DNA/RNA binding protein predominantly localized in the nucleus. C-terminal mutations in FUS/TLS cause the retention and the inclusion of FUS/TLS mutants in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we examined the effects of ALS-linked FUS mutants on ALS-associated RNA binding proteins and RNA granules. FUS C-terminal mutants were diffusely mislocalized in the cytoplasm as small granules in transiently transfected SH-SY5Y cells, whereas large aggregates were spontaneously formed in ∼10% of those cells. hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, and SMN1 as well as FUS wild type were assembled into stress granules under stress conditions, and these were also recruited to FUS mutant-derived spontaneous aggregates in the cytoplasm. These aggregates stalled poly(A) mRNAs and sequestered SMN1 in the detergent insoluble fraction, which also reduced the number of nuclear oligo(dT)-positive foci (speckles) in FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay. In addition, the number of P-bodies was decreased in cells harboring cytoplasmic granules of FUS P525L. These findings raise the possibility that ALS-linked C-terminal FUS mutants could sequester a variety of RNA binding proteins and mRNAs in the cytoplasmic aggregates, which could disrupt various aspects of RNA equilibrium and biogenesis.

  14. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-05-27

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and Aβ-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demonstrated that vitamin k3 significantly inhibits fibril formation as well as the inhibitory effect is dose dependent manner. Our experimental studies inferred that vitamin k3 exert its neuro protective effect against amyloid induced cytotoxicity through concerted pathway, modifying the aggregation formation towards formation of nontoxic aggregates. Molecular docking demonstrated that vitamin k3 mediated inhibition of HEWL and Aβ-42 fibrillogenesis may be initiated by interacting with proteolytic resistant and aggregation prone regions respectively. This work would provide an insight into the mechanism of protein aggregation inhibition by vitamin k3; pave the way for discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effect against amyloid formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. The effect of transient conditions on synovial fluid protein aggregation lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myant, Connor William; Cann, Philippa

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanisms in artificial articular joints and the way in which these mechanisms determine implant performance. The authors propose that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins within the contact inlet region. A direct relationship between contact film thickness and size of the protein aggregation within the inlet region has been observed. In this paper the latest experimental observations of the protein aggregation mechanism are presented for conditions which more closely mimic joint kinematics and loading. Lubricant films were measured for a series of bovine calf serum solutions for CoCrMo femoral component sliding against a glass disc. An optical interferometric apparatus was employed to study the effects of transient motion on lubricant film formation. Central film thickness was measured as a function of time for a series of transient entrainment conditions; start-up motion, steady-state and non-steady-state uni-directional sliding, and bi-directional sliding. The size of the inlet aggregations was found to be dependent upon the type of transient condition. Thick protective protein films were observed to build up within the main contact region for all uni-directional tests. In contrast the inlet aggregation was not observed for bi-directional tests. Contact film thickness and wear was found to be directly proportional to the presence of the inlet protein phase. The inlet phase and contact films were found to be fragile when disrupted by surface scratches or subjected to reversal of the sliding direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregability : An in vivo study in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Graaff, R; de Hoog, E; Veeger, NJGM; Panday, G; Boonstra, PW; van Oeveren, W

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation is known to be affected by a number of factors including the concentration of various plasma proteins. This study was performed to examine the in vivo effect of hemodilution of plasma proteins on erythrocyte aggregation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

  17. Combined Dynamic Light Scattering and Raman Spectroscopy Approach for Characterizing the Aggregation of Therapeutic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Neil Lewis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the physicochemical properties of protein therapeutics and their aggregates is critical for developing formulations that enhance product efficacy, stability, safety and manufacturability. Analytical challenges are compounded for materials: (1 that are formulated at high concentration, (2 that are formulated with a variety of excipients, and (3 that are available only in small volumes. In this article, a new instrument is described that measures protein secondary and tertiary structure, as well as molecular size, over a range of concentrations and formulation conditions of low volume samples. Specifically, characterization of colloidal and conformational stability is obtained through a combination of two well-established analytical techniques: dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. As the data for these two analytical modalities are collected on the same sample at the same time, the technique enables direct correlation between them, in addition to the more straightforward benefit of minimizing sample usage by providing multiple analytical measurements on the same aliquot non-destructively. The ability to differentiate between unfolding and aggregation that the combination of these techniques provides enables insights into underlying protein aggregation mechanisms. The article will report on mechanistic insights for aggregation that have been obtained from the application of this technique to the characterization of lysozyme, which was evaluated as a function of concentration and pH.

  18. Heat-shock protein dysregulation is associated with functional and pathological TDP-43 aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Hou, Shin-Chen; Way, Tzong-Der; Wong, Chi-Huey; Wang, I.-Fan

    2013-11-01

    Conformational disorders are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major contributors to neurodegenerative disease; however, ROS that affect the structural changes in misfolded disease proteins have yet to be well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate drives the assembly of TDP-43-positive stress granules and soluble toxic TDP-43 oligomers in response to a ROS insult via a disulfide crosslinking-independent mechanism. Notably, ROS-induced TDP-43 protein assembly correlates with the dynamics of certain TDP-43-associated chaperones. The heat-shock protein (HSP)-90 inhibitor 17-AAG prevents ROS-induced TDP-43 aggregation, alters the type of TDP-43 multimers and reduces the severity of pathological TDP-43 inclusions. In summary, our study suggests that a common mechanism could be involved in the pathogenesis of conformational diseases that result from HSP dysregulation.

  19. Role of the disaggregase ClpB in processing of proteins aggregated as inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zblewska, Kamila; Krajewska, Joanna; Zolkiewski, Michal; Kędzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina

    2014-08-01

    Overproduction of heterologous proteins in bacterial systems often results in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs), which is a major impediment in biochemical research and biotechnology. In principle, the activity of molecular chaperones could be employed to gain control over the IB formation and to improve the recombinant protein yields, but the potential of each of the major bacterial chaperones (DnaK/J, GroEL/ES, and ClpB) to process IBs has not been fully established yet. We investigated the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) of two aggregation-prone proteins, VP1LAC and VP1GFP, overproduced in Escherichiacoli in the presence and absence of the chaperone ClpB. We found that both ClpB isoforms, ClpB95 and ClpB80 accumulated in E. coli cells during the production of IBs. The amount of IB proteins increased in the absence of ClpB. ClpB supported the resolubilization and reactivation of the aggregated VP1LAC and VP1GFP in E. coli cells. The IB disaggregation was optimal in the presence of both ClpB95 and ClpB80. Our results indicate an essential role of ClpB in controlling protein aggregation and inclusion body formation in bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Secreted Immunomodulatory Proteins of Staphylococcus aureus Activate Platelets and Induce Platelet Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsker, Ulrike; Palankar, Raghavendra; Wesche, Jan; Kohler, Thomas P; Prucha, Josephine; Burchhardt, Gerhard; Rohde, Manfred; Schmidt, Frank; Bröker, Barbara M; Mamat, Uwe; Pané-Farré, Jan; Graf, Anica; Ebner, Patrick; Greinacher, Andreas; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2018-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins. Eap and the chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS), the formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitory protein (FLIPr) and the major autolysin Atl induced P-selectin expression in washed platelets and platelet-rich plasma. Similarly, AtlA, CHIPS and Eap induced platelet aggregation in whole blood. Fluorescence microscopy illustrated that P-selectin expression is associated with calcium mobilization and re-organization of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Characterization of the functionally active domains of the major autolysin AtlA and Eap indicates that the amidase domain of Atl and the tandem repeats 3 and 4 of Eap are crucial for platelet activation. These results provide new insights in S. aureus protein interactions with platelets and identify secreted proteins as potential treatment targets in case of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infection. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  1. A dynamic study of protein secretion and aggregation in the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Sannino, Sara; Mazza, Davide; Fagioli, Claudio; Vitale, Milena; Yoboue, Edgar Djaha; Sitia, Roberto; Anelli, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC) is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC.

  2. A dynamic study of protein secretion and aggregation in the secretory pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Mossuto

    Full Text Available Precise coordination of protein biogenesis, traffic and homeostasis within the early secretory compartment (ESC is key for cell physiology. As a consequence, disturbances in these processes underlie many genetic and chronic diseases. Dynamic imaging methods are needed to follow the fate of cargo proteins and their interactions with resident enzymes and folding assistants. Here we applied the Halotag labelling system to study the behavior of proteins with different fates and roles in ESC: a chaperone, an ERAD substrate and an aggregation-prone molecule. Exploiting the Halo property of binding covalently ligands labelled with different fluorochromes, we developed and performed non-radioactive pulse and chase assays to follow sequential waves of proteins in ESC, discriminating between young and old molecules at the single cell level. In this way, we could monitor secretion and degradation of ER proteins in living cells. We can also follow the biogenesis, growth, accumulation and movements of protein aggregates in the ESC. Our data show that protein deposits within ESC grow by sequential apposition of molecules up to a given size, after which novel seeds are detected. The possibility of using ligands with distinct optical and physical properties offers a novel possibility to dynamically follow the fate of proteins in the ESC.

  3. Protein Folding and Aggregation into Amyloid: The Interference by Natural Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Stefani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid aggregation is a hallmark of several degenerative diseases affecting the brain or peripheral tissues, whose intermediates (oligomers, protofibrils and final mature fibrils display different toxicity. Consequently, compounds counteracting amyloid aggregation have been investigated for their ability (i to stabilize toxic amyloid precursors; (ii to prevent the growth of toxic oligomers or speed that of fibrils; (iii to inhibit fibril growth and deposition; (iv to disassemble preformed fibrils; and (v to favor amyloid clearance. Natural phenols, a wide panel of plant molecules, are one of the most actively investigated categories of potential amyloid inhibitors. They are considered responsible for the beneficial effects of several traditional diets being present in green tea, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, spices, berries and aromatic herbs. Accordingly, it has been proposed that some natural phenols could be exploited to prevent and to treat amyloid diseases, and recent studies have provided significant information on their ability to inhibit peptide/protein aggregation in various ways and to stimulate cell defenses, leading to identify shared or specific mechanisms. In the first part of this review, we will overview the significance and mechanisms of amyloid aggregation and aggregate toxicity; then, we will summarize the recent achievements on protection against amyloid diseases by many natural phenols.

  4. Protein Aggregates and Novel Presenilin Gene Variants in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Davide; Li, Airong; Tesco, Giuseppina; McKay, Kenneth M.; Moore, John; Raygor, Kunal; Rota, Marcello; Gwathmey, Judith K; Dec, G William; Aretz, Thomas; Leri, Annarosa; Semigran, Marc J; Anversa, Piero; Macgillivray, Thomas E; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Monte, Federica del

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating condition resulting in severe disability and death. In a subset of cases, clustered as Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy (iDCM), the origin of HF is unknown. In the brain of patients with dementia, proteinaceous aggregates and abnormal oligomeric assemblies of β-amyloid impair cell function and lead to cell death. Methods and Results We have similarly characterized fibrillar and oligomeric assemblies in the hearts of iDCM patients pointing to abnormal protein aggregation as a determinant of iDCM. We also showed that oligomers alter myocyte Ca2+ homeostasis. Additionally, we have identified two new sequence variants in the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene promoter leading to reduced gene and protein expression. We also show that presenilin-1 co-immunoprecipitates with SERCA2a. Conclusions Based on these findings we propose that two mechanisms may link protein aggregation and cardiac function: oligomer-induced changes on Ca2+ handling and a direct effect of PSEN1 sequence variants on EC-coupling protein function. PMID:20194882

  5. Protein aggregates and novel presenilin gene variants in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Davide; Li, Airong; Tesco, Giuseppina; McKay, Kenneth M; Moore, John; Raygor, Kunal; Rota, Marcello; Gwathmey, Judith K; Dec, G William; Aretz, Thomas; Leri, Annarosa; Semigran, Marc J; Anversa, Piero; Macgillivray, Thomas E; Tanzi, Rudolph E; del Monte, Federica

    2010-03-16

    Heart failure is a debilitating condition resulting in severe disability and death. In a subset of cases, clustered as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (iDCM), the origin of heart failure is unknown. In the brain of patients with dementia, proteinaceous aggregates and abnormal oligomeric assemblies of beta-amyloid impair cell function and lead to cell death. We have similarly characterized fibrillar and oligomeric assemblies in the hearts of iDCM patients, pointing to abnormal protein aggregation as a determinant of iDCM. We also showed that oligomers alter myocyte Ca(2+) homeostasis. Additionally, we have identified 2 new sequence variants in the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene promoter leading to reduced gene and protein expression. We also show that presenilin-1 coimmunoprecipitates with SERCA2a. On the basis of these findings, we propose that 2 mechanisms may link protein aggregation and cardiac function: oligomer-induced changes on Ca(2+) handling and a direct effect of PSEN1 sequence variants on excitation-contraction coupling protein function.

  6. Cellular protein quality control and the evolution of aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Meister, M; Dugbartey, G J; Zijlstra, M P; Vinet, J; Brunt, E R P; van Leeuwen, F W; Rüb, U; Kampinga, H H; den Dunnen, W F A

    2012-10-01

    A characteristic of polyglutamine diseases is the increased propensity of disease proteins to aggregate, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to the underlying neurodegeneration. Healthy cells contain mechanisms for handling protein damage, the protein quality control, which must be impaired or inefficient to permit proteotoxicity under pathological conditions. We used a quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of the pons of eight patients with the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. We employed the anti-polyglutamine antibody 1C2, antibodies against p62 that is involved in delivering ubiquitinated protein aggregates to autophagosomes, antibodies against the chaperones HSPA1A and DNAJB1 and the proteasomal stress marker UBB⁺¹. The 1C2 antibody stained neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs), diffuse nuclear staining (DNS), granular cytoplasmic staining (GCS) and combinations, with reproducible distribution. P62 always co-localized with 1C2 in NNI. DNS and GCS co-stained with a lower frequency. UBB⁺¹ was present in a subset of neurones with NNI. A subset of UBB⁺¹-containing neurones displayed increased levels of HSPA1A, while DNAJB1 was sequestered into the NNI. Based on our results, we propose a model for the aggregation-associated pathology of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3: GCS and DNS aggregation likely represents early stages of pathology, which progresses towards formation of p62-positive NNI. A fraction of NNI exhibits UBB⁺¹ staining, implying proteasomal overload at a later stage. Subsequently, the stress-inducible HSPA1A is elevated while DNAJB1 is recruited into NNIs. This indicates that the stress response is only induced late when all endogenous protein quality control systems have failed. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  7. Suppression of matrix protein synthesis in endothelial cells by herpes simplex virus is not dependent on viral protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefalides, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of matrix proteins by human endothelial cells (EC) in vitro was studied before and at various times after infection with Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). Monolayers of EC were either mock-infected or infected with virus for 1 hr at a multiplicity infection (MOI) of 5 to 20 at 37 0 C. Control and infected cultures were pulse-labeled for 1 or 2 hrs with either [ 14 C]proline or [ 35 S]methionine. Synthesis of labeled matrix proteins was determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Suppression of synthesis of fibronectin, Type IV collagen and thrombospondin began as early as 2 hrs and became almost complete by 10 hrs post-infection. The degree of suppression varied with the protein and the virus dose. Suppression of Type IV collagen occurred first followed by that of fibronectin and then thrombospondin. Infection of EC with UV irradiated HSV-1 or HSV-2 resulted in suppression of host-cell protein synthesis as well as viral protein synthesis. Infection with intact virus in the presence of actinomycin-D resulted in suppression of both host-cell and viral protein synthesis. The data indicate that infection of EC with HSV leads to suppression of matrix protein synthesis which does not depend on viral protein synthesis

  8. Electrostatics promotes molecular crowding and selects the aggregation pathway in fibril-forming protein solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raccosta, S.; Martorana, V.; Manno, M.; Blanco, M.; Roberts, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of intermolecular interaction in fibril-forming protein solutions and its relation with molecular conformation are crucial aspects for the control and inhibition of amyloid structures. Here, we study the fibril formation and the protein-protein interactions for two proteins at acidic ph, lysozyme and α-chymotrypsinogen. By using light scattering experiments and the Kirkwood-Buff integral approach, we show how concentration fluctuations are damped even at moderate protein concentrations by the dominant long-ranged electrostatic repulsion, which determines an effective crowded environment. In denaturing conditions, electrostatic repulsion keeps the monomeric solution in a thermodynamically metastable state, which is escaped through kinetically populated conformational sub-states. This explains how electrostatics acts as a gatekeeper in selecting a specific aggregation pathway.

  9. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez Alam; Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi; Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi; Ravi Kant Rajpoot; Mohd Rehan Ajmal; Masihuz Zaman; Rizwan Hasan Khan

    2016-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer?s, Parkinson?s and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and A?-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demons...

  10. Aggregation of polyQ proteins is increased upon yeast aging and affected by Sir2 and Hsf1: novel quantitative biochemical and microscopic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Cohen

    Full Text Available Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates in distinct neuronal cells that eventually die. In Huntington's disease, the protein huntingtin forms aggregates, and the age of disease onset is inversely correlated to the length of the protein's poly-glutamine tract. Using quantitative assays to estimate microscopically and capture biochemically protein aggregates, here we study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aging-related aggregation of GFP-tagged, huntingtin-derived proteins with different polyQ lengths. We find that the short 25Q protein never aggregates whereas the long 103Q version always aggregates. However, the mid-size 47Q protein is soluble in young logarithmically growing yeast but aggregates as the yeast cells enter the stationary phase and age, allowing us to plot an "aggregation timeline". This aging-dependent aggregation was associated with increased cytotoxicity. We also show that two aging-related genes, SIR2 and HSF1, affect aggregation of the polyQ proteins. In Δsir2 strain the aging-dependent aggregation of the 47Q protein is aggravated, while overexpression of the transcription factor Hsf1 attenuates aggregation. Thus, the mid-size 47Q protein and our quantitative aggregation assays provide valuable tools to unravel the roles of genes and environmental conditions that affect aging-related aggregation.

  11. Maillard-reaction-induced modification and aggregation of proteins and hardening of texture in protein bar model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Guo, Mufan; Liu, Dasong; Liu, Xiaoming; Labuza, Teodore P

    2013-03-01

    The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the progress of the Maillard reaction in model systems of high-protein nutritional bars containing reducing sugars, and to illustrate the influences of the Maillard reaction on the modification and aggregation of proteins and the hardening of bar matrices during storage. The progress of the Maillard reaction, glycation, and aggregation of proteins, and textural changes in bar matrices were investigated during storage at 25, 35, and 45 °C. The initial development of the Maillard reaction caused little changes in hardness; however, further storage resulted in dramatic modification of protein with formation of high-molecular-weight polymers, resulting in the hardening in texture. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula minimized the changes in texture. The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. Maillard reaction is one of the mechanisms contributing to the hardening of bar matrix, particularly for the late stage of storage. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula will minimize the changes in texture. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. TGP, an extremely stable, non-aggregating fluorescent protein created by structure-guided surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Devin W.; Don Paul, Craig; Langan, Patricia S.; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Traore, Daouda A.K.; Halfmann, Randal; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Waldo, Geoffery S.; Payne, Riley J.; Rucker, Joseph B.; Prescott, Mark; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering and X-ray crystal structure of Thermal Green Protein (TGP), an extremely stable, highly soluble, non-aggregating green fluorescent protein. TGP is a soluble variant of the fluorescent protein eCGP123, which despite being highly stable, has proven to be aggregation-prone. The X-ray crystal structure of eCGP123, also determined within the context of this paper, was used to carry out rational surface engineering to improve its solubility, leading to TGP. The approach involved simultaneously eliminating crystal lattice contacts while increasing the overall negative charge of the protein. Despite intentional disruption of lattice contacts and introduction of high entropy glutamate side chains, TGP crystallized readily in a number of different conditions and the X-ray crystal structure of TGP was determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structural reasons for the enhanced stability of TGP and eCGP123 are discussed. We demonstrate the utility of using TGP as a fusion partner in various assays and significantly, in amyloid assays in which the standard fluorescent protein, EGFP, is undesirable because of aberrant oligomerization. PMID:25287913

  13. Superoxide dismutase 1 is positively selected to minimize protein aggregation in great apes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers...... and SOD1 aggregates and triggered by aging. Our study thus marks an example of direct selection for a particular chemical phenotype (high net charge and stability) in a single human protein with possible implications for the evolution of aging....... of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million...

  14. Influence of heat and shear induced protein aggregation on the in vitro digestion rate of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanoj K; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li

    2014-11-01

    Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically

  15. Effect of metal ions on de novo aggregation of full-length prion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, Armin; Levin, Johannes; Bertsch, Uwe; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that the prion protein (PrP) contains metal ion binding sites with specificity for copper. Changes in copper levels have been suggested to influence incubation time in experimental prion disease. Therefore, we studied the effect of heavy metal ions (Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) in vitro in a model system that utilizes changes in the concentration of SDS to induce structural conversion and aggregation of recombinant PrP. To quantify and characterize PrP aggregates, we used fluorescently labelled PrP and cross-correlation analysis as well as scanning for intensely fluorescent targets in a confocal single molecule detection system. We found a specific strong pro-aggregatory effect of Mn 2+ at low micromolar concentrations that could be blocked by nanomolar concentration of Cu 2+ . These findings suggest that metal ions such as copper and manganese may also affect PrP conversion in vivo

  16. An anticancer drug suppresses the primary nucleation reaction that initiates the production of the toxic Aβ42 aggregates linked with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, Johnny; Arosio, Paolo; Perni, Michele; Costa, Ana Rita; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Cohen, Samuel I A; Müller, Martin B D; Linse, Sara; Nollen, Ellen A A; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-02-01

    The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials with these objectives have so far failed, at least in part because of a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of aggregation and its inhibition. To address this problem, we describe a chemical kinetics approach for rational drug discovery, in which the effects of small molecules on the rates of specific microscopic steps in the self-assembly of Aβ42, the most aggregation-prone variant of Aβ, are analyzed quantitatively. By applying this approach, we report that bexarotene, an anticancer drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, selectively targets the primary nucleation step in Aβ42 aggregation, delays the formation of toxic species in neuroblastoma cells, and completely suppresses Aβ42 deposition and its consequences in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ42-mediated toxicity. These results suggest that the prevention of the primary nucleation of Aβ42 by compounds such as bexarotene could potentially reduce the risk of onset of Alzheimer's disease and, more generally, that our strategy provides a general framework for the rational identification of a range of candidate drugs directed against neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Misfolding, degradation, and aggregation of variant proteins. The molecular pathogenesis of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Bak; Bross, P.; Winter, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    and aggregation of variant SCAD proteins. In this study we investigated the processing of a set of disease-causing variant SCAD proteins (R22W, G68C, W153R, R359C, and Q341H) and two common variant proteins (R147W and G185S) that lead to reduced SCAD activity. All SCAD proteins, including the wild type, associate...... proteolytic degradation by mitochondrial proteases or, especially at elevated temperature, aggregation of non-native conformers. The latter finding may indicate that accumulation of aggregated SCAD proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAD deficiency.......Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of the mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism caused by rare variations as well as common susceptibility variations in the SCAD gene. Earlier studies have shown that a common variant SCAD protein (R147W) was impaired in folding...

  18. State-of-the-Art Fluorescence Fluctuation-Based Spectroscopic Techniques for the Study of Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Akira; Kinjo, Masataka

    2018-03-23

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are devastating proteinopathies with misfolded protein aggregates accumulating in neuronal cells. Inclusion bodies of protein aggregates are frequently observed in the neuronal cells of patients. Investigation of the underlying causes of neurodegeneration requires the establishment and selection of appropriate methodologies for detailed investigation of the state and conformation of protein aggregates. In the current review, we present an overview of the principles and application of several methodologies used for the elucidation of protein aggregation, specifically ones based on determination of fluctuations of fluorescence. The discussed methods include fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), imaging FCS, image correlation spectroscopy (ICS), photobleaching ICS (pbICS), number and brightness (N&B) analysis, super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), and transient state (TRAST) monitoring spectroscopy. Some of these methodologies are classical protein aggregation analyses, while others are not yet widely used. Collectively, the methods presented here should help the future development of research not only into protein aggregation but also neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Anisotropy of the Coulomb Interaction between Folded Proteins: Consequences for Mesoscopic Aggregation of Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ho Yin; Lankevich, Vladimir; Vekilov, Peter G.; Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2012-01-01

    Toward quantitative description of protein aggregation, we develop a computationally efficient method to evaluate the potential of mean force between two folded protein molecules that allows for complete sampling of their mutual orientation. Our model is valid at moderate ionic strengths and accounts for the actual charge distribution on the surface of the molecules, the dielectric discontinuity at the protein-solvent interface, and the possibility of protonation or deprotonation of surface residues induced by the electric field due to the other protein molecule. We apply the model to the protein lysozyme, whose solutions exhibit both mesoscopic clusters of protein-rich liquid and liquid-liquid separation; the former requires that protein form complexes with typical lifetimes of approximately milliseconds. We find the electrostatic repulsion is typically lower than the prediction of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. The Coulomb interaction in the lowest-energy docking configuration is nonrepulsive, despite the high positive charge on the molecules. Typical docking configurations barely involve protonation or deprotonation of surface residues. The obtained potential of mean force between folded lysozyme molecules is consistent with the location of the liquid-liquid coexistence, but produces dimers that are too short-lived for clusters to exist, suggesting lysozyme undergoes conformational changes during cluster formation. PMID:22768950

  20. Small heat shock proteins protect against α-synuclein-induced toxicity and aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outeiro, Tiago Fleming; Klucken, Jochen; Strathearn, Katherine E.; Liu Fang; Nguyen, Paul; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Hyman, Bradley T.; McLean, Pamela J.

    2006-01-01

    Protein misfolding and inclusion formation are common events in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). α-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main protein component of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB) which are pathognomic of PD, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other diseases collectively known as LB diseases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one class of the cellular quality control system that mediate protein folding, remodeling, and even disaggregation. Here, we investigated the role of the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, in LB diseases. We demonstrate, via quantitative PCR, that Hsp27 messenger RNA levels are ∼2-3-fold higher in DLB cases compared to control. We also show a corresponding increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that Hsp27 reduces aSyn-induced toxicity by ∼80% in a culture model while αB-crystallin reduces toxicity by ∼20%. In addition, intracellular inclusions were immunopositive for endogenous Hsp27, and overexpression of this protein reduced aSyn aggregation in a cell culture model

  1. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive enhanced sampling with a path-variable for the simulation of protein folding and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Emanuel K.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we present a novel adaptive enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) method for the accelerated simulation of protein folding and aggregation. We introduce a path-variable L based on the un-biased momenta p and displacements dq for the definition of the bias s applied to the system and derive 3 algorithms: general adaptive bias MD, adaptive path-sampling, and a hybrid method which combines the first 2 methodologies. Through the analysis of the correlations between the bias and the un-biased gradient in the system, we find that the hybrid methodology leads to an improved force correlation and acceleration in the sampling of the phase space. We apply our method on SPC/E water, where we find a conservation of the average water structure. We then use our method to sample dialanine and the folding of TrpCage, where we find a good agreement with simulation data reported in the literature. Finally, we apply our methodologies on the initial stages of aggregation of a hexamer of Alzheimer's amyloid β fragment 25-35 (Aβ 25-35) and find that transitions within the hexameric aggregate are dominated by entropic barriers, while we speculate that especially the conformation entropy plays a major role in the formation of the fibril as a rate limiting factor.

  3. Protein A chromatography increases monoclonal antibody aggregation rate during subsequent low pH virus inactivation hold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzer, Alice R.; Perraud, Xavier; Halley, Jennifer; O’Hara, John; Bracewell, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is a near-ubiquitous method of mAb capture in bioprocesses. The use of low pH buffer for elution from protein A is known to contribute to product aggregation. Yet, a more limited set of evidence suggests that low pH may not be the sole cause of aggregation in protein A chromatography, rather, other facets of the process may contribute significantly. This paper presents a well-defined method for investigating this problem. An IgG4 was incubated in elution buffer after protein A chromatography (typical of the viral inactivation hold) and the quantity of monomer in neutralised samples was determined by size exclusion chromatography; elution buffers of different pH values predetermined to induce aggregation of the IgG4 were used. Rate constants for monomer decay over time were determined by fitting exponential decay functions to the data. Similar experiments were implemented in the absence of a chromatography step, i.e. IgG4 aggregation at low pH. Rate constants for aggregation after protein A chromatography were considerably higher than those from low pH exposure alone; a distinct shift in aggregation rates was apparent across the pH range tested. PMID:26346187

  4. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi eYamamoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/ light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II.

  5. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  6. quinolinium iodide in suppression of protein–protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In searching for alternative ways to reduce protein–protein interactions or to inhibit the amyloid formation, the inhibitory effects ..... ing the exposure of hydrophobic surfaces mirrors the ... is well-supported by electrostatic interactions between.

  7. Studies of the aggregation of mutant proteins in vitro provide insights into the genetics of amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, Fabrizio; Calamai, Martino; Taddei, Niccolo; Stefani, Massimo; Ramponi, Giampietro; Dobson, Christopher M

    2002-12-10

    Protein aggregation and the formation of highly insoluble amyloid structures is associated with a range of debilitating human conditions, which include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Muscle acylphosphatase (AcP) has already provided significant insights into mutational changes that modulate amyloid formation. In the present paper, we have used this system to investigate the effects of mutations that modify the charge state of a protein without affecting significantly the hydrophobicity or secondary structural propensities of the polypeptide chain. A highly significant inverse correlation was found to exist between the rates of aggregation of the protein variants under denaturing conditions and their overall net charge. This result indicates that aggregation is generally favored by mutations that bring the net charge of the protein closer to neutrality. In light of this finding, we have analyzed natural mutations associated with familial forms of amyloid diseases that involve alteration of the net charge of the proteins or protein fragments associated with the diseases. Sixteen mutations have been identified for which the mechanism of action that causes the pathological condition is not yet known or fully understood. Remarkably, 14 of these 16 mutations cause the net charge of the corresponding peptide or protein that converts into amyloid deposits to be reduced. This result suggests that charge has been a key parameter in molecular evolution to ensure the avoidance of protein aggregation and identifies reduction of the net charge as an important determinant in at least some forms of protein deposition diseases.

  8. Quantitative fluorescence loss in photobleaching for analysis of protein transport and aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wüstner Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP is a widely used imaging technique, which provides information about protein dynamics in various cellular regions. In FLIP, a small cellular region is repeatedly illuminated by an intense laser pulse, while images are taken with reduced laser power with a time lag between the bleaches. Despite its popularity, tools are lacking for quantitative analysis of FLIP experiments. Typically, the user defines regions of interest (ROIs for further analysis which is subjective and does not allow for comparing different cells and experimental settings. Results We present two complementary methods to detect and quantify protein transport and aggregation in living cells from FLIP image series. In the first approach, a stretched exponential (StrExp function is fitted to fluorescence loss (FL inside and outside the bleached region. We show by reaction–diffusion simulations, that the StrExp function can describe both, binding/barrier–limited and diffusion-limited FL kinetics. By pixel-wise regression of that function to FL kinetics of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP, we determined in a user-unbiased manner from which cellular regions eGFP can be replenished in the bleached area. Spatial variation in the parameters calculated from the StrExp function allow for detecting diffusion barriers for eGFP in the nucleus and cytoplasm of living cells. Polyglutamine (polyQ disease proteins like mutant huntingtin (mtHtt can form large aggregates called inclusion bodies (IB’s. The second method combines single particle tracking with multi-compartment modelling of FL kinetics in moving IB’s to determine exchange rates of eGFP-tagged mtHtt protein (eGFP-mtHtt between aggregates and the cytoplasm. This method is self-calibrating since it relates the FL inside and outside the bleached regions. It makes it therefore possible to compare release kinetics of eGFP-mtHtt between different cells and

  9. The self-assembly, aggregation and phase transitions of food protein systems in one, two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins is of fundamental relevance in a number of daily phenomena, as important and diverse as blood coagulation, medical diseases, or cooking an egg in the kitchen. Colloidal food systems, in particular, are examples that have great significance for protein aggregation, not only for their importance and implications, which touches on everyday life, but also because they allow the limits of the colloidal science analogy to be tested in a much broader window of conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, concentration and temperature. Thus, studying the aggregation and self-assembly of proteins in foods challenges our understanding of these complex systems from both the molecular and statistical physics perspectives. Last but not least, food offers a unique playground to study the aggregation of proteins in three, two and one dimensions, that is to say, in the bulk, at air/water and oil/water interfaces and in protein fibrillation phenomena. In this review we will tackle this very ambitious task in order to discuss the current understanding of protein aggregation in the framework of foods, which is possibly one of the broadest contexts, yet is of tremendous daily relevance. (review article)

  10. The self-assembly, aggregation and phase transitions of food protein systems in one, two and three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The aggregation of proteins is of fundamental relevance in a number of daily phenomena, as important and diverse as blood coagulation, medical diseases, or cooking an egg in the kitchen. Colloidal food systems, in particular, are examples that have great significance for protein aggregation, not only for their importance and implications, which touches on everyday life, but also because they allow the limits of the colloidal science analogy to be tested in a much broader window of conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, concentration and temperature. Thus, studying the aggregation and self-assembly of proteins in foods challenges our understanding of these complex systems from both the molecular and statistical physics perspectives. Last but not least, food offers a unique playground to study the aggregation of proteins in three, two and one dimensions, that is to say, in the bulk, at air/water and oil/water interfaces and in protein fibrillation phenomena. In this review we will tackle this very ambitious task in order to discuss the current understanding of protein aggregation in the framework of foods, which is possibly one of the broadest contexts, yet is of tremendous daily relevance.

  11. The self-assembly, aggregation and phase transitions of food protein systems in one, two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The aggregation of proteins is of fundamental relevance in a number of daily phenomena, as important and diverse as blood coagulation, medical diseases, or cooking an egg in the kitchen. Colloidal food systems, in particular, are examples that have great significance for protein aggregation, not only for their importance and implications, which touches on everyday life, but also because they allow the limits of the colloidal science analogy to be tested in a much broader window of conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, concentration and temperature. Thus, studying the aggregation and self-assembly of proteins in foods challenges our understanding of these complex systems from both the molecular and statistical physics perspectives. Last but not least, food offers a unique playground to study the aggregation of proteins in three, two and one dimensions, that is to say, in the bulk, at air/water and oil/water interfaces and in protein fibrillation phenomena. In this review we will tackle this very ambitious task in order to discuss the current understanding of protein aggregation in the framework of foods, which is possibly one of the broadest contexts, yet is of tremendous daily relevance.

  12. Role of pH-induced structural change in protein aggregation in foam fractionation of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For reducing protein aggregation in foam fractionation, the role of pH-induced structural change in the interface-induced protein aggregation was analyzed using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein. The results show that the decrease in pH from 7.0 to 3.0 gradually unfolded the BSA structure to increase the molecular size and the relative content of β-sheet and thus reduced the stability of BSA in the aqueous solution. At the isoelectric point (pH 4.7, BSA suffered the lowest level in protein aggregation induced by the gas–liquid interface. In the pH range from 7.0 to 4.7, most BSA aggregates were formed in the defoaming process while in the pH range from 4.7 to 3.0, the BSA aggregates were formed at the gas–liquid interface due to the unfolded BSA structure and they further aggregated to form insoluble ones in the desorption process.

  13. Thermodiffusion as a close-to-interface effect that matters in non-isothermal (dis)orderly protein aggregations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadomski, A., E-mail: agad@utp.edu.pl; Kruszewska, N., E-mail: nkruszewska@utp.edu.pl

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this discussion letter is to argue how and why an inherent nanoscale thermodiffusion (Soret-type) effect can be relevant in (dis)orderly protein aggregation. We propose a model in which the aggregation of proteins, in the presence of temperature gradient, is described in terms of Smoluchowski dynamics in the phase space of nuclei sizes. The Soret coefficient of the aggregation is proportional to the variations of the aggregation free energy over temperature. The free energy is related to the (interface) boundary condition of the system. When boundary condition is of equilibrium Gibbs–Thomson type, with a well-stated surface tension of the nucleus, to the system can be assigned a negative Soret effect. On the contrary, when a non-equilibrium perturbing (salting-out) term enters the boundary condition, a positive Soret effect may manifest. A zero-value Soret regime is expected to occur in between, yielding very soft (“fragile”) non-Kossel protein-type crystals. - Highlights: • Comprehension for non-isothermal formation of (dis)orderly protein aggregation. • Classification of temperature-sensitive morphologies in colloid-type aggregation. • Morphologies split into near-equilibrium and nonequilibrium structural outcomes. • Classification on mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics near local equilibrium.

  14. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Hedil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  15. Co-suppression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... In Arabidopsis,. At5g35220 gene being sterol regulatory element-binding protein site 2, protease and metalloendopeptidase activity were required for chloroplast development and play a role in regulation of endodermal plastid size and number that are involved in ethylene-dependent gravitropism of light-.

  16. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-07-23

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far.

  17. Analysis of Tospovirus NSs Proteins in Suppression of Systemic Silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedil, M.; Sterken, M.G.; Ronde, de D.; Lohuis, D.; Kormelink, R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific gene regulation mechanism that in plants also acts antiviral. In order to counteract antiviral RNA silencing, viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). In the case of tospoviruses, the non-structural NSs protein has been identified as the RSS.

  18. Co-suppression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... protein mediates etiolation in Arabidopsis thaliana .... (A) The scheme of At5g35220 gene and pEGAD-At5g35220; .... stem length of 42-day-old plants; root length of 5-day-old seedlings grown on MS medium; fresh weight of ...

  19. Understanding protein–protein interactions by genetic suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Protein–protein interactions influence many cellular processes and it is increasingly being felt that even a weak and ... In a bacterial system where the complete genome sequence is available, it is an arduous ... teins (primary mutations) are useful in these studies. ... of interaction of this antibiotic with the central enzyme.

  20. SUMO-1 is associated with a subset of lysosomes in glial protein aggregate diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mathew B; Goodwin, Jacob; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane; Gai, Wei Ping; Pountney, Dean L

    2013-01-01

    that was immunopositive for Hsp90 and immunoprecipitated with an anti-SUMO-1 antibody. That SUMO-1 co-localizes with a subset of lysosomes in neurodegenerative diseases with glial protein aggregates and in glial cell culture models of protein aggregation suggests a role for SUMO-1 in lysosome function.

  1. Suppression of expression of muscle-associated proteins by PPARα in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yuhong; Hara, Atsushi; Komatsu, Makiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) belongs to the steroid/nuclear receptor superfamily. Two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE analysis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) unexpectedly revealed six spots that were present only in PPARα-null mice. Proteomic analysis indicated that these proteins were tropomyosin-1 α chain, tropomyosin β chain, myosin regulatory light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, and parvalbumin α. Analyses of mRNA have revealed that PPARα suppressed the genes encoding these proteins in a synchronous manner in adult wild-type mice. Histological and physiological analyses of BAT showed in adult wild-type mice, a marked suppression of BAT growth concurrent with a prominent decrease in lipolytic and thermogenesis activities. These results suggest that in adult mice, PPARα functions to suppress the expression of the proteins that may be involved in the architecture of BAT, and thus may function in keeping BAT in a quiescent state

  2. In silico engineering of aggregation-prone recombinant proteins for substrate recognition by the chaperonin GroEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipul; Punetha, Ankita; Sundar, Durai; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2012-01-01

    Molecular chaperones appear to have been evolved to facilitate protein folding in the cell through entrapment of folding intermediates on the interior of a large cavity formed between GroEL and its co-chaperonin GroES. They bind newly synthesized or non-native polypeptides through hydrophobic interactions and prevent their aggregation. Some proteins do not interact with GroEL, hence even though they are aggregation prone, cannot be assisted by GroEL for their folding. In this study, we have attempted to engineer these non-substrate proteins to convert them as the substrate for GroEL, without compromising on their function. We have used a computational biology approach to generate mutants of the selected proteins by selectively mutating residues in the hydrophobic patch, similar to GroES mobile loop region that are responsible for interaction with GroEL, and compared with the wild counterparts for calculation of their instability and aggregation propensities. The energies of the newly designed mutants were computed through molecular dynamics simulations. We observed increased aggregation propensity of some of the mutants formed after replacing charged amino acid residues with hydrophobic ones in the well defined hydrophobic patch, raising the possibility of their binding ability to GroEL. The newly generated mutants may provide potential substrates for Chaperonin GroEL, which can be experimentally generated and tested for their tendency of aggregation, interactions with GroEL and the possibility of chaperone-assisted folding to produce functional proteins.

  3. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm; 2000–250 μm; 250–53 μm; and soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000–250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture. PMID:26423355

  4. Morphology-Variable Aggregates Prepared from Cholesterol-Containing Amphiphilic Glycopolymers: Their Protein Recognition/Adsorption and Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of diblock glycopolymers, poly(6-O-methacryloyl-d-galactopyranose-b-poly(6-cholesteryloxyhexyl methacrylate (PMAgala-b-PMAChols, with cholesterol/galactose grafts were prepared through a sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization and deprotection process. The glycopolymers could self-assemble into aggregates with various morphologies depending on cholesterol/galactose-containing block weight ratios, as determined by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM and dynamic laser light scattering (DLS. In addition, the lectin (Ricinus communis agglutinin II, RCA120 recognition and bovine serum albumin (BSA adsorption of the PMAgala-b-PMAChol aggregates were evaluated. The SK-Hep-1 tumor cell inhibition properties of the PMAgala-b-PMAChol/doxorubicin (DOX complex aggregates were further examined in vitro. Results indicate that the PMAgala-b-PMAChol aggregates with various morphologies showed different interaction/recognition features with RCA120 and BSA. Spherical aggregates (d ≈ 92 nm possessed the highest RCA120 recognition ability and lowest BSA protein adsorption. In addition, the DOX-loaded spherical complex aggregates exhibited a better tumor cell inhibition property than those of nanofibrous complex aggregates. The morphology-variable aggregates derived from the amphiphilic glycopolymers may serve as multifunctional biomaterials with biomolecular recognition and drug delivery features.

  5. A protein interaction mechanism for suppressing the mechanosensitive Piezo channels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tingxin; Chi, Shaopeng; Jiang, Fan; Zhao, Qiancheng; Xiao, Bailong

    2017-01-01

    Piezo proteins are bona fide mammalian mechanotransduction channels for various cell types including endothelial cells. The mouse Piezo1 of 2547 residues forms a three-bladed, propeller-like homo-trimer comprising a central pore-module and three propeller-structures that might serve as mechanotransduction-modules. However, the mechanogating and regulation of Piezo channels remain unclear. Here we identify the sarcoplasmic /endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), including the widely expres...

  6. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-mok; Ahn, Hye-kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Beom S.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-04-01

    A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This new process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a conventional method for covalent trypsin immobilization and proved to be robust in that it still maintained a high level of activity after a year of repeated recycling. This highly stable form of immobilized trypsin was also resistant to autolysis, enabling repeated digestions of bovine serum albumin over 40 days and successful peptide identification by LC-MS/MS. Finally, the immobilized trypsin was resistant to proteolysis when exposed to other enzymes (i.e. chymotrypsin), which makes it suitable for use in “real-world” proteomic applications. Overall, the biocatalytic nanofibers with enzyme aggregate coatings proved to be an effective approach for repeated and automated protein digestion in proteomic analyses.

  7. Study on the interaction between oxolinic acid aggregates and protein and its analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xia; Zheng Jinhua; Ding Honghong; Ran Dehuan; Xu Wei; Song Yuanyuan; Yang Jinghe

    2007-01-01

    It was found that oxolinic acid (OA) at high concentration can self-assemble into nano- to micro- meter scale OA aggregates in Tris-HCl (pH 7.48) buffer solution. The nanoparticles of OA were adopted as fluorescence probes in the quantitative analysis of proteins. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching extent of nanometer scale OA aggregates was in proportion to the concentration of albumins in the range of 3.0 x 10 -8 to 3.0 x 10 -5 g mL -1 for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 8.0 x 10 -8 to 8.0 x 10 -6 g mL -1 for human serum albumin (HSA). The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 3.4 x 10 -9 g mL -1 for BSA, and 2.6 x 10 -8 g mL -1 for HSA, respectively. Samples were satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism of the system was studied using fluorescence, UV-vis, resonance light scattering (RLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) technology, etc., indicating that the nonluminescent complex was formed between serum albumin molecular and OA, to disaggregate the self-association of OA, which resulted in the dominated static fluorescence quenching in the system

  8. The molecular chaperone α-crystallin inhibits UV-induced protein aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkman, R.F.; Knight, Grady; Obi, Bettie

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of γ-crystallin, and various enzymes, at neutral pH and 24-26 o C, became turbid upon exposure to UV radiation at 295 or 308 nm. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed interchain cross-linking and aggregate formation compared to dark control solutions as reported previously. When α-crystallin was added to the protein solutions in stoichiometric amounts. UV irradiation resulted in significantly less turbidity than in the absence of α-crystallin. For example, addition of 0.5 mg of α-crystallin to 0.5 mg of γ-crystallin in 1.0 ml solution yielded only 25% of the turbidity seen in the absence of α-crystallin. Addition of 2.0 mg of α-crystallin resulted in 20% of the turbidity. Given the molecular weights of α- and γ-crystallin (about 800 kDa and 20 kDa, respectively), A γ/α 1:1 weight ratio corresponds to a 40:1 molar ratio, and a γ-/α 1:4 weight ratio corresponds to a 10:1 molar ratio. Hence, the molar ratio of α-crystallin needed to effectively protect γ-crystallin from photochemical opacification was γ/α = n:1, where n was in the range 10-40. In terms of subunits, this ratio is γ/α = 1:m, where m = 1-4. Thus, each γ-crystallin molecule needs 1-4 α subunits for protection. Similar stoichiometries were observed for protection of the other proteins studied. The protection stems in part from screening of UV radiation by α-crystallin but more importantly from a chaperone effect analogous to that seen in thermal aggregation experiments. (author)

  9. Aggregation factor analysis for protein formulation by a systematic approach using FTIR, SEC and design of experiments techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan Wen; Ooishi, Ayako; Honda, Shinya

    2012-01-05

    A simple systematic approach using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and design of experiments (DOE) techniques was applied to the analysis of aggregation factors for protein formulations in stress and accelerated testings. FTIR and SEC were used to evaluate protein conformational and storage stabilities, respectively. DOE was used to determine the suitable formulation and to analyze both the main effect of single factors and the interaction effect of combined factors on aggregation. Our results indicated that (i) analysis at a low protein concentration is not always applicable to high concentration formulations; (ii) an investigation of interaction effects of combined factors as well as main effects of single factors is effective for improving conformational stability of proteins; (iii) with the exception of pH, the results of stress testing with regard to aggregation factors would be available for suitable formulation instead of performing time-consuming accelerated testing; (iv) a suitable pH condition should not be determined in stress testing but in accelerated testing, because of inconsistent effects of pH on conformational and storage stabilities. In summary, we propose a three-step strategy, using FTIR, SEC and DOE techniques, to effectively analyze the aggregation factors and perform a rapid screening for suitable conditions of protein formulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of mid-infrared free-electron laser tuned to amide bands for dissociation of aggregate structure of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayasu; Yaji, Toyonari; Ohta, Toshiaki; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a linearly polarized, high-peak powered pulse laser with tunable wavelength within the mid-infrared absorption region. It was recently found that pathogenic amyloid fibrils could be partially dissociated to the monomer form by the irradiation of the FEL targeting the amide I band (C=O stretching vibration), amide II band (N-H bending vibration) and amide III band (C-N stretching vibration). In this study, the irradiation effect of the FEL on keratin aggregate was tested as another model to demonstrate an applicability of the FEL for dissociation of protein aggregates. Synchrotron radiation infrared microscopy analysis showed that the α-helix content in the aggregate structure decreased to almost the same level as that in the monomer state after FEL irradiation tuned to 6.06 µm (amide I band). Both irradiations at 6.51 µm (amide II band) and 8.06 µm (amide III band) also decreased the content of the aggregate but to a lesser extent than for the irradiation at the amide I band. On the contrary, the irradiation tuned to 5.6 µm (non-absorbance region) changed little the secondary structure of the aggregate. Scanning-electron microscopy observation at the submicrometer order showed that the angular solid of the aggregate was converted to non-ordered fragments by the irradiation at each amide band, while the aggregate was hardly deformed by the irradiation at 5.6 µm. These results demonstrate that the amide-specific irradiation by the FEL was effective for dissociation of the protein aggregate to the monomer form.

  11. Acupuncture promotes mTOR-independent autophagic clearance of aggregation-prone proteins in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Sun, Yanhong; Wu, Huangan; Pei, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Li, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-01-21

    Acupuncture has historically been practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints with fine needles. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis remains largely elusive. In this study, we found that mechanical stimulation at the acupoint of Yanglingquan (GB34) promoted the autophagic clearance of α-synuclein (α-syn), a well known aggregation-prone protein closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD), in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) of the brain in a PD mouse model. We found the protein clearance arose from the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent approach. Further, we observed the recovery in the activity of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and improvement in the motor function at the behavior level of PD mice. Whereas acupuncture and rapamycin, a chemical mTOR inhibitor, show comparable α-syn clearance and therapeutic effects in the PD mouse model, the latter adopts a distinctly different, mTOR-dependent, autophagy induction process. Due to this fundamental difference, acupuncture may circumvent adverse effects of the rapamycin treatment. The newly discovered connection between acupuncture and autophagy not only provides a new route to understanding the molecular mechanism of acupuncture but also sheds new light on cost-effective and safe therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Characterisation of heat-induced protein aggregation in whey protein isolate and the influence of aggregation on the availability of amino groups as measured by the ortho-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Eve M; Fargier-Lagrange, Maéva; Mulvihill, Daniel M; O'Mahony, James A

    2017-08-15

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions, with different levels of aggregated protein, were prepared by heating (5% protein, pH 7, 90°C for 30min) WPI solutions with either 20mM added NaCl (WPI+NaCl), 5mM N-ethylmaleimide (WPI+NEM) or 20mM added NaCl and 5mM NEM (WPI+NaCl+NEM). Gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the heated WPI and WPI+NaCl solutions had higher levels of aggregated protein, due to more covalent interactions between proteins, than the heated WPI+NEM and WPI+NaCl+NEM solutions. There were marked differences in the levels of amino groups between all heated WPI solutions when measured by the OPA and TNBS methods, with lower levels being measured by the TNBS method than by the OPA method. These results demonstrate that the measurement of available amino groups by the OPA method is less impacted than by the TNBS method after heat-induced structural changes, arising from disulfide or sulfhydryl-disulfide bond-mediated aggregation of whey protein molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The HSPB8-BAG3 chaperone complex is upregulated in astrocytes in the human brain affected by protein aggregation diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Vinet, J; Dunnen, W F A den; Brunt, E R; Meister, M; Boncoraglio, A; Zijlstra, M P; Boddeke, H W G M; Rüb, U; Kampinga, H H; Carra, S

    2012-02-01

    HSPB8 is a small heat shock protein that forms a complex with the co-chaperone BAG3. Overexpression of the HSPB8-BAG3 complex in cells stimulates autophagy and facilitates the clearance of mutated aggregation-prone proteins, whose accumulation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. HSPB8-BAG3 could thus play a protective role in protein aggregation diseases and might be specifically upregulated in response to aggregate-prone protein-mediated toxicity. Here we analysed HSPB8-BAG3 expression levels in post-mortem human brain tissue from patients suffering of the following protein conformation disorders: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to analyse HSPB8 and BAG3 expression levels in fibroblasts from SCA3 patients and post-mortem brain tissues, respectively. In all diseases investigated, we observed a strong upregulation of HSPB8 and a moderate upregulation of BAG3 specifically in astrocytes in the cerebral areas affected by neuronal damage and degeneration. Intriguingly, no significant change in the HSPB8-BAG3 expression levels was observed within neurones, irrespective of their localization or of the presence of proteinaceous aggregates. We propose that the upregulation of HSPB8 and BAG3 may enhance the ability of astrocytes to clear aggregated proteins released from neurones and cellular debris, maintain the local tissue homeostasis and/or participate in the cytoskeletal remodelling that astrocytes undergo during astrogliosis. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  14. From the test tube to the cell: exploring the folding and aggregation of a beta-clam protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Zoya; Krishnan, Beena; Bombardier, Jeffrey P; Marcelino, Anna Marie C; Hong, Jiang; Gierasch, Lila M

    2007-01-01

    A crucial challenge in present biomedical research is the elucidation of how fundamental processes like protein folding and aggregation occur in the complex environment of the cell. Many new physico-chemical factors like crowding and confinement must be considered, and immense technical hurdles must be overcome in order to explore these processes in vivo. Understanding protein misfolding and aggregation diseases and developing therapeutic strategies to these diseases demand that we gain mechanistic insight into behaviors and misbehaviors of proteins as they fold in vivo. We have developed a fluorescence approach using FlAsH labeling to study the thermodynamics of folding of a model beta-rich protein, cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) in Escherichia coli cells. The labeling approach has also enabled us to follow aggregation of a modified version of CRABP and chimeras between CRABP and huntingtin exon 1 with its glutamine repeat tract. In this article, we review our recent results using FlAsH labeling to study in-vivo folding and present new observations that hint at fundamental differences between the thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Kinetics of inclusion body formation and its correlation with the characteristics of protein aggregates in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K Upadhyay

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to understand the structural determinants governing protein aggregation into inclusion bodies during expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant human growth hormone (hGH and asparaginase were expressed as inclusion bodies in E.coli and the kinetics of aggregate formation was analyzed in details. Asparaginase inclusion bodies were of smaller size (200 nm and the size of the aggregates did not increase with induction time. In contrast, the seeding and growth behavior of hGH inclusion bodies were found to be sequential, kinetically stable and the aggregate size increased from 200 to 800 nm with induction time. Human growth hormone inclusion bodies showed higher resistance to denaturants and proteinase K degradation in comparison to those of asparaginase inclusion bodies. Asparaginase inclusion bodies were completely solubilized at 2-3 M urea concentration and could be refolded into active protein, whereas 7 M urea was required for complete solubilization of hGH inclusion bodies. Both hGH and asparaginase inclusion bodies showed binding with amyloid specific dyes. In spite of its low β-sheet content, binding with dyes was more prominent in case of hGH inclusion bodies than that of asparaginase. Arrangements of protein molecules present in the surface as well as in the core of inclusion bodies were similar. Hydrophobic interactions between partially folded amphiphillic and hydrophobic alpha-helices were found to be one of the main determinants of hGH inclusion body formation. Aggregation behavior of the protein molecules decides the nature and properties of inclusion bodies.

  16. Kinetics of Inclusion Body Formation and Its Correlation with the Characteristics of Protein Aggregates in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Arun K.; Murmu, Aruna; Singh, Anupam; Panda, Amulya K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand the structural determinants governing protein aggregation into inclusion bodies during expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) and asparaginase were expressed as inclusion bodies in E.coli and the kinetics of aggregate formation was analyzed in details. Asparaginase inclusion bodies were of smaller size (200 nm) and the size of the aggregates did not increase with induction time. In contrast, the seeding and growth behavior of hGH inclusion bodies were found to be sequential, kinetically stable and the aggregate size increased from 200 to 800 nm with induction time. Human growth hormone inclusion bodies showed higher resistance to denaturants and proteinase K degradation in comparison to those of asparaginase inclusion bodies. Asparaginase inclusion bodies were completely solubilized at 2–3 M urea concentration and could be refolded into active protein, whereas 7 M urea was required for complete solubilization of hGH inclusion bodies. Both hGH and asparaginase inclusion bodies showed binding with amyloid specific dyes. In spite of its low β-sheet content, binding with dyes was more prominent in case of hGH inclusion bodies than that of asparaginase. Arrangements of protein molecules present in the surface as well as in the core of inclusion bodies were similar. Hydrophobic interactions between partially folded amphiphillic and hydrophobic alpha-helices were found to be one of the main determinants of hGH inclusion body formation. Aggregation behavior of the protein molecules decides the nature and properties of inclusion bodies. PMID:22479486

  17. Effects of the size and content of protein aggregates on the rheological and structural properties of soy protein isolate emulsion gels induced by CaSO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Adhikari, Benu; Chen, Jie

    2017-04-15

    The effects of the size and content of soy protein isolate (SPI) aggregates on the rheological and textural properties of CaSO 4 -induced SPI emulsion gels were investigated. Considerable differences in the rheological, water-holding, and micro-structural properties were observed. The gels with larger and/or more SPI aggregates showed substantial increase in the elastic modulus and had lower gelation temperatures. Creep data suggested that the size of the SPI aggregates contributed more to the elastic modulus, whereas the increase of aggregate content enhanced the elastic modulus and viscous component of the gels. The water-holding capacity was markedly enhanced (pemulsions and emulsion gels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes and gel formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone complexes in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone complexes then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk.

  19. Antiviral RNA silencing suppression activity of Tomato spotted wilt virus NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo Ocampo, T; Gabriel Peralta, S M; Bacheller, N; Uiterwaal, S; Knapp, A; Hennen, A; Ochoa-Martinez, D L; Garcia-Ruiz, H

    2016-06-17

    In addition to regulating gene expression, RNA silencing is an essential antiviral defense system in plants. Triggered by double-stranded RNA, silencing results in degradation or translational repression of target transcripts. Viruses are inducers and targets of RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressors that interfere with this process, such as the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSs protein. The mechanism by which NSs suppresses RNA silencing and its role in viral infection and movement remain to be determined. We cloned NSs from the Hawaii isolate of TSWV and using two independent assays show for the first time that this protein restored pathogenicity and supported the formation of local infection foci by suppressor-deficient Turnip mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus. Demonstrating the suppression of RNA silencing directed against heterologous viruses establishes the foundation to determine the means used by NSs to block this antiviral process.

  20. Proteotoxic stress induces phosphorylation of p62/SQSTM1 by ULK1 to regulate selective autophagic clearance of protein aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Lim

    Full Text Available Disruption of proteostasis, or protein homeostasis, is often associated with aberrant accumulation of misfolded proteins or protein aggregates. Autophagy offers protection to cells by removing toxic protein aggregates and injured organelles in response to proteotoxic stress. However, the exact mechanism whereby autophagy recognizes and degrades misfolded or aggregated proteins has yet to be elucidated. Mounting evidence demonstrates the selectivity of autophagy, which is mediated through autophagy receptor proteins (e.g. p62/SQSTM1 linking autophagy cargos and autophagosomes. Here we report that proteotoxic stress imposed by the proteasome inhibition or expression of polyglutamine expanded huntingtin (polyQ-Htt induces p62 phosphorylation at its ubiquitin-association (UBA domain that regulates its binding to ubiquitinated proteins. We find that autophagy-related kinase ULK1 phosphorylates p62 at a novel phosphorylation site S409 in UBA domain. Interestingly, phosphorylation of p62 by ULK1 does not occur upon nutrient starvation, in spite of its role in canonical autophagy signaling. ULK1 also phosphorylates S405, while S409 phosphorylation critically regulates S405 phosphorylation. We find that S409 phosphorylation destabilizes the UBA dimer interface, and increases binding affinity of p62 to ubiquitin. Furthermore, lack of S409 phosphorylation causes accumulation of p62, aberrant localization of autophagy proteins and inhibition of the clearance of ubiquitinated proteins or polyQ-Htt. Therefore, our data provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of selective autophagy by ULK1 and p62 upon proteotoxic stress. Our study suggests a potential novel drug target in developing autophagy-based therapeutics for the treatment of proteinopathies including Huntington's disease.

  1. Questiomycin A stimulates sorafenib-induced cell death via suppression of glucose-regulated protein 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machihara, Kayo; Tanaka, Hidenori; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Ichiro; Namba, Takushi

    2017-10-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult cancers to treat owing to the lack of effective chemotherapeutic methods. Sorafenib, the first-line and only available treatment for HCC, extends patient overall survival by several months, with a response rate below 10%. Thus, the identification of an agent that enhances the anticancer effect of sorafenib is critical for the development of therapeutic options for HCC. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is one of the methods of sorafenib-induced cell death. Here we report that questiomycin A suppresses expression of GRP78, a cell-protective ER chaperone protein. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms of questiomycin A revealed that this compound stimulated GRP78 protein degradation in an ER stress response-independent manner. Cotreatment with sorafenib and questiomycin A suppressed GRP78 protein expression, which is essential for the stimulation of sorafenib-induced cell death. Moreover, our in vivo study demonstrated that the coadministration of sorafenib and questiomycin A suppressed tumor formation in HCC-induced xenograft models. These results suggest that cotreatment with sorafenib and questiomycin A is a novel therapeutic strategy for HCC by enhancing sorafenib-dependent ER stress-induced cell death, and downregulation of GRP78 is a new target for the stimulation of the therapeutic effects of sorafenib in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum proteins SDF2 and SDF2L1 act as components of the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Tsutomu; Suno, Ryoji; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Wada, Ikuo; Hosokawa, Nobuko

    2017-08-01

    The folding of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is assisted by ER-resident chaperone proteins. BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), a member of the HSP70 family, plays a central role in protein quality control. The chaperone function of BiP is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase activity, which is stimulated by ER-resident proteins of the HSP40/DnaJ family, including ERdj3. Here, we report that two closely related proteins, SDF2 and SDF2L1, regulate the BiP chaperone cycle. Both are ER-resident, but SDF2 is constitutively expressed, whereas SDF2L1 expression is induced by ER stress. Both luminal proteins formed a stable complex with ERdj3 and potently inhibited the aggregation of different types of misfolded ER cargo. These proteins associated with non-native proteins, thus promoting the BiP-substrate interaction cycle. A dominant-negative ERdj3 mutant that inhibits the interaction between ERdj3 and BiP prevented the dissociation of misfolded cargo from the ERdj3-SDF2L1 complex. Our findings indicate that SDF2 and SDF2L1 associate with ERdj3 and act as components in the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent the aggregation of misfolded proteins, partly explaining the broad folding capabilities of the ER under various physiological conditions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Protein A Suppresses Immune Responses during Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity. Importance  Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections; however, a vaccine with clinical efficacy is not available. Using mice to model staphylococcal infection, earlier work identified protective antigens; however, corresponding human clinical trials did not reach their endpoints. We show that B cell receptor (IgM) cross-linking by protein A is an important immune evasion strategy of S. aureus that can be monitored in a guinea pig model of bloodstream infection. Further, immunization with nontoxigenic protein A enables infected guinea pigs to elicit antibody responses that are protective against S. aureus. Thus, the guinea pig model may support preclinical development of staphylococcal vaccines. PMID:25564466

  4. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  5. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  6. Cell viability and protein turnover in nongrowing Bacillus megaterium at sporulation suppressing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerová, H; Strnadová, M; Ludvík, J; Chaloupka, J

    1999-01-01

    In Bacillus megaterium, a temperature that suppresses sporulation (43 degrees C) only slightly exceeds both the optimum growth temperature and the temperature still permitting sporulation (40-41 degrees C). Here we show that, when cells grown at 35 degrees C and transferred to a sporulation medium, were subjected to shifts between 35 degrees C and the sporulation suppressing temperature (SST, 43 degrees C), their development and proteolytic activities were deeply affected. During the reversible sporulation phase that took place at 35 degrees C for 2-3 h (T2-T3), the cells developed forespores and their protein turnover was characterized by degradation of short-lived proteins and proteins made accessible to the proteolytic attack because of starvation. During the following irreversible sporulation phase refractile heat-resistant spores appeared at T4-T5. Protein turnover rate increased again after T2 and up to T8 60-70% prelabelled proteins were degraded. The SST suppressed sporulation at its beginning; at T3 no asymmetric septa were observed and the amount of heat-resistant spores at T8 was by 4-5 orders lower than at 35 degrees C. However, the cells remained viable and were able to sporulate when transferred to a lower temperature. Protein degradation was increased up to T3 but then its velocity sharply dropped and the amount of degraded protein at T8 corresponded to slightly more than one-half of that found at 35 degrees C. The cytoplasmic proteolytic activity was enhanced but the activity in the membrane fraction was decreased. When a temperature shift to SST was applied at the beginning of the irreversible sporulation phase (T2.5), the sporulation process was impaired. A portion of forespores lyzed, the others were able to complete their development but most spores were not heat-resistant and their coats showed defects. Protein degradation increased again because an effective proteolytic system was developed during the reversible sporulation phase but the

  7. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Selenite reduction by anaerobic microbial aggregates: Microbial community structure, and proteins associated to the produced selenium spheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGonzalez-Gil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain types of anaerobic granular sludge, which consists of microbial aggregates, can reduce selenium oxyanions. To envisage strategies for removing those oxyanions from wastewater and recovering the produced elemental selenium (Se0, insights into the microbial community structure and synthesis of Se0 within these microbial aggregates are required. High-throughput sequencing showed that Veillonellaceae (c.a. 20 % and Pseudomonadaceae (c.a.10 % were the most abundant microbial phylotypes in selenite reducing microbial aggregates. The majority of the Pseudomonadaceae sequences were affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas. A distinct outer layer (~200 m of selenium deposits indicated that bioreduction occurred in the outer zone of the microbial aggregates. In that outer layer, SEM analysis showed abundant intracellular and extracellular Se0 (nano spheres, with some cells having high numbers of intracellular Se0 spheres. Electron tomography showed that microbial cells can harbor a single large intracellular sphere that stretches the cell body. The Se0 spheres produced by the microorganisms were capped with organic material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis of extracted Se0 spheres, combined with a mathematical approach to analyzing XPS spectra from biological origin, indicated that proteins and lipids were components of the capping material associated to the Se0 spheres. The most abundant proteins associated to the spheres were identified by proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins or peptide sequences capping the Se0 spheres were identified as periplasmic outer membrane porins and as the cytoplasmic elongation factor Tu protein, suggesting an intracellular formation of the Se0 spheres. In view of these and previous findings, a schematic model for the synthesis of Se0 spheres by the microorganisms inhabiting the granular sludge is proposed.

  9. Selenite Reduction by Anaerobic Microbial Aggregates: Microbial Community Structure, and Proteins Associated to the Produced Selenium Spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2016-04-26

    Certain types of anaerobic granular sludge, which consists of microbial aggregates, can reduce selenium oxyanions. To envisage strategies for removing those oxyanions from wastewater and recovering the produced elemental selenium (Se0), insights into the microbial community structure and synthesis of Se0 within these microbial aggregates are required. High-throughput sequencing showed that Veillonellaceae (c.a. 20%) and Pseudomonadaceae (c.a.10%) were the most abundant microbial phylotypes in selenite reducing microbial aggregates. The majority of the Pseudomonadaceae sequences were affiliated to the genus Pseudomonas. A distinct outer layer (∼200 μm) of selenium deposits indicated that bioreduction occurred in the outer zone of the microbial aggregates. In that outer layer, SEM analysis showed abundant intracellular and extracellular Se0 (nano)spheres, with some cells having high numbers of intracellular Se0 spheres. Electron tomography showed that microbial cells can harbor a single large intracellular sphere that stretches the cell body. The Se0 spheres produced by the microorganisms were capped with organic material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of extracted Se0 spheres, combined with a mathematical approach to analyzing XPS spectra from biological origin, indicated that proteins and lipids were components of the capping material associated to the Se0 spheres. The most abundant proteins associated to the spheres were identified by proteomic analysis. Most of the proteins or peptide sequences capping the Se0 spheres were identified as periplasmic outer membrane porins and as the cytoplasmic elongation factor Tu protein, suggesting an intracellular formation of the Se0 spheres. In view of these and previous findings, a schematic model for the synthesis of Se0 spheres by the microorganisms inhabiting the granular sludge is proposed.

  10. HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Megan; Soares, Dinesh C; Vacca, Francesco; Cohen, E Suzanne; Scott, Ian C; Gregory, William F; Smyth, Danielle J; Toivakka, Matilda; Kemter, Andrea M; le Bihan, Thierry; Wear, Martin; Hoving, Dennis; Filbey, Kara J; Hewitson, James P; Henderson, Holly; Gonzàlez-Cìscar, Andrea; Errington, Claire; Vermeren, Sonja; Astier, Anne L; Wallace, William A; Schwarze, Jürgen; Ivens, Alasdair C; Maizels, Rick M; McSorley, Henry J

    2017-10-17

    Infection by helminth parasites is associated with amelioration of allergic reactivity, but mechanistic insights into this association are lacking. Products secreted by the mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppress type 2 (allergic) immune responses through interference in the interleukin-33 (IL-33) pathway. Here, we identified H. polygyrus Alarmin Release Inhibitor (HpARI), an IL-33-suppressive 26-kDa protein, containing three predicted complement control protein (CCP) modules. In vivo, recombinant HpARI abrogated IL-33, group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and eosinophilic responses to Alternaria allergen administration, and diminished eosinophilic responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, increasing parasite burden. HpARI bound directly to both mouse and human IL-33 (in the cytokine's activated state) and also to nuclear DNA via its N-terminal CCP module pair (CCP1/2), tethering active IL-33 within necrotic cells, preventing its release, and forestalling initiation of type 2 allergic responses. Thus, HpARI employs a novel molecular strategy to suppress type 2 immunity in both infection and allergy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herva, José J; González-Melendi, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Díaz, Isabel; Del Pozo, Juan C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Recombinant proteins incorporating short non-native extensions may display increased aggregation propensity as detected by high resolution NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzoni, Serena; D’Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Assfalg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bile acid binding proteins from different constructs retain structural integrity. ► NMR 15 N-T 1 relaxation data of BABPs show differences if LVPR extension is present. ► Deviations from a 15 N-T 1 /molecular-weight calibration curve indicate aggregation. -- Abstract: The use of a recombinant protein to investigate the function of the native molecule requires that the former be obtained with the same amino acid sequence as the template. However, in many cases few additional residues are artificially introduced for cloning or purification purposes, possibly resulting in altered physico-chemical properties that may escape routine characterization. For example, increased aggregation propensity without visible protein precipitation is hardly detected by most analytical techniques but its investigation may be of great importance for optimizing the yield of recombinant protein production in biotechnological and structural biology applications. In this work we show that bile acid binding proteins incorporating the common C-terminal LeuValProArg extension display different hydrodynamic properties from those of the corresponding molecules without such additional amino acids. The proteins were produced enriched in nitrogen-15 for analysis via heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Residue-specific spin relaxation rates were measured and related to rotational tumbling time and molecular size. While the native-like recombinant proteins show spin-relaxation rates in agreement with those expected for monomeric globular proteins of their mass, our data indicate the presence of larger adducts for samples of proteins with very short amino acid extensions. The used approach is proposed as a further screening method for the quality assessment of biotechnological protein products.

  13. Recombinant proteins incorporating short non-native extensions may display increased aggregation propensity as detected by high resolution NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzoni, Serena; D' Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Assfalg, Michael, E-mail: michael.assfalg@univr.it [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acid binding proteins from different constructs retain structural integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR {sup 15}N-T{sub 1} relaxation data of BABPs show differences if LVPR extension is present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deviations from a {sup 15}N-T{sub 1}/molecular-weight calibration curve indicate aggregation. -- Abstract: The use of a recombinant protein to investigate the function of the native molecule requires that the former be obtained with the same amino acid sequence as the template. However, in many cases few additional residues are artificially introduced for cloning or purification purposes, possibly resulting in altered physico-chemical properties that may escape routine characterization. For example, increased aggregation propensity without visible protein precipitation is hardly detected by most analytical techniques but its investigation may be of great importance for optimizing the yield of recombinant protein production in biotechnological and structural biology applications. In this work we show that bile acid binding proteins incorporating the common C-terminal LeuValProArg extension display different hydrodynamic properties from those of the corresponding molecules without such additional amino acids. The proteins were produced enriched in nitrogen-15 for analysis via heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Residue-specific spin relaxation rates were measured and related to rotational tumbling time and molecular size. While the native-like recombinant proteins show spin-relaxation rates in agreement with those expected for monomeric globular proteins of their mass, our data indicate the presence of larger adducts for samples of proteins with very short amino acid extensions. The used approach is proposed as a further screening method for the quality assessment of biotechnological protein products.

  14. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure processing on individual cellular resuscitation times and protein aggregates in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Sander K; Aertsen, Abram

    2015-11-20

    Live cell biology approaches can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of heterogeneous injury and resuscitation phenomena in stressed populations of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and in turn lead to better insights in the mechanisms and dynamics of inactivation that can improve food safety and preservation measures. Especially in the context of designing minimal processing strategies, which depend on a synergistic combination of different mild stresses to ensure sufficient microbial reduction, a more profound understanding of the impact of each such stress or hurdle is mandatory. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress is an interesting hurdle in this concept since cells that manage to survive this stress nevertheless tend to be injured and sensitized to subsequent stresses. In this study, populations of Escherichia coli were subjected to different HHP intensities and studied at the single-cell level with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy while monitoring resuscitation times and protein aggregate integrity at the single-cell level. This approach revealed that higher pressure intensities lead to longer and more variable resuscitation times of surviving cells as well as an increased dispersal of intracellular protein aggregates. Interestingly, at mild HHP exposure, cells within the population incurring less dispersion of protein aggregates appeared to have a higher probability of survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Uncovering methods for the prevention of protein aggregation and improvement of product quality in a transient expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Bram; Hsu, Yueh-Rong; Tam, Lei-Ting; Sheng, Jackie; Stevens, Jennitte; Haldankar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian expression systems are used routinely for the production of recombinant proteins as therapeutic molecules as well as research tools. Transient expression has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its rapid timeline and improvements in expression level. While improvements to transient expression systems have focused mainly on the level of protein expression, the aspect of protein quality has received little attention. The removal of undesirable products, such as aggregation, depends primarily on purification, requiring additional cumbersome steps, which can lead to a lower product yield and longer timelines. In this study, we show that reducing the level of transcription by transfecting at a lower gene dose improves the quality of secreted molecules prone to aggregation. For gene dosing to have this effect, it is critical for the carrier DNA to be an empty vector containing the same elements as the gene containing plasmid. This approach can be used in combination with a temperature shift to hypothermic conditions during production to enhance the effect. The observed improvements not only minimized aggregation levels, but also generated products with overall superior quality, including more homogeneous signal peptide cleavage and N-linked glycosylation profiles. These techniques have produced a similar improvement in product quality with a variety of other molecules, suggesting that this may be a general approach to enhance product quality from transient expression systems. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Behavior of Heat-Denatured Whey: Buttermilk Protein Aggregates during the Yogurt-Making Process and Their Influence on Set-Type Yogurt Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Saffon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the impact of using heat-denatured whey:buttermilk protein aggregate in acid-set type yogurt production. Whey and buttermilk (25:75 protein concentrate was adjusted to pH 4.6, heated at 90 °C for 5 min, homogenized and freeze-dried. Set-type yogurts were prepared from skim milk standardized to 15% (w/v total solids and 4.2% (w/v protein using different levels of powdered skim milk or freeze-dried protein aggregate. The use of the protein aggregate significantly modified yogurt texture, but did not affect the water-holding capacity of the gel. Confocal laser-scanning microscope images showed the presence of large particles in milk enriched with protein aggregate, which directly affected the homogeneity of the clusters within the protein matrix. Thiol groups were freed during heating of the protein aggregate suspended in water, suggesting that the aggregates could interact with milk proteins during heating.

  17. Differential interaction and aggregation of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms with 14-3-3ζ protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadik, Golam; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kato, Kiyoko; Yanagi, Kentaro; Kudo, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Tau isoforms, 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat tau (4R), are differentially involved in neuronal development and in several tauopathies. 14-3-3 protein binds to tau and 14-3-3/tau association has been found both in the development and in tauopathies. To understand the role of 14-3-3 in the differential regulation of tau isoforms, we have performed studies on the interaction and aggregation of 3R-tau and 4R-tau, either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated, with 14-3-3ζ. We show by surface plasmon resonance studies that the interaction between unphosphorylated 3R-tau and 14-3-3ζ is ∼3-folds higher than that between unphosphorylated 4R-tau and 14-3-3ζ. Phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase A (PKA) increases the affinity of both 3R- and 4R-tau for 14-3-3ζ to a similar level. An in vitro aggregation assay employing both transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the aggregation of unphosphorylated 4R-tau to be significantly higher than that of unphosphorylated 3R-tau following the induction of 14-3-3ζ. The filaments formed from 3R- and 4R-tau were almost similar in morphology. In contrast, the aggregation of both 3R- and 4R-tau was reduced to a similar low level after phosphorylation with PKA. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ζ exhibits a similar role for tau isoforms after PKA-phosphorylation, but a differential role for unphosphorylated tau. The significant aggregation of 4R-tau by 14-3-3ζ suggests that 14-3-3 may act as an inducer in the generation of 4R-tau-predominant neurofibrillary tangles in tauopathies.

  18. Effect of vitamin D status on chick kidney proteins: detection of a 45-kilodalton mitochondrial protein suppressed by vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, S.R.; Kamrath, K.S.; Henry, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis along with L-[ 35 S]methionine radiolabeling studies were used to examine the effect of chronic vitamin D status on the composition and relative abundance of chick kidney proteins. Comparison of silver-stained gels revealed no extensive differences in either the electrophoretic mobility or the amounts of kidney proteins present in the mitochondrial fraction from vitamin D-replete and vitamin D-deficient chicks. A similar result was obtained in studies with L-[ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins. Vitamin D deficiency specifically elevated levels of a 45-kilodalton mitochondrial protein (pI 5.0 to 5.5) by approximately 5- to 12-fold relative to amounts present in vitamin D-replete tissue. This protein could not be detected in postmitochondrial supernatant fractions and was only faintly visible in crude kidney homogenates. The specificity of the observed suppression of this 45-kilodalton protein by vitamin D suggests that it may play an important role in renal functions influenced by the vitamin D endocrine system

  19. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum.

  20. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob G Jespersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box O (FoxO pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICU patients were systemically inflamed, moderately hyperglycemic, received insulin therapy, and showed a tendency to lower plasma branched chain amino acids compared with controls. Using Western blotting we measured Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6k, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1; and by RT-PCR we determined mRNA expression of, among others, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, FoxO 1, 3 and 4, atrogin1, MuRF1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and myostatin. Unexpectedly, in critically ill ICU patients Akt-mTOR-S6k signaling was substantially higher compared with controls. FoxO1 mRNA was higher in patients, whereas FoxO3, atrogin1 and myostatin mRNAs and MuRF1 protein were lower compared with controls. A moderate correlation (r2=0.36, p<0.05 between insulin infusion dose and phosphorylated Akt was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present for the first time muscle protein turnover signaling in critically ill ICU patients, and we show signaling pathway activity towards a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and a somewhat inhibited proteolysis.

  1. Monitoring protein turnover during phosphate starvation-dependent autophagic degradation using a photoconvertible fluorescent protein aggregate in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Maiko; Asatsuma, Satoru; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a system for quantitative monitoring of autophagic degradation in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells using an aggregate-prone protein comprised of cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) and a tetrameric red fluorescent protein (RFP). Unfortunately, this system is of limited use for monitoring the kinetics of autophagic degradation because the proteins synthesized before and after induction of autophagy cannot be distinguished. To overcome this problem, we developed a system using kikume green-red (KikGR), a photoconvertible and tetrameric fluorescent protein that changes its fluorescence from green to red upon irradiation with purple light. Using the fusion protein of Cyt b5 and KikGR together with a method for the bulk conversion of KikGR, which we had previously used to convert the Golgi-localized monomeric KikGR fusion protein, we were able to monitor both the growth and de novo formation of aggregates. Using this system, we found that tobacco cells do not cease protein synthesis under conditions of phosphate (Pi)-starvation. Induction of autophagy under Pi-starvation, but not under sugar- or nitrogen-starvation, was specifically inhibited by phosphite, which is an analog of Pi with a different oxidation number. Therefore, the mechanism by which BY-2 cells can sense Pi-starvation and induce autophagy does not involve sensing a general decrease in energy supply and a specific Pi sensor might be involved in the induction of autophagy under Pi-starvation.

  2. Hepatitis B virus X protein suppresses caveolin-1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating DNA methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun; Lu, Qian; Dong, Jiahong; Li, Xiaowu; Ma, Kuansheng; Cai, Lei

    2012-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of caveolin-1 downregulation by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). The DNA methylation status of the caveolin-1 promoter was examined by nested methylation-specific PCR of 33 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples. The SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell line was transfected with a recombinant HBx adenoviral vector, and the effects of HBx protein on caveolin-1 expression and promoter methylation were examined and confirmed by sequencing. A reporter gene containing the caveolin-1 promoter region was constructed, and the effects of HBx on the transcriptional activity of the promoter were also studied. Methylation of the caveolin-1 promoter was detected in 84.8% (28/33) of HBV-infected HCC samples. Expression of caveolin-1 was significantly downregulated (P = 0.022), and multiple CpG sites in the promoter region of caveolin-1 were methylated in SMMC-7721 cells after HBx transfection. Transfected HBx significantly suppressed caveolin-1 promoter activity (P = 0.001). HBx protein induces methylation of the caveolin-1 promoter region and suppresses its expression

  3. Cocoa Procyanidins Suppress Transformation by Inhibiting Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Dong Eun; Rogozin, Evgeny A.; Bode, Ann M.; Lee, Hyong Joo; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Cocoa was shown to inhibit chemically induced carcinogenesis in animals and exert antioxidant activity in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive potential of cocoa and its active ingredient(s) remain unknown. Here we report that cocoa procyanidins inhibit neoplastic cell transformation by suppressing the kinase activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). A cocoa procyanidin fraction (CPF) and procyanidin B2 at 5 μg/ml and 40 μm, respectively, inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal (JB6 P+) cells by 47 and 93%, respectively. The TPA-induced promoter activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which is involved in tumor promotion and inflammation, were dose-dependently inhibited by CPF or procyanidin B2. The activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-κB induced by TPA was also attenuated by CPF or procyanidin B2. The TPA-induced phosphorylation of MEK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p90 ribosomal s6 kinase was suppressed by CPF or procyanidin B2. In vitro and ex vivo kinase assay data demonstrated that CPF or procyanidin B2 inhibited the kinase activity of MEK1 and directly bound with MEK1. CPF or procyanidin B2 suppressed JB6 P+ cell transformation induced by epidermal growth factor or H-Ras, both of which are known to be involved in MEK/ERK signal activation. In contrast, theobromine (up to 80 μm) had no effect on TPA-induced transformation, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the transactivation of activator protein-1 or nuclear factor-κB, or MEK. Notably, procyanidin B2 exerted stronger inhibitory effects compared with PD098059 (a well known pharmacological inhibitor of MEK) on MEK1 activity and neoplastic cell transformation. PMID:18519570

  4. UV-Visible intensity ratio (aggregates/single particles) as a measure to obtain stability of gold nanoparticles conjugated with protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico); Garcia-Perez, B. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Inmunologia, ENCB (Mexico); Jaramillo-Flores, M. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, ENCB (Mexico); Gayou, V. L.; Rojas-Lopez, M., E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    We have analyzed the titration process of gold nanoparticles with several amounts of protein A (0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 9 {mu}g/ml) in the presence of NaCl, which induces aggregation if the surface of particles is not fully covered with protein A. The colloidal solutions with different particle size (16, 18, 20, 33 nm) were synthesized by citrate reduction to be conjugated with protein A. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to measure the absorption of the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as a function of the concentration of protein A. Such dependence shows an aggregation region (0 < x<6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein A was insufficient to cover the surface of particles, obtaining aggregation caused by NaCl. The next part is the stability region (x {>=} 6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein used covers the surface of particles and protects it from the aggregation. In addition to that the ratio between the intensities of both: the aggregates and of the gold nanoparticle bands was plotted as a function of the concentration of protein A. It was determined that 6 {mu}g/ml is a sufficient value of protein A to stabilize the gold nanoparticle-protein A system. This method provides a simple way to stabilize gold nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction, with protein A.

  5. Genistein suppresses adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1998-07-03

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as one of the earlier events in cancer cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction. With immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, genistein was found to suppress the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins located at the cell periphery, including a 125 kDa protein, when B16-BL6 melanoma cells attached to and interacted with ECM. When accompanied by the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, the invasive potential of B16-BL6 cells through reconstituted basement membrane was decreased significantly. However, neither adhesive capability nor cell growth was significantly affected by genistein. Therefore, the interruption of cancer cell-ECM interaction by suppression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to invasion prevention of genistein.

  6. Protein aggregation in aqueous casein solution. Effect of irradiation, dose level, concentration, storage and additives (carbohydrate and lipid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousri, R M

    1980-06-01

    From the vast amount of research efforts dealing with various aspects of radiation effects on foods and food components, it is apparent up to now that much remains to be studied in depth, much may have to be added or corrected about radiation-induced physico-chemical changes in foods. A great many reactions that take place when foodstuffs are subjected to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. The better understanding of some of the radiation-induced changes in pure proteins as such or in mixture with other food constituents could yield much data which could be meaningfully extrapolated to intact foods and consequently could help to improve the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. It was the purpose of our investigations to elucidate some of the changes in the chemical structure of a pure protein (casein), irradiated as such or with added carbohydrate and/or lipid. The effect of subsequent storage of the irradiated solutions has been also examined. The formation of protein aggregates was studied by gel filtration technique. The application of thin-layer gel filtration, its speed and adaptability to very small samples facilitated the measurements of the extent of aggregation which occurred in protein molecules after irradiation.

  7. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC.

  8. Arctigenin suppresses unfolded protein response and sensitizes glucose deprivation-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengrong; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Changhua; Nawaz, Ahmed; Wei, Wen; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Lijun; Yu, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in tumor survival and resistance to chemotherapies suggests a new anticancer strategy targeting UPR pathway. Arctigenin, a natural product, has been recently identified for its antitumor activity with selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation with unknown mechanism. Here we found that arctigenin specifically blocks the transcriptional induction of two potential anticancer targets, namely glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) and its analog GRP94, under glucose deprivation, but not by tunicamycin. The activation of other UPR pathways, e.g., XBP-1 and ATF4, by glucose deprivation was also suppressed by arctigenin. A further transgene experiment showed that ectopic expression of GRP78 at least partially rescued arctigenin/glucose starvation-mediated cell growth inhibition, suggesting the causal role of UPR suppression in arctigenin-mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. These observations bring a new insight into the mechanism of action of arctigenin and may lead to the design of new anticancer therapeutics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates

  10. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bé lair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic

  11. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  12. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  13. Suppression of cell division by pKi-67 antisense-RNA and recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchrow, M; Schmidt, M H; Zingler, M; Anemüller, S; Bruch, H P; Broll, R

    2001-01-01

    The human antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (pKi-67) is a human nuclear protein strongly associated with cell proliferation and found in all tissues studied. It is widely used as a marker of proliferating cells, yet its function is unknown. To investigate its function we suppressed pKi-67 expression by antisense RNA and overexpressed a partial structure of pKi-67 in HeLa cells. A BrdU-incorporation assay showed a significant decrease in DNA synthesis after antisense inhibition. Cell cycle analysis indicated a higher proportion of cells in G1 phase and a lower proportion of cells in S phase while the number of G(2)/M phase cells remained constant. Overexpression of a recombinant protein encoding three of the repetitive elements from exon 13 of pKi-67 had a similar effect to that obtained by antisense inhibition. The similarity of the effect of expressing 'Ki-67 repeats' and pKi-67 antisense RNA could be explained by a negative effect on the folding of the endogenous protein in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore excessive self-association of pKi-67 via the repeat structure could inhibit its nuclear transport, preventing it from getting to its presumptive site of action. We conclude that the Ki-67 protein has an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, which is mediated in part by its repetitive elements. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. The chaperone-like activity of α-synuclein attenuates aggregation of its alternatively spliced isoform, 112-synuclein in vitro: plausible cross-talk between isoforms in protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Madhuri Manda

    Full Text Available Abnormal oligomerization and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn/WT-syn has been shown to be a precipitating factor in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD. Earlier observations on the induced-alternative splicing of α-syn by Parkinsonism mimetics as well as identification of region specific abnormalities in the transcript levels of 112-synuclein (112-syn in diseased subjects underscores the role of 112-syn in the pathophysiology of PD. In the present study, we sought to identify the aggregation potential of 112-syn in the presence or absence of WT-syn to predict its plausible role in protein aggregation events. Results demonstrate that unlike WT-syn, lack of 28 aa in the C-terminus results in the loss of chaperone-like activity with a concomitant gain in vulnerability to heat-induced aggregation and time-dependent fibrillation. The effects were dose and time-dependent and a significant aggregation of 112-syn was evident at as low as 45 °C following 10 min of incubation. The heat-induced aggregates were found to be ill-defined structures and weakly positive towards Thioflavin-T (ThT staining as compared to clearly distinguishable ThT positive extended fibrils resulting upon 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. Further, the chaperone-like activity of WT-syn significantly attenuated heat-induced aggregation of 112-syn in a dose and time-dependent manner. On contrary, WT-syn synergistically enhanced fibrillation of 112-syn. Overall, the present findings highlight a plausible cross-talk between isoforms of α-syn and the relative abundance of these isoforms may dictate the nature and fate of protein aggregates.

  15. Recovering protein-protein and domain-domain interactions from aggregation of IP-MS proteomics of coregulator complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin R Mazloom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coregulator proteins (CoRegs are part of multi-protein complexes that transiently assemble with transcription factors and chromatin modifiers to regulate gene expression. In this study we analyzed data from 3,290 immuno-precipitations (IP followed by mass spectrometry (MS applied to human cell lines aimed at identifying CoRegs complexes. Using the semi-quantitative spectral counts, we scored binary protein-protein and domain-domain associations with several equations. Unlike previous applications, our methods scored prey-prey protein-protein interactions regardless of the baits used. We also predicted domain-domain interactions underlying predicted protein-protein interactions. The quality of predicted protein-protein and domain-domain interactions was evaluated using known binary interactions from the literature, whereas one protein-protein interaction, between STRN and CTTNBP2NL, was validated experimentally; and one domain-domain interaction, between the HEAT domain of PPP2R1A and the Pkinase domain of STK25, was validated using molecular docking simulations. The scoring schemes presented here recovered known, and predicted many new, complexes, protein-protein, and domain-domain interactions. The networks that resulted from the predictions are provided as a web-based interactive application at http://maayanlab.net/HT-IP-MS-2-PPI-DDI/.

  16. A Fragment-Based Method of Creating Small-Molecule Libraries to Target the Aggregation of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Habchi, Johnny; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-03-14

    The aggregation process of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has been associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, however, no drug in clinical use targets IDP aggregation. To facilitate drug discovery programs in this important and challenging area, we describe a fragment-based approach of generating small-molecule libraries that target specific IDPs. The method is based on the use of molecular fragments extracted from compounds reported in the literature to inhibit of the aggregation of IDPs. These fragments are used to screen existing large generic libraries of small molecules to form smaller libraries specific for given IDPs. We illustrate this approach by describing three distinct small-molecule libraries to target, Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein, which are three IDPs implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The strategy described here offers novel opportunities for the identification of effective molecular scaffolds for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disorders and to provide insights into the mechanism of small-molecule binding to IDPs.

  17. Atick salivary protein targets cathepsin G and chymase and inhibits host inflammation and platelet aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Oliveira, C. J.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kovářová, Zuzana; Pejler, G.; Kopáček, Petr; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Mareš, Michael; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2011), s. 736-744 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : parasite serpin * IRS-2 * tick * Ixodes ricinus * platelet aggregation * inflammation * cathepsin G * chymase Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 9.898, year: 2011

  18. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Chen

    Full Text Available Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana.

  19. Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iki, Shigeo; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokosawa, Noriko; Nagata, Kyosuke; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection

  20. Tofacitinib Suppresses Antibody Responses to Protein Therapeutics in Murine Hosts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Masanori; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Steward-Tharp, Scott; Thomas, Craig; O’Shea, John J.; Pastan, Ira H.; FitzGerald, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity remains the ‘Achilles’ heel’ of protein-based therapeutics. Anti-drug antibodies produced in response to protein therapeutics can severely limit both the safety and efficacy of this expanding class of agent. Here we report that monotherapy of mice with tofacitinib (the Janus kinase inhibitor) quells antibody responses to an immunotoxin derived from the bacterial protein, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, as well as to the model antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Thousandfold reductions in IgG1 titers to both antigens were observed 21 days post-immunization. In fact, suppression was evident for all IgG isotypes and IgM. A reduction in IgG3 production was also noted with a thymus-independent type II antigen. Mechanistic investigations revealed that tofacitinib treatment led to reduced numbers of CD127+ pro-B cells. Furthermore, we observed fewer germinal center B cells and the impaired formation of germinal centers of mice treated with tofacitinib. Since normal immunoglobulin levels were still present during the tofacitinib treatment, this agent specifically reduced anti-drug antibodies, thus preserving the potential efficacy of biological therapeutics, including those that are used as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24890727

  1. The Polerovirus F box protein P0 targets ARGONAUTE1 to suppress RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolamiol, Diane; Pazhouhandeh, Maghsoud; Marrocco, Katia; Genschik, Pascal; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2007-09-18

    Plants employ post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) as an antiviral defense response. In this mechanism, viral-derived small RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide degradation of the corresponding viral RNAs. ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) is a key component of RISC: it carries the RNA slicer activity. As a counter-defense, viruses have evolved various proteins that suppress PTGS. Recently, we showed that the Polerovirus P0 protein carries an F box motif required to form an SCF-like complex, which is also essential for P0's silencing suppressor function. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which P0 impairs PTGS. First we show that P0's expression does not affect the biogenesis of primary siRNAs in an inverted repeat-PTGS assay, but it does affect their activity. Moreover, P0's expression in transformed Arabidopsis plants leads to various developmental abnormalities reminiscent of mutants affected in miRNA pathways, which is accompanied by enhanced levels of several miRNA-target transcripts, suggesting that P0 acts at the level of RISC. Interestingly, ectopic expression of P0 triggered AGO1 protein decay in planta. Finally, we provide evidence that P0 physically interacts with AGO1. Based on these results, we propose that P0 hijacks the host SCF machinery to modulate gene silencing by destabilizing AGO1.

  2. Subtype-specific suppression of Shiga toxin 2 released from Escherichia coli upon exposure to protein synthesis inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Gantzhorn; Hansen, Claus; Riise, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of severe disease including hemolytic-uremic syndrome, caused by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC strains increase the release of Stx in vitro following the addition of fluoroquinolones, whereas protein synthesis...... inhibitors previously have been reported to suppress the release of Stx. The amount of Stx released from wild-type STEC strains incubated with protein synthesis inhibitors was examined by a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay. The amounts released were compared to the Stx type (Stx1 or Stx2) and additionally...... to the individual subtypes and toxin variants of Stx2. In general, Stx2 release was suppressed significantly upon exposure to protein synthesis inhibitors at MICs, which was not observed in the case of Stx1. Also, the average amount of different Stx2 toxin variants released was suppressed to various levels ranging...

  3. A secretory protein of necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that suppresses host resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhu

    Full Text Available SSITL (SS1G_14133 of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum encodes a protein with 302 amino acid residues including a signal peptide, its secretion property was confirmed with immunolocalization and immunofluorescence techniques. SSITL was classified in the integrin alpha N-terminal domain superfamily, and its 3D structure is similar to those of human integrin α4-subunit and a fungal integrin-like protein. When S. sclerotiorum was inoculated to its host, high expression of SSITL was detected during the initial stages of infection (1.5-3.0 hpi. Targeted silencing of SSITL resulted in a significant reduction in virulence; on the other hand, inoculation of SSITL silenced transformant A10 initiated strong and rapid defense response in Arabidopsis, the highest expressions of defense genes PDF1.2 and PR-1 appeared at 3 hpi which was 9 hr earlier than that time when plants were inoculated with the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum. Systemic resistance induced by A10 was detected by analysis of the expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1, and confirmed following inoculation with Botrytis cinerea. A10 induced much larger lesions on Arabidopsis mutant ein2 and jar1, and slightly larger lesions on mutant pad4 and NahG in comparison with the wild-type plants. Furthermore, both transient and constitutive expression of SSITL in Arabidopsis suppressed the expression of PDF1.2 and led to be more susceptible to A10 and the wild-type strain of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Our results suggested that SSITL is an effector possibly and plays significant role in the suppression of jasmonic/ethylene (JA/ET signal pathway mediated resistance at the early stage of infection.

  4. LIM-domain protein AJUBA suppresses malignant mesothelioma cell proliferation via Hippo signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, I; Osada, H; Fujii, M; Fukatsu, A; Hida, T; Horio, Y; Kondo, Y; Sato, A; Hasegawa, Y; Tsujimura, T; Sekido, Y

    2015-01-02

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is one of the most aggressive neoplasms usually associated with asbestos exposure and is highly refractory to current therapeutic modalities. MMs show frequent activation of a transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP), which is attributed to the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)-Hippo pathway dysfunction, leading to deregulated cell proliferation and acquisition of a malignant phenotype. However, the whole mechanism of disordered YAP activation in MMs has not yet been well clarified. In the present study, we investigated various components of the NF2-Hippo pathway, and eventually found that MM cells frequently showed downregulation of LIM-domain protein AJUBA, a binding partner of large tumor suppressor type 2 (LATS2), which is one of the last-step kinases of the NF2-Hippo pathway. Although loss of AJUBA expression was independent of the alteration status of other Hippo pathway components, MM cell lines with AJUBA inactivation showed a more dephosphorylated (activated) level of YAP. Immunohistochemical analysis showed frequent downregulation of AJUBA in primary MMs, which was associated with YAP constitutive activation. We found that AJUBA transduction into MM cells significantly suppressed promoter activities of YAP-target genes, and the suppression of YAP activity by AJUBA was remarkably canceled by knockdown of LATS2. In connection with these results, transduction of AJUBA-expressing lentivirus significantly inhibited the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of the MM cells that harbored ordinary LATS family expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that AJUBA negatively regulates YAP activity through the LATS family, and inactivation of AJUBA is a novel key mechanism in MM cell proliferation.

  5. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  6. Aggregation and network formation in self-assembly of protein (H3.1) by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. B.; Farmer, B. L.

    2014-11-01

    Multi-scale aggregation to network formation of interacting proteins (H3.1) are examined by a knowledge-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation as a function of temperature and the number of protein chains, i.e., the concentration of the protein. Self-assembly of corresponding homo-polymers of constitutive residues (Cys, Thr, and Glu) with extreme residue-residue interactions, i.e., attractive (Cys-Cys), neutral (Thr-Thr), and repulsive (Glu-Glu), are also studied for comparison with the native protein. Visual inspections show contrast and similarity in morphological evolutions of protein assembly, aggregation of small aggregates to a ramified network from low to high temperature with the aggregation of a Cys-polymer, and an entangled network of Glu and Thr polymers. Variations in mobility profiles of residues with the concentration of the protein suggest that the segmental characteristic of proteins is altered considerably by the self-assembly from that in its isolated state. The global motion of proteins and Cys polymer chains is enhanced by their interacting network at the low temperature where isolated chains remain quasi-static. Transition from globular to random coil transition, evidenced by the sharp variation in the radius of gyration, of an isolated protein is smeared due to self-assembly of interacting networks of many proteins. Scaling of the structure factor S(q) with the wave vector q provides estimates of effective dimension D of the mass distribution at multiple length scales in self-assembly. Crossover from solid aggregates (D ˜ 3) at low temperature to a ramified fibrous network (D ˜ 2) at high temperature is observed for the protein H3.1 and Cys polymers in contrast to little changes in mass distribution (D ˜ 1.6) of fibrous Glu- and Thr-chain configurations.

  7. Zebrafish Mnx proteins specify one motoneuron subtype and suppress acquisition of interneuron characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seredick Steve D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise matching between motoneuron subtypes and the muscles they innervate is a prerequisite for normal behavior. Motoneuron subtype identity is specified by the combination of transcription factors expressed by the cell during its differentiation. Here we investigate the roles of Mnx family transcription factors in specifying the subtypes of individually identified zebrafish primary motoneurons. Results Zebrafish has three Mnx family members. We show that each of them has a distinct and temporally dynamic expression pattern in each primary motoneuron subtype. We also show that two Mnx family members are expressed in identified VeLD interneurons derived from the same progenitor domain that generates primary motoneurons. Surprisingly, we found that Mnx proteins appear unnecessary for differentiation of VeLD interneurons or the CaP motoneuron subtype. Mnx proteins are, however, required for differentiation of the MiP motoneuron subtype. We previously showed that MiPs require two temporally-distinct phases of Islet1 expression for normal development. Here we show that in the absence of Mnx proteins, the later phase of Islet1 expression is initiated but not sustained, and MiPs become hybrids that co-express morphological and molecular features of motoneurons and V2a interneurons. Unexpectedly, these hybrid MiPs often extend CaP-like axons, and some MiPs appear to be entirely transformed to a CaP morphology. Conclusions Our results suggest that Mnx proteins promote MiP subtype identity by suppressing both interneuron development and CaP axon pathfinding. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of transcription factors that act to distinguish CaP and MiP subtype identities. Our results also suggest that MiP motoneurons are more similar to V2 interneurons than are CaP motoneurons.

  8. An anticancer drug suppresses the primary nucleation reaction that initiates the production of the toxic Aβ42 aggregates linked with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habchi, Johnny; Arosio, Paolo; Perni, Michele; Costa, Ana Rita; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Cohen, Samuel I A; Müller, Martin B D; Linse, Sara; Nollen, Ellen A A; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide into pathogenic aggregates is linked to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although this observation has prompted an extensive search for therapeutic agents to modulate the concentration of Aβ or inhibit its aggregation, all clinical trials

  9. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Two Novel Motifs of Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus NSs Protein Are Responsible for RNA Silencing Suppression and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Hao; Hsiao, Weng-Rong; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Chun; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A J; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) is the RNA silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant. In this study, serial deletion and point-mutation mutagenesis of conserved regions (CR) of NSs protein were performed, and the silencing suppression function was analyzed through agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found two amino acid (aa) residues, H113 and Y398, are novel functional residues for RNA silencing suppression. Our further analyses demonstrated that H113 at the common epitope (CE) ((109)KFTMHNQ(117)), which is highly conserved in Asia type tospoviruses, and the benzene ring of Y398 at the C-terminal β-sheet motif ((397)IYFL(400)) affect NSs mRNA stability and protein stability, respectively, and are thus critical for NSs RNA silencing suppression. Additionally, protein expression of other six deleted (ΔCR1-ΔCR6) and five point-mutated (Y15A, Y27A, G180A, R181A and R212A) mutants were hampered and their silencing suppression ability was abolished. The accumulation of the mutant mRNAs and proteins, except Y398A, could be rescued or enhanced by co-infiltration with potyviral suppressor HC-Pro. When assayed with the attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash plants, the recombinants carrying individual seven point-mutated NSs proteins displayed symptoms much milder than the recombinant carrying the wild type NSs protein, suggesting that these aa residues also affect viral pathogenicity by suppressing the host silencing mechanism.

  11. Fps/Fes and Fer non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases regulate collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senis, Y A; Sangrar, W; Zirngibl, R A; Craig, A W B; Lee, D H; Greer, P A

    2003-05-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer proto-oncoproteins are structurally related non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases implicated in signaling downstream from cytokines, growth factors and immune receptors. We show that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in human and mouse platelets, and are activated following stimulation with collagen and collagen-related peptide (CRP), suggesting a role in GPVI receptor signaling. Fer was also activated following stimulation with thrombin and a protease-activated receptor4 (PAR4)-activating peptide, suggesting a role in signaling downstream from the G protein-coupled PAR4. There were no detectable perturbations in CRP-induced activation of Syk, PLCgamma2, cortactin, Erk, Jnk, Akt or p38 in platelets from mice lacking Fps/Fes, Fer, or both kinases. Platelets lacking Fps/Fes, from a targeted fps/fes null strain of mice, showed increased rates and amplitudes of collagen-induced aggregation, relative to wild-type platelets. P-Selectin expression was also elevated on the surface of Fps/Fes-null platelets in response to CRP. Fer-deficient platelets, from mice targeted with a kinase-inactivating mutation, disaggregated more rapidly than wild-type platelets in response to ADP. This report provides the first evidence that Fps/Fes and Fer are expressed in platelets and become activated downstream from the GPVI collagen receptor, and that Fer is activated downstream from a G-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, using targeted mouse models we show that deficiency in Fps/Fes or Fer resulted in disregulated platelet aggregation and disaggregation, demonstrating a role for these kinases in regulating platelet functions.

  12. Suppression of interleukin-6-induced C-reactive protein expression by FXR agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songwen; Liu Qiangyuan; Wang Juan; Harnish, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a human acute-phase protein, is a risk factor for future cardiovascular events and exerts direct pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, plays an essential role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we report that two synthetic FXR agonists, WAY-362450 and GW4064, suppressed interleukin-6-induced CRP expression in human Hep3B hepatoma cells. Knockdown of FXR by short interfering RNA attenuated the inhibitory effect of the FXR agonists and also increased the ability of interleukin-6 to induce CRP production. Furthermore, treatment of wild type C57BL/6 mice with the FXR agonist, WAY-362450, attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A3 mRNA levels in the liver, whereas no effect was observed in FXR knockout mice. These data provide new evidence for direct anti-inflammatory properties of FXR.

  13. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Extracellular vesicle-derived protein from Bifidobacterium longum alleviates food allergy through mast cell suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Jang, Min Seong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Moon, Sook Jin; Yun, Chang Ho; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Seoh, Ju-Young; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Oh, Sung-Jong; Ham, Jun-Sang; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of food allergies has increased dramatically during the last decade. Recently, probiotics have been studied for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. We examined whether Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 and Enterococcus faecalis KACC 91532 have the capacity to suppress food allergies. B longum KACC 91563 and E faecalis KACC 91532 were administered to BALB/c wild-type mice, in which food allergy was induced by using ovalbumin and alum. Food allergy symptoms and various immune responses were assessed. B longum KACC 91563, but not E faecalis KACC 91532, alleviated food allergy symptoms. Extracellular vesicles of B longum KACC 91563 bound specifically to mast cells and induced apoptosis without affecting T-cell immune responses. Furthermore, injection of family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein, a main component of extracellular vesicles, into mice markedly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea in a mouse food allergy model. B longum KACC 91563 induces apoptosis of mast cells specifically and alleviates food allergy symptoms. Accordingly, B longum KACC 91563 and family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein exhibit potential as therapeutic approaches for food allergies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell-Permeable Parkin Proteins Suppress Parkinson Disease-Associated Phenotypes in Cultured Cells and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tam; Kim, Jaetaek; Ruley, H. Earl; Jo, Daewoong

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of complex etiology characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. Parkin, a tightly regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in both PD and Parkinsonian syndromes induced by acute exposures to neurotoxic agents. The present study assessed the potential of cell-permeable parkin (CP-Parkin) as a neuroprotective agent. Cellular uptake and tissue penetration of recombinant, enzymatically active parkin was markedly enhanced by the addition of a hydrophobic macromolecule transduction domain (MTD). The resulting CP-Parkin proteins (HPM13 and PM10) suppressed dopaminergic neuronal toxicity in cells and mice exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDH) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These included enhanced survival and dopamine expression in cultured CATH.a and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and protection against MPTP-induced damage in mice, notably preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells with enhanced dopamine expression in the striatum and midbrain, and preservation of gross motor function. These results demonstrate that CP-Parkin proteins can compensate for intrinsic limitations in the parkin response and provide a therapeutic strategy to augment parkin activity in vivo. PMID:25019626

  16. Predictions of RNA-binding ability and aggregation propensity of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Federico, 1985-

    2014-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control the fate of a multitude of coding and non-coding transcripts. Formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes fine-tunes regulation of post-transcriptional events and influences gene expression. Recently, it has been observed that non-canonical proteins with RNA-binding ability are enriched in structurally disordered and low-complexity regions that are generally involved in functional and dysfunctional associations. Therefore, it is possible that interaction...

  17. Disulfide scrambling in superoxide dismutase 1 reduces its cytotoxic effect in cultured cells and promotes protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Leinartaitė

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene coding for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 are associated with familiar forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. These mutations are believed to result in a "gain of toxic function", leading to neuronal degeneration. The exact mechanism is still unknown, but misfolding/aggregation events are generally acknowledged as important pathological events in this process. Recently, we observed that demetallated apoSOD1, with cysteine 6 and 111 substituted for alanine, is toxic to cultured neuroblastoma cells. This toxicity depended on an intact, high affinity Zn(2+ site. It was therefor contradictory to discover that wild-type apoSOD1 was not toxic, despite of its high affinity for Zn(2+. This inconsistency was hypothesized to originate from erroneous disulfide formation involving C6 and C111. Using high resolution non-reducing SDS-PAGE, we have in this study demonstrated that the inability of wild-type apoSOD1 to cause cell death stems from formation of non-native intra-molecular disulfides. Moreover, monomeric apoSOD1 variants capable of such disulfide scrambling aggregated into ThT positive oligomers under physiological conditions without agitation. The oligomers were stabilized by inter-molecular disulfides and morphologically resembled what has in other neurodegenerative diseases been termed protofibrils. Disulfide scrambling thus appears to be an important event for misfolding and aggregation of SOD1, but may also be significant for protein function involving cysteines, e.g. mitochondrial import and copper loading.

  18. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Sorting of a HaloTag protein that has only a signal peptide sequence into exocrine secretory granules without protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Yokoyama, Megumi; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu

    2013-11-15

    The mechanism involved in the sorting and accumulation of secretory cargo proteins, such as amylase, into secretory granules of exocrine cells remains to be solved. To clarify that sorting mechanism, we expressed a reporter protein HaloTag fused with partial sequences of salivary amylase protein in primary cultured parotid acinar cells. We found that a HaloTag protein fused with only the signal peptide sequence (Met(1)-Ala(25)) of amylase, termed SS25H, colocalized well with endogenous amylase, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Percoll-density gradient centrifugation of secretory granule fractions shows that the distributions of amylase and SS25H were similar. These results suggest that SS25H is transported to secretory granules and is not discriminated from endogenous amylase by the machinery that functions to remove proteins other than granule cargo from immature granules. Another reporter protein, DsRed2, that has the same signal peptide sequence also colocalized with amylase, suggesting that the sorting to secretory granules is not dependent on a characteristic of the HaloTag protein. Whereas Blue Native PAGE demonstrates that endogenous amylase forms a high-molecular-weight complex, SS25H does not participate in the complex and does not form self-aggregates. Nevertheless, SS25H was released from cells by the addition of a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, which also induces amylase secretion. These results indicate that addition of the signal peptide sequence, which is necessary for the translocation in the endoplasmic reticulum, is sufficient for the transportation and storage of cargo proteins in secretory granules of exocrine cells.

  20. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Strain-specific diversity of mucus-binding proteins in the adhesion and aggregation properties of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Parker, Mary L; Vibert-Vallet, Amandine; Bongaerts, Roy J; Roos, Stefan; Walter, Jens; Juge, Nathalie

    2010-11-01

    Mucus-binding proteins (MUBs) have been revealed as one of the effector molecules involved in mechanisms of the adherence of lactobacilli to the host; mub, or mub-like, genes are found in all of the six genomes of Lactobacillus reuteri that are available. We recently reported the crystal structure of a Mub repeat from L. reuteri ATCC 53608 (also designated strain 1063), revealing an unexpected recognition of immunoglobulins. In the current study, we explored the diversity of the ATCC 53608 mub gene, and MUB expression levels in a large collection of L. reuteri strains isolated from a range of vertebrate hosts. This analysis revealed that the MUB was only detectable on the cell surface of two highly related isolates when using antibodies that were raised against the protein. There was considerable variation in quantitative mucus adhesion in vitro among L. reuteri strains, and mucus binding showed excellent correlation with the presence of cell-surface ATCC 53608 MUB. ATCC 53608 MUB presence was further highly associated with the autoaggregation of L. reuteri strains in washed cell suspensions, suggesting a novel role of this surface protein in cell aggregation. We also characterized MUB expression in representative L. reuteri strains. This analysis revealed that one derivative of strain 1063 was a spontaneous mutant that expressed a C-terminally truncated version of MUB. This frameshift mutation was caused by the insertion of a duplicated 13 nt sequence at position 4867 nt in the mub gene, producing a truncated MUB also lacking the C-terminal LPxTG region, and thus unable to anchor to the cell wall. This mutant, designated 1063N (mub-4867(i)), displayed low mucus-binding and aggregation capacities, further providing evidence for the contribution of cell-wall-anchored MUB to such phenotypes. In conclusion, this study provided novel information on the functional attributes of MUB in L. reuteri, and further demonstrated that MUB and MUB-like proteins

  2. Suppressing Type 2C Protein Phosphatases Alters Fruit Ripening and the Stress Response in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Qian; Jiang, Li; Kai, Wenbin; Liang, Bin; Wang, Juan; Du, Yangwei; Zhai, Xiawan; Wang, Jieling; Zhang, Yingqi; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Lusheng; Leng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Although ABA signaling has been widely studied in Arabidopsis, the roles of core ABA signaling components in fruit remain poorly understood. Herein, we characterize SlPP2C1, a group A type 2C protein phosphatase that negatively regulates ABA signaling and fruit ripening in tomato. The SlPP2C1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm close to AtAHG3/AtPP2CA. The SlPP2C1 gene was expressed in all tomato tissues throughout development, particularly in flowers and fruits, and it was up-regulated by dehydration and ABA treatment. SlPP2C1 expression in fruits was increased at 30 d after full bloom and peaked at the B + 1 stage. Suppression of SlPP2C1 expression significantly accelerated fruit ripening which was associated with higher levels of ABA signaling genes that are reported to alter the expression of fruit ripening genes involved in ethylene release and cell wall catabolism. SlPP2C1-RNAi (RNA interference) led to increased endogenous ABA accumulation and advanced release of ethylene in transgenic fruits compared with wild-type (WT) fruits. SlPP2C1-RNAi also resulted in abnormal flowers and obstructed the normal abscission of pedicels. SlPP2C1-RNAi plants were hypersensitized to ABA, and displayed delayed seed germination and primary root growth, and increased resistance to drought stress compared with WT plants. These results demonstrated that SlPP2C1 is a functional component in the ABA signaling pathway which participates in fruit ripening, ABA responses and drought tolerance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Olopatadine Suppresses the Migration of THP-1 Monocytes Induced by S100A12 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine is an antiallergic drug with histamine H 1 receptor antagonistic activity. Recently, olopatadine has been shown to bind to S100A12 which is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, and exerts multiple proinflammatory activities including chemotaxis for monocytes and neutrophils. In this study, we examined the possibility that the interaction of olopatadine with S100A12 inhibits the proinflammatory effects of S100A12. Pretreatment of olopatadine with S100A12 reduced migration of THP-1, a monocyte cell line, induced by S100A12 alone, but did not affect recombinant human regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES-induced migration. Amlexanox, which also binds to S100A12, inhibited the THP-1 migration induced by S100A12. However, ketotifen, another histamine H 1 receptor antagonist, had little effect on the activity of S100A12. These results suggest that olopatadine has a new mechanism of action, that is, suppression of the function of S100A12, in addition to histamine H 1 receptor antagonistic activity.

  4. Probing amyloid protein aggregation with optical superresolution methods: from the test tube to models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Clemens F; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S

    2016-10-01

    The misfolding and self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins into insoluble amyloid structures are central to many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Optical imaging of this self-assembly process in vitro and in cells is revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind these devastating conditions. In contrast to conventional biophysical methods, optical imaging and, in particular, optical superresolution imaging, permits the dynamic investigation of the molecular self-assembly process in vitro and in cells, at molecular-level resolution. In this article, current state-of-the-art imaging methods are reviewed and discussed in the context of research into neurodegeneration.

  5. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO 2 /fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22 phox levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may enhance Cytokine

  6. Identification of proteins involved in the functioning of Riftia pachyptila symbiosis by Subtractive Suppression Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallier François H

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its discovery around deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Galapagos Rift about 30 years ago, the chemoautotrophic symbiosis between the vestimentiferan tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its symbiotic sulfide-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria has been extensively studied. However, studies on the tubeworm host were essentially targeted, biochemical approaches. We decided to use a global molecular approach to identify new proteins involved in metabolite exchanges and assimilation by the host. We used a Subtractive Suppression Hybridization approach (SSH in an unusual way, by comparing pairs of tissues from a single individual. We chose to identify the sequences preferentially expressed in the branchial plume tissue (the only organ in contact with the sea water and in the trophosome (the organ housing the symbiotic bacteria using the body wall as a reference tissue because it is supposedly not involved in metabolite exchanges in this species. Results We produced four cDNA libraries: i body wall-subtracted branchial plume library (BR-BW, ii and its reverse library, branchial plume-subtracted body wall library (BW-BR, iii body wall-subtracted trophosome library (TR-BW, iv and its reverse library, trophosome-subtracted body wall library (BW-TR. For each library, we sequenced about 200 clones resulting in 45 different sequences on average in each library (58 and 59 cDNAs for BR-BW and TR-BW libraries respectively. Overall, half of the contigs matched records found in the databases with good E-values. After quantitative PCR analysis, it resulted that 16S, Major Vault Protein, carbonic anhydrase (RpCAbr, cathepsin and chitinase precursor transcripts were highly represented in the branchial plume tissue compared to the trophosome and the body wall tissues, whereas carbonic anhydrase (RpCAtr, myohemerythrin, a putative T-Cell receptor and one non identified transcript were highly specific of the trophosome tissue. Conclusion Quantitative PCR

  7. Identification of proteins involved in the functioning of Riftia pachyptila symbiosis by Subtractive Suppression Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sophie; Hourdez, Stéphane; Lallier, François H

    2007-09-24

    Since its discovery around deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Galapagos Rift about 30 years ago, the chemoautotrophic symbiosis between the vestimentiferan tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its symbiotic sulfide-oxidizing gamma-proteobacteria has been extensively studied. However, studies on the tubeworm host were essentially targeted, biochemical approaches. We decided to use a global molecular approach to identify new proteins involved in metabolite exchanges and assimilation by the host. We used a Subtractive Suppression Hybridization approach (SSH) in an unusual way, by comparing pairs of tissues from a single individual. We chose to identify the sequences preferentially expressed in the branchial plume tissue (the only organ in contact with the sea water) and in the trophosome (the organ housing the symbiotic bacteria) using the body wall as a reference tissue because it is supposedly not involved in metabolite exchanges in this species. We produced four cDNA libraries: i) body wall-subtracted branchial plume library (BR-BW), ii) and its reverse library, branchial plume-subtracted body wall library (BW-BR), iii) body wall-subtracted trophosome library (TR-BW), iv) and its reverse library, trophosome-subtracted body wall library (BW-TR). For each library, we sequenced about 200 clones resulting in 45 different sequences on average in each library (58 and 59 cDNAs for BR-BW and TR-BW libraries respectively). Overall, half of the contigs matched records found in the databases with good E-values. After quantitative PCR analysis, it resulted that 16S, Major Vault Protein, carbonic anhydrase (RpCAbr), cathepsin and chitinase precursor transcripts were highly represented in the branchial plume tissue compared to the trophosome and the body wall tissues, whereas carbonic anhydrase (RpCAtr), myohemerythrin, a putative T-Cell receptor and one non identified transcript were highly specific of the trophosome tissue. Quantitative PCR analyses were congruent with our libraries

  8. Measles virus C protein suppresses gamma-activated factor formation and virus-induced cell growth arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) produces two accessory proteins, V and C, from the P gene. These accessory proteins have been reported to contribute to efficient virus proliferation through the modulation of host cell events. Our previous paper described that Vero cell-adapted strains of MeV led host cells to growth arrest through the upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), and wild strains did not. In the present study, we found that C protein expression levels varied among MeV strains in infected SiHa cells. C protein levels were inversely correlated with IRF-1 expression levels and with cell growth arrest. Forced expression of C protein released cells from growth arrest. C-deficient recombinant virus efficiently upregulated IRF-1 and caused growth arrest more efficiently than the wild-type virus. C protein preferentially bound to phosphorylated STAT1 and suppressed STAT1 dimer formation. We conclude that MeV C protein suppresses IFN-γ signaling pathway via inhibition of phosphorylated STAT1 dimerization.

  9. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement for furcal perforation repair: a protein leakage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Hasan, Maryam; Shiezadeh, Vahab; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA), white MTA (WMTA), and both white and gray Portland cement as furcation perforation repair materials. A total of 120 human mandibular first molars were used. After root canal obturation and preparation of furcal perforations the specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. In groups A, B, C, and D furcation perforations were filled with WMTA, GMTA, white Portland cement, and type II Portland cement, respectively. Ten teeth were used as positive controls with no filling materials in the perforations and 10 teeth with complete coverage with two layers of nail varnish were used as negative controls. A protein leakage model utilizing 22% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used for evaluation. Leakage was noted when color conversion of the protein reagent was observed. The controls behaved as expected. Leakage was found in the samples from group A (WMTA), group B (GMTA), and in the two other groups (white and gray Portland cement). There were no statistically significant differences between GMTA and WMTA or white and gray Portland cement, but significant differences were observed between the MTA groups and the Portland cement groups. It was concluded that Portland cements have better sealing ability than MTA, and can be recommended for repair of furcation perforation if the present results are supported by other in vivo and in vitro studies.

  10. Paradoxical Acceleration of Dithiothreitol-Induced Aggregation of Insulin in the Presence of a Chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kurganov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of dithiothreitol (DTT-induced aggregation of human recombinant insulin and the effect of α-crystallin, a representative of the family of small heat shock proteins, on the aggregation process have been studied using dynamic light scattering technique. Analysis of the distribution of the particles by size measured in the course of aggregation showed that the initial stage of the aggregation process was the stage of formation of the start aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh of about 90 nm. When studying the effect of α-crystallin on the rate of DTT-induced aggregation of insulin, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of α-crystallin dramatically accelerated the aggregation process, whereas high concentrations of α-crystallin suppressed insulin aggregation. In the present study, at the molar stoichiometric ratio (insulin:α-crystallin less than 1:0.5, a pronounced accelerating effect of α-crystallin was observed; whereas a ratio exceeding the value of 1:0.6 caused suppression of insulin aggregation. The mechanisms underlying the dual effect of α-crystallin have been proposed. It is assumed that heterogeneous nucleation occurring on the surface of the α-crystallin particle plays the key role in the paradoxical acceleration of insulin aggregation by α-crystallin that may provide an alternative biologically significant pathway of the aggregation process.

  11. Self-assembly of caseinomacropeptide as a potential key mechanism in the formation of visible storage induced aggregates in acidic whey protein isolate dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Nanna Stengaard; Jensen, Hanne Bak; Thu Le, Thao Thi

    2015-01-01

    Visible aggregates formed during storage in acidic whey protein isolate (WPI) dispersions represent a challenge to the beverage industry. Batch-to-batch variations are observed that prevents consistent quality and shelf-life prediction. Heat-treatment of WPI dispersions at 120°C for 20s instead...

  12. Three genes for mitochondrial proteins suppress null-mutations in both Afg3 and Rca1 when over-expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rep, M; Nooy, J; Guélin, E; Grivell, L A

    1996-08-01

    The AFG3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with ATP-dependent protease activity. To gain more insight into the function of this protein, multi-copy suppressors of an afg3-null mutation were isolated. Three genes were found that restored partial growth on non-fermentable carbon sources, all of which affect the biogenesis of respiratory competent mitochondria: PIM1(LON) encodes a matrix-localized ATP-dependent protease involved in the turnover of matrix proteins; OXA1(PET1402) encodes a putative mitochondrial inner membrane protein involved in the biogenesis of the respiratory chain; and MBA1 encodes a mitochondrial protein required for optimal respiratory growth. All three genes also suppressed a null mutation in a related gene, RCA1, as well as in the combination of afg3- and rca1-null.

  13. Amyloid fibril formation in vitro from halophilic metal binding protein: Its high solubility and reversibility minimized formation of amorphous protein aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yuhei; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Tokunaga, Masao; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic proteins are characterized by high net negative charges and relatively small fraction of hydrophobic amino acids, rendering them aggregation resistant. These properties are also shared by histidine-rich metal binding protein (HP) from moderate halophile, Chromohalobacter salexigens, used in this study. Here, we examined how halophilic proteins form amyloid fibrils in vitro. His-tagged HP, incubated at pH 2.0 and 58°C, readily formed amyloid fibrils, as observed by thioflavin fluorescence, CD spectra, and transmission or atomic force microscopies. Under these low-pH harsh conditions, however, His-HP was promptly hydrolyzed to smaller peptides most likely responsible for rapid formation of amyloid fibril. Three major acid-hydrolyzed peptides were isolated from fibrils and turned out to readily form fibrils. The synthetic peptides predicted to form fibrils in these peptide sequences by Waltz software also formed fibrils. Amyloid fibril was also readily formed from full-length His-HP when incubated with 10–20% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol at pH 7.8 and 25°C without peptide bond cleavage. PMID:24038709

  14. Endoglin-mediated suppression of prostate cancer invasion is regulated by activin and bone morphogenetic protein type II receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Breen

    Full Text Available Mortality from prostate cancer (PCa is due to the formation of metastatic disease. Understanding how that process is regulated is therefore critical. We previously demonstrated that endoglin, a type III transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily receptor, suppresses human PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion was also shown by us to be dependent upon the type I TGFβ receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2, and the downstream effector, Smad1. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that two type II TGFβ receptors are required for endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion: activin A receptor type IIA (ActRIIA and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII. Downstream signaling through these receptors is predominantly mediated by Smad1. ActRIIA stimulates Smad1 activation in a kinase-dependent manner, and this is required for suppression of invasion. In contrast BMPRII regulates Smad1 in a biphasic manner, promoting Smad1 signaling through its kinase domain but suppressing it through its cytoplasmic tail. BMPRII's Smad1-regulatory effects are dependent upon its expression level. Further, its ability to suppress invasion is independent of either kinase function or tail domain. We demonstrate that ActRIIA and BMPRII physically interact, and that each also interacts with endoglin. The current findings demonstrate that both BMPRII and ActRIIA are necessary for endoglin-mediated suppression of human PCa cell invasion, that they have differential effects on Smad1 signaling, that they make separate contributions to regulation of invasion, and that they functionally and physically interact.

  15. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Whey protein isolate modified by transglutaminase aggregation and emulsion gel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Chen, Chong; Liu, Mujun; Yu, Guoping; Cai, Xinghang; Guo, Peipei; Yao, Yuxiu; Mei, Sijie

    2015-07-01

    Whey protein isolate and commercial soybean salad oil were used to produce the WPI emulsion dispersions. The properties of TG-catalyzed emulsion gelation produced from WPI emulsion dispersions were investigated by the amount of TG, temperature, pH and reaction time. Specifically, the texture properties (hardness and springiness), water-holding capacity and rheological properties (G' and G") were assessed. The result of Orthogonal tests showed WPI emulsion can form better hardness and springiness gel when the ratio of TG and WPI was 20U/g, pH 7.5, treatment temperature and time were 50°C and 3 h, respectively. The microstructure of TG emulsion gels was more compact, gel pore is smaller, distribution more uniform, the oil droplets size smaller compared with untreated emulsion gels. Compared to the control of rheological properties, G' and G" were significantly increased and G' > G", results showed that the gel was solid state, and TG speeded up the process of gelation.

  17. A Protein Aggregation Inhibitor, Leuco-Methylthioninium Bis(Hydromethanesulfonate, Decreases α-Synuclein Inclusions in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Synucleinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Schwab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (α-Syn aggregation is a pathological feature of synucleinopathies, neurodegenerative disorders that include Parkinson’s disease (PD. We have tested whether N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-10H-phenothiazine-3,7-diaminium bis(hydromethanesulfonate (leuco-methylthioninium bis(hydromethanesulfonate; LMTM, a tau aggregation inhibitor, affects α-Syn aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Both cellular and transgenic models in which the expression of full-length human α-Syn (h-α-Syn fused with a signal sequence peptide to promote α-Syn aggregation were used. Aggregated α-Syn was observed following differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells transfected with h-α-Syn. The appearance of aggregated α-Syn was inhibited by LMTM, with an EC50 of 1.1 μM, with minimal effect on h-α-Syn mRNA levels being observed. Two independent lines of mice (L58 and L62 transgenic for the same fusion protein accumulated neuronal h-α-Syn that, with aging, developed into fibrillary inclusions characterized by both resistance to proteinase K (PK-cleavage and their ability to bind thiazin red. There was a significant decrease in α-Syn-positive neurons in multiple brain regions following oral treatment of male and female mice with LMTM administered daily for 6 weeks at 5 and 15 mg MT/kg. The early aggregates of α-Syn and the late-stage fibrillar inclusions were both susceptible to inhibition by LMTM, a treatment that also resulted in the rescue of movement and anxiety-related traits in these mice. The results suggest that LMTM may provide a potential disease modification therapy in PD and other synucleinopathies through the inhibition of α-Syn aggregation.

  18. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-02

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  19. Myostatin inhibits eEF2K-eEF2 by regulating AMPK to suppress protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhao; Luo, Pei; Lai, Wen; Song, Tongxing; Peng, Jian; Wei, Hong-Kui

    2017-12-09

    Growth of skeletal muscle is dependent on the protein synthesis, and the rate of protein synthesis is mainly regulated in the stage of translation initiation and elongation. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, is a negative regulator of protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes was incubated with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3 μg/mL myostatin recombinant protein, and then we detected the rates of protein synthesis by the method of SUnSET. We found that high concentrations of myostatin (2 and 3 μg/mL) inhibited protein synthesis by blocking mTOR and eEF2K-eEF2 pathway, while low concentration of myostatin (0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL) regulated eEF2K-eEF2 pathway activity to block protein synthesis without affected mTOR pathway, and myostatin inhibited eEF2K-eEF2 pathway through regulating AMPK pathway to suppress protein synthesis. It provided a new mechanism for myostatin regulating protein synthesis and treating muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation decreases invasive and metastatic potentials of B16-BL6 melanoma cells by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1997-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) appears to be involved in the activation of signaling during cell attachment to and spreading on extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic cascade. To verify the assumption that PTK inhibitors might impair ECM signaling and prevent cancer metastasis, the highly metastatic B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to the PTK inhibitor genistein for 3 days. The ability of the cells to invade through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and to establish experimental pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 mice decreased after genistein exposure. The genistein-treated cells were also prevented from attaching to Matrigel and spread extremely poorly on the ECM substratum. Immunoblot analysis showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD protein in response to cell spreading on Matrigel was suppressed in the genistein-treated cells. Adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents the earlier and specific event in the activation of ECM signaling, so this result implied ECM signaling was impaired in the treated cells. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were located at the pericytoplasms of well-spread cells, but not at the periphery of poorly spread genistein-treated cells. Therefore, this paper suggests that genistein might impair ECM signaling and subsequently prevent cancer cells from spreading well and invading or establishing metastasis through the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PTKs and adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play a role in the control of invasion and metastasis.

  1. Confined laminar flow on a super-hydrophobic surface drives the initial stages of tau protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola

    2018-02-01

    Super-hydrophobic micro-patterned surfaces are ideal substrates for the controlled self-assembly and substrate-free characterization of biological molecules. In this device, the tailored surface supports a micro-volume drop containing the molecules of interest. While the quasi-spherical drop is evaporating under controlled conditions, its de-wetting direction is guided by the pillared microstructure on top of the device, leading to the formation of threads between the neighboring pillars. This effect has been exploited here to elucidate the mechanism triggering the formation of amyloid fibers and oligomers in tau related neurodegenerative diseases. By using Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the fiber bridging the pillars contains β-sheets, a characteristic feature of amyloid aggregation. We propose that the combination of laminar flow, shear stress and molecular crowding taking place while the drop is evaporating on the SHMS, induces the reorganization of the tau protein secondary structure and we suggest that this effect could in fact closely mimic the actual mechanism occurring in the human brain environment. Such a straightforward technique opens up new possibilities in the field of self-assembly of biomolecules and their characterization by different methods (SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, TEM), in a single device.

  2. Confined laminar flow on a super-hydrophobic surface drives the initial stages of tau protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola; Allione, Marco; Marini, Monica; Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Das, Gobind; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    Super-hydrophobic micro-patterned surfaces are ideal substrates for the controlled self-assembly and substrate-free characterization of biological molecules. In this device, the tailored surface supports a micro-volume drop containing the molecules of interest. While the quasi-spherical drop is evaporating under controlled conditions, its de-wetting direction is guided by the pillared microstructure on top of the device, leading to the formation of threads between the neighboring pillars. This effect has been exploited here to elucidate the mechanism triggering the formation of amyloid fibers and oligomers in tau related neurodegenerative diseases. By using Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the fiber bridging the pillars contains β-sheets, a characteristic feature of amyloid aggregation. We propose that the combination of laminar flow, shear stress and molecular crowding taking place while the drop is evaporating on the SHMS, induces the reorganization of the tau protein secondary structure and we suggest that this effect could in fact closely mimic the actual mechanism occurring in the human brain environment. Such a straightforward technique opens up new possibilities in the field of self-assembly of biomolecules and their characterization by different methods (SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, TEM), in a single device.

  3. A novel fusion protein domain III-capsid from dengue-2, in a highly aggregated form, induces a functional immune response and protection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, Iris; Bernardo, Lidice; Gil, Lazaro; Pavon, Alekis; Lazo, Laura; Lopez, Carlos; Romero, Yaremis; Menendez, Ivon; Falcon, Viviana; Betancourt, Lazaro; Martin, Jorge; Chinea, Glay; Silva, Ricardo; Guzman, Maria G.; Guillen, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2009-01-01

    Based on the immunogenicity of domain III from the Envelope protein of dengue virus as well as the proven protective capacity of the capsid antigen, we have designed a novel domain III-capsid chimeric protein with the goal of obtaining a molecule potentially able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). After expression of the recombinant gene in Escherichia coli, the domain III moiety retained its antigenicity as evaluated with anti-dengue sera. In order to explore alternatives for modulating the immunogenicity of the protein, it was mixed with oligodeoxynucleotides in order to obtain particulated aggregates and then immunologically evaluated in mice in comparison with non-aggregated controls. Although the humoral immune response induced by both forms of the protein was equivalent, the aggregated variant resulted in a much stronger CMI as measured by in vitro IFN-γ secretion and protection experiments, mediated by CD4 + and CD8 + cells. The present work provides additional evidence in support for a crucial role of CMI in protection against dengue virus and describes a novel vaccine candidate against the disease based on a recombinant protein that can stimulate both arms of the acquired immune system.

  4. Interaction between holo transferrin and HSA-PPIX complex in the presence of lomefloxacin: An evaluation of PPIX aggregation in protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Zohreh; Iranfar, Hediye; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Mahboobeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2012-11-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) and holo transferrin (TF) are two serum carrier proteins that are able to interact with each other, thereby altering their binding behavior toward their ligands. During the course of this study, the interaction between HSA-PPIX and TF, in the presence and absence of lomefloxacin (LMF), was for the first time investigated using different spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study conformational changes of proteins. The RLS technique was utilized to investigate the effect of LMF on J-aggregation of PPIX, which is the first report of its kind. Our findings present clear-cut evidence for the alteration of interactions between HSA and TF in the presence of PPIX and changes in drug-binding to HSA and HSA-PPIX complex upon interaction with TF. Moreover, molecular modeling studies suggested that the binding site for LMF became switched in the presence of PPIX, and that LMF bound to the site IIA of HSA. The obtained results should give new insight into research in this field and may cast some light on the dynamics of drugs in biological systems.

  5. Heterologous expression of a plastid EF-Tu reduces protein thermal aggregation and enhances CO2 fixation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) following heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Momcilović, Ivana; Clemente, Thomas E; Nersesian, Natalya; Trick, Harold N; Ristic, Zoran

    2008-10-01

    Heat stress is a major constraint to wheat production and negatively impacts grain quality, causing tremendous economic losses, and may become a more troublesome factor due to global warming. At the cellular level, heat stress causes denaturation and aggregation of proteins and injury to membranes leading to alterations in metabolic fluxes. Protein aggregation is irreversible, and protection of proteins from thermal aggregation is a strategy a cell uses to tolerate heat stress. Here we report on the development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) events, expressing a maize gene coding for plastidal protein synthesis elongation factor (EF-Tu), which, compared to non-transgenic plants, display reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced heat injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation after exposure to heat stress. The results support the concept that EF-Tu ameliorates negative effects of heat stress by acting as a molecular chaperone. This is the first demonstration of the introduction of a plastidal EF-Tu in plants that leads to protection against heat injury and enhanced photosynthesis after heat stress. This is also the first demonstration that a gene other than HSP gene can be used for improvement of heat tolerance and that the improvement is possible in a species that has a complex genome, hexaploid wheat. The results strongly suggest that heat tolerance of wheat, and possibly other crop plants, can be improved by modulating expression of plastidal EF-Tu and/or by selection of genotypes with increased endogenous levels of this protein.

  6. Ubiquitin Accumulation on Disease Associated Protein Aggregates Is Correlated with Nuclear Ubiquitin Depletion, Histone De-Ubiquitination and Impaired DNA Damage Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ben Yehuda

    Full Text Available Deposition of ubiquitin conjugates on inclusion bodies composed of protein aggregates is a definitive cytopathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. We show that accumulation of ubiquitin on polyQ IB, associated with Huntington's disease, is correlated with extensive depletion of nuclear ubiquitin and histone de-ubiquitination. Histone ubiquitination plays major roles in chromatin regulation and DNA repair. Accordingly, we observe that cells expressing IB fail to respond to radiomimetic DNA damage, to induce gamma-H2AX phosphorylation and to recruit 53BP1 to damaged foci. Interestingly ubiquitin depletion, histone de-ubiquitination and impaired DNA damage response are not restricted to PolyQ aggregates and are associated with artificial aggregating luciferase mutants. The longevity of brain neurons depends on their capacity to respond to and repair extensive ongoing DNA damage. Impaired DNA damage response, even modest one, could thus lead to premature neuron aging and mortality.

  7. Protein kinase C involvement in the acetylcholine release reduction induced by amyloid-beta(25-35) aggregates on neuromuscular synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Marta; Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manuel M; Lanuza, Maria; Tomàs, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Using intracellular recording of the diaphragm muscle of adult rats, we have investigated the short-term functional effects of amyloid-beta (Abeta(25-35) peptide aggregates on the modulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC). The non-aggregated form of this peptide does not change the evoked and spontaneous transmitter release parameters on the neuromuscular synapse. However, the aggregated form of Abeta(25-35) acutely interferes with evoked quantal ACh release (approximately 40% reduction) when synaptic activity in the ex vivo neuromuscular preparation is maintained by low frequency (1 Hz) electrical stimulation. This effect is partially dependent on the activity of PKC that may have a permissive action. The end result of Abeta(25-35) is in opposition to the PKC-dependent maintenance effect on ACh release manifested in active synapses.

  8. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMoffett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs, including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll., are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genera Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense response in N. tabacum, and tobacco was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  9. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2015-08-11

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  10. Shortening of the Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 AggLb protein switches its activity from auto-aggregation to biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Miljković

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AggLb is the largest (318.6 kDa aggregation-promoting protein of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 responsible for forming large cell aggregates, which causes auto-aggregation, collagen binding and pathogen exclusion in vitro. It contains an N-terminus leader peptide, followed by six successive collagen binding domains, 20 successive repeats (CnaB-like domains and an LPXTG sorting signal at the C-terminus for cell wall anchoring. Experimental information about the roles of the domains of AggLb is currently unknown. To define the domain that confers cell aggregation and the key domains for interactions of specific affinity between AggLb and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM, we constructed a series of variants of the aggLb gene and expressed them in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGKP1-20 using a lactococcal promoter. All of the variants contained a leader peptide, an inter collagen binding-CnaB domain region (used to raise an anti-AggLb antibody, an anchor domain and a different number of collagen binding and CnaB-like domains. The role of the collagen binding repeats of the N-terminus in auto-aggregation and binding to collagen and fibronectin was confirmed. Deletion of the collagen binding repeats II, III and IV resulted in a loss of the strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities whereas the biofilm formation capability was increased. The strong auto-aggregation, collagen and fibronectin binding abilities of AggLb were negatively correlated to biofilm formation.

  11. NSs protein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus suppresses interferon production through different mechanism than Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Zheng, B; Wang, T; Li, A; Wan, J; Qu, J; Li, C H; Li, D; Liang, M

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a newly identified Phlebovirus that causes severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Our study demonstrated that SFTSV NSs functioned as IFN antagonist mainly by suppressing TBK1/IKKε-IRF3 signaling pathway. NSs interacted with and relocalized TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) into NSs-induced cytoplasmic structures and this interaction could effectively inhibit downstream phosphorylation and dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), resulting in the suppression of antiviral signaling and IFN induction. Functional sites of SFTSV NSs binding with TBK1 were then studied and results showed that NSs had lost their IFN-inhibiting activity after deleting the 25 amino acids in N-terminal. Furthermore, the mechanism of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) NSs blocking IFN-β response were also investigated. Preliminary results showed that RVFV NSs proteins could neither interact nor co-localize with TBK1 in cytoplasm, but suppressed its expression levels, phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 in the subsequent steps, resulting in inhibition of the IFN-β production. Altogether, our data demonstrated the probable mechanism used by SFTSV to inhibit IFN responses which was different from RVFV and pointed toward a novel mechanism for RVFV suppressing IFN responses.

  12. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Chen, Kenian; Jin, Yi; Turner, Jacob; Moore, Amanda J; Saito, Rintaro; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lin, Yin C; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2017-05-16

    Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling. E2A and HEB acted in ETPs to establish and maintain a T-cell-lineage-specific enhancer repertoire, including regulatory elements associated with the Notch1, Rag1, and Rag2 loci. On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of phospholipid biosynthesis by cerulenin in the condensed Single-Protein-Production (cSPP) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Lili; Inoue, Koichi; Tao, Yisong; Montelione, Gaetano T.; McDermott, Ann E.; Inouye, Masayori

    2011-01-01

    Using the single-protein-production (SPP) system, a protein of interest can be exclusively produced in high yield from its ACA-less gene in Escherichia coli expressing MazF, an ACA-specific mRNA interferase. It is thus feasible to study a membrane protein by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) directly in natural membrane fractions. In developing isotope-enrichment methods, we observed that 13 C was also incorporated into phospholipids, generating spurious signals in SSNMR spectra. Notable, with the SPP system a protein can be produced in total absence of cell growth caused by antibiotics. Here, we demonstrate that cerulenin, an inhibitor of phospholipid biosynthesis, can suppress isotope incorporation in the lipids without affecting membrane protein yield in the SPP system. SSNMR analysis of ATP synthase subunit c, an E. coli inner membrane protein, produced by the SPP method using cerulenin revealed that 13 C resonance signals from phospholipid were markedly reduced, while signals for the isotope-enriched protein were clearly present.

  14. Protein Colloidal Aggregation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Finding an optimal treatment for any disease is impossible until we fully understand its cause. We believe the central problem in obtaining this understanding is...

  15. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: NMR structure and dynamics of the membrane-embedded P56S-MSP causing ALS imply a common mechanism for aggregation-prone proteins to attack membranes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3zl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have increasingly been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging

  16. Three-in-one approach towards efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells: aggregation suppression, panchromatic absorption and resonance energy transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Patwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX and squarine (SQ2 have been used in a co-sensitized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC to apply their high absorption coefficients in the visible and NIR region of the solar spectrum and to probe the possibility of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET between the two dyes. FRET from the donor PPIX to acceptor SQ2 was observed from detailed investigation of the excited-state photophysics of the dye mixture, using time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements. The electron transfer time scales from the dyes to TiO2 have also been characterized for each dye. The current–voltage (I–V characteristics and the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements of the co-sensitized DSSCs reveal that FRET between the two dyes increase the photocurrent as well as the efficiency of the device. From the absorption spectra of the co-sensitized photoanodes, PPIX was observed to be efficiently acting as a co-adsorbent and to reduce the dye aggregation problem of SQ2. It has further been proven by a comparison of the device performance with a chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA added to a SQ2-sensitized DSSC. Apart from increasing the absorption window, the FRET-induced enhanced photocurrent and the anti-aggregating behavior of PPIX towards SQ2 are crucial points that improve the performance of the co-sensitized DSSC.

  17. Characterization of the RNA silencing suppression activity of the Ebola virus VP35 protein in plants and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yali; Cherukuri, Nil Celebi; Jackel, Jamie N; Wu, Zetang; Crary, Monica; Buckley, Kenneth J; Bisaro, David M; Parris, Deborah S

    2012-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a lethal hemorrhagic fever for which there is no approved effective treatment or prevention strategy. EBOV VP35 is a virulence factor that blocks innate antiviral host responses, including the induction of and response to alpha/beta interferon. VP35 is also an RNA silencing suppressor (RSS). By inhibiting microRNA-directed silencing, mammalian virus RSSs have the capacity to alter the cellular environment to benefit replication. A reporter gene containing specific microRNA target sequences was used to demonstrate that prior expression of wild-type VP35 was able to block establishment of microRNA silencing in mammalian cells. In addition, wild-type VP35 C-terminal domain (CTD) protein fusions were shown to bind small interfering RNA (siRNA). Analysis of mutant proteins demonstrated that reporter activity in RSS assays did not correlate with their ability to antagonize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR) or bind siRNA. The results suggest that enhanced reporter activity in the presence of VP35 is a composite of nonspecific translational enhancement and silencing suppression. Moreover, most of the specific RSS activity in mammalian cells is RNA binding independent, consistent with VP35's proposed role in sequestering one or more silencing complex proteins. To examine RSS activity in a system without interferon, VP35 was tested in well-characterized plant silencing suppression assays. VP35 was shown to possess potent plant RSS activity, and the activities of mutant proteins correlated strongly, but not exclusively, with RNA binding ability. The results suggest the importance of VP35-protein interactions in blocking silencing in a system (mammalian) that cannot amplify dsRNA.

  18. Effect of homogenisation in formation of thermally induced aggregates in a non- and low- fat milk model system with microparticulated whey proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celigueta Torres, Isabel; Nieto, Gema; Nylander, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    in the formation of protein aggregates were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the final complexes visualised by darkfield microscopy. Homogenisation of non-fat milk systems led to partial adsorption of caseins onto microparticles, independently of the type of microparticle. On the contrary...... are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer. Five MWP types......, homogenisation of low-fat milk resulted in preferential adsorption of caseins onto fat globules, rather than onto microparticles. Further heating of the milk, led to the formation of heat induced complexes with different sizes and characteristics depending on the type of MWP and the presence or not of fat...

  19. Natural proteasome inhibitor celastrol suppresses androgen-independent prostate cancer progression by modulating apoptotic proteins and NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dai

    Full Text Available Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC with constitutive NF-κB activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action remains elusive. In the current study, we aim to test the hypothesis that celastrol suppresses AIPC progression via inhibiting the constitutive NF-κB activity as well as modulating the Bcl-2 family proteins.We examined the efficacy of celastrol both in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the role of NF-κB in celastrol-mediated AIPC regression. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation in all three AIPC cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and CL1, with IC₅₀ in the range of 1-2 µM. Celastrol also suppressed cell migration and invasion. Celastrol significantly induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased sub-G1 population, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, celastrol promoted cleavage of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and activated the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. In addition, celastrol rapidly blocked cytosolic IκBα degradation and nuclear translocation of RelA. Likewise, celastrol inhibited the expression of multiple NF-κB target genes that are involved in proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis. Celastrol suppressed AIPC tumor progression by inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis, in PC-3 xenograft model in nude mouse. Furthermore, increased cellular IκBα and inhibited expression of various NF-κB target genes were observed in tumor tissues.Our data suggest that, via targeting the proteasome, celastrol suppresses proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by inducing the apoptotic machinery and attenuating constitutive NF-κB activity in AIPC both in vitro and in vivo. Celastrol as an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine could thus be

  20. ASH1L Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase through Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway in Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yin; Tianqian, Hui; Fanyuan, Yu; Haiyun, Luo; Xueyang, Liao; Jing, Yang; Chenglin, Wang; Ling, Ye

    2017-02-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation of dental pulp produced by a response to external stimuli. The response entails substantial cellular and molecular activities. Both genetic and epigenetic regulators contribute to the occurrence of pulpitis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this research, we studied the role of the absent, small, or homeotic-like (ASH1L) gene in the process of pulpitis. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Gene expression profiling was performed to assess the occurrence of epigenetic regulators. Pulp tissue from rat experimental pulpitis was subjected to immunofluorescence to detect the occurrence of ASH1L and trimethylation of lysine 4 histone 3 (H3K4me3). The presence of ASH1L in HDPCs that had been generated by TNF-α stimulation was analyzed by Western blot procedures and cellular immunofluorescence. Once detected, ASH1L was silenced through the use of specific small interfering RNA. The effects of ASH1L on the occurrence and operation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were then tested by analysis of quantitative polymerase chain reactions, Western blotting, and zymography. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to detect whether ASH1L and H3K4me3 were present in the promoter regions of MMPs. We then used Western blot procedures to examine the nuclear factor kappa B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) responses to the silencing of ASH1L. We also examined the specific pathway involved in ASH1L regulation of the MMPs. After stimulating HDPCs with TNF-α, ASH1L emerged as 1 of the most strongly induced epigenetic mediators. We found that TNF-α treatment induced the expression of ASH1L through the nuclear factor kappa B and MAPK signal pathways. ASH1L was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. TNF-α treatment was particularly active in inducing the accumulation of ASH1L in cellular cytoplasm. As is also consistent

  1. Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of hela cells through akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianmei; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Qi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein (CRBGP) as a member of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) superfamily was isolated from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica, the blood suckers in the marine. Previous studies showed CRBGP could suppress angiogenesis probably due to its ion channel blocking activity. Whether CRBGP could also affect the activity of tumor cells has not been reported yet. In this study, CRBGP suppressed the proliferation of Hela cells with an IC 50 of 6.7 μM by inducing apoptosis. Both microscopic observation and Western blot indicated that CRBGP was able to induce the nuclei shrinking, downregulate the protein level of BCL2 and caspase 3 as well as upregulate the level of BAX in Hela cells, suggested that CRBGP might induce apoptosis of Hela cells in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Furthermore, CRBGP could disturb F-actin organization, which would finally cause the Hela cells to lose their shape and to lessen their abilities on adhesion, migration and invasion. Finally, CRBGP was shown to reduce the phosphorylation level of Akt, which indicated that CRBGP might inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of Hela cells through Akt pathway. CRBGP, as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, also possesses the anti-tumor abilities which provided information on the effects and action manner of the other CRISPs. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(11):856-866, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Soluble polymorphic bank vole prion proteins induced by co-expression of quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase in E. coli and their aggregation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abskharon, Romany; Dang, Johnny; Elfarash, Ameer; Wang, Zerui; Shen, Pingping; Zou, Lewis S; Hassan, Sedky; Wang, Fei; Fujioka, Hisashi; Steyaert, Jan; Mulaj, Mentor; Surewicz, Witold K; Castilla, Joaquín; Wohlkonig, Alexandre; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2017-10-04

    The infectious prion protein (PrP Sc or prion) is derived from its cellular form (PrP C ) through a conformational transition in animal and human prion diseases. Studies have shown that the interspecies conversion of PrP C to PrP Sc is largely swayed by species barriers, which is mainly deciphered by the sequence and conformation of the proteins among species. However, the bank vole PrP C (BVPrP) is highly susceptible to PrP Sc from different species. Transgenic mice expressing BVPrP with the polymorphic isoleucine (109I) but methionine (109M) at residue 109 spontaneously develop prion disease. To explore the mechanism underlying the unique susceptibility and convertibility, we generated soluble BVPrP by co-expression of BVPrP with Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) in Escherichia coli. Interestingly, rBVPrP-109M and rBVPrP-109I exhibited distinct seeded aggregation pathways and aggregate morphologies upon seeding of mouse recombinant PrP fibrils, as monitored by thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopy. Moreover, they displayed different aggregation behaviors induced by seeding of hamster and mouse prion strains under real-time quaking-induced conversion. Our results suggest that QSOX facilitates the formation of soluble prion protein and provide further evidence that the polymorphism at residue 109 of QSOX-induced BVPrP may be a determinant in mediating its distinct convertibility and susceptibility.

  3. Hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric surface capable of effective suppression of protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, Yuri; Inoue, Naoko; Mihara, Erika; Kitayama, Yukiya; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi, E-mail: takeuchi@gold.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Three hydrophilic crosslinked polymers were examined for protein adsorption. • All polymers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins. • Poly(MMPC) showed the lowest adsorption for positively charged proteins. • Poly(MMPC) is able to reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins. - Abstract: We investigated the nonspecific adsorption of proteins towards three hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric thin layers prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-[N-(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]phosphorylcholine (MMPC), or 6,6′-diacryloyl-trehalose crosslinkers. Protein binding experiments were performed by surface plasmon resonance with six proteins of different pI values including α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme in buffer solution at pH 7.4. All of the obtained crosslinked-polymeric thin layers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins at pH 7.4 such as α-lactalbumin, BSA, and myoglobin. Nonspecific adsorption of positively charged proteins including ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme was the lowest for poly(MMPC). These results suggest poly(MMPC) can effectively reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins that are negatively or positively charged at pH 7.4. MMPC is a promising crosslinker for a wide range of polymeric materials requiring low nonspecific protein binding.

  4. Noncovalent PEGylation: different effects of dansyl-, L-tryptophan-, phenylbutylamino-, benzyl- and cholesteryl-PEGs on the aggregation of salmon calcitonin and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Seyrek, Emek; Martel, Sophie; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Arvinte, Tudor; Borchard, Gerrit

    2012-06-01

    Protein aggregation is a major instability that can occur during all stages of protein drug production and development. Protein aggregates may compromise the safety and efficacy of the final protein formulation. In this paper, various new excipients [phenylbutylamino-, benzyl-, and cholesteryl-polyethylene glycols (PEGs)] and their use for the reduction of aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) by noncovalent PEGylation are presented. The ability to suppress aggregation of sCT in various buffer systems at a 1:1 molar ratio was assessed by following changes in protein conformation and aggregation state over time. The results are compared with that of dansyl- and L-tryptophan (Trp)-PEGs described in earlier publications. Furthermore, the influence of the different PEG-based excipients on the aggregation of HEWL was measured. HEWL aggregation was completely suppressed in the presence of cholesteryl-PEGs (2 and 5 kDa), whereas deterioration was observed using benzyl-methoxy polyethylene glycols (mPEGs; 2 and 5 kDa). Phenylbutylamino- and Trp-mPEG (2 kDa), as well as dansyl-PEGs of different molecular weight prolonged the lag phase of aggregation and reduced the aggregation velocity of HEWL. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of the LHCII pigment-protein complex aggregation on photovoltaic properties of sensitized TiO2 solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Lin, Chen; Pawlak, Krzysztof; Reus, Michael; Holzwarth, Alfred R; Li, Jun

    2014-10-14

    A modified dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of a thin TiO2 barrier layer sensitized with natural trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) from spinach was used as a biomimetic model to study the effects of LHCII aggregation on the photovoltaic properties. The aggregation of individual trimers induced molecular reorganization, which dramatically increased the photocurrent. The morphology of small- and large-size LHCII aggregates deposited on a surface was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Enhanced LHCII immobilization was accomplished via electrostatic interaction with amine-functionalized photoanodes. The photocurrent responses of the assembled solar cells under illumination at three characteristic wavelength bands in the UV-Vis absorption spectra of LHCII solutions confirmed that a significant photocurrent was generated by LHCII photosensitizers. The enhanced photocurrent by large aggregated LHCII is shown to correlate with the quenching in the far-red fluorescence deriving from chlorophyll-chlorophyll charge transfer states that are effectively coupled with the TiO2 surface and thus inject electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. The large aggregated LHCII with more chlorophyll-chlorophyll charge transfer states is a much better sensitizer since it injects electrons more efficiently into the conduction band of TiO2 than the small aggregated LHCII mostly consisting of unquenched chlorophyll excited state. The assembled solar cells demonstrated remarkable stability in both aqueous buffer and acetonitrile electrolytes over 30 days.

  6. Effect of homogenisation in formation of thermally induced aggregates in a non- and low- fat milk model system with microparticulated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Isabel Celigueta; Nieto, Gema; Nylander, Tommy; Simonsen, Adam Cohen; Tolkach, Alexander; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate how different characteristics of whey protein microparticles (MWP) added to milk as fat replacers influence intermolecular interactions occurring with other milk proteins during homogenisation and heating. These interactions are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer. Five MWP types with different particle characteristics were utilised and three heat treatments used: 85 °C for 15 min, 90 °C for 5 min and 95 °C for 2 min. Surface characteristics of the protein aggregates were expressed as the number of available thiol groups and the surface net charge. Intermolecular interactions involved in the formation of protein aggregates were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the final complexes visualised by darkfield microscopy. Homogenisation of non-fat milk systems led to partial adsorption of caseins onto microparticles, independently of the type of microparticle. On the contrary, homogenisation of low-fat milk resulted in preferential adsorption of caseins onto fat globules, rather than onto microparticles. Further heating of the milk, led to the formation of heat induced complexes with different sizes and characteristics depending on the type of MWP and the presence or not of fat. The results highlight the importance of controlling homogenisation and heat processing in yoghurt manufacture in order to induce desired changes in the surface reactivity of the microparticles and thereby promote effective protein interactions.

  7. Modeling and simulation of aggregation of membrane protein LAT with molecular variability in the number of binding sites for cytosolic Grb2-SOS1-Grb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Nag

    Full Text Available The linker for activation of T cells (LAT, the linker for activation of B cells (LAB, and the linker for activation of X cells (LAX form a family of transmembrane adaptor proteins widely expressed in lymphocytes. These scaffolding proteins have multiple binding motifs that, when phosphorylated, bind the SH2 domain of the cytosolic adaptor Grb2. Thus, the valence of LAT, LAB and LAX for Grb2 is variable, depending on the strength of receptor activation that initiates phosphorylation. During signaling, the LAT population will exhibit a time-varying distribution of Grb2 valences from zero to three. In the cytosol, Grb2 forms 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1. The 2:1 complex can bridge two LAT molecules when each Grb2, through their SH2 domains, binds to a phosphorylated site on a separate LAT. In T cells and mast cells, after receptor engagement, receptor phosphoyrlation is rapidly followed by LAT phosphorylation and aggregation. In mast cells, aggregates containing more than one hundred LAT molecules have been detected. Previously we considered a homogeneous population of trivalent LAT molecules and showed that for a range of Grb2, SOS1 and LAT concentrations, an equilibrium theory for LAT aggregation predicts the formation of a gel-like phase comprising a very large aggregate (superaggregate. We now extend this theory to investigate the effects of a distribution of Grb2 valence in the LAT population on the formation of LAT aggregates and superaggregate and use stochastic simulations to calculate the fraction of the total LAT population in the superaggregate.

  8. Theobromine suppresses adipogenesis through enhancement of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β degradation by adenosine receptor A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takakazu; Watanabe, Shun; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Katayama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Soichiro; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-12-01

    Theobromine, a methylxanthine derived from cacao beans, reportedly has various health-promoting properties but molecular mechanism by which effects of theobromine on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the anti-adipogenic effect of theobromine in vitro and in vivo. ICR mice (4week-old) were administered with theobromine (0.1g/kg) for 7days. Theobromine administration attenuated gains in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights in mice and suppressed expression of adipogenic-associated genes in mouse adipose tissue. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, theobromine caused degradation of C/EBPβ protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Pull down assay showed that theobromine selectively interacts with adenosine receptor A1 (AR1), and AR1 knockdown inhibited theobromine-induced C/EBPβ degradation. Theobromine increased sumoylation of C/EBPβ at Lys133. Expression of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease 2 (SENP2) gene, coding for a desumoylation enzyme, was suppressed by theobromine. In vivo knockdown studies showed that AR1 knockdown in mice attenuated the anti-adipogenic effects of theobromine in younger mice. Theobromine suppresses adipocyte differentiation and induced C/EBPβ degradation by increasing its sumoylation. Furthermore, the inhibition of AR1 signaling is important for theobromine-induced C/EBPβ degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous Hypoxia and Low Extracellular pH Suppress Overall Metabolic Rate and Protein Synthesis In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Singers Sørensen

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is characterized by regions of hypoxia and acidosis which are linked to poor prognosis. This occurs due to an aberrant vasculature as well as high rates of glycolysis and lactate production in tumor cells even in the presence of oxygen (the Warburg effect, which weakens the spatial linkage between hypoxia and acidosis.Five different human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SiHa, FaDuDD, UTSCC5, UTSCC14 and UTSCC15 were treated with hypoxia, acidosis (pH 6.3, or a combination, and gene expression analyzed using microarray. SiHa and FaDuDD were chosen for further characterization of cell energetics and protein synthesis. Total cellular ATP turnover and relative glycolytic dependency was determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and lactate synthesis rates and total protein synthesis was determined by autoradiographic quantification of the incorporation of 35S-labelled methionine and cysteine into protein.Microarray analysis allowed differentiation between genes induced at low oxygen only at normal extracellular pH (pHe, genes induced at low oxygen at both normal and low pHe, and genes induced at low pHe independent of oxygen concentration. Several genes were found to be upregulated by acidosis independent of oxygenation. Acidosis resulted in a more wide-scale change in gene expression profiles than hypoxia including upregulation of genes involved in the translation process, for example Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A, isoform 2 (EIF4A2, and Ribosomal protein L37 (RPL37. Acidosis suppressed overall ATP turnover and protein synthesis by 50%. Protein synthesis, but not total ATP production, was also suppressed under hypoxic conditions. A dramatic decrease in ATP turnover (SiHa and protein synthesis (both cell lines was observed when hypoxia and low pHe were combined.We demonstrate here that the influence of hypoxia and acidosis causes different responses, both in gene expression and in de

  10. Simultaneous Hypoxia and Low Extracellular pH Suppress Overall Metabolic Rate and Protein Synthesis In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Busk, Morten; Overgaard, Jens; Horsman, Michael R; Alsner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by regions of hypoxia and acidosis which are linked to poor prognosis. This occurs due to an aberrant vasculature as well as high rates of glycolysis and lactate production in tumor cells even in the presence of oxygen (the Warburg effect), which weakens the spatial linkage between hypoxia and acidosis. Five different human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SiHa, FaDuDD, UTSCC5, UTSCC14 and UTSCC15) were treated with hypoxia, acidosis (pH 6.3), or a combination, and gene expression analyzed using microarray. SiHa and FaDuDD were chosen for further characterization of cell energetics and protein synthesis. Total cellular ATP turnover and relative glycolytic dependency was determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and lactate synthesis rates and total protein synthesis was determined by autoradiographic quantification of the incorporation of 35S-labelled methionine and cysteine into protein. Microarray analysis allowed differentiation between genes induced at low oxygen only at normal extracellular pH (pHe), genes induced at low oxygen at both normal and low pHe, and genes induced at low pHe independent of oxygen concentration. Several genes were found to be upregulated by acidosis independent of oxygenation. Acidosis resulted in a more wide-scale change in gene expression profiles than hypoxia including upregulation of genes involved in the translation process, for example Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A, isoform 2 (EIF4A2), and Ribosomal protein L37 (RPL37). Acidosis suppressed overall ATP turnover and protein synthesis by 50%. Protein synthesis, but not total ATP production, was also suppressed under hypoxic conditions. A dramatic decrease in ATP turnover (SiHa) and protein synthesis (both cell lines) was observed when hypoxia and low pHe were combined. We demonstrate here that the influence of hypoxia and acidosis causes different responses, both in gene expression and in de novo

  11. GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 interacts with RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 and suppresses cell death and defense responses in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Plants use a variety of innate immune regulators to trigger cell death and defense responses against pathogen attack. We identified pepper (Capsicum annuum) GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (CaGRP1) as a RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 (CaPIK1)-interacting partner, based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation analyses as well as gene silencing and transient expression analysis. CaGRP1 contains an N-terminal RNA recognition motif and a glycine-rich region at the C-terminus. The CaGRP1 protein had DNA- and RNA-binding activity in vitro. CaGRP1 interacted with CaPIK1 in planta. CaGRP1 and CaGRP1-CaPIK1 complexes were localized to the nucleus in plant cells. CaPIK1 phosphorylated CaGRP1 in vitro and in planta. Transient coexpression of CaGRP1 with CaPIK1 suppressed the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response, accompanied by a reduced CaPIK1-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. The RNA recognition motif region of CaGRP1 was responsible for the nuclear localization of CaGRP1 as well as the suppression of the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response. CaGRP1 silencing in pepper conferred enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection; however, CaPIK1-silenced plants were more susceptible to Xcv. CaGRP1 interacts with CaPIK1 and negatively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defense responses by suppressing ROS accumulation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. ALS-linked mutant SOD1 proteins promote Aβ aggregates in ALS through direct interaction with Aβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja-Young; Cho, Hyungmin; Park, Hye-Yoon; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Kang, Seongman

    2017-11-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Aggregation of ALS-linked mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a hallmark of a subset of familial ALS (fALS). Recently, intracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) is detected in motor neurons of both sporadic and familial ALS. We have previously shown that intracellular Aβ specifically interacts with G93A, an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant. However, little is known about the pathological and biological effect of this interaction in neurons. In this study, we have demonstrated that the Aβ-binding region is exposed on the SOD1 surface through the conformational changes due to misfolding of SOD1. Interestingly, we found that the intracellular aggregation of Aβ is enhanced through the direct interaction of Aβ with the Aβ-binding region exposed to misfolded SOD1. Ultimately, increased Aβ aggregation by this interaction promotes neuronal cell death. Consistent with this result, Aβ aggregates was three-fold higher in the brains of G93A transgenic mice than those of non Tg. Our study provides the first direct evidence that Aβ, an AD-linked factor, is associated to the pathogenesis of ALS and provides molecular clues to understand common aggregation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, it will provide new insights into the development of therapeutic approaches for ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy.

  14. Rif1 acts through Protein Phosphatase 1 but independent of replication timing to suppress telomere extension in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedziora, Sylwia; Gali, Vamsi K; Wilson, Rosemary H C; Clark, Kate R M; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Donaldson, Anne D

    2018-05-04

    The Rif1 protein negatively regulates telomeric TG repeat length in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but how it prevents telomere over-extension is unknown. Rif1 was recently shown to control DNA replication by acting as a Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-targeting subunit. Therefore, we investigated whether Rif1 controls telomere length by targeting PP1 activity. We find that a Rif1 mutant defective for PP1 interaction causes a long-telomere phenotype, similar to that of rif1Δ cells. Tethering PP1 at a specific telomere partially substitutes for Rif1 in limiting TG repeat length, confirming the importance of PP1 in telomere length control. Ablating Rif1-PP1 interaction is known to cause precocious activation of telomere-proximal replication origins and aberrantly early telomere replication. However, we find that Rif1 still limits telomere length even if late replication is forced through deletion of nearby replication origins, indicating that Rif1 can control telomere length independent of replication timing. Moreover we find that, even at a de novo telomere created after DNA synthesis during a mitotic block, Rif1-PP1 interaction is required to suppress telomere lengthening and prevent inappropriate recruitment of Tel1 kinase. Overall, our results show that Rif1 controls telomere length by recruiting PP1 to directly suppress telomerase-mediated TG repeat lengthening.

  15. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  16. Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV 19K protein belongs to a class of cysteine rich proteins that suppress RNA silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Amanda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that the Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV 19K protein is a cysteine-rich protein (CRP and shares sequence homology with CRPs derived from furo-, hordei-, peclu- and tobraviruses. Since the hordei- and pecluvirus CRPs were shown to be pathogenesis factors and/or suppressors of RNA silencing, experiments were conducted to determine if the SBWMV 19K CRP has similar activities. The SBWMV 19K CRP was introduced into the Potato virus X (PVX viral vector and inoculated to tobacco plants. The SBWMV 19K CRP aggravated PVX-induced symptoms and restored green fluorescent protein (GFP expression to GFP silenced tissues. These observations indicate that the SBWMV 19K CRP is a pathogenicity determinant and a suppressor of RNA silencing.

  17. Is Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR) Gene Expression Involved in Breast Cancer Suppression by Dietary Soybean Protein?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Salil

    2006-01-01

    .... It has been established that women in Asian countries consume more soy protein than women in the United States and that the incidence of breast cancer in women in Asian countries is generally lower...

  18. Is Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR) Gene Expression Involved in Breast Cancer Suppression by Dietary Soybean Protein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Salil

    2004-01-01

    ...% casein and those of groups 3 and 4 received same diet containing 20% soybean protein. Animals of groups 2 and 4 received DMBA in sesame oil by gavage (15 mg per animal). Control animals (groups 1 and 3...

  19. Suppression of allergic reactions in ovalbumin-sensitized mice by yam storage proteins dioscorins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Jhen; Weng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2013-11-27

    To study the biomedical functions of dioscorins isolated from various species of Dioscorea , we investigated their antiallergic potential using an OVA-induced allergy mouse model. All the dioscorins suppressed allergic reactions by decreasing the serum IgE and histamine levels. The serum IFN-γ and IgG2a levels increased in all the dioscorin-treated mice. The spleen cells from the dioscorin-treated mice also exhibited an up-regulation of IFN-γ secretion in response to ConA stimulation. Although dioscorins did not affect the IgG1 levels, the IL-5 levels decreased to basal levels in mice treated with dioscorins of D. alata or D. japonica and in most of the lymphoid cells of the dioscorin-treated mice in response to ConA stimulation. The decrease of IgE and histamine levels was concomitant with an increase in IFN-γ and IgG2a levels and with a decrease in IL-5 levels, suggesting that dioscorins suppressed the OVA-induced allergic reactions, possibly through modulating an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response.

  20. GSK3 is required for rapalogs to induce degradation of some oncogenic proteins and to suppress cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Junghui; Wang, Xuerong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2015-04-20

    The single-agent activity of rapalogs (rapamycin and its analogues) in most tumor types has been modest at best. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. In this report, we have uncovered a critical role of GSK3 in regulating degradation of some oncogenic proteins induced by rapalogs and cell sensitivity to rapalogs. The basal level of GSK3 activity was positively correlated with cell sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to rapalogs. GSK3 inhibition antagonized rapamycin's growth inhibitory effects both in vitro and in vivo, while enforced activation of GSK3β sensitized cells to rapamycin. GSK3 inhibition rescued rapamcyin-induced reduction of several oncogenic proteins such as cyclin D1, Mcl-1 and c-Myc, without interfering with the ability of rapamycin to suppress mTORC1 signaling and cap binding. Interestingly, rapamycin induces proteasomal degradation of these oncogenic proteins, as evidenced by their decreased stabilities induced by rapamcyin and rescue of their reduction by proteasomal inhibition. Moreover, acute or short-time rapamycin treatment dissociated not only raptor, but also rictor from mTOR in several tested cell lines, suggesting inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Thus, induction of GSK3-dependent degradation of these oncogenic proteins is likely secondary to mTORC2 inhibition; this effect should be critical for rapamycin to exert its anticancer activity.

  1. Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation in frozen mAb formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Hair, Alison; Baker, Priti; Brych, Lejla; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hong; Cao, Wenjin; Hershenson, Susan; Ratnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-02-01

    Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Tissue-Specific Ablation of Prkar1a Causes Schwannomas by Suppressing Neurofibromatosis Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette N. Jones

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signaling events leading to Schwann cell tumor initiation have been extensively characterized in the context of neurofibromatosis (NF. Similar tumors are also observed in patients with the endocrine neoplasia syndrome Carney complex, which results from inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced protein kinase A activity, although the pathways leading to tumorigenesis are not well characterized. Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a in neural crest precursor cells (TEC3KO mice causes schwannomas with nearly 80% penetrance by 10 months. These heterogeneous neoplasms were clinically characterized as genetically engineered mouse schwannomas, grades II and III. At the molecular level, analysis of the tumors revealed almost complete loss of both NF proteins, despite the fact that transcript levels were increased, implying posttranscriptional regulation. Although Erk and Akt signaling are typically enhanced in NF-associated tumors, we observed no activation of either of these pathways in TEC3KO tumors. Furthermore, the small G proteins Ras, Rac1, and RhoA are all known to be involved with NF signaling. In TEC3KO tumors, all three molecules showed modest increases in total protein, but only Rac1 showed significant activation. These data suggest that dysregulated protein kinase A activation causes tumorigenesis through pathways that overlap but are distinct from those described in NF tumorigenesis.

  3. Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kimura, Kiminori; Chiyo, Tomoko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Tobita, Yoshimi; Tokunaga, Yuko; Yasui, Fumihiko; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Wakita, Takaji; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Mizuno, Kyosuke; Hayashi, Yukiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Matsushima, Kouji; Kohara, Michinori

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis), liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25), which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-))/MxCre((+/-)) mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor) TNF-α and (interleukin) IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  4. Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Sekiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV, is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25, which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-/MxCre((+/- mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor TNF-α and (interleukin IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.

  5. Nanoparticle Surface Specific Adsorption of Zein and Its Self-assembled Behavior of Nanocubes Formation in Relation to On-Off SERS: Understanding Morphology Control of Protein Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdeep; Banipal, Tarlok Singh; Kaur, Gurinder; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh

    2016-01-27

    Zein, an industrially important protein, is characterized in terms of its food and pharmaceutical coating applications by using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on Au, Ag, and PbS nanoparticles (NPs). Its specific surface adsorption behavior on Ag NPs produced self-assembled zein nanocubes which demonstrated on and off SERS activity. Both SERS characterization as well as nanocube formation of zein helped us to understand the complex protein aggregation behavior in shape controlled morphologies, a process with significant ramifications in protein crystallization to achieve ordered morphologies. Interestingly, nanocube formation was promoted in the presence of Ag rather than Au or PbS NPs under in situ synthesis and discussed in terms of specific adsorption. Zein fingerprinting was much more clear and enhanced on Au surface in comparison to Ag while PbS did not demonstrate SERS due to its semiconducting nature.

  6. Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.

    Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference

  7. La Crosse bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs serves to suppress the type I interferon system of mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakqori, Gjon; Delhaye, Sophie; Habjan, Matthias; Blair, Carol D; Sánchez-Vargas, Irma; Olson, Ken E; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Kohl, Alain; Kalinke, Ulrich; Weiss, Siegfried; Michiels, Thomas; Staeheli, Peter; Weber, Friedemann

    2007-05-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Bunyaviridae family that causes severe encephalitis in children. For the LACV nonstructural protein NSs, previous overexpression studies with mammalian cells had suggested two different functions, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate that mosquito cells persistently infected with LACV do not undergo apoptosis and mount a specific RNAi response. Recombinant viruses that either express (rLACV) or lack (rLACVdelNSs) the NSs gene similarly persisted and were prone to the RNAi-mediated resistance to superinfection. Furthermore, in mosquito cells overexpressed LACV NSs was unable to inhibit RNAi against Semliki Forest virus. In mammalian cells, however, the rLACVdelNSs mutant virus strongly activated the antiviral type I interferon (IFN) system, whereas rLACV as well as overexpressed NSs suppressed IFN induction. Consequently, rLACVdelNSs was attenuated in IFN-competent mouse embryo fibroblasts and animals but not in systems lacking the type I IFN receptor. In situ analyses of mouse brains demonstrated that wild-type and mutant LACV mainly infect neuronal cells and that NSs is able to suppress IFN induction in the central nervous system. Thus, our data suggest little relevance of the NSs-induced apoptosis or RNAi inhibition for growth or pathogenesis of LACV in the mammalian host and indicate that NSs has no function in the insect vector. Since deletion of the viral NSs gene can be fully complemented by inactivation of the host's IFN system, we propose that the major biological function of NSs is suppression of the mammalian innate immune response.

  8. Preparation of non-aggregated fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) by non-covalent coating with a block copolymer and proteins for enhancement of intracellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Woo; Lee, Seonju; Jang, Sangmok; Han, Kyu Young; Kim, Younggyu; Hyun, Jaekyung; Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are very promising fluorophores for use in biosystems due to their high biocompatibility and photostability. To overcome their tendency to aggregate in physiological solutions, which severely limits the biological applications of FNDs, we developed a new non-covalent coating method using a block copolymer, PEG-b-P(DMAEMA-co-BMA), or proteins such as BSA and HSA. By simple mixing of the block copolymer with FNDs, the cationic DMAEMA and hydrophobic BMA moieties can strongly interact with the anionic and hydrophobic moieties on the FND surface, while the PEG block can form a shell to prevent the direct contact between FNDs. The polymer-coated FNDs, along with BSA- and HSA-coated FNDs, showed non-aggregation characteristics and maintained their size at the physiological salt concentration. The well-dispersed, polymer- or protein-coated FNDs in physiological solutions showed enhanced intracellular uptake, which was confirmed by CLSM. In addition, the biocompatibility of the coated FNDs was expressly supported by a cytotoxicity assay. Our simple non-covalent coating with the block copolymer, which can be easily modified by various chemical methods, projects a very promising outlook for future biomedical applications, especially in comparison with covalent coating or protein-based coating.

  9. Application of a high-throughput relative chemical stability assay to screen therapeutic protein formulations by assessment of conformational stability and correlation to aggregation propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Joseph M; Shi, Shuai; Li, Yunsong; Semple, Andrew; Esposito, Jessica J; Yu, Shenjiang; Richardson, Daisy; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Shameem, Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an automated high-throughput relative chemical stability (RCS) assay was developed in which various therapeutic proteins were assessed to determine stability based on the resistance to denaturation post introduction to a chaotrope titration. Detection mechanisms of both intrinsic fluorescence and near UV circular dichroism (near-UV CD) are demonstrated. Assay robustness was investigated by comparing multiple independent assays and achieving r(2) values >0.95 for curve overlays. The complete reversibility of the assay was demonstrated by intrinsic fluorescence, near-UV CD, and biologic potency. To highlight the method utility, we compared the RCS assay with differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic scanning fluorimetry methodologies. Utilizing C1/2 values obtained from the RCS assay, formulation rank-ordering of 12 different mAb formulations was performed. The prediction of long-term stability on protein aggregation is obtained by demonstrating a good correlation with an r(2) of 0.83 between RCS and empirical aggregation propensity data. RCS promises to be an extremely useful tool to aid in candidate formulation development efforts based on the complete reversibility of the method to allow for multiple assessments without protein loss and the strong correlation between the C1/2 data obtained and accelerated stability under stressed conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. ZNF383, a novel KRAB-containing zinc finger protein, suppresses MAPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Lei; Wang Zhi; Zhu Chuanbing; Zhao Yulian; Yuan Wuzhou; Li Jing; Wang Yuequn; Ying Zhaochu; Li Yongqing; Yu Weishi; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2005-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are major components of pathways controlling embryogenesis, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell death. One of the most explored functions of MAPK signaling is the regulation of gene expression by direct or indirect phosphorylation and subsequent activation of transcription factors. In this article, we isolated a novel KRAB-related zinc finger gene named ZNF383 from an early embryo heart cDNA library. The cDNA of ZNF383 is 2220 bp, encoding a protein of 475 amino acids. The protein is conserved in evolution across different species. Northern blot analysis indicates that a 2.2 kb transcript specific for ZNF383 is detected in most of the examined human adult and embryonic tissues with a higher level in skeletal muscle. In COS-7 cells, ZNF383 protein is localized to nucleus and cytoplasm. ZNF383 is a transcription repressor when fused to Gal-4 DNA-binding domain and cotransfected with VP-16. Deletion analysis indicates that the KRAB box of ZNF383 is responsible for the transcriptional repressor activity. Overexpression of ZNF383 in cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE, suggesting that ZNF383 may act as a negative regulator in MAPK-mediated signaling pathways

  11. Schiff Base Metal Derivatives Enhance the Expression of HSP70 and Suppress BAX Proteins in Prevention of Acute Gastric Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Golbabapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg, and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg. After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg. The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  12. Schiff base metal derivatives enhance the expression of HSP70 and suppress BAX proteins in prevention of acute gastric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Soleimani, A F; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Schiff base complexes have appeared to be promising in the treatment of different diseases and disorders and have drawn a lot of attention to their biological activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the regulatory effect of Schiff base metal derivatives on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 and BAX in protection against acute haemorrhagic gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were assigned to 6 groups of 6 rats: the normal control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), the positive control (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg), and four Schiff base derivative groups named Schiff_1, Schiff_2, Schiff_3, and Schiff_4 (25 mg/kg). After 1 h, all of the groups received ethanol 95% (5 mL/kg) but the normal control received Tween 20 (Tween 20 5% v/v, 5 mL/kg). The animals were euthanized after 60 min and the stomachs were dissected for histology (H&E), immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis against HSP70 and BAX proteins. The results showed that the Schiff base metal derivatives enhanced the expression of HSP70 and suppressed the expression of BAX proteins during their gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats.

  13. Multifunctional roles of leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in suppressing host antiviral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingqi; Zhu, Zixiang; Zhang, Miaotao; Zheng, Haixue

    2015-10-28

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader protein (L(pro)) is a papain-like proteinase, which plays an important role in FMDV pathogenesis. L(pro) exists as two forms, Lab and Lb, due to translation being initiated from two different start codons separated by 84 nucleotides. L(pro) self-cleaves from the nascent viral polyprotein precursor as the first mature viral protein. In addition to its role as a viral proteinase, L(pro) also has the ability to antagonize host antiviral effects. To promote FMDV replication, L(pro) can suppress host antiviral responses by three different mechanisms: (1) cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ (eIF4G) to shut off host protein synthesis; (2) inhibition of host innate immune responses through restriction of interferon-α/β production; and (3) L(pro) can also act as a deubiquitinase and catalyze deubiquitination of innate immune signaling molecules. In the light of recent functional and biochemical findings regarding L(pro), this review introduces the basic properties of L(pro) and the mechanisms by which it antagonizes host antiviral responses.

  14. Assessment of protein solution versus crystal structure determination using spin- diffusion-suppressed NOE and heteronuclear relaxation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMaster, David M.

    1997-01-01

    A spin-diffusion-suppressed NOE buildup series has been measured for E. coli thioredoxin.The extensive 13C and 15N relaxation data previously reported for this protein allow for direct interpretation of dynamical contributions to the 1H-1H cross-relaxation rates for a large proportion of the NOE cross peaks. Estimates of the average accuracy for these derived NOE distances are bounded by 4% and 10%, based on a comparison to the corresponding X-ray distances. An independent fluctuation model is proposed for prediction of the dynamical corrections to 1H-1H cross-relaxation rates, based solely on experimental structural and heteronuclear relaxation data. This analysis is aided by the demonstration that heteronuclear order parameters greater than 0.6 depend only on the variance of the H-X bond orientation,independent of the motional model in either one- or two-dimensional diffusion (i.e., 1- S2 = 3/4 sin2 2 θσ). The combination of spin-diffusion-suppressed NOE data and analysis of dynamical corrections to 1H-1H cross-relaxation rates based on heteronuclear relaxation data has allowed for a detailed interpretation of various discrepancies between the reported solution and crystal structures

  15. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu

    2007-01-01

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation in an IκBα-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor IκB kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations

  16. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  17. Suppressive effects of a novel compound on interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Sakai

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive effect of ethyl O-(N-(pcarboxyphenyl-carbamoyl-mycophenolate(CAM was examined in interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU in rats. Lewis rats immunized with bovine IRBP were treated with various oral doses of CAM postimmunization. The degree of inflammation was assessed clinically each day and histologically on day 14 or day 20. Production of various cytokines and IRBP-specific antibody, as well as IRBP-specific proliferation response, was assessed. Complete inhibition of EAU in rats, both by clinical and histologic criteria, was achieved with 50 mg/kg CAM when administered daily for 14 days following IRBP immunization. Partial inhibition was observed at lesser doses of CAM. This CAM-mediated response was accompanied by diminished production of cytokines interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in IRBP-specific antibody production. Furthermore, administration of CAM either in the induction phase only (days 0–7 or in the effector phase only (days 9 or 11 to day 20 was also capable of suppressing EAU, as assessed histopathologically on day 20. We conclude that CAM is effective in suppressing EAU in rats and its mechanism of action appears to involve modulation of T cell function.

  18. Alteration of a recombinant protein N-glycan structure in silkworms by partial suppression of N-acetylglucosaminidase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kikuta, Kotaro; Kanematsu, Ayumi; Kondo, Sachiko; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kato, Koichi; Park, Enoch Y

    2017-09-01

    To synthesize complex type N-glycans in silkworms, shRNAs against the fused lobe from Bombyx mori (BmFDL), which codes N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) in the Golgi, was expressed by recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) in silkworm larvae. Expression was under the control of the actin promoter of B. mori or the U6-2 and i.e.-2 promoters from Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV). The reduction of specific GlcNAcase activity was observed in Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using the U6-2 promoter. In silkworm larvae, the partial suppression of BmFDL gene expression was observed. When shRNA against BmFDL was expressed under the control of U6-2 promoter, the Man 3 GlcNAc(Fuc)GlcNAc structure appeared in a main N-glycans of recombinant human IgG. These results suggested that the control of BmFDL expression by its shRNA in silkworms caused the modification of its N-glycan synthetic pathway, which may lead to the alteration of N-glycans in the expressed recombinant proteins. Suppression of BmFDL gene expression by shRNA is not sufficient to synthesize complex N-glycans in silkworm larvae but can modify the N-glycan synthetic pathway.

  19. Receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 suppresses gastric tumor progression through nuclear factor-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Zheng, X; Wan-Li, M; Ji-Ming, M; Xue-Qun, R

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activity is crucial for survival and proliferation of many kinds of malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). The receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) is known to regulate tumor development, whereas the underlined mechanism has not been described clearly. We analyzed expression of RACK1 in paired human GC samples by both real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Effects of RACK inhibition with small interfering RNA or its overexpression in cultured GC cell lines were evaluated in cell viabilities. NF-kB signaling was investigated using luciferase reporter assay and real-time PCR. RACK1 was significantly decreased in GC samples. Knockdown of RACK elevated GC cell viabilities, whereas overexpression of RACK1 suppressed tumorigenesis of GC cells. Importantly, NF-kB signaling was enhanced after RACK1 expression was inhibited, suggesting the negative regulation of the pro-oncogenic NF-kB activity by RACK1 might contribute to its tumor suppressor role in GC cells. Our results support that RACK1 suppresses gastric tumor progression through the NF-kB signaling pathway.

  20. ELISA for the core protein of the cartilage large aggregating proteoglycan, aggrecan: comparison with the concentrations of immunogenic keratan sulphate in synovial fluid, serum and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Larsen, F S; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    1994-01-01

    ELISA. The within-assay and between-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9-8.9% and 11.1-13.0%, respectively. The mean concentrations of core protein in synovial fluid, serum and urine were 76.4 micrograms/ml, 104.0 ng/ml and 81.0 ng/ml, respectively. In synovial fluids the concentrations were closely......Immunological assays for fragments of the cartilage large aggregating proteoglycan, aggrecan, have been widely used to monitor cartilage turnover. These assays have commonly employed the monoclonal keratan sulphate antibody, 5D4. Keratan sulphate, however, is present in many tissues and 5D4...

  1. Chitooligosaccharides suppress the level of protein expression and acetylcholinesterase activity induced by Abeta25-35 in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Sook; Kim, Se-Kwon; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2009-02-01

    Clinical applications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widespread in Alzheimer's sufferers in order to activate central cholinergic system and alleviate cognitive deficits by inhibiting the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. In this study, six kinds of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation were examined for their inhibitory effects against AChE. The 90-COSs exhibited potent AChE inhibitory activities compared to 50-COSs, while 90-MMWCOS (1000-5000 Da) in the 90-COSs showed the highest activity. Cell culture experiment revealed that 90-MMWCOS suppressed the level of AChE protein expression and AChE activity induced by Abeta(25-35) in PC12 cell lines.

  2. RB1CC1 Protein Suppresses Type II Collagen Synthesis in Chondrocytes and Causes Dwarfism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kita, Hiroko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations. PMID:22049074

  3. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Anneke H.; Los Reyes Jiménez, De Marta L.; Pouvreau, Laurice

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore

  4. Modulating the aggregation behaviour to restore the mechanical response of acid induced mixed gels of sodium caseinate and soy proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Reyes Jiménez, M. L. de los; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    Partial replacement of milk proteins with plant proteins is a challenge due to the reported negative effect on physical and sensory properties. Understanding of how the mechanical properties of acidified milk gels can be restored when 30% casein is replaced with soy proteins is therefore explored.

  5. HspB8 Participates in Protein Quality Control by a Non-chaperone-like Mechanism That Requires eIF2 alpha Phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carra, Serena; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation of mutated proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease. We previously reported that overexpression of the HspB8 . Bag3 chaperone complex suppresses mutated huntingtin aggregation via autophagy. Classically, HspB proteins are thought to act as

  6. Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Rost, J.-M.

    2018-02-01

    We review Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of a few Rydberg atoms exhibiting energy transport through collective eigenstates, considering isolated atoms or assemblies embedded within clouds of cold ground-state atoms. We classify Rydberg aggregates, and provide an overview of their possible applications as quantum simulators for phenomena from chemical or biological physics. Our main focus is on flexible Rydberg aggregates, in which atomic motion is an essential feature. In these, simultaneous control over Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, external trapping and electronic energies, allows Born-Oppenheimer surfaces for the motion of the entire aggregate to be tailored as desired. This is illustrated with theory proposals towards the demonstration of joint motion and excitation transport, conical intersections and non-adiabatic effects. Additional flexibility for quantum simulations is enabled by the use of dressed dipole-dipole interactions or the embedding of the aggregate in a cold gas or Bose-Einstein condensate environment. Finally we provide some guidance regarding the parameter regimes that are most suitable for the realization of either static or flexible Rydberg aggregates based on Li or Rb atoms. The current status of experimental progress towards enabling Rydberg aggregates is also reviewed.

  7. Calcium binding to beta-2-microglobulin at physiological pH drives the occurrence of conformational changes which cause the protein to precipitate into amorphous forms that subsequently transform into amyloid aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Using spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic methods, we demonstrate that calcium binds to beta-2-microglobulin (β2m under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength, in biological buffers, causing a conformational change associated with the binding of up to four calcium atoms per β2m molecule, with a marked transformation of some random coil structure into beta sheet structure, and culminating in the aggregation of the protein at physiological (serum concentrations of calcium and β2m. We draw attention to the fact that the sequence of β2m contains several potential calcium-binding motifs of the DXD and DXDXD (or DXEXD varieties. We establish (a that the microscopic aggregation seen at physiological concentrations of β2m and calcium turns into actual turbidity and visible precipitation at higher concentrations of protein and β2m, (b that this initial aggregation/precipitation leads to the formation of amorphous aggregates, (c that the formation of the amorphous aggregates can be partially reversed through the addition of the divalent ion chelating agent, EDTA, and (d that upon incubation for a few weeks, the amorphous aggregates appear to support the formation of amyloid aggregates that bind to the dye, thioflavin T (ThT, resulting in increase in the dye's fluorescence. We speculate that β2m exists in the form of microscopic aggregates in vivo and that these don't progress to form larger amyloid aggregates because protein concentrations remain low under normal conditions of kidney function and β2m degradation. However, when kidney function is compromised and especially when dialysis is performed, β2m concentrations probably transiently rise to yield large aggregates that deposit in bone joints and transform into amyloids during dialysis related amyloidosis.

  8. Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten, and fish protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...... studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......, while the GLU meal caused elevated levels of a number of unidentified hydroxy fatty acids and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Also reported are a number of markers of fish intake unique to the COD meal....

  9. Phage Lambda P Protein: Trans-Activation, Inhibition Phenotypes and their Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sidney; Erker, Craig; Horbay, Monique A.; Marciniuk, Kristen; Wang, Wen; Hayes, Connie

    2013-01-01

    The initiation of bacteriophage λ replication depends upon interactions between the oriλ DNA site, phage proteins O and P, and E. coli host replication proteins. P exhibits a high affinity for DnaB, the major replicative helicase for unwinding double stranded DNA. The concept of P-lethality relates to the hypothesis that P can sequester DnaB and in turn prevent cellular replication initiation from oriC. Alternatively, it was suggested that P-lethality does not involve an interaction between P and DnaB, but is targeted to DnaA. P-lethality is assessed by examining host cells for transformation by ColE1-type plasmids that can express P, and the absence of transformants is attributed to a lethal effect of P expression. The plasmid we employed enabled conditional expression of P, where under permissive conditions, cells were efficiently transformed. We observed that ColE1 replication and plasmid establishment upon transformation is extremely sensitive to P, and distinguish this effect from P-lethality directed to cells. We show that alleles of dnaB protect the variant cells from P expression. P-dependent cellular filamentation arose in ΔrecA or lexA[Ind-] cells, defective for SOS induction. Replication propagation and restart could represent additional targets for P interference of E. coli replication, beyond the oriC-dependent initiation step. PMID:23389467

  10. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including adherence and immunomodulation, thus contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis. Eap binding to host macromolecules is unusually promiscuous and includes matrix or matricellular proteins as well as plasma proteins. The structural basis of this promiscuity is poorly understood. Here, we show that in spite of the preferential location of the binding epitopes within triple helical regions in some collagens there is a striking specificity of Eap binding to different collagen types. Collagen I, but not collagen II, is a binding substrate in monomolecular form. However, collagen I is virtually unrecognized by Eap when incorporated into banded fibrils. By contrast, microfibrils containing collagen VI as well as basement membrane-associated networks containing collagen IV, or aggregates containing fibronectin bound Eap as effectively as the monomeric proteins. Therefore, Eap-binding to extracellular matrix ligands is promiscuous at the molecular level but not indiscriminate with respect to supramolecular structures containing the same macromolecules. In addition, Eap bound to banded fibrils after their partial disintegration by matrix-degrading proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinase 1. Therefore, adherence to matrix suprastructures by S. aureus can be supported by inflammatory reactions.

  11. Cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain protein CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation and protects from stress-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latonen, Leena; Jaervinen, Paeivi M.; Laiho, Marikki

    2008-01-01

    Members of the cysteine-rich protein (CRP) family are actin cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain proteins known to act in muscle cell differentiation. We have earlier found that CRP1, a founding member of this family, is transcriptionally induced by UV radiation in human diploid fibroblasts [M. Gentile, L. Latonen, M. Laiho, Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis provoked by UV radiation-induced DNA damage are transcriptionally highly divergent responses, Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (2003) 4779-4790]. Here we show that CRP1 is induced by growth-inhibitory signals, such as increased cellular density, and cytotoxic stress induced by UV radiation or staurosporine. We found that high levels of CRP1 correlate with differentiation-associated morphology towards the myofibroblast lineage and that expression of ectopic CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation. Following UV- and staurosporine-induced stresses, expression of CRP1 provides a survival advantage evidenced by decreased cellular death and increased cellular metabolic activity and attachment. Our studies identify that CRP1 is a novel stress response factor, and provide evidence for its growth-inhibitory and cytoprotective functions

  12. Secreted Clusterin protein inhibits osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by suppressing ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2018-05-01

    Secreted Clusterin (sCLU, also known as Apolipoprotein J) is an anti-apoptotic glycoprotein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, lipid transport, extracellular tissue remodeling and apoptosis. sCLU is expressed and secreted by mouse bone marrow-derived skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (mBMSCs), but its functional role in MSC biology is not known. In this study, we demonstrated that Clusterin mRNA expression and protein secretion in conditioned medium increased during adipocyte differentiation and decreased during osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Treatment of mBMSC cultures with recombinant sCLU protein increased cell proliferation and exerted an inhibitory effect on the osteoblast differentiation while stimulated adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated silencing of Clu expression in mBMSCs reduced adipocyte differentiation and stimulated osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of sCLU on the osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs was mediated by the suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. In conclusion, we identified sCLU as a regulator of mBMSCs lineage commitment to osteoblasts versus adipocytes through a mechanism mediated by ERK1/2 signaling. Inhibiting sCLU is a possible therapeutic approach for enhancing osteoblast differentiation and consequently bone formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppressing Receptor-Interacting Protein 140: a New Sight for Salidroside to Treat Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Ma, Zhanqiang; Zhu, Lingpeng; Jiang, Wenjiao; Wei, Tingting; Zhou, Rui; Luo, Fen; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Chunhua; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to detect the effect of salidroside (Sal) on cerebral ischemia and explore its potential mechanism. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to investigate the effects of Sal on cerebral ischemia. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, vehicle group, clopidogrel (7.5 mg/kg) group, Sal (20 mg/kg) group, and Sal (40 mg/kg) group. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to verify the protective effect of Sal in vitro. We also built the stable receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140)-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that Sal significantly reduces brain infarct size and cerebral edema. Sal could effectively decrease the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum of the MCAO rats and supernatant of I/R-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Immunohistochemical and Western blot results demonstrated that Sal inhibited RIP140-mediated inflammation and apoptosis in the MCAO rats and SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we further confirmed that RIP140/NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role by evaluating the protein expression in RIP140-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggested that Sal could be used as an effective neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemia due to its significant effect on preventing neuronal cell injury after cerebral ischemia both in vivo and in vitro by the inhibitions of RIP140-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

  14. The Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine Bay 38-7690 Induces Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Aggregates Associated with Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Bodies in Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Andrew D; Wolf, Jennifer J; Liu, Dandan; Gres, Anna T; Tang, Jing; Boschert, Kelsey N; Puray-Chavez, Maritza N; Pineda, Dallas L; Laughlin, Thomas G; Coonrod, Emily M; Yang, Qiongying; Ji, Juan; Kirby, Karen A; Wang, Zhengqiang; Sarafianos, Stefan G

    2018-04-25

    Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) are compounds that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication by modulating viral capsid assembly. While their biophysical effects on capsid assembly in vitro have been previously studied, the effect of HAP treatment on capsid protein (Cp) in individual HBV-infected cells remains unknown. We report here that the HAP Bay 38-7690 promotes aggregation of recombinant Cp in vitro and causes a time- and dose-dependent decrease of Cp in infected cells, consistent with previously studied HAPs. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis showed Cp aggregating in nuclear foci of Bay 38-7690-treated infected cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We found these foci to be associated with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs), which are structures that affect many cellular functions, including DNA damage response, transcription, apoptosis, and antiviral responses. Cp aggregation is not an artifact of the cell system used, as it is observed in HBV-expressing HepAD38 cells, in HepG2 cells transfected with an HBV-expressing plasmid, and in HepG2-NTCP cells infected with HBV. Use of a Cp overexpression vector without HBV sequences shows that aggregation is independent of viral replication, and use of an HBV-expressing plasmid harboring a HAP resistance mutation in Cp abrogated the aggregation, demonstrating that the effect is due to direct compound-Cp interactions. These studies provide novel insight into the effects of HAP-based treatment at a single-cell level. IMPORTANCE Despite the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, HBV remains a significant global health concern, with more than 240 million individuals chronically infected. Current treatments are highly effective at controlling viral replication and disease progression but rarely cure infections. Therefore, much emphasis is being placed on finding therapeutics with new drug targets, such as viral gene expression, covalently closed circular DNA formation and

  15. Genetic analysis of ectopic growth suppression during planar growth of integuments mediated by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enugutti, Balaji; Schneitz, Kay

    2013-01-02

    The coordination of growth within a tissue layer is of critical importance for tissue morphogenesis. For example, cells within the epidermis undergo stereotypic cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer (planar growth), thereby propagating the layered epidermal structure. Little is known about the developmental control that regulates such planar growth in plants. Recent evidence suggested that the Arabidopsis AGC VIII protein kinase UNICORN (UCN) maintains planar growth by suppressing the formation of ectopic multicellular protrusions in several floral tissues including integuments. In the current model UCN controls this process during integument development by directly interacting with the ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) protein, a member of the KANADI (KAN) family of transcription factors, thereby repressing its activity. Here we report on the further characterization of the UCN mechanism. Phenotypic analysis of flowers of ucn-1 plants impaired in floral homeotic gene activity revealed that any of the four floral whorls could produce organs carrying ucn-1 protrusions. The ectopic outgrowths of ucn integuments did not accumulate detectable signals of the auxin and cytokinin reporters DR5rev::GFP and ARR5::GUS, respectively. Furthermore, wild-type and ucn-1 seedlings showed similarly strong callus formation upon in vitro culture on callus-inducing medium. We also show that ovules of ucn-1 plants carrying the dominant ats allele sk21-D exhibited more pronounced protrusion formation. Finally ovules of ucn-1 ett-1 double mutants and ucn-1 ett-1 arf4-1 triple mutants displayed an additive phenotype. These data deepen the molecular insight into the UCN-mediated control of planar growth during integument development. The presented evidence indicates that UCN downstream signaling does not involve the control of auxin or cytokinin homeostasis. The results also reveal that UCN interacts with ATS independently of an ATS/ETT complex required for integument

  16. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  17. Lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B enhances the aggregate forming activity of exogenous α-synuclein fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tatebe, Harutsugu; Tokuda, Takahiko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The formation of intracellular aggregates containing α-synuclein (α-Syn) is one of the key steps in the progression of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Recently, it was reported that pathological α-Syn fibrils can undergo cell-to-cell transmission and form Lewy body-like aggregates. However, little is known about how they form α-Syn aggregates from fibril seeds. Here, we developed an assay to study the process of aggregate formation using fluorescent protein-tagged α-Syn-expressing cells and examined the aggregate forming activity of exogenous α-Syn fibrils. α-Syn fibril-induced formation of intracellular aggregates was suppressed by a cathepsin B specific inhibitor, but not by a cathepsin D inhibitor. α-Syn fibrils pretreated with cathepsin B in vitro enhanced seeding activity in cells. Knockdown of cathepsin B also reduced fibril-induced aggregate formation. Moreover, using LAMP-1 immunocytochemistry and live-cell imaging, we observed that these aggregates initially occurred in the lysosome. They then rapidly grew larger and moved outside the boundary of the lysosome within one day. These results suggest that the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is involved in triggering intracellular aggregate formation by α-Syn fibrils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Protease resistance of infectious prions is suppressed by removal of a single atom in the cellular prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Henning; Hornemann, Simone; Herrmann, Uli Simon; Zhu, Caihong; Dametto, Paolo; Li, Bei; Laferriere, Florent; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Pelczar, Pawel; Reimann, Regina Rose; Schwarz, Petra; Rushing, Elisabeth Jane; Wüthrich, Kurt; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to proteolytic digestion has long been considered a defining trait of prions in tissues of organisms suffering from transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Detection of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) still represents the diagnostic gold standard for prion diseases in humans, sheep and cattle. However, it has become increasingly apparent that the accumulation of PrPSc does not always accompany prion infections: high titers of prion infectivity can be reached also in the absence of protease resistant PrPSc. Here, we describe a structural basis for the phenomenon of protease-sensitive prion infectivity. We studied the effect on proteinase K (PK) resistance of the amino acid substitution Y169F, which removes a single oxygen atom from the β2-α2 loop of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). When infected with RML or the 263K strain of prions, transgenic mice lacking wild-type (wt) PrPC but expressing MoPrP169F generated prion infectivity at levels comparable to wt mice. The newly generated MoPrP169F prions were biologically indistinguishable from those recovered from prion-infected wt mice, and elicited similar pathologies in vivo. Surprisingly, MoPrP169F prions showed greatly reduced PK resistance and density gradient analyses showed a significant reduction in high-density aggregates. Passage of MoPrP169F prions into mice expressing wt MoPrP led to full recovery of protease resistance, indicating that no strain shift had taken place. We conclude that a subtle structural variation in the β2-α2 loop of PrPC affects the sensitivity of PrPSc to protease but does not impact prion replication and infectivity. With these findings a specific structural feature of PrPC can be linked to a physicochemical property of the corresponding PrPSc.

  19. Suppression of type I interferon production by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and degradation of CREB-binding protein by nsp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingzhan; Shi, Kaichuang; Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu

    2016-02-15

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are the major components of the innate immune response of hosts, and in turn many viruses have evolved to modulate the host response during infection. We found that the IFN-β production was significantly suppressed during PEDV infection in cells. To identify viral IFN antagonists and to study their suppressive function, viral coding sequences for the entire structural and nonstructural proteins were cloned and expressed. Of 16 PEDV nonstructural proteins (nsps), nsp1, nsp3, nsp7, nsp14, nsp15 and nsp16 were found to inhibit the IFN-β and IRF3 promoter activities. The sole accessory protein ORF3, structure protein envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) protein were also shown to inhibit such activities. PEDV nsp1 did not interfere the IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation but interrupted the enhanceosome assembly of IRF3 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) by degrading CBP. A further study showed that the CBP degradation by nsp1 was proteasome-dependent. Our data demonstrate that PEDV modulates the host innate immune responses by degrading CBP and suppressing ISGs expression. - Highlights: • PEDV modulates the host innate immune system by suppressing the type I interferon production and ISGs expression. • Ten viral proteins were identified as IFN antagonists, and nsp1 was the most potent viral IFN antagonist. • PEDV nsp1 did not interfere the IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation but interrupted the enhanceosome assembly of IRF3 and CREB-binding protein (CBP). • PEDV nsp1 caused the CBP degradation in the nucleus, which may be the key mechanism for PEDV-mediated IFN downregulation.

  20. JAK inhibitors suppress t(8;21) fusion protein-induced leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Miao-Chia; Peterson, Luke F.; Yan, Ming; Cong, Xiuli; Hickman, Justin H.; DeKelver, Russel C.; Niewerth, Denise; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in components of the JAK/STAT pathway, including those in cytokine receptors and JAKs, lead to increased activity of downstream signaling and are frequently found in leukemia and other hematological disorders. Thus, small-molecule inhibitors of this pathway have been the focus of targeted therapy in these hematological diseases. We previously showed that t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO and its alternatively spliced variant AML1-ETO9a (AE9a) enhance the JAK/STAT pathway via down-regulation of CD45, a negative regulator of this pathway. To investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting JAK/STAT in t(8;21) leukemia, we examined the effects of a JAK2-selective inhibitor TG101209 and a JAK1/2-selective inhibitor INCB18424 on t(8;21) leukemia cells. TG101209 and INCB18424 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of these cells. Furthermore, TG101209 treatment in AE9a leukemia mice reduced tumor burden and significantly prolonged survival. TG101209 also significantly impaired the leukemia-initiating potential of AE9a leukemia cells in secondary recipient mice. These results demonstrate the potential therapeutic efficacy of JAK inhibitors in treating t(8;21) AML. PMID:23812420

  1. Topical Use of Angiopoietin-like Protein 2 RNAi-loaded Lipid Nanoparticles Suppresses Corneal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Taketani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (CNV is a sight-threatening condition that is encountered in various inflammatory settings including chemical injury. We recently confirmed that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2 is a potent angiogenic and proinflammatory factor in the cornea, and we have produced a single-stranded proline-modified short hairpin anti-ANGPTL2 RNA interference molecule that is carried in a lipid nanoparticle (ANGPTL2 Li-pshRNA for topical application. In this study, we have further examined the topical delivery and anti-ANGPTL2 activity of this molecule and have found that fluorescence-labeled ANGPTL2 Li-pshRNA eye drops can penetrate all layers of the cornea and that ANGPTL2 mRNA expression was dramatically inhibited in both epithelium and stroma at 12 and 24 hours after administration. We also examined the inhibitory effect of ANGPTL2 Li-pshRNA on CNV in a mouse chemical injury model and found that the area of angiogenesis was significantly decreased in corneas treated with ANGPTL2 Li-pshRNA eye drops compared to controls. Together, these findings indicate that this modified RNA interference agent is clinically viable in a topical formulation for use against CNV.

  2. Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Suppresses the Unfolded Protein Response upon Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Geraghty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress provokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD subjects. The antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, counters oxidative stress induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we investigate whether GPx-1 expression deters the UPR following exposure to cigarette smoke. Expression of ER stress markers was investigated in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells isolated from nonsmoking, smoking, and COPD donors and redifferentiated at the air liquid interface. NHBE cells from COPD donors expressed heightened ATF4, XBP1, GRP78, GRP94, EDEM1, and CHOP compared to cells from nonsmoking donors. These changes coincided with reduced GPx-1 expression. Reintroduction of GPx-1 into NHBE cells isolated from COPD donors reduced the UPR. To determine whether the loss of GPx-1 expression has a direct impact on these ER stress markers during smoke exposure, Gpx-1−/− mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 year. Loss of Gpx-1 expression enhanced cigarette smoke-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Equally, induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced antioxidant expression in mouse precision-cut lung slices. Smoke inhalation also exacerbated the UPR response during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Therefore, ER stress may be an antioxidant-related pathophysiological event in COPD.

  3. Analysis of putative apoplastic effectors from the nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and identification of an expansin-like protein that can induce and suppress host defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shawkat; Magne, Maxime; Chen, Shiyan; Côté, Olivier; Stare, Barbara Gerič; Obradovic, Natasa; Jamshaid, Lubna; Wang, Xiaohong; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12) and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2), suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses.

  4. Analysis of putative apoplastic effectors from the nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, and identification of an expansin-like protein that can induce and suppress host defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Ali

    Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is an important pest of potato. Like other pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes are presumed to employ effector proteins, secreted into the apoplast as well as the host cytoplasm, to alter plant cellular functions and successfully infect their hosts. We have generated a library of ORFs encoding putative G. rostochiensis putative apoplastic effectors in vectors for expression in planta. These clones were assessed for morphological and developmental effects on plants as well as their ability to induce or suppress plant defenses. Several CLAVATA3/ESR-like proteins induced developmental phenotypes, whereas predicted cell wall-modifying proteins induced necrosis and chlorosis, consistent with roles in cell fate alteration and tissue invasion, respectively. When directed to the apoplast with a signal peptide, two effectors, an ubiquitin extension protein (GrUBCEP12 and an expansin-like protein (GrEXPB2, suppressed defense responses including NB-LRR signaling induced in the cytoplasm. GrEXPB2 also elicited defense response in species- and sequence-specific manner. Our results are consistent with the scenario whereby potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that modulate host cell fate and metabolism as well as modifying host cell walls. Furthermore, we show a novel role for an apoplastic expansin-like protein in suppressing intra-cellular defense responses.

  5. Dasatinib synergises with irinotecan to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma via inhibiting the protein synthesis of PLK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhu, Yuanrun; Shao, Jinjin; Chen, Min; Yan, Hao; Li, Guanqun; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Zhifei; Yang, Bo; Luo, Peihua; He, Qiaojun

    2017-04-11

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumour and has poor prognosis. Currently, systematic chemotherapy is the only approach to prolong survival. Thus the development of new treatment regimens is urgently needed to improve the therapeutic efficacy. Our study intended to assess the combination of dasatinib and irinotecan against HCC and made an effort to develop a potential medical choice for advanced HCC patients. We used SRB colorimetric assay and clonogenic assay to assess antitumour effect in vitro and HCC xenograft model to assess antitumour effect in vivo. We applied flow cytometry and western blotting to explore the mechanism of the combined therapy. Knockdown and overexpression of PLK1 are also applied for validation. We confirmed that dasatinib has synergistic effect with irinotecan (or SN38) on HCC both in vitro and in vivo. The effect is due to arisen apoptosis rate of HCC cells that is accompanied by mitochondria dysfunction. The enhanced antitumour efficacy of SN38 could be explained by additional inhibition of PLK1, which is triggered by dasatinib. Unlike existed PLK1 inhibitors, dasatinib does not inhibit PLK1 activity in a direct way. Instead, we found that dasatinib reduces PLK1 level by interfering with its protein synthesis progress. We validated that this kind of downregulation of PLK1 level has a key role in the synergistic effect of the two agents. Dasatinib is able to reinforce the anti-HCC efficacy of irinotecan/SN38 by downregulation of PLK1 synthesis. The combination of the two agents might be a potential medical choice for HCC therapy.

  6. Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cancer, tumor promotion and tumor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Noah

    2018-02-01

    The AGC family of serine/threonine kinases (PKA, PKG, PKC) includes more than 60 members that are critical regulators of numerous cellular functions, including cell cycle and differentiation, morphogenesis, and cell survival and death. Mutation and/or dysregulation of AGC kinases can lead to malignant cell transformation and contribute to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Members of one subgroup of AGC kinases, the protein kinase C (PKC), have been singled out as critical players in carcinogenesis, following their identification as the intracellular receptors of phorbol esters, which exhibit tumor-promoting activities. This observation attracted the attention of researchers worldwide and led to intense investigations on the role of PKC in cell transformation and the potential use of PKC as therapeutic drug targets in cancer diseases. Studies demonstrated that many cancers had altered expression and/or mutation of specific PKC genes. However, the causal relationships between the changes in PKC gene expression and/or mutation and the direct cause of cancer remain elusive. Independent studies in normal cells demonstrated that activation of PKC is essential for the induction of cell activation and proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Based on these observations and the general assumption that PKC isoforms play a positive role in cell transformation and/or cancer progression, many PKC inhibitors have entered clinical trials but the numerous attempts to target PKC in cancer has so far yielded only very limited success. More recent studies demonstrated that PKC function as tumor suppressors, and suggested that future clinical efforts should focus on restoring, rather than inhibiting, PKC activity. The present manuscript provides some historical perspectives on the tumor promoting function of PKC, reviewing some of the observations linking PKC to cancer progression, and discusses the role of PKC in the pathogenesis of cancer diseases and its

  7. C9orf72 poly GA RAN-translated protein plays a key role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via aggregation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Bok; Baskaran, Pranetha; Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Chen, Han-Jou; Nishimura, Agnes L; Smith, Bradley N; Troakes, Claire; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Stepto, Alan; Petrucelli, Leonard; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Hirth, Frank; Rogelj, Boris; Guthrie, Sarah; Shaw, Christopher E

    2017-12-15

    An intronic GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion inC9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD). Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of G4C2 RNA can result in five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR: poly GA, poly GP, poly GR, poly PA, and poly PR), which aggregate into neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in affected patients, however their contribution to disease pathogenesis remains controversial. We show that among the DPR proteins, expression of poly GA in a cell culture model activates programmed cell death and TDP-43 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Dual expression of poly GA together with other DPRs revealed that poly GP and poly PA are sequestered by poly GA, whereas poly GR and poly PR are rarely co-localised with poly GA. Dual expression of poly GA and poly PA ameliorated poly GA toxicity by inhibiting poly GA aggregation both in vitro and in vivo in the chick embryonic spinal cord. Expression of alternative codon-derived DPRs in chick embryonic spinal cord confirmed in vitro data, revealing that each of the dipeptides caused toxicity, with poly GA being the most toxic. Further, in vivo expression of G4C2 repeats of varying length caused apoptotic cell death, but failed to generate DPRs. Together, these data demonstrate that C9-related toxicity can be mediated by either RNA or DPRs. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that poly GA is a key mediator of cytotoxicity and that cross-talk between DPR proteins likely modifies their pathogenic status in C9ALS/FTD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Silencing the Odorant Binding Protein RferOBP1768 Reduces the Strong Preference of Palm Weevil for the Major Aggregation Pheromone Compound Ferrugineol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Antony

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, perception of the environment—food, mates, and prey—is mainly guided by chemical signals. The dynamic process of signal perception involves transport to odorant receptors (ORs by soluble secretory proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs, which form the first stage in the process of olfactory recognition and are analogous to lipocalin family proteins in vertebrates. Although OBPs involved in the transport of pheromones to ORs have been functionally identified in insects, there is to date no report for Coleoptera. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on olfactory perception and the molecular mechanism by which OBPs participate in the transport of aggregation pheromones. We focus on the red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, the most devastating quarantine pest of palm trees worldwide. In this work, we constructed libraries of all OBPs and selected antenna-specific and highly expressed OBPs for silencing through RNA interference. Aggregation pheromone compounds, 4-methyl-5-nonanol (ferrugineol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone (ferruginone, and a kairomone, ethyl acetate, were then sequentially presented to individual RPWs. The results showed that antenna-specific RferOBP1768 aids in the capture and transport of ferrugineol to ORs. Silencing of RferOBP1768, which is responsible for pheromone binding, significantly disrupted pheromone communication. Study of odorant perception in palm weevil is important because the availability of literature regarding the nature and role of olfactory signaling in this insect may reveal likely candidates representative of animal olfaction and, more generally, of molecular recognition. Knowledge of OBPs recognizing the specific pheromone ferrugineol will allow for designing biosensors for the detection of this key compound in weevil monitoring in date palm fields.

  9. The thermodynamics of protein aggregation reactions may underpin the enhanced metabolic efficiency associated with heterosis, some balancing selection, and the evolution of ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, B R

    2017-07-01

    Identifying the physical basis of heterosis (or "hybrid vigor") has remained elusive despite over a hundred years of research on the subject. The three main theories of heterosis are dominance theory, overdominance theory, and epistasis theory. Kacser and Burns (1981) identified the molecular basis of dominance, which has greatly enhanced our understanding of its importance to heterosis. This paper aims to explain how overdominance, and some features of epistasis, can similarly emerge from the molecular dynamics of proteins. Possessing multiple alleles at a gene locus results in the synthesis of different allozymes at reduced concentrations. This in turn reduces the rate at which each allozyme forms soluble oligomers, which are toxic and must be degraded, because allozymes co-aggregate at low efficiencies. The model developed in this paper can explain how heterozygosity impacts the metabolic efficiency of an organism. It can also explain why the viabilities of some inbred lines seem to decline rapidly at high inbreeding coefficients (F > 0.5), which may provide a physical basis for truncation selection for heterozygosity. Finally, the model has implications for the ploidy level of organisms. It can explain why polyploids are frequently found in environments where severe physical stresses promote the formation of soluble oligomers. The model can also explain why complex organisms, which need to synthesize aggregation-prone proteins that contain intrinsically unstructured regions (IURs) and multiple domains because they facilitate complex protein interaction networks (PINs), tend to be diploid while haploidy tends to be restricted to relatively simple organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Copper Metabolism MURR1 Domain protein 1 (COMMD1) modulates the aggregation of misfolded protein species in a client-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I.M. Vonk (Willianne I.); V. Kakkar (Vaishali); P. Bartuzi (Paulina); D. Jaarsma (Dick); R. Berger (Ruud); M.A. Hofker (Marten); L.W.J. Klomp (Leo W.); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); H. Kampinga (Harm); B. van de Sluis (Bart)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Copper Metabolism MURR1 domain protein 1 (COMMD1) is a protein involved in multiple cellular pathways, including copper homeostasis, NF-κB and hypoxia signalling. Acting as a scaffold protein, COMMD1 mediates the levels, stability and proteolysis of its substrates (e.g. the

  11. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Splittgerber, Ryan [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Fan, Guo-Huang [Department of Neurobiology and Neurotoxicology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37221 (United States); Richmond, Ann, E-mail: ann.richmond@vanderbilt.edu [VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP

  12. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α, suppress amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Splittgerber, Ryan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-β (Aβ). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1α significantly protected neurons from Aβ-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1α. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The Aβ-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F 2 -isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1α. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1α was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against Aβ neurotoxicity in CXCR2−/− mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: ► Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against Aβ toxicity. ► MIP-2 or CXCL12 prevented dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro. ► Neuroprotection through activation of Akt, ERK

  13. Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Ann-Sofie, E-mail: ann-sofie.gustafsson@bms.uu.se; Abramenkovs, Andris; Stenerlöw, Bo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We reduced the level of DNA-PKcs with siRNA and examined cells after γ-irradiation. • Low DNA-PKcs levels lead to radiosensitivity but did not affect repair of DSB. • Low DNA-PKcs levels may block progression of mitosis. • DNA-PKcs role in mitotic progression is independent of its role in DSB repair. • We suggest different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs function sensitize cells. - Abstract: Efficient and correct repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) is critical for cell survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death, genomic instability and development of cancer. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an essential component of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) which is the major DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells. In the present study, by using siRNA against DNA-PKcs in four human cell lines, we examined how low levels of DNA-PKcs affected cellular response to ionizing radiation. Decrease of DNA-PKcs levels by 80–95%, induced by siRNA treatment, lead to extreme radiosensitivity, similar to that seen in cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and low levels of DNA-PKcs promoted cell accumulation in G2/M phase after irradiation and blocked progression of mitosis. Surprisingly, low levels of DNA-PKcs did not affect the repair capacity and the removal of 53BP1 or γ-H2AX foci and rejoining of DSB appeared normal. This was in strong contrast to cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and cells treated with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441, in which DSB repair were severely compromised. This suggests that there are different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs functions can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Further, foci of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (T2609 and S2056) co-localized with DSB and this was independent of the amount of DNA-PKcs but foci of DNA-PKcs was only seen in siRNA-treated cells. Our study emphasizes on the critical role of DNA-PKcs for maintaining survival after radiation exposure

  14. Suppression of DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitize cells to radiation without affecting DSB repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Ann-Sofie; Abramenkovs, Andris; Stenerlöw, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We reduced the level of DNA-PKcs with siRNA and examined cells after γ-irradiation. • Low DNA-PKcs levels lead to radiosensitivity but did not affect repair of DSB. • Low DNA-PKcs levels may block progression of mitosis. • DNA-PKcs role in mitotic progression is independent of its role in DSB repair. • We suggest different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs function sensitize cells. - Abstract: Efficient and correct repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) is critical for cell survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death, genomic instability and development of cancer. The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is an essential component of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) which is the major DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells. In the present study, by using siRNA against DNA-PKcs in four human cell lines, we examined how low levels of DNA-PKcs affected cellular response to ionizing radiation. Decrease of DNA-PKcs levels by 80–95%, induced by siRNA treatment, lead to extreme radiosensitivity, similar to that seen in cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and low levels of DNA-PKcs promoted cell accumulation in G2/M phase after irradiation and blocked progression of mitosis. Surprisingly, low levels of DNA-PKcs did not affect the repair capacity and the removal of 53BP1 or γ-H2AX foci and rejoining of DSB appeared normal. This was in strong contrast to cells completely lacking DNA-PKcs and cells treated with the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441, in which DSB repair were severely compromised. This suggests that there are different mechanisms by which loss of DNA-PKcs functions can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Further, foci of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (T2609 and S2056) co-localized with DSB and this was independent of the amount of DNA-PKcs but foci of DNA-PKcs was only seen in siRNA-treated cells. Our study emphasizes on the critical role of DNA-PKcs for maintaining survival after radiation exposure

  15. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-suppressing major kafirin sub-classes is fundamental to improved protein digestibility and nutritional value of sorghum. The improvement is linked to an irregularly invaginated phenotype of protein bodies....

  16. Suppression of ASR through aggregate coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Many highways, runways, parking lots and bridges are suffering from premature deterioration due to : alkali silica reaction (ASR) that takes place between the alkalis contributed primarily by the cement and : a reactive form of silica from specific s...

  17. Physiochemical, texture properties, and the microstructure of set yogurt using whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate aggregates as thickening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Xie, Siyu; Yin, Yuan; Feng, Xianmin; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Mingruo; Ni, Chunlei

    2017-07-01

    Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate can be induced to gel in an acidic environment provided during fermentation. The variety of thickening agent has an influence on texture that is an essential aspect of yogurt quality affecting consumer preference. Similar to polysaccharide stabilizers, the cold gelation properties of whey proteins can improve the body texture of yogurt products. Polymerized whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate could be a favorable and interesting thickening agent for making set yogurt. The effects of whey protein isolate (WPI), heat-treated whey protein-sodium tripolyphosphate (WPI-STPP), heat-treated WPI and pectin on the storage properties and microstructure of yogurt were investigated. All samples were analyzed for syneresis, pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, texture profile and microstructure during storage. The results showed that incorporating heat-treated WPI-STPP had a significant impact on syneresis (32.22 ± 0.60), viscosity (10 956.67 ± 962.1) and hardness (209.24 ± 12.48) (p Yogurt fermented with modified WPI-STPP had higher levels of protein and better hardness compared with yogurt using pectin. The microstructure was observed to be a uniform and denser, complicated network. Heat-treated WPI-STPP may be useful for improving yogurt texture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  19. Mfa4, an Accessory Protein of Mfa1 Fimbriae, Modulates Fimbrial Biogenesis, Cell Auto-Aggregation, and Biofilm Formation in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Ryota; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Izumigawa, Masashi; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitai, Noriyuki; Lamont, Richard J; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Murakami, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a key pathogen in periodontal disease. The bacterium expresses Mfa1 fimbriae, which are composed of polymers of Mfa1. The minor accessory components Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are incorporated into these fimbriae. In this study, we characterized Mfa4 using genetically modified strains. Deficiency in the mfa4 gene decreased, but did not eliminate, expression of Mfa1 fimbriae. However, Mfa3 and Mfa5 were not incorporated because of defects in posttranslational processing and leakage into the culture supernatant, respectively. Furthermore, the mfa4-deficient mutant had an increased tendency to auto-aggregate and form biofilms, reminiscent of a mutant completely lacking Mfa1. Notably, complementation of mfa4 restored expression of structurally intact and functional Mfa1 fimbriae. Taken together, these results indicate that the accessory proteins Mfa3, Mfa4, and Mfa5 are necessary for assembly of Mfa1 fimbriae and regulation of auto-aggregation and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis. In addition, we found that Mfa3 and Mfa4 are processed to maturity by the same RgpA/B protease that processes Mfa1 subunits prior to polymerization.

  20. Doliroside A from Dolichos falcata Klein suppressing amyloid β-protein 42 fibrillogenesis: An insight at molecular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongpu Li

    Full Text Available A bioactive chemical constituent, doliroside A, from Chinese traditional herbal medicine Dolichos falcata Klein was isolated, purified and identified by 60% ethanol extraction, thin layer chromatography (TLC, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Molecular interaction mechanism between doliroside and amyloid β42 protein was evaluated by thioflavin T fluorescence (ThT, circular dichroism (CD, atomic force microscope (AFM, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC from the aspects of kinetics, secondary structure, morphology, and thermodynamics, respectively. Results show that the purity of doliroside A is 99.9% by HPLC, and its chemical structure is identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR. Doliroside A is observed to be concentration-dependent inhibiting the fibrillation of Aβ42 with the IC50 value of 26.57 ± 1.6 μM. CD and DSC results imply that doliroside A can bind to the nuclei and oligomers of Aβ42 to form a stable complex and suppress Aβ42 fibrillation. AFM images show that doliroside A, after bound to the nuclei and oligomers, redirect Aβ42 into off-pathway, amorphous oligomers. These findings not only provide a full insight into the molecular interaction mechanisms between Aβ42 and doliroside A, but also facilitate the development of new native anti-AD drug of doliroside A compound.

  1. Esculetin exerts anti-proliferative effects against non-small-cell lung carcinoma by suppressing specificity protein 1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ra H; Jeon, Young-Joo; Cho, Jin H; Jang, Jeong-Yun; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, MinSeok S; Chung, Hak-Jae; Oh, Keon B; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Seo, Jae-Min; Ko, Sungho; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin. Our data showed that esculetin-treated cells exhibited reduced proliferation and apoptotic cell morphologies. Intriguingly, the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was significantly suppressed by esculetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of p27 and p21, two key regulators of the cell cycle, were up-regulated by the esculetin-mediated down-regulation of Sp1; the level of a third cell-cycle regulator, survivin, was decreased, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that esculetin could be a potent anti-proliferative agent in patients with NSCLC.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K; Våtsveen, T K; Rø, T B; Mylin, A K; Turesson, I; Størdal, B F; Moen, S H; Standal, T; Waage, A; Sundan, A; Holien, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells predominantly located in the bone marrow. A number of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro, and with this study we add BMP-9 to the list. BMP-9 has been found in human serum at concentrations that inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. We here show that the level of BMP-9 in serum was elevated in myeloma patients (median 176 pg/ml, range 8–809) compared with healthy controls (median 110 pg/ml, range 8–359). BMP-9 was also present in the bone marrow and was able to induce apoptosis in 4 out of 11 primary myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells can evade the tumor suppressing activity of BMP-9 in multiple myeloma

  3. [Herbs for calming liver and suppressing yang in treatment of hyperthyroidism with hyperactive liver yang: herbal effects on lymphocyte protein expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Yin, Tao; Zhong, Guangwei; Li, Wei; Luo, Yanhong; Xiang, Lingli; Liu, Zhehao

    2011-07-01

    To observe the herbal effects on hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang and investigate its effects on the lymphocyte protein expression. This approach may lay a foundation for the further investigation of the curative mechanisms of calming the liver and suppressing Yang treatment. A total of 48 hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang in accordance with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the control group with thiamazole tablets for three periods of treatment The therapeutic effects, the score of TCM symptom, electrocardiogram (P wave), thyroid hormones and ultrasound were observed in both groups before and after the treatment. The side effects in the treatment course were observed in both groups. The level of differential protein expression was analyzed by two-dimensional electrphoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionizaton time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The treatment group has the effect on stepping down the heart rate, cutting down the P wave amplitude changes, regulating the level of thyroid hormones and decreasing the volume of thyromegaly. There are not statistically significant between the treatment group and control group. However, the treatment group has obviously better effect on regulating TCM symptom and decreasing the side reaction than the control group (Peffective between the treatment group and control group. The average spots in lymphocyte for normal people, before and after treating hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were (429 +/- 31), (452 +/- 28) and (437 +/- 36) spots respectively. Eight down-regulated protein expressions and 11 up-regulated protein expressions were obtained in the hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity

  4. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  5. BTB-BACK Domain Protein POB1 Suppresses Immune Cell Death by Targeting Ubiquitin E3 ligase PUB17 for Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Orosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive response programmed cell death (HR-PCD is a critical feature in plant immunity required for pathogen restriction and prevention of disease development. The precise control of this process is paramount to cell survival and an effective immune response. The discovery of new components that function to suppress HR-PCD will be instrumental in understanding the regulation of this fundamental mechanism. Here we report the identification and characterisation of a BTB domain E3 ligase protein, POB1, that functions to suppress HR-PCD triggered by evolutionarily diverse pathogens. Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco plants with reduced POB1 activity show accelerated HR-PCD whilst those with increased POB1 levels show attenuated HR-PCD. We demonstrate that POB1 dimerization and nuclear localization are vital for its function in HR-PCD suppression. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we identify the Plant U-Box E3 ligase PUB17, a well established positive regulator of plant innate immunity, as a target for POB1-mediated proteasomal degradation. Using confocal imaging and in planta immunoprecipitation assays we show that POB1 interacts with PUB17 in the nucleus and stimulates its degradation. Mutated versions of POB1 that show reduced interaction with PUB17 fail to suppress HR-PCD, indicating that POB1-mediated degradation of PUB17 U-box E3 ligase is an important step for negative regulation of specific immune pathways in plants. Our data reveals a new mechanism for BTB domain proteins in suppressing HR-PCD in plant innate immune responses.

  6. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [ 3 H]NaBH 4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  7. Genetic analysis of ectopic growth suppression during planar growth of integuments mediated by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enugutti Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coordination of growth within a tissue layer is of critical importance for tissue morphogenesis. For example, cells within the epidermis undergo stereotypic cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer (planar growth, thereby propagating the layered epidermal structure. Little is known about the developmental control that regulates such planar growth in plants. Recent evidence suggested that the Arabidopsis AGC VIII protein kinase UNICORN (UCN maintains planar growth by suppressing the formation of ectopic multicellular protrusions in several floral tissues including integuments. In the current model UCN controls this process during integument development by directly interacting with the ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS protein, a member of the KANADI (KAN family of transcription factors, thereby repressing its activity. Here we report on the further characterization of the UCN mechanism. Results Phenotypic analysis of flowers of ucn-1 plants impaired in floral homeotic gene activity revealed that any of the four floral whorls could produce organs carrying ucn-1 protrusions. The ectopic outgrowths of ucn integuments did not accumulate detectable signals of the auxin and cytokinin reporters DR5rev::GFP and ARR5::GUS, respectively. Furthermore, wild-type and ucn-1 seedlings showed similarly strong callus formation upon in vitro culture on callus-inducing medium. We also show that ovules of ucn-1 plants carrying the dominant ats allele sk21-D exhibited more pronounced protrusion formation. Finally ovules of ucn-1 ett-1 double mutants and ucn-1 ett-1 arf4-1 triple mutants displayed an additive phenotype. Conclusions These data deepen the molecular insight into the UCN-mediated control of planar growth during integument development. The presented evidence indicates that UCN downstream signaling does not involve the control of auxin or cytokinin homeostasis. The results also reveal that UCN interacts with ATS

  8. Suppression of type I and type III IFN signalling by NSs protein of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus through inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vidyanath; Zhang, Shuo; Yuen, Kit-San; Li, Chuan; Lui, Pak-Yin; Fung, Sin-Yee; Wang, Pei-Hui; Chan, Chi-Ping; Li, Dexin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Liang, Mifang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2015-11-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality in Asia. NSs protein of SFTSV is known to perturb type I IFN induction and signalling, but the mechanism remains to be fully understood. Here, we showed the suppression of both type I and type III IFN signalling by SFTSV NSs protein is mediated through inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation and activation. Infection with live SFTSV or expression of NSs potently suppressed IFN-stimulated genes but not NFkB activation. NSs was capable of counteracting the activity of IFN-α1, IFN-β, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2. Mechanistically, NSs associated with STAT1 and STAT2, mitigated IFN-β-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at S727, and reduced the expression and activity of STAT1 protein in IFN-β-treated cells, resulting in the inhibition of STAT1 and STAT2 recruitment to IFNstimulated promoters. Taken together, SFTSV NSs protein is an IFN antagonist that suppresses phosphorylation and activation of STAT1.

  9. Coupled aggregation of mitochondrial single-strand DNA-binding protein tagged with Eos fluorescent protein visualizes synchronized activity of mitochondrial nucleoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejár, Tomáš; Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Alán, Lukáš; Dlasková, Andrea; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2015), s. 5185-5190 ISSN 1791-2997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial nucleoid * single-stranded DNA-binding protein * photoconvertible fluorescent protein Eos Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2015

  10. Suppressive effects of mycoviral proteins encoded by Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain A on conidial germination of the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Syun-Ichi; Kimura, Yuri; Katoh, Yu; Ohta, Tomoko; Onozuka, Nobuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-09-02

    Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain A (MoCV1-A) is the causal agent of growth repression and attenuated virulence (hypovirulence) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We previously revealed that heterologous expression of the MoCV1-A ORF4 protein resulted in cytological damage to the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans. Since the ORF4 protein is one of the components of viral particles, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the purified virus particle against the conidial germination of M. oryzae, and confirmed its suppressive effects. Recombinant MoCV1-A ORF4 protein produced in Pichia pastoris was also effective for suppression of conidial germination of M. oryzae. MoCV1-A ORF4 protein sequence showed significant similarity to 6 related mycoviral proteins; Botrysphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1, two Fusarium graminearum viruses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mycovirus 1, Penicillium janczewski chrysovirus and Agaricus bisporus virus 1 in the Chrysoviridae family. Multiple alignments of the ORF4-related protein sequences showed that their central regions (210-591 aa in MoCV1-A ORF4) are relatively conserved. Indeed, yeast transformants expressing the conserved central region of MoCV1-A ORF4 protein (325-575 aa) showed similar impaired growth phenotypes as those observed in yeasts expressing the full-length MoCV1-A ORF4 protein. These data suggest that the mycovirus itself and its encoded viral protein can be useful as anti-fungal proteins to control rice blast disease caused by M. oryzae and other pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Buddleja officinalis suppresses high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for vascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis. In the development of diabetic atherogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is recognized as a key event. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Buddleja officinalis (EBO) suppresses high glucose-induced proliferation in primary cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation revealed that incubation of HASMC with a high concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) increased cell proliferation. The expression levels of cell cycle protein were also increased by treatment with high glucose concentration. Pretreatment of HASMC with EBO significantly attenuated the increase of high glucose-induced cell proliferation as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK phosphorylation. EBO suppressed high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EBO suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity in high glucose conditions. Taken together, the present data suggest that EBO could suppress high glucose-induced atherosclerotic processes through inhibition of p38, JNK, NF-kappaB and MMP signal pathways in HASMC.

  12. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  13. Apyrase activity and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation inhibition by the salivary gland proteins of Culicoides variipennis, the North American vector of bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, A A; Tabachnick, W J

    1996-02-01

    Salivary gland homogenates of Culicoides variipennis, the primary vector of bluetongue (BLU) viruses in North America, were analyzed for apyrase activity. Apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) is an anti-hemostatic and anti-inflammatory salivary enzyme of most hematophagous arthropods. The enzyme activity was measured by the release of orthophosphate using ATP, ADP, and AMP as substrates with Ca2+ as the divalent cation. ATPase (11.5 +/- 1 mU/pair of glands), ADPase (7.3 +/- 0.7 mU/pair of glands), and insignificant (P < 0.05) AMPase (0.07 mU/pair of glands) activities were detected in female salivary glands. Male salivary glands contained lower amounts of ATPase and ADPase activity (P < 0.05). The ATPase and ADPase activities were greatest at pH 8.5, and were similarly activated by Mg2+. Molecular sieving HPLC of salivary gland homogenates generated a single peak which coincided with ATPase and ADPase, but no AMPase, activity; the protein has an estimated molecular mass of 35,000 Da. ATPase and ADPase activity, and total protein concentration, were reduced (P < 0.05) in the salivary glands of females after taking a blood meal from a sheep. Salivary gland homogenates also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. It is concluded that the salivary ATPase and ADPase activities of C. variipennis reside in one enzyme, and that this enzyme is likely an apyrase. The apyrase activity is thought to be responsible for the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, as indicated by the apparent discharge of apyrase from salivary glands into the host during blood feeding. This suggests that apyrase is one of the salivary proteins present in C. variipennis acting as antigens in the development of Culicoides hypersensitivity in ruminants and horses. Apyrase may inhibit an inflammatory response at the feeding site through the subsequent degradation of its end-product, AMP, to adenosine, a potent anti-inflammatory substance, by the ecto-5' nucleotidase

  14. Aggregation of Ribosomal Protein S6 at Nucleolus Is Cell Cycle-Controlled and Its Function in Pre-rRNA Processing Is Phosphorylation Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Chen, Hui-Peng; Duan, Hai-Feng; Gao, Li-Hua; Shao, Yong; Chen, Ke-Yan; Wang, You-Liang; Lan, Feng-Hua; Hu, Xian-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) has long been regarded as one of the primary r-proteins that functions in the early stage of 40S subunit assembly, but its actual role is still obscure. The correct forming of 18S rRNA is a key step in the nuclear synthesis of 40S subunit. In this study, we demonstrate that rpS6 participates in the processing of 30S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA only when its C-terminal five serines are phosphorylated, however, the process of entering the nucleus and then targeting the nucleolus does not dependent its phosphorylation. Remarkably, we also find that the aggregation of rpS6 at the nucleolus correlates to the phasing of cell cycle, beginning to concentrate in the nucleolus at later S phase and disaggregate at M phase. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1649-1657, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of conformational changes and protein aggregation of bovine serum albumin in presence of Sb(III) and Sb(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Marcelo; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; Costa-Fernández, José Manuel; Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Bouzas-Ramos, Diego; Bravo, Manuel; Quiroz, Waldo

    2017-01-01

    Antimony is a metalloid that affects biological functions in humans due to a mechanism still not understood. There is no doubt that the toxicity and physicochemical properties of Sb are strongly related with its chemical state. In this paper, the interaction between Sb(III) and Sb(V) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated in vitro by fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) under simulated physiological conditions. Moreover, the coupling of the separation technique, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, with elemental mass spectrometry to understand the interaction of Sb(V) and Sb(III) with the BSA was also used. Our results showed a different behaviour of Sb(III) vs. Sb(V) regarding their effects on the interaction with the BSA. The effects in terms of protein aggregates and conformational changes were higher in the presence of Sb(III) compared to Sb(V) which may explain the differences in toxicity between both Sb species in vivo. Obtained results demonstrated the protective effect of GSH that modifies the degree of interaction between the Sb species with BSA. Interestingly, in our experiments it was possible to detect an interaction between BSA and Sb species, which may be related with the presence of labile complex between the Sb and a protein for the first time.

  16. Aged Lewis rats exposed to low and moderate doses of rotenone are a good model for studying the process of protein aggregation and its effects upon central nervous system cell physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cell physiology is impaired before protein aggregation and this may be more relevant than inclusions themselves for neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to characterize an animal model to enable the analysis of the cell biology before and after protein aggregation. Ten-month-old Lewis rats were exposed either to 1 or 2 mg/kg/day of rotenone, delivered subcutaneously through mini-pumps, for one month. Hyperphosphorylated TAU, alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta peptide and protein carbonylation (indicative of oxidative stress were evaluated in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus through immunohistochemistry or western blot. It was found that 2 mg/kg/day rotenone increased amyloid-beta peptide, hyperphosphorylation of TAU and alpha-synuclein. Rotenone at 1mg/kg/day did not alter protein levels. Protein carbonylation remained unchanged. This study demonstrated that aged Lewis rats exposed to a low dose of rotenone is a useful model to study cellular processes before protein aggregation, while the higher dose makes a good model to study the effects of protein inclusions.

  17. Aqueous fraction from Cuscuta japonica seed suppresses melanin synthesis through inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ha Neui; Kim, Yu Ri; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Byung Woo; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2012-05-07

    Semen cuscutae has been used traditionally to treat pimples and alleviate freckles and melasma in Korea. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Cuscuta japonica Choisy seeds on alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis. The aqueous fraction from Semen cuscutae (AFSC) was used to determine anti-melanogenic effects by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay and Western blot analysis for melanin synthesis-related signaling proteins in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. AFSC markedly inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, and also decreased α-MSH-induced expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs). Moreover, AFSC significantly decreased the level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling through the down-regulation of α-MSH-induced cAMP. Furthermore, we confirmed that the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580)-mediated suppressed melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity was further attenuated by AFSC. AFSC also further decreased SB203580-mediated suppression of MITF and TRP expression. These results indicate that AFSC inhibits p38 MAPK phosphorylation with suppressed cAMP levels and subsequently down-regulate MITF and TRP expression, which results in a marked reduction of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of Soluble Advanced Glycation End Products Receptor (sRAGE)-Binding Ligands during Extensive Heat Treatment of Whey Protein/Lactose Mixtures Is Dependent on Glycation and Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fahui; Teodorowicz, Gosia; Wichers, Harry J.; Boekel, van Tiny; Hettinga, Kasper A.

    2016-01-01

    Heating of protein- and sugar-containing materials is considered the primary factor affecting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of heating conditions, digestion, and aggregation on the binding capacity of AGEs to the soluble AGE

  19. p53 Aggregates penetrate cells and induce the co-aggregation of intracellular p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyn J Forget

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are unique pathologies in which the infectious particles are prions, a protein aggregate. The prion protein has many particular features, such as spontaneous aggregation, conformation transmission to other native PrP proteins and transmission from an individual to another. Protein aggregation is now frequently associated to many human diseases, for example Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or type 2 diabetes. A few proteins associated to these conformational diseases are part of a new category of proteins, called prionoids: proteins that share some, but not all, of the characteristics associated with prions. The p53 protein, a transcription factor that plays a major role in cancer, has recently been suggested to be a possible prionoid. The protein has been shown to accumulate in multiple cancer cell types, and its aggregation has also been reproduced in vitro by many independent groups. These observations suggest a role for p53 aggregates in cancer development. This study aims to test the «prion-like» features of p53. Our results show in vitro aggregation of the full length and N-terminally truncated protein (p53C, and penetration of these aggregates into cells. According to our findings, the aggregates enter cells using macropinocytosis, a non-specific pathway of entry. Lastly, we also show that once internalized by the cell, p53C aggregates can co-aggregate with endogenous p53 protein. Together, these findings suggest prion-like characteristics for p53 protein, based on the fact that p53 can spontaneously aggregate, these aggregates can penetrate cells and co-aggregate with cellular p53.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  1. Human Antiviral Protein IFIX Suppresses Viral Gene Expression during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Infection and Is Counteracted by Virus-induced Proteasomal Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Marni S; Cristea, Ileana M

    2017-04-01

    The interferon-inducible protein X (IFIX), a member of the PYHIN family, was recently recognized as an antiviral factor against infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). IFIX binds viral DNA upon infection and promotes expression of antiviral cytokines. How IFIX exerts its host defense functions and whether it is inhibited by the virus remain unknown. Here, we integrated live cell microscopy, proteomics, IFIX domain characterization, and molecular virology to investigate IFIX regulation and antiviral functions during HSV-1 infection. We find that IFIX has a dynamic localization during infection that changes from diffuse nuclear and nucleoli distribution in uninfected cells to discrete nuclear puncta early in infection. This is rapidly followed by a reduction in IFIX protein levels. Indeed, using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, we define IFIX interactions during HSV-1 infection, finding an association with a proteasome subunit and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome processes. Using synchronized HSV-1 infection, microscopy, and proteasome-inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that IFIX co-localizes with nuclear proteasome puncta shortly after 3 h of infection and that its pyrin domain is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to several other host defense factors, IFIX degradation is not dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the viral protein ICP0. However, we show IFIX degradation requires immediate-early viral gene expression, suggesting a viral host suppression mechanism. The IFIX interactome also demonstrated its association with transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the 5FMC complex. We validate this interaction using microscopy and reciprocal isolations and determine it is mediated by the IFIX HIN domain. Finally, we show IFIX suppresses immediate-early and early viral gene expression during infection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that IFIX antiviral

  2. Nonstructural 5A Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Interferes with Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and Suppresses the Interferon Response in Mouse Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Tsutsumi

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS5A is involved in resistance to the host immune response, as well as the viral lifecycle such as replication and maturation. Here, we established transgenic mice expressing NS5A protein in the liver and examined innate immune responses against lipopolysaccharide (LPS in vivo. Intrahepatic gene expression levels of cytokines such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ were significantly suppressed after LPS injection in the transgenic mouse liver. Induction of the C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, 4, and 5 was also suppressed. Phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is activated by cytokines, was also reduced, and expression levels of interferon-stimulated genes, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthase, interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, and myxovirus resistance 1 were similarly suppressed. Since LPS binds to toll-like receptor 4 and stimulates the downstream pathway leading to induction of these genes, we examined the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and IκB-α. The phosphorylation levels of these molecules were reduced in transgenic mouse liver, indicating that the pathway upstream of the molecules was disrupted by NS5A. Further analyses revealed that the interaction between interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor-6 was dispersed in transgenic mice, suggesting that NS5A may interfere with this interaction via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, which was shown to interact with NS5A. Since the gut microbiota, a source of LPS, is known to be associated with pathological conditions in liver diseases, our results suggest the involvement of NS5A in the pathogenesis of HCV infected-liver via the suppression of innate immunity.

  3. Hsp105 family proteins suppress staurosporine-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi; Saito, Youhei; Hatayama, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Hsp105 (Hsp105α and Hsp105β), major heat shock proteins in mammalian cells, belong to a subgroup of the HSP70 family, HSP105/110. Previously, we have shown that Hsp105α has completely different effects on stress-induced apoptosis depending on cell type. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp105α regulates stress-induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we established HeLa cells that overexpress either Hsp105α or Hsp105β by removing doxycycline and examined how Hsp105 modifies staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptotic features such as the externalization of phosphatidylserine on the plasma membrane and nuclear morphological changes were induced by the treatment with STS, and the STS-induced apoptosis was suppressed by overexpression of Hsp105α or Hsp105β. In addition, we found that overexpression of Hsp105α or Hsp105β suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by preventing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which results in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, was also suppressed by the overexpression of Hsp105α or Hsp105β. Thus, it is suggested that Hsp105 suppresses the stress-induced apoptosis at its initial step, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

  4. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Kamalika Roy [Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nitai P., E-mail: nitai_sinp@yahoo.com [Biomedical Genomics Centre, PG Polyclinic Building, 5, Suburbun Hospital Road, Kolkata 700020 (India)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK.

  5. Pressure effects on the structure, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of heat-induced aggregation of protein studied by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y [Applied Chemistry Department, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Okuno, A [Research Department 3, Central Research, Bridgestone Co. Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8531 (Japan); Kato, M, E-mail: taniguti@sk.ritsumei.ac.j [Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Pressure can retrain the heat-induced aggregation and dissociate the heat-induced aggregates. We observed the aggregation-preventing pressure effect and the aggregates-dissociating pressure effect to characterize the heat-induced aggregation of equine serum albumin (ESA) by FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggest the {alpha}-helical structure collapses at the beginning of heat-induced aggregation through the swollen structure, and then the rearrangement of structure to the intermolecular {beta}-sheet takes place through partially unfolded structure. We determined the activation volume for the heat-induced aggregation ({Delta}V'' = +93 ml/mol) and the partial molar volume difference between native state and heat-induced aggregates ({Delta}V=+32 ml/mol). This positive partial molar volume difference suggests that the heat-induced aggregates have larger internal voids than the native structure. Moreover, the positive volume change implies that the formation of the intermolecular {beta}-sheet is unfavorable under high pressure.

  6. CONTAMINATION OF ANTI-VEGF DRUGS FOR INTRAVITREAL INJECTION: How Do Repackaging and Newly Developed Syringes Affect the Amount of Silicone Oil Droplets and Protein Aggregates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schargus, Marc; Werner, Benjamin P; Geerling, Gerd; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-08-21

    The particle counts and the nature of particles of three different antivascular endothelial growth factor agents (VEGF) in different containers in a laboratory setting were compared. Original prefilled ranibizumab glass syringes, original vials with aflibercept, and repacked ready-to-use plastic syringes with bevacizumab from a compounding pharmacy and a compounding company (CC) were analyzed. Particle counts and size distributions were quantified by different particle characterization methods (nephelometry, light obscuration, Micro-Flow Imaging, nanotracking analysis, resonant mass measurement). Using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC), levels of protein drug monomer and soluble aggregates were determined. Nearly all samples showed similar product quality. Light obscuration and Micro-Flow Imaging showed a 4-fold to 9-fold higher total particle count in compounding company bevacizumab (other samples up to 42,000 particles/mL). Nanotracking analysis revealed highest values for compounding company bevacizumab (6,375 million particles/mL). All containers showed similar amounts of silicone oil microdroplets. Ranibizumab showed lowest particle count of all tested agents with only one monomer peak in HP-SEC. Repackaged bevacizumab from different suppliers showed varying product quality. All three tested agents are available in similar quality regarding particulate purity and silicone oil microdroplet count. Repackaging can have a major impact on the quality.

  7. Effects of laser photherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Aciole, Gilberth T S; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T; Pacheco, Marcos T T; Silveira, Landulfo

    2010-12-15

    We have used Raman analysis to assess bone healing on different models. Benefits on the isolated or combined use of mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, guided bone regeneration and laser on bone repair have been reported, but not their combination. We studied peaks of hydroxyapatite and CH groups on defects grafted with MTA, treated or not with laser, BMPs, and GBR. Ninety rats were divided in 10 groups each, subdivided into three subgroups. Laser (λ850 nm) was applied at every other day for 2 weeks. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defect. Statistical analysis (CHA) showed significant differences between all groups (p = 0.001) and between Group II and all other (p hydroxyapatite (CHA) that is indicative of greater calcification and resistance of the bone. We conclude that the association of the MTA with laser phototherapy (LPT) and/or not with GBR resulted in a better bone repair. The use of the MTA associated to IR LPT resulted in a more advanced and quality bone repair. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng YX

    2016-04-01

    stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington’s disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results. Keywords: Huntington’s disease, mutant Huntingtin, xyloketal derivatives, Caenorhabditis elegans, protein misfolding, molecular target

  9. Proceedings of the specialist research meeting on 'abnormal protein aggregation and the folding diseases, and their protection and repair system' [1-2 November 2012, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakane, Yutaka; Fujii, Noriko

    2013-03-01

    For this meeting, we invited leading biochemistry, structural biology, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, molecular biology, radiation biology, and enzymology researchers. During the meeting, it was reported that the triggers of abnormal protein aggregation include racemization and isomerization of aspartyl residues, deamination of appraisingly residues. The process and the protection of amyloid fibril formation, and the alteration of the higher order structure of abnormal aggregated protein were also covered. Furthermore, the new analytical methods for the detection of the abnormal protein were presented. The topics of this meeting were widespread and the discussion was exciting. This special issue was the proceedings of the meeting with collection of 11 papers. The one of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  11. Label-free Proteomic Reveals that Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus Transiently Suppresses the Host Leaf Protein Accumulation During the Compatible Interaction with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Ana L S; Oliveira, Jose T A; de Souza, Gustavo A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2016-12-02

    Viruses are important plant pathogens that threaten diverse crops worldwide. Diseases caused by Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) have drawn attention because of the serious damages they cause to economically important crops including cowpea. This work was undertaken to quantify and identify the responsive proteins of a susceptible cowpea genotype infected with CPSMV, in comparison with mock-inoculated controls, using label-free quantitative proteomics and databanks, aiming at providing insights on the molecular basis of this compatible interaction. Cowpea leaves were mock- or CPSMV-inoculated and 2 and 6 days later proteins were extracted and analyzed. More than 3000 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD005025) and 75 and 55 of them differentially accumulated in response to CPSMV, at 2 and 6 DAI, respectively. At 2 DAI, 76% of the proteins decreased in amount and 24% increased. However, at 6 DAI, 100% of the identified proteins increased. Thus, CPSMV transiently suppresses the synthesis of proteins involved particularly in the redox homeostasis, protein synthesis, defense, stress, RNA/DNA metabolism, signaling, and other functions, allowing viral invasion and spread in cowpea tissues.

  12. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variat...

  13. Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Lange, Marianne; Friis, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need...... to be addressed. In the current study, a transcriptomic analysis of an antisense C-hordein line of barley was performed, using a grain-specific cDNA array. The C-hordein antisense line is characterized by marked changes in storage protein and amino acid profiles, while the seed weight is within the normal range...... and no external morphological irregularities were observed. The results of the transcriptome analysis showed excellent correlation with data on changes in the relative proportions of storage proteins and amino acid composition. The antisense line had a lower C-hordein level and down-regulated transcript encoding...

  14. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.

  15. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Cole, Renee E; Berryman, Claire E; Finlayson, Graham; Radcliffe, Patrick N; Kominsky, Matthew T; Murphy, Nancy E; Carbone, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-02-12

    Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of a hypocaloric higher protein diet on perceived appetite and food preferences during HA sojourn and to examine longitudinal changes in perceived appetite, appetite mediating hormones, and food preferences during acclimatization and weight loss at HA. Following a 21-day level (SL) period, 17 unacclimatized males ascended to and resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 days. At HA, participants were randomized to consume measured standard-protein (1.0 g protein/kg/d) or higher protein (2.0 g/kg/d) hypocaloric diets (45% carbohydrate, 30% energy restriction) and engaged in prescribed physical activity to induce an estimated 40% energy deficit. Appetite, food preferences, and appetite-mediating hormones were measured at SL and at the beginning and end of HA. Diet composition had no effect on any outcome. Relative to SL, appetite was lower during acute HA (days 0 and 1), but not different after acclimatization and weight loss (HA day 18), and food preferences indicated an increased preference for sweet- and low-protein foods during acute HA, but for high-fat foods after acclimatization and weight loss. Insulin, leptin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were elevated during acute HA, but not after acclimatization and weight loss, whereas acylated ghrelin concentrations were

  16. Single particle detection and characterization of synuclein co-aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, Armin; Bader, Benedikt; Bieschke, Jan; Schaffar, Gregor; Odoy, Sabine; Kahle, Philipp J.; Haass, Christian; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the key event in a number of human diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. We present a general method to quantify and characterize protein aggregates by dual-colour scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT). In addition to high sensitivity, this approach offers a unique opportunity to study co-aggregation processes. As the ratio of two fluorescently labelled components can be analysed for each aggregate separately in a homogeneous assay, the molecular composition of aggregates can be studied even in samples containing a mixture of different types of aggregates. Using this method, we could show that wild-type α-synuclein forms co-aggregates with a mutant variant found in familial Parkinson's disease. Moreover, we found a striking increase in aggregate formation at non-equimolar mixing ratios, which may have important therapeutic implications, as lowering the relative amount of aberrant protein may cause an increase of protein aggregation leading to adverse effects

  17. Fisetin Ameliorated Photodamage by Suppressing the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Matrix Metalloproteinase Pathway and Nuclear Factor-κB Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chan, Shih-Yun; Chu, Yin; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2015-05-13

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is one of the most important extrinsic factors contributing to skin photodamage. After UV irradiation, a series of signal transductions in the skin will be activated, leading to inflammatory response and photoaged skin. In this study, fisetin, a flavonol that exists in fruits and vegetables, was investigated for its photoprotective effects. The results revealed that 5-25 μM fisetin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 expression induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in human skin fibroblasts. In addition, fisetin suppressed UVB-induced collagen degradation. With regard to its effect on upper-stream signal transduction, we found that fisetin reduced the expression of ultraviolet (UV)-induced ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway. Furthermore, fisetin reduced inhibitor κB (IκB) degradation and increased the amount of p65, which is a major subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), in cytoplasm. It also suppressed NF-κB translocated to the nucleus and inhibited cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) Ser-133 phosphorylation level in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/CREB (PI3K/AKT/CREB) pathway. Finally, fisetin inhibited UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) generation. The mentioned effects and mechanisms suggest that fisetin can be used in the development of photoprotective agents.

  18. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery suppresses hypothalamic PTP1B protein level and alleviates leptin resistance in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yu; Mu, Song; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Guo, Wei; Li, Qi-Fu; Xiao, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hong

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression levels and leptin activity in hypothalami of obese rats. Obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) that underwent RYGB (n=11) or sham operation (SO, n=9), as well as an obese control cohort (Obese, n=10) and an additional normal-diet group (ND, n=10) were used. Food efficiency was measured at 8 weeks post-operation. Plasma leptin levels were evaluated and hypothalamic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) levels and leptin signaling activity were examined at the genetic and protein levels. The results indicated that food efficiency was typically lower in RYGB rats compared with that in the Obese and SO rats. In the RYGB group, leptin receptor expression and proopiomelanocortin was significantly higher, while Neuropeptide Y levels were lower than those in the Obese and SO groups. Furthermore, the gene and protein expression levels of PTP1B in the RYGB group were lower, while levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein were much higher compared with those in the Obese and SO groups. In conclusion, RYGB surgery significantly suppressed hypothalamic PTP1B protein expression. PTP1B regulation may partially alleviate leptin resistance.

  19. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  20. Suppression of NF-κB signal pathway by NLRC3-like protein in stony coral Acropora aculeus under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wu, Yibo; Zhang, Chengkai; Li, Can; Chen, Guangmei; Yu, Xiaopeng; Shi, Xiaowei; Xu, Yanlai; Wang, Lingui; Huang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress is the most common factor for coral bleaching, which has increased both in frequency and severity due to global warming. In the present study, the stony coral Acropora aculeus was subjected to acute heat stress and entire transcriptomes were sequenced via the next generation sequencing platform. Four paired-end libraries were constructed and sequenced in two groups, including a control and a heat stress group. A total of 120,319,751 paired-end reads with lengths of 2 × 100 bp were assembled and 55,021 coral-derived genes were obtained. After read mapping and abundance estimation, 9110 differentially expressed genes were obtained in the comparison between the control and heat stress group, including 4465 significantly upregulated and 4645 significantly downregulated genes. Twenty-three GO terms in the Biological Process category were overrepresented for significantly upregulated genes, and divided into six groups according to their relationship. These three groups were related to the NF-κB signal pathway, and the remaining three groups were relevant for pathogen response, immunocyte activation and protein ubiquitination. Forty-three common genes were found in four GO terms, which were directly related to the NF-κB signal pathway. These included 2 NACHT, LRR, PYD domains-containing protein, 5 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein, 29 NLRC3-like protein, 4 NLRC5-like protein, and 3 uncharacterized protein. For significantly downregulated genes, 27 overrepresented GO terms were found in the Biological Process category, which were relevant to protein ubiquitination and ATP metabolism. Our results indicate that heat stress suppressed the immune response level via the NLRC3-like protein, the fine-tuning of protein turnover activity, and ATP metabolism. This might disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis and result in the bleaching of the coral A. aculeus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Peck, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was discovered in southern Mexico sometime in 1977 near Tapachula, Mexico. Farmers in Texas and other states of the United States became concerned that the Mediterranean fruit fly would spread northward through Mexico and into the US. In response to this threat to US agriculture, funds were appropriated by Congress to be used by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit flies from Mexico and establish a barrier zone in Guatemala to keep the Mediterranean fruit flies from spreading northward into Mexico. In Mexico and Guatemala, the organisation called MOSCAMED was created to support the programme. Aerially applied malathion bait sprays were used in the suppression programme beginning in Mexico in 1982 and beginning in Guatemala in 1985. Mexico has been free of the Mediterranean fruit fly since 1982, except for outbreaks in the southernmost state of Chiapas, adjacent to Guatemala. The spraying of malathion was banned by the government of Guatemala in early 1996 because of concern regarding possible adverse effects on honey bees. By this time, research had been started to evaluate the use of xanthene dyes as a potential alternative to malathion in protein bait sprays for the suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Liquido et al. 1995). Light-activated toxicity of xanthene dyes has been documented for more than two dozen insect species overall (Heitz 1997). Field trials of xanthene dyes, as a safer alternative to malathion in bait sprays targeting the Mediterranean fruit fly, were begun in Hawaii in 1994 and in Guatemala in 1996 and proved to be promising. By the end of 1996, xanthene dyes were registered as a substitute for malathion to suppress/eradicate Mediterranean fruit flies in the barrier zone. In January, 1997, MOSCAMED-Guatemala began a spray programme with xanthene dyes as the toxicant in a protein bait

  2. Multiple Functional Domains and Complexes of the Two Nonstructural Proteins of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Contribute to Interferon Suppression and Cellular Location▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedan, Samer; Andrews, Joel; Majumdar, Tanmay; Musiyenko, Alla; Barik, Sailen

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of severe respiratory diseases, efficiently suppresses cellular innate immunity, represented by type I interferon (IFN), using its two unique nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2. In a search for their mechanism, NS1 was previously shown to decrease levels of TRAF3 and IKKε, whereas NS2 interacted with RIG-I and decreased TRAF3 and STAT2. Here, we report on the interaction, cellular localization, and functional domains of these two proteins. We show that recombinant NS1 and NS2, expressed in lung epithelial A549 cells, can form homo- as well as heteromers. Interestingly, when expressed alone, substantial amounts of NS1 and NS2 localized to the nuclei and to the mitochondria, respectively. However, when coexpressed with NS2, as in RSV infection, NS1 could be detected in the mitochondria as well, suggesting that the NS1-NS2 heteromer localizes to the mitochondria. The C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence, DLNP, common to both NS1 and NS2, was required for some functions, but not all, whereas only the NS1 N-terminal region was important for IKKε reduction. Finally, NS1 and NS2 both interacted specifically with host microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). The contribution of MAP1B in NS1 function was not tested, but in NS2 it was essential for STAT2 destruction, suggesting a role of the novel DLNP motif in protein-protein interaction and IFN suppression. PMID:21795342

  3. Suppression of Retinal Neovascularization in vivo by Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Using Soluble VEGF-Receptor Chimeric Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pierce, Eric A.; Foley, Eliot D.; Takagi, Hitoshi; Chen, Helen; Riddle, Lavon; Ferrara, Napoleone; King, George L.; Smith, Lois E. H.

    1995-11-01

    The majority of severe visual loss in the United States results from complications associated with retinal neovascularization in patients with ischemic ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. Intraocular expression of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely correlated with neovascularization in these human disorders and with ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in mice. In this study, we evaluated whether in vivo inhibition of VEGF action could suppress retinal neovascularization in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. VEGF-neutralizing chimeric proteins were constructed by joining the extracellular domain of either human (Flt) or mouse (Flk) high-affinity VEGF receptors with IgG. Control chimeric proteins that did not bind VEGF were also used. VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins eliminated in vitro retinal endothelial cell growth stimulation by either VEGF (P hypoxic conditioned medium (P < 0.005) without affecting growth under nonstimulated conditions. Control proteins had no effect. To assess in vivo response, animals with bilateral retinal ischemia received intravitreal injections of VEGF antagonist in one eye and control protein in the contralateral eye. Retinal neovascularization was quantitated histologically by a masked protocol. Retinal neovascularization in the eye injected with human Flt or murine Flk chimeric protein was reduced in 100% (25/25; P < 0.0001) and 95% (21/22; P < 0.0001) of animals, respectively, compared to the control treated eye. This response was evident after only a single intravitreal injection and was dose dependent with suppression of neovascularization noted after total delivery of 200 ng of protein (P < 0.002). Reduction of histologically evident neovascular nuclei per 6-um section averaged 47% ± 4% (P < 0.001) and 37% ± 2% (P < 0.001) for Flt and Flk chimeric proteins with maximal inhibitory effects of 77% and 66

  4. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  5. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins that are delivered to the apoplast, as well as...

  6. Prader-Willi region non-protein coding RNA 1 suppressed gastric cancer growth as a competing endogenous RNA of microRNA-425-5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihao; Ju, Hongping; Yu, Shan; Zhao, Ting; Jing, Xiaojie; Li, Ping; Jia, Jing; Li, Nan; Tan, Bibo; Li, Yong

    2018-03-13

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of a major global health problem especially in Asia. Nowadays, long non-coding RNA has gained significantly attention in the current research climate such as carcinogenesis. This research desired to explore the mechanism of Prader-Willi region non-protein coding RNA 1 (PWRN1) on regulating GC process. Differentially expressed lncRNAs in GC tissues were screened out through microarray analysis. The RNA and protein expression level was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation, apoptosis rate, metastasis abilities were respectively determined by CCK8, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell assay. The luciferase reporter system was used to verify the targeting relationships between PWRN1, miR-425-5p and PTEN RIP assay was performed to prove whether PWRN1 acted as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-425-5p. Tumor xenograft model and immunohistochemistry were developed to study the influence of PWRN1 on tumor growth in vivo Microarray analysis determined that PWRN1 was different expressed between GC tissues and adjacent tissues. QRT-PCR revealed PWRN1 low expression in GC tissues and cells. PWRN1 up-regulated could reduce proliferation and metastasis and increased apoptosis in GC cells, while miR-425-5p had reverse effects. The RIP assay indicated that PWRN1 may target an oncogene miR-425-5p. The tumor xenograft assay found that up-regulated PWRN1 suppressed the tumor growth. The bioinformatic analysis, luciferase assay and western blot indicated that PWRN1 affected PTEN/Akt/MDM2/p53 axis via suppressing miR-425-5p. Our findings suggested that PWRN1 functioned as a ceRNA targeting to miR-425-5p and suppressed GC development via p53 signaling pathway. ©2018 The Author(s).

  7. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  8. Structural insights into mechanisms for inhibiting amyloid β42 aggregation by non-catechol-type flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaki, Mizuho; Murakami, Kazuma; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-15

    The prevention of 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) aggregation is promising for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We previously described the site-specific inhibitory mechanism for Aβ42 aggregation by a catechol-type flavonoid, (+)-taxifolin, targeting Lys16,28 after its autoxidation. In contrast, non-catechol-type flavonoids (morin, datiscetin, and kaempferol) inhibited Aβ42 aggregation without targeting Lys16,28 with almost similar potencies to that of (+)-taxifolin. We herein provided structural insights into their mechanisms for inhibiting Aβ42 aggregation. Physicochemical analyses revealed that their inhibition did not require autoxidation. The (1)H-(15)N SOFAST-HMQC NMR of Aβ42 in the presence of morin and datiscetin revealed the significant perturbation of chemical shifts of His13,14 and Gln15, which were close to the intermolecular β-sheet region, Gln15-Ala21. His13,14 also played a role in radical formation at Tyr10, thereby inducing the oxidation of Met35, which has been implicated in Aβ42 aggregation. These results suggest the direct interaction of morin and datiscetin with the Aβ42 monomer. Although only kaempferol was oxidatively-degraded during incubation, its degradation products as well as kaempferol itself suppressed Aβ42 aggregation. However, neither kaempferol nor its decomposed products perturbed the chemical shifts of the Aβ42 monomer. Aggregation experiments using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol-treated Aβ42 demonstrated that kaempferol and its degradation products inhibited the elongation rather than nucleation phase, implying that they interacted with small aggregates of Aβ42, but not with the monomer. In contrast, morin and datiscetin inhibited both phases. The position and number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of non-catechol-type flavonoids could be important for their inhibitory potencies and mechanisms against Aβ42 aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ZNF328, a novel human zinc-finger protein, suppresses transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Ying; Wang Shenqiu; Cai Zhenyu; Wang Yuequn; Wang Canding; Li Yongqing; Li Fang; Yuan Wuzhou; Liu Bisheng; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2005-01-01

    The zinc finger proteins containing the Kruppel-associated box domain (KRAB-ZFPs) are the single largest class of transcription factors in human genome. Many of the KRAB-ZFPs are involved in cardiac development or cardiovascular diseases. Here, we have identified a novel human KRAB zinc finger gene, named ZNF328, from the human fetal heart cDNA library. The complete sequence of ZNF328 cDNA contains a 2376-bp open reading frame (ORF) and encodes a 792 amino acid protein with an N-terminal KRAB domain and classical zinc finger C 2 H 2 motifs in the C-terminus. Northern blot analysis indicates that the protein is expressed in most of the examined human adult and embryonic tissues. ZNF328 is a transcription suppressor when fused to Gal-4 DNA-binding domain and cotransfected with VP-16. Overexpression of ZNF328 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1. Deletion analysis with a series of truncated fusion proteins indicates that the KRAB motif is a basal repression domain when cotransfected with VP-16. Similar results were obtained when the truncated fusion proteins were assayed for the transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1. These results suggest that ZNF328 protein may act as a transcriptional repressor in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway to mediate cellular functions

  10. Detection of ubiquitinated huntingtin species in intracellular aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eJuenemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein conformation diseases, including polyglutamine diseases, result from the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins. Huntington’s disease is one of nine diseases caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat within the affected protein and is hallmarked by intracellular inclusion bodies composed of aggregated N-terminal huntingtin fragments and other sequestered proteins. Fluorescence microscopy and filter trap assay are conventional methods to study protein aggregates, but cannot be used to analyze the presence and levels of post-translational modifications of aggregated huntingtin such as ubiquitination. Ubiquitination of proteins can be a signal for degradation and intracellular localization, but also affects protein activity and protein-protein interactions. The function of ubiquitination relies on its mono- and polymeric isoforms attached to protein substrates. Studying the ubiquitination pattern of aggregated huntingtin fragments offers an important possibility to understand huntingtin degradation and aggregation processes within the cell. For the identification of aggregated huntingtin and its ubiquitinated species, solubilization of the cellular aggregates is mandatory. Here we describe methods to identify post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination of aggregated mutant huntingtin. This approach is specifically described for use with mammalian cell culture and is suitable to study other disease-related proteins prone to aggregate.

  11. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses heat shock protein 90 and the proliferation of human breast cancer cells through its byproduct carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wen-Ying [Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Chou [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chwen-Ming; Lin, Chun-Mao; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei, E-mail: cwlin@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an oxidative stress-response enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme into bilirubin, ferric ion, and carbon monoxide (CO). Induction of HO-1 was reported to have antitumor activity; the inhibitory mechanism, however, is still unclear. In the present study, we found that treatment with [Ru(CO){sub 3}Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2} (RuCO), a CO-releasing compound, reduced the growth of human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Analysis of growth-related proteins showed that treatment with RuCO down-regulated cyclinD1, CDK4, and hTERT protein expressions. Interestingly, RuCO treatment resulted in opposite effects on wild-type and mutant p53 proteins. These results were similar to those of cells treated with geldanamycin (a heat shock protein (HSP)90 inhibitor), suggesting that RuCO might affect HSP90 activity. Moreover, RuCO induced mutant p53 protein destabilization accompanied by promotion of ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. The induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) showed consistent results, while the addition of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, diminished the RuCO-mediated effect. RuCO induction of HO-1 expression was reduced by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Additionally, treatment with a chemopreventive compound, curcumin, induced HO-1 expression accompanied with reduction of HSP90 client protein expression. The induction of HO-1 by curcumin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-elicited matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and tumor invasion. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence underlying HO-1's antitumor mechanism. CO, a byproduct of HO-1, suppresses HSP90 protein activity, and the induction of HO-1 may possess potential as a cancer therapeutic. - Highlights: • CO and HO-1 inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells. • CO and HO-1 attenuated HSP90 and its client proteins expression. • CO induced mutant p53 protein

  12. Plasmodium falciparum Hep1 Is Required to Prevent the Self Aggregation of PfHsp70-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O Nyakundi

    Full Text Available The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria, and molecular chaperones play a key role in the efficient translocation and proper folding of these proteins in the matrix. One such molecular chaperone is the eukaryotic mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; however, it is prone to self-aggregation and requires the presence of an essential zinc-finger protein, Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1, to maintain its structure and function. PfHsp70-3, the only Hsp70 predicted to localize in the mitochondria of P. falciparum, may also rely on a Hep1 orthologue to prevent self-aggregation. In this study, we identified a putative Hep1 orthologue in P. falciparum and co-expression of PfHsp70-3 and PfHep1 enhanced the solubility of PfHsp70-3. PfHep1 suppressed the thermally induced aggregation of PfHsp70-3 but not the aggregation of malate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase, thus showing specificity for PfHsp70-3. Zinc ions were indeed essential for maintaining the function of PfHep1, as EDTA chelation abrogated its abilities to suppress the aggregation of PfHsp70-3. Soluble and functional PfHsp70-3, acquired by co-expression with PfHep-1, will facilitate the biochemical characterisation of this particular Hsp70 protein and its evaluation as a drug target for the treatment of malaria.

  13. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d, keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids, or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/Pcr (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour and D/D0glu (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio were similar, D/Pcr in group sLP was lower, and D/D0glu was higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05 at 12th month. D/D0glu increased (P<0.05, and D/Pcr tended to decrease, (P=0.071 in group sLP. Conclusions. Low-protein diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  14. Chaperones, protein homeostasis & protein aggregation diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minoia, Melania

    2014-01-01

    Eiwitten zijn de werkzame moleculen van cellen en moeten in een specifieke driedimensionale structuur zijn gevouwen. Niet gevouwen eiwitten zijn niet alleen niet-functioneel, maar kunnen samenklonteren en aggregaten vormen die ziektes kunnen veroorzaken (bijv. ziekte van Parkinson en ziekte van

  15. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2017-03-01

    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation.

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  17. Suppression of NYVAC Infection in HeLa Cells Requires RNase L but Is Independent of Protein Kinase R Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Escobar, Mercedes; Nájera, José Luis; Baldanta, Sara; Rodriguez, Dolores; Way, Michael; Esteban, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase R (PKR) and RNase L are host cell components that function to contain viral spread after infections. In this study, we analyzed the role of both proteins in the abortive infection of human HeLa cells with the poxvirus strain NYVAC, for which an inhibition of viral A27L and B5R gene expression is described. Specifically, the translation of these viral genes is independent of PKR activation, but their expression is dependent on the RNase L activity. PMID:26656695

  18. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu, E-mail: amorooka@gunma-u.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Ueguri, Kei [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Yee, Karen Kar Lye [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan); Human Resources Cultivation Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryushi, Gunma, 376-8515 (Japan); Yanase, Toshihiko [Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180 (Japan); Sato, Takashi [Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8512 (Japan)

    2016-09-02

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  19. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shamim Hasan Zahid

    Full Text Available Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP, the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens.

  20. Androgen-androgen receptor system improves chronic inflammatory conditions by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in adipocytes via transcriptional regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Nobukatsu; Ueguri, Kei; Yee, Karen Kar Lye; Yanase, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decreases in sex hormones are closely related to chronic inflammation in obesity and metabolic diseases. Particularly, the molecular basis of androgen activity in regulating inflammation and controlling metabolism remains largely unknown. Obese adipocytes secrete monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a key chemokine that promotes the infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we studied the role of androgen-androgen receptor (AR) action in regulating MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue. We observed the induction of Mcp-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, Mcp-1 expression was upregulated by culturing in conditioned medium derived from inflammatory macrophages (M1-Mφ) containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We found that sex hormones downregulated TNF-α-induced Mcp-1 and interleukin (Il)-6 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, luciferase-reporter analysis indicated that MCP-1 promoter activity was predominantly suppressed by dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-AR interactions through functional canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) sites, whereas non-canonical NF-κB site containing important flanking sequences exhibited minor contributions to DHT-AR transcriptional repression. These findings suggested that androgen-AR suppressed obesity-induced chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. - Highlights: • DHT, non-aromatizable androgen suppresses Mcp-1 expression in adipocytes. • Mcp-1 transcription was negatively regulated by DHT-AR action. • DHT-AR selectively regulates Mcp-1 transcription through distinct NF-κB sites.

  1. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens.

  2. Venom allergen-like proteins in secretions of plant-parasitic nematodes activate and suppress extracellular plant immune receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano Torres, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic worms threaten human, animal and plant health by infecting people, livestock and crops worldwide. Animals and plants share an anciently evolved innate immune system. Parasites modulate this immune system by secreting proteins to maintain their parasitic lifestyle. This thesis

  3. Suppression or activation of immune responses by predicted secreted proteins of the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi, such as Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are intimately associated with plant cells. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characte...

  4. Deletion of Smgpi1 encoding a GPI-anchored protein suppresses sterility of the STRIPAK mutant ΔSmmob3 in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stefan; Lahmann, Yasmine; Hartmann, Thomas; Seiler, Stephan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    The striatin interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which is composed of striatin, protein phosphatase PP2A and kinases, is required for fruiting-body development and cell fusion in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Here, we report on the interplay of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein SmGPI1 with the kinase activator SmMOB3, a core component of human and fungal STRIPAK complexes. SmGPI1 is conserved among filamentous ascomycetes and was first identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using SmMOB3 as bait. The physical interaction of SmMOB3 and SmGPI1 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In vivo localization and differential centrifugation revealed that SmGPI1 is predominantly secreted and attached to the cell wall but is also associated with mitochondria and appears to be a dual-targeted protein. Deletion of Smgpi1 led to an increased number of fruiting bodies that were normally shaped but reduced in size. In addition, Smmob3 and Smgpi1 genetically interact. In the sterile ΔSmmob3 background deletion of Smgpi1 restores fertility, vegetative growth as well as hyphal-fusion defects. The suppression effect was specific for the ΔSmmob3 mutant as deletion of Smgpi1 in other STRIPAK mutants does not restore fertility. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids is associated with suppression of small-solute peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/P(cr) (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour) and D/D0(glu) (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio) were similar, D/P(cr) in group sLP was lower, and D/D0(glu) was higher than those in the other two groups (P diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  6. Macrophage Immune Response Suppression by Recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens, the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 Fusion Proteins

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    Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Hemmati, Mina; Ebadat, Saeedeh; Movahedi, Bahram; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Macrophage immune responses are affected by the secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This study aimed to examine the immune responses of macrophages to Mtb secretory antigens, namely ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10. Methods: THP-1 cells (a human monocytic cell line) were cultured and differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The cytotoxicity of the recombinant Mtb proteins was assessed using the MTT assay. Two important immune responses of macrophages, namely NO and ROS production, were measured in response to the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with SPSS, version 16, and considered significant at Pproteins markedly reduced macrophage immune response. The treatment of the THP-1-differentiated cells with ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 reduced NO and ROS production. The treated THP-1-differentiated cells exhibited less inducible NO synthase activity than did the untreated cells. No toxic effect on macrophage viability was observed for the applied proteins at the different concentrations. Conclusion: It seems that the decline in macrophage immune response is due to the suppression of NO and ROS production pathways without any effect on cell viability. PMID:27365551

  7. Baicalein suppresses 17-β-estradiol-induced migration, adhesion and invasion of breast cancer cells via the G protein-coupled receptor 30 signaling pathway.

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    Shang, Dandan; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Zhuxia; Chen, Huamei; Zhao, Lujun; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids are structurally similar to steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, and therefore have been studied for their potential effects on hormone-dependent cancers. Baicalein is the primary flavonoid derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. In the present study, we investigated the effects of baicalein on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced migration, adhesion and invasion of MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that baicalein suppressed E2-stimulated wound-healing migration and cell‑Matrigel adhesion, and ameliorated E2-promoted invasion across a Matrigel-coated Transwell membrane. Furthermore, baicalein interfered with E2-induced novel G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30)-related signaling, including a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and serine/threonine kinase Akt, without affecting GPR30 expression. The results also showed that baicalein suppressed the expression of GPR30 target genes, cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by E2. Furthermore, baicalein prevented GPR30-related signaling activation and upregulation of CYR61 and CTGF mRNA levels induced by G1, a specific GPR 30 agonist. The results suggest that baicalein inhibits E2-induced migration, adhesion and invasion through interfering with GPR30 signaling pathway activation, which indicates that it may act as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of GPR30-positive breast cancer metastasis.

  8. Crocin Suppresses LPS-Stimulated Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase 4

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    Ji-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment that is primarily used in various cuisines as a seasoning and coloring agent, as well as in traditional medicines for the treatment of edema, fever, and hepatic disorder. In this study, we demonstrated that crocin markedly induces the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which leads to an anti-inflammatory response. Crocin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression and nitric oxide production via downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. These effects were abrogated by blocking of HO-1 expression or activity. Crocin also induced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular pools and phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 4 (CAMK4. CAMK4 knockdown and kinase-dead mutant inhibited crocin-mediated HO-1 expression, Nrf2 activation, and phosphorylation of Akt, indicating that HO-1 expression is mediated by CAMK4 and that Akt is a downstream mediator of CAMK4 in crocin signaling. Moreover, crocin-mediated suppression of iNOS expression was blocked by CAMK4 inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that crocin suppresses LPS-stimulated expression of iNOS by inducing HO-1 expression via Ca2+/calmodulin-CAMK4-PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling cascades. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the inhibitory effects of crocin against endotoxin-mediated inflammation.

  9. Induction of cell death by tospoviral protein NSs and the motif critical for cell death does not control RNA silencing suppression activity.

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    Singh, Ajeet; Permar, Vipin; Jain, R K; Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet Ranjan; Canto, Tomas; Palukaitis, Peter; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-08-01

    Groundnut bud necrosis virus induces necrotic symptoms in different hosts. Previous studies showed reactive oxygen species-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) resulted in necrotic symptoms. Transgenic expression of viral protein NSs mimics viral symptoms. Here, we showed a role for NSs in influencing oxidative burst in the cell, by analyzing H 2 O 2 accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of vacuolar processing enzymes, H 2 O 2 -responsive microRNA 319a.2 plus its possible target metacaspase-8. The role of NSs in PCD, was shown using two NSs mutants: one in the Trp/GH3 motif (a homologue of pro-apototic domain) (NSs S189R ) and the other in a non-Trp/GH3 motif (NSs L172R ). Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expressing NSs S189R enhanced the PCD response, but not TRV-NSs L172R , while RNA silencing suppression activity was lost in TRV-NSs L172R , but not in TRV-NSs S189R . Therefore, we propose dual roles of NSs in RNA silencing suppression and induction of cell death, controlled by different motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation on the Aggregation Behaviors and Filament Morphology of Tau Protein by a Simple 90° Angle Light-Scattering Assay

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    Hai-Lin Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro aggregation of tau constructs was monitored by a simple 90° angle light-scattering (LS approach which was conducted directly on fluorescence instrument. At the optimum incident wavelength (550 nm, unpolarized, the sensitivity of LS was high enough to detect tau aggregation at micromolar range. The nucleation and elongation, different events in the aggregation process of 4RMBD construct (corresponding with the four repeated units of tau Microtubule Binding Domain could be observed by this approach, as compared with ThS fluorescence assay. The validity of this technique was demonstrated over a range of tau concentrations with different tau filaments. Linear regression of scattering light against concentration yielded the x-intercept, the critical concentrations of tau constructs. The critical concentrations of 4RMBD and its S305N mutant are 5.26 μM and 4.04 μM respectively, indicating point mutation S305N, which is associated with FTDP-17, appear to enhance the heparin-induced tau aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, the slopes of concentration dependence curves, as well as the angle dependence, were discussed based on the filaments morphology examined by electron microscopy and ultrasonication experiment.

  11. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

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    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon.

  12. The secreted antifungal protein thionin 2.4 in Arabidopsis thaliana suppresses the toxicity of a fungal fruit body lectin from Fusarium graminearum.

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    Tomoya Asano

    Full Text Available Plants possess active defense systems and can protect themselves from pathogenic invasion by secretion of a variety of small antimicrobial or antifungal proteins such as thionins. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of thionins are derived from their ability to induce open pore formation on cell membranes of phytopathogens, resulting in release of potassium and calcium ions from the cell. Wheat thionin also accumulates in the cell walls of Fusarium-inoculated plants, suggesting that it may have a role in blocking pathogen infection at the plant cell walls. Here we developed an anti-thionin 2.4 (Thi2.4 antibody and used it to show that Thi2.4 is localized in the cell walls of Arabidopsis and cell membranes of F. graminearum, when flowers are inoculated with F. graminearum. The Thi2.4 protein had an antifungal effect on F. graminearum. Next, we purified the Thi2.4 protein, conjugated it with glutathione-S-transferase (GST and coupled the proteins to an NHS-activated column. Total protein from F. graminearum was applied to GST-Thi2.4 or Thi2.4-binding columns, and the fungal fruit body lectin (FFBL of F. graminearum was identified as a Thi2.4-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid analysis. To investigate the biological function of FFBL, we infiltrated the lectin into Arabidopsis leaves and observed that it induced cell death in the leaves. Application of FFBL at the same time as inoculation with F. graminearum significantly enhanced the virulence of the pathogen. By contrast, FFBL-induced host cell death was effectively suppressed in transgenic plants that overexpressed Thi2.4. We found that a 15 kD Thi2.4