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Sample records for suppress selenium uptake

  1. Soil sulfur amendments suppress Selenium uptake by alfalfa and western wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. Mackowiak; M. C. Amacher

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a potential soil contaminant in many parts of the world where it can pose a health risk to livestock and wildlife. Phosphate ore mining in Southeast Idaho has resulted in numerous waste rock dumps revegetated with forages to stabilize the dumps and support grazing. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis...

  2. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  3. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, Lisa L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    , waters draining from agricultural fields created wetlands with high concentrations of dissolved selenium in the water. The selenium was taken up by aquatic wildlife and caused massive numbers of embryonic deformities and deaths.Regulatory agencies have since worked to safeguard ecological and human health by creating environmental exposure guidelines based upon selenium concentrations in water and in fish tissue. Any attempt to regulate selenium concentrations requires a delicate balance because selenium occurs naturally and is also a vital nutrient for the health of wildlife, domestic stock, and humans. Selenium is commonly added as a vitamin to animal feed, and in some regions of the United States and the world, it is added as an amendment to soils for uptake by agricultural crops.The important role of selenium in economic products, energy supply, agriculture, and health will continue for well into the future. The challenge to society is to balance the benefits of selenium use with the environmental consequences of its extraction. Increased understanding of the elemental cycle of selenium in the earth may lead to new (or unconventional) sources of selenium, the discovery of new methods of extraction, and new technologies for minimizing the transfer of selenium from rock to biota, so to protect environmental and human health.

  4. Selenium uptake and assessment of the biochemical changes in Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass during the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicovscaia, I; Chiriac, T; Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Culicov, O; Frontasyeva, M; Rudic, V

    2017-01-01

    The process of selenium uptake by biomass of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was investigated by neutron activation analysis at different selenium concentrations in solution and at different contact times. Experimental data showed good fit with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a regression coefficient value of 0.99. In terms of absorption dependence on time, the maximal selenium content was adsorbed in the first 5 min of interaction without significant further changes. It was also found that A. platensis biomass forms spherical selenium nanoparticles. Biochemical analysis was used to assess the changes in the main components of spirulina biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation.

  5. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... g Se g(-1) (dry mass). The speciation analyses showed that inorganic selenium was present in both roots and leaves. The predominant metabolised organic forms of selenium in the roots were selenomethionine and gamma-glutamyl-selenomethyl-selenocysteine, regardless of which of the inorganic species...

  6. Selenium addition alters mercury uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Fu, Shi; Ametkhan, Aray; Ouyang, Yun; Ye, Zhihong

    2014-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, especially in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), whereas selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in the human diet. This study aimed to ascertain whether addition of Se can produce rice with enriched Se and lowered Hg content when growing in Hg-contaminated paddy fields and, if so, to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa, japonica and indica) were grown in either hydroponic solutions or soil rhizobags with different Se and Hg treatments. Concentrations of total Hg, MeHg and Se were determined in the roots, shoots and brown rice, together with Hg uptake kinetics and Hg bioavailability in the soil. Root anatonmy was also studied. The high Se treatment (5 μg g(-1)) significantly increased brown rice yield by 48 % and total Se content by 2·8-fold, and decreased total Hg and MeHg by 47 and 55 %, respectively, compared with the control treatments. The high Se treatment also markedly reduced 'water-soluble' Hg and MeHg concentrations in the rhizosphere soil, decreased the uptake capacity of Hg by roots and enhanced the development of apoplastic barriers in the root endodermis. Addition of Se to Hg-contaminated soil can help produce brown rice that is simultaneously enriched in Se and contains less total Hg and MeHg. The lowered accumulation of total Hg and MeHg appears to be the result of reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg in the rhizosphere, suppression of uptake of Hg into the root cells and an enhancement of the development of apoplastic barriers in the endodermis of the roots. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few...

  8. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of or treat cognitive decline in elderly people. Thyroid disease The thyroid gland has high amounts of selenium ... can help treat or reduce the risk of thyroid disease is not clear. More research is needed to ...

  9. Selenium-rich dissolved organic matter determines selenium uptake in wheat grown on Low-selenium arable land soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to find soil parameters that are best related to Se plant uptake for low Se soils with predominantly organic Se, and to explore the mechanisms that control Se bioavailability in the soils under study. Methods: A pot experiment using nineteen soil samples taken from different

  10. Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake, transport and glutathione peroxidase activity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake and transport in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability. In the present study, we measured the uptake and transport of various Se compounds in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. We found that two sources...

  11. Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake and transport in the human intestinal cell model, Caco-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake and transport in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability. In the present study, we measured the uptake and transport of various Se compounds in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. We found that two sources of...

  12. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fang Yang1*, Quanming Tang1,2*, Xueyun Zhong3, Yan Bai1, Tianfeng Chen1, Yibo Zhang1, Yinghua Li1, Wenjie Zheng11Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2South China Seas Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50% inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 µM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers.Keywords: selenium nanoparticles, Spirulina polysaccharide, cellular uptake, anticancer, apoptosis

  13. Effect of selenium application on arsenic uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sumandeep; Singh, Dhanwinder; Singh, Kuldip

    2017-09-01

    Alluvial aquifers of the agrarian state of Punjab of southwestern arid zone used for irrigation of rice crops are rich in arsenic concentration. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) crops were raised in pots in a greenhouse with a purpose to study whether selenium (Se) application was effective in ameliorating As uptake. The rice crop was irrigated with arsenic laced water (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 μM As L -1 ) throughout the growing period, without and with selenium (0.05 and 0.10 mg kg -1 ) added through mustard biomass, grown ex situ in seleniferous soil. Arsenic uptake and dry matter yield in different parts of the rice crop were assayed after application of As alone and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). An antagonistic interaction between Se and As was observed. Addition of As through irrigation water significantly reduced yield of rice grain, straw and root. However, subsequent addition of Se helped in mitigating the harmful effect of As and countered the yield reduction caused due to As toxicity. The effect of Se on dry matter yield was more pronounced at its higher dose (0.10 mg kg -1 ) as compared to its lower dose (0.05 mg kg -1 ). The presence of Se either alone or added along with As significantly reduced the As concentration and its uptake by different parts of rice and higher reduction in As concentration was observed with addition of the highest level of applied Se (0.10 mg kg -1 ). Our observations indicated that Se supplementation might be favourable to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice crops.

  14. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Tang, Quanming; Zhong, Xueyun; Bai, Yan; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Yinghua; Zheng, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS) has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 μM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G(1) cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers.

  15. Extracellular thiol-assisted selenium uptake dependent on the x(c)(-) cystine transporter explains the cancer-specific cytotoxicity of selenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olm, E.; Fernandes, A. P.; Hebert, C.

    2009-01-01

    The selenium salt selenite (SeO32-) is cytotoxic in low to moderate concentrations, with a remarkable specificity for cancer cells resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Our data show that selenium uptake and accumulation, rather than intracellular events, are crucial to the specific selenite...

  16. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  17. Elemental concentrations and tracer uptake behavior of manganese, zinc, and selenium in brain of normal mice during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarohda, Tohru; Yabushita, Yuko; Kanayama, Yousuke; Amano, Ryohei; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations and uptake behavior of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in mouse brain were studied by a multitracer technique, neutron activation analysis and autoradiography. Comparative concentrations on Mn, Zn, and Se and tracer uptake behavior of 54 Mn, 65 Zn, and 75 Se were examined in brains of 1-, 4-, 8-, 21-, and 56-day-old mice, and evaluated in terms of brain concentration (parts per million, ppm) and brain uptake rate (the radioactivity percentage of injected dose per gram of brain, %dose/g), respectively. As a result, the brain concentrations of Mn increased with growth, although those of Se and Zn did not change. On the other hand, the uptakes of the three tracers by brains of 1-day-old mice were much higher than those of older ones. Using radioactive 54 Mn as a single tracer, autoradiography was examined to determine the Mn uptake regional distribution in brains of 1-, 8-, and 21-day-old mice, and a higher regional uptake of Mn by the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus in brains of young mice was observed. (author)

  18. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Li Y; Zhang Y; Chen T; Bai Y; Zhong X; Tang Q; Yang F; Zheng W

    2012-01-01

    Fang Yang1*, Quanming Tang1,2*, Xueyun Zhong3, Yan Bai1, Tianfeng Chen1, Yibo Zhang1, Yinghua Li1, Wenjie Zheng11Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2South China Seas Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccha...

  19. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic

  20. Enhanced Iron and Selenium Uptake in Plants by Volatile Emissions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BF06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.

  1. The response of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. italica) varieties on foliar application of selenium: uptake, translocation, and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindelářová, Kristýna; Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Praus, Lukáš; Kaňa, Antonín; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A model small-scale field experiment was set up to investigate selenium (Se) uptake by four different varieties of broccoli plants, as well as the effect of Se foliar application on the uptake of essential elements for plants calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Foliar application of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) was carried out at two rates (25 and 50 g Se/ha), and an untreated control variant was included. Analyses of individual parts of broccoli were performed, whereby it was found that Se in the plant accumulates mainly in the flower heads and slightly less in the leaves, stems, and roots, regardless of the Se rate and broccoli variety. In most cases, there was a statistically significant increase of Se content in all parts of the plant, while there was no confirmed systematic influence of the addition of Se on the changing intake of other monitored elements. Selenization of broccoli leads to an effective increase in the Se content at a rate of 25 g/ha, whereas the higher rate did not result in a substantial increase of Se content compared to the lower rate in all varieties. Therefore, the rate of 25 g/ha can be recommended as effective to produce broccoli with an increased Se content suitable for consumption. Moreover, Se application resulted in an adequate increase of the main organic compounds of Se, such as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys).

  2. Relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes for practical assesment of selenium status in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danius, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study the relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes was conducted for practical assesment of selenium status in Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows. The blood used in the experiment was stored in refrigerator for 7 and 10 days. Radioselenium with a specific activity at about 0.84 mCi/m was used. A high negative correlatin (r = -0.86 and r = -0.98) was found between red blood cell GSH-Px activity and red blood cell uptake of 75-Se. Results indicated that red blood cell uptake of 75-Se can be used for determination of Se status in dairy cattle, although some factors which might affect red blood cell uptake of 75-Se should be calculated first. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs

  3. Selenium bioavailability and uptake as affected by four different plants in a loamy clay soil with particular attention to mycorrhizae inoculated ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier-Lamy, C. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: colette.munier@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Deneux-Mustin, S. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Mustin, C. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.mustin@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Merlet, D. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: denis.merlet@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Berthelin, J. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: jacques.berthelin@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Leyval, C. [LIMOS, UMR 7137 CNRS-Nancy University, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: corinne.leyval@limos.uhp-nancy.fr

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of plant species, especially of their rhizosphere soil, and of inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the bioavailability of selenium and its transfer in soil-plant systems. A pot experiment was performed with a loamy clay soil and four plant species: maize, lettuce, radish and ryegrass, the last one being inoculated or not with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae). Plant biomass and Se concentration in shoots and roots were estimated at harvest. Se bioavailability in rhizosphere and unplanted soil was evaluated using sequential extractions. Plant biomass and selenium uptake varied with plant species. The quantity of rhizosphere soil also differed between plants and was not proportional to plant biomass. The highest plant biomass, Se concentration in plants, and soil to plant transfer factor were obtained with radish. The lowest Se transfer factors were obtained with ryegrass. For the latter, mycorrhizal inoculation did not significantly affect plant growth, but reduced selenium transfer from soil to plant by 30%. In unplanted soil after 65 days aging, more than 90% of added Se was water-extractable. On the contrary, Se concentration in water extracts of rhizosphere soil represented less than 1% and 20% of added Se for ryegrass and maize, respectively. No correlation was found between the water-extractable fraction and Se concentration in plants. The speciation of selenium in the water extracts indicated that selenate was reduced, may be under organic forms, in the rhizosphere soil.

  4. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Rutgers University and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  5. Gypsum amendment to soil can reduce selenium uptake by alfalfa grown in the presence of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Woodbury, P.B.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments in the field and greenhouse were conducted in the presence of coal fly ash to determine whether gypsum can reduce Se concentration in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). In the field experiment, conducted at a coal fly ash landfill, 11.2 t ha -1 gypsum was applied to soil as a top dressing to test the effect of gypsum in reducing selenium (Se) concentration in aboveground plant tissue. There were four treatment combinations of gypsum over a two year period, 1990, and 1991: (0, 0), (0, 11.2) (11.2, 0) and (11.2, 11.2). In 1991, the Se concentration was lower in alfalfa grown with gypsum, regardless of whether the gypsum was applied in both years or in only one year, indicating that the effect of gypsum application in the first year persisted into the second year. Since there was no increase in aboveground biomass with added gypsum, differences in Se concentration reflect a competitive interaction between S and Se. In the greenhouse experiment, 12 soil treatments were tested: three levels of fly ash (0, 10 and 20%) in combination with each of four levels of gypsum (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%). The Se concentration in alfalfa grown in 10% fly ash declined linearly with increasing gypsum dose, resulting in a reduction in Se concentration of 0.04 ± 0.02 μg g -1 for each 1% gypsum added for the first harvest and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg g -1 for each 1% gypsum added in the second harvest. Based on these results, gypsum may prove useful as a management tool to reduce the uptake of Se by plants growing on coal fly ash landfills

  6. Uptake mechanisms of selenium oxyanions during the ferrihydrite-hematite recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börsig, Nicolas; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Shaw, Samuel; Schild, Dieter; Neumann, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Se is an essential nutrient at trace levels, but also a toxic environmental contaminant at higher concentrations. The mobility of the trace element Se in natural environments is mainly controlled by the occurrence of the highly soluble Se oxyanions - selenite [Se(IV)] and selenate [Se(VI)] - and their interaction with geological materials. Since iron oxides are ubiquitous in nature, many previous studies investigated Se retention by adsorption onto iron oxides. However, little is known about the retention of Se oxyanions during the formation process of iron oxides. In this paper, we therefore studied the immobilization of Se oxyanions during the crystallization of hematite from ferrihydrite. In coprecipitation studies, hematite was synthesized by the precipitation and aging of ferrihydrite in an oxidized Se(IV)- or Se(VI)-containing system (pH 7.5). Hydrochemical data of these batch experiments revealed the complete uptake of all available Se(IV) up to initial concentrations of c(Se)0 = 10-3 mol/L (m/V ratio = 9.0 g/L), while the retention of Se(VI) was low (max. 15% of c(Se)0). In case of high initial Se(IV) concentrations, the results also demonstrated that the interaction of Se with ferrihydrite can affect the type of the final transformation product. Comparative adsorption studies, performed at identical conditions, allowed a distinction between pure adsorption and coprecipitation and showed a significantly higher Se retention by coprecipitation than by adsorption. Desorption studies indicated that Se coprecipitation leads to the occurrence of a resistant, non-desorbable Se fraction. According to time-resolved studies of Se(IV) or Se(VI) retention during the hematite formation and detailed spectroscopic analyses (XPS, XAS), this fraction is the result of an incorporation process, which is not attributable to Fe-for-Se substitution or the Se occupation of vacancies. Se initially adsorbs to the ferrihydrite surface, but after the transformation of ferrihydrite

  7. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Wu, Xinchao [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Maimaiti, Yusufu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Gao, Zairong, E-mail: gaobonn@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine {sup 131}I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from {sup 131}I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced {sup 131}I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  8. Suppressing the cytotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles by uptake of curcumin/BSA particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Ying; Luo, Peihua; Li, Guanqun; Zheng, Botuo; Chen, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2016-05-05

    The adverse effects of metal-based nanoparticles on human beings and the environment have received extensive attention recently. It is urgently required to develop a simple and effective method to suppress the toxicity of metal-based nanomaterials. In this study, a hydrophobic antioxidant and a chelation agent curcumin (CUR) were encapsulated into bovine serum albumin (BSA) particles by a simple co-precipitation method, and followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The CUR/BSA particles had an average size of 300 nm in diameter with a negatively charged surface and sustained curcumin release properties. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of CUR/BSA particles were followed on A549 cells, HepG2 cells and RAW264.7 cells. The CUR/BSA particles had higher intracellular accumulation and lower cytotoxicity compared with the free curcumin at the same drug concentration. The CUR/BSA particles could suppress the cytotoxicity generated by CuO nanoparticles as a result of decrease of both the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and Cu(2+) concentration, while the free curcumin did not show any obvious detoxicating effect. The detoxicating effects of CUR/BSA particles were further studied in an intratracheal instillation model in vivo, demonstrating significant reduction of toxicity and inflammatory response in rat lungs induced by CuO nanoparticles. The concept-proving study demonstrates the potential of the CUR/BSA particles in suppressing cytotoxicity of metal-based nanomaterials, which is a paramount requirement for the safe application of nanotechnology.

  9. Suppressing the cytotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles by uptake of curcumin/BSA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Ying; Luo, Peihua; Li, Guanqun; Zheng, Botuo; Chen, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2016-05-01

    The adverse effects of metal-based nanoparticles on human beings and the environment have received extensive attention recently. It is urgently required to develop a simple and effective method to suppress the toxicity of metal-based nanomaterials. In this study, a hydrophobic antioxidant and a chelation agent curcumin (CUR) were encapsulated into bovine serum albumin (BSA) particles by a simple co-precipitation method, and followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The CUR/BSA particles had an average size of 300 nm in diameter with a negatively charged surface and sustained curcumin release properties. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of CUR/BSA particles were followed on A549 cells, HepG2 cells and RAW264.7 cells. The CUR/BSA particles had higher intracellular accumulation and lower cytotoxicity compared with the free curcumin at the same drug concentration. The CUR/BSA particles could suppress the cytotoxicity generated by CuO nanoparticles as a result of decrease of both the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and Cu2+ concentration, while the free curcumin did not show any obvious detoxicating effect. The detoxicating effects of CUR/BSA particles were further studied in an intratracheal instillation model in vivo, demonstrating significant reduction of toxicity and inflammatory response in rat lungs induced by CuO nanoparticles. The concept-proving study demonstrates the potential of the CUR/BSA particles in suppressing cytotoxicity of metal-based nanomaterials, which is a paramount requirement for the safe application of nanotechnology.

  10. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.B.; Hong, Y.P.; Im, J.N.; Chung, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  11. Suppressive effect of nobiletin and epicatechin gallate on fructose uptake in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsu, Hideo; Awara, Sohei; Unno, Tomonori; Shimizu, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Inhibition of excessive fructose intake in the small intestine could alleviate fructose-induced diseases such as hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the effect of phytochemicals on fructose uptake using human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells which express the fructose transporter, GLUT5. Among 35 phytochemicals tested, five, including nobiletin and epicatechin gallate (ECg), markedly inhibited fructose uptake. Nobiletin and ECg also inhibited the uptake of glucose but not of L-leucine or Gly-Sar, suggesting an inhibitory effect specific to monosaccharide transporters. Kinetic analysis further suggested that this reduction in fructose uptake was associated with a decrease in the apparent number of cell-surface GLUT5 molecules, and not with a change in the affinity of GLUT5 for fructose. Lastly, nobiletin and ECg suppressed the permeation of fructose across Caco-2 cell monolayers. These findings suggest that nobiletin and ECg are good candidates for preventing diseases caused by excessive fructose intake.

  12. Ameliorative effects of selenium on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells via modulating autophagy/apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Uson-Lopez, Rachael A; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Tan, Gongxun; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2018-04-01

    Arsenic is well known toxicant responsible for human diseases including cancers. On the other hand, selenium is an essential trace element with significant chemopreventive effects, anticancer potentials and antioxidant properties. Although previous studies have reported antagonism/synergism between arsenic and selenium in biological systems, the biomolecular mechanism/s is still inconclusive. Therefore, to elucidate the molecular phenomena in cellular level, we hypothesized that co-exposure of selenium with arsenic may have suppressive effects on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. We found that selenium in co-exposure with arsenic increases cell viability, and suppresses oxidative stress induced by arsenic in PC12 cells. Consequently, DNA fragmentation due to arsenic exposure was also reduced by arsenic and selenium co-exposure. Furthermore, western blot analyses revealed that simultaneous exposure of both metals significantly inhibited autophagy which further suppressed apoptosis through positively regulation of key proteins; p-mTOR, p-Akt, p-Foxo1A, p62, and expression of ubiquitin, Bax, Bcl2, NFкB, and caspases 3 and 9, although those are negatively regulated by arsenic. In addition, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis confirmed the involvement of caspase cascade in cell death process induced by arsenic and subsequent inhibition by co-exposure of selenium with arsenic. The cellular accumulation study of arsenic in presence/absence of selenium via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry confirmed that selenium effectively retarded the uptake of arsenic in PC12 cells. Finally, these findings imply that selenium is capable to modulate arsenic-induced intrinsic apoptosis pathway via enhancement of mTOR/Akt autophagy signaling pathway through employing antioxidant potentials and through inhibiting the cellular accumulation of arsenic in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of phytohemagglutinin-induction of thymidine uptake in guinea pig lymphocytes by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, S; Matsui, I; Morisawa, S

    1977-10-18

    Treatment with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), a specific inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), suppressed the phytohemagglutinin-induction of [3H]thymidine uptake by guinea pig lymphocytes. The kinetics of [3H]thymidine uptake revealed that the Km value for thymidine was not changed, but the V value was markedly lowered by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment. The induction of ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.75) (thymidine kinase) activity by phytohemagglutinin was suppressed to about the same extent as the induction of thymidine uptake. These suppressions were dependent on the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) doses and on duration of the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment. Analysis of [3H]thymidine labelled compounds of the acid-soluble fraction showed that conversion of thymidine to thymidine 5'-triphosphate was inhibited by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment. DNA polymerase activity was less inhibited by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment in comparison with the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibition of thymidine uptake by whole cells. These results strongly suggested that blocking of polyamine accumulation by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment influenced phytohemagglutinin induction of thymidine phosphorylation, resulting in a decrease of thymidine incorporation into DNA.

  14. Suppression of myocardial 18F-FDG uptake with a preparatory ''Atkins-style'' low-carbohydrate diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulden, Richard; Chung, Peter; Sonnex, Emer; Ibrahim, Quazi; Maguire, Conor; Abele, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Physiological myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG during positron emission tomography can mask adjacent abnormal uptake in mediastinal malignancy and inflammatory cardiac diseases. Myocardial uptake is unpredictable and variable. This study evaluates the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet in reducing myocardial FDG uptake. Patients attending for clinically indicated oncological FDG PET were asked to have an ''Atkins-style'' low-carbohydrate diet (less than 3 g) the day before examination and an overnight fast. A total of 120 patients following low-carbohydrate diet plus overnight fast were compared with 120 patients prepared by overnight fast alone. Patients having an Atkins-style diet also completed a diet compliance questionnaire. SUV max and SUV mean for myocardium, blood pool and liver were measured in both groups. Myocardial SUV max fell from 3.53 ± 2.91 in controls to 1.77 ± 0.91 in the diet-compliant group. 98 % of diet-compliant patients had a myocardial SUV max less than 3.6 compared with 67 % of controls. Liver and blood pool SUV max rose from 2.68 ± 0.49 and 1.82 ± 0.30 in the control group to 3.14 ± 0.57 and 2.06 ± 0.30. An Atkins-style diet the day before PET, together with an overnight fast, effectively suppresses myocardial FDG uptake. circle Low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) the day before PET suppresses myocardial FDG uptake. circle LCD before PET increases liver and blood pool SUV max and SUV mean . (orig.)

  15. Endothelin‐1 suppresses insulin‐stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake via GPCR kinase 2 in skeletal muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Higa, Tsunaki; Karki, Sarita; Terada, Koji; Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Nepal, Prabha; Mazaki, Yuichi; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) reduces insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, inducing insulin resistance. Here, we have determined the molecular mechanisms underlying negative regulation by ET‐1 of insulin signalling. Experimental Approach We used the rat L6 skeletal muscle cells fully differentiated into myotubes. Changes in the phosphorylation of Akt was assessed by Western blotting. Effects of ET‐1 on insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake was assessed with [3H]‐2‐deoxy‐d‐glucose ([3H]2‐DG). The C‐terminus region of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2‐ct), a dominant negative GRK2, was overexpressed in L6 cells using adenovirus‐mediated gene transfer. GRK2 expression was suppressed by transfection of the corresponding short‐interfering RNA (siRNA). Key Results In L6 myotubes, insulin elicited sustained Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473, which was suppressed by ET‐1. The inhibitory effects of ET‐1 were prevented by treatment with a selective ETA receptor antagonist and a Gq protein inhibitor, overexpression of GRK2‐ct and knockdown of GRK2. Insulin increased [3H]2‐DG uptake rate in a concentration‐dependent manner. ET‐1 noncompetitively antagonized insulin‐stimulated [3H]2‐DG uptake. Blockade of ETA receptors, overexpression of GRK2‐ct and knockdown of GRK2 prevented the ET‐1‐induced suppression of insulin‐stimulated [3H]2‐DG uptake. In L6 myotubes overexpressing FLAG‐tagged GRK2, ET‐1 facilitated the interaction of endogenous Akt with FLAG‐GRK2. Conclusions and Implications Activation of ETA receptors with ET‐1 suppressed insulin‐induced Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 and [3H]2‐DG uptake in a GRK2‐dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. These findings suggest that ETA receptors and GRK2 are potential targets for overcoming insulin resistance. PMID:26660861

  16. Arsenic-phosphorus interactions in the soil-plant-microbe system: Dynamics of uptake, suppression and toxicity to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Rengel, Zed; Damon, Paul; Tibbett, Mark

    2018-02-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil, water and plant systems can pose a direct health risk to humans and ecosystems. Phosphate (Pi) ions strongly influence As availability in soil, its uptake and toxicity to plants. Better understanding of As(V)-Pi interactions in soils and plants will facilitate a potential remediation strategy for As contaminated soils, reducing As uptake by crop plants and toxicity to human populations via manipulation of soil Pi content. However, the As(V)-Pi interactions in soil-plant systems are complex, leading to contradictory findings among different studies. Therefore, this review investigates the role of soil type, soil properties, minerals, Pi levels in soil and plant, Pi transporters, mycorrhizal association and microbial activities on As-Pi interactions in soils and hydroponics, and uptake by plants, elucidate the key mechanisms, identify key knowledge gaps and recommend new research directions. Although Pi suppresses As uptake by plants in hydroponic systems, in soils it could either increase or decrease As availability and toxicity to plants depending on the soil types, properties and charge characteristics. In soil, As(V) availability is typically increased by the addition of Pi. At the root surface, the Pi transport system has high affinity for Pi over As(V). However, Pi concentration in plant influences the As transport from roots to shoots. Mycorrhizal association may reduce As uptake via a physiological shift to the mycorrhizal uptake pathway, which has a greater affinity for Pi over As(V) than the root epidermal uptake pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selenium essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sams, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who wants to migrate from Selenium RC or any other automation tool to Selenium WebDriver, then this book is for you. Knowledge of automation tools is necessary to follow the examples in this book.

  18. Selective Mitochondrial Uptake of MKT-077 Can Suppress Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Starenki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene. Not all patients with progressive MTC respond to current therapy inhibiting RET, demanding additional therapeutic strategies. We recently demonstrated that disrupting mitochondrial metabolism using a mitochondria-targeted agent or by depleting a mitochondrial chaperone effectively suppressed human MTC cells in culture and in mouse xenografts by inducing apoptosis and RET downregulation. These observations led us to hypothesize that mitochondria are potential therapeutic targets for MTC. This study further tests this hypothesis using1-ethyl-2-[[3-ethyl-5-(3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-yliden]-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidenemethyl] pyridinium chloride (MKT-077, a water-soluble rhodocyanine dye analogue, which can selectively accumulate in mitochondria.MethodsThe effects of MKT-077 on cell proliferation, survival, expression of RET and tumor protein 53 (TP53, and mitochondrial activity were determined in the human MTC lines in culture and in mouse xenografts.ResultsMKT-077 induced cell cycle arrest in TT and MZ-CRC-1. Intriguingly, MKT-077 also induced RET downregulation and strong cell death responses in TT cells, but not in MZ-CRC-1 cells. This discrepancy was mainly due to the difference between the capacities of these cell lines to retain MKT-077 in mitochondria. The cytotoxicity of MKT-077 in TT cells was mainly attributed to oxidative stress while being independent of TP53. MKT-077 also effectively suppressed tumor growth of TT xenografts.ConclusionMKT-077 can suppress cell survival of certain MTC subtypes by accumulating in mitochondria and interfering with mitochondrial activity although it can also suppress cell proliferation via other mechanisms. These results consistently support the hypothesis that mitochondrial targeting has therapeutic potential for MTC.

  19. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  20. Influence of urinary iodine excretion on thyroid technetium-99m pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression: what happens when iodine supply increases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Hoegerle, S.; Trupkovic, T.; Krause, T.M.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines how thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression changes as a function of increasing iodine supply. This is of special interest in countries at the threshold of sufficient iodine supply, where thyroid scintigraphy plays a key role in thyroid examination, especially for the diagnosis of Plummer's disease. From 1995 to 1997, a total of 1069 patients with euthyroid goitre, Plummer's disease or Graves' disease were included in the study. All patients underwent thyroid examination including sonography, scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate, and determination of free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH and urinary iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in the range from 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine showed an inverse correlation with thyroid pertechnetate uptake, but no correlation with TSH was observed. There was no correlation between thyroid pertechnetate uptake and iodine excretion when TSH stimulation was eliminated, with two exceptions: thyroid pertechnetate uptake was significantly increased for iodine excretion values below 50 and 100 μg iodine/g creatinine in patients with Graves' and Plummer's disease, respectively. When iodine excretion exceeded 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, pertechnetate uptake was reduced to a basal level independent of the TSH. In conclusion, the influence of TSH on the thyroid pertechnetate uptake seems to be secondary compared with the influence of the iodine supply. It can be concluded further that the reference range of thyroid pertechnetate uptake under TSH suppression will not change significantly when the iodine supply increases from conditions of mild iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency. Thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression cannot be reliably interpreted beyond an iodine excretion of 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. (orig.)

  1. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  2. In Situ Immobilization of Selenium in Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Thomas Austin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project focused on the use of a sorbent, carbonated apatite, to immobilize selenium in the environment. It is know that apatite will sorb selenium and based on the mechanism of sorption it is theorized that carbonated apatite will be more effective that pure apatite. Immobilization of selenium in the environment is through the use of a sorbent in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A PRB can be constructed by trenching and backfill with the sorbent or in the case of apatite as the sorbent formed in situ using the apatite forming solution of Moore (2003, 2004). There is very little data on selenium sorption by carbonated apatite in the literature. Therefore, in this work, the basic sorptive properties of carbonated apatite were investigated. Carbonated apatite was synthesized by a precipitation method and characterized. Batch selenium kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed. The results indicate the carbonated apatite contained 9.4% carbonate and uptake of selenium as selenite was rapid; 5 hours for complete uptake of selenium vs. more than 100 hours for pure hydroxyapatite reported in the literature. Additionally, the carbonated apatite exhibited significantly higher distribution coefficients in equilibrium experiments than pure apatite under similar experimental conditions. The next phase of this work will be to seek additional funds to continue the research with the goal of eventually demonstrating the technology in a field application.

  3. SELENIUM IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Zayed, A. M.; De Souza, M. P.; Tarun, A. S.

    2000-06-01

    Plants vary considerably in their physiological response to selenium (Se). Some plant species growing on seleniferous soils are Se tolerant and accumulate very high concentrations of Se (Se accumulators), but most plants are Se nonaccumulators and are Se-sensitive. This review summarizes knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of both types of plants, particularly with regard to Se uptake and transport, biochemical pathways of assimilation, volatilization and incorporation into proteins, and mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance. Molecular approaches are providing new insights into the role of sulfate transporters and sulfur assimilation enzymes in selenate uptake and metabolism, as well as the question of Se essentiality in plants. Recent advances in our understanding of the plant's ability to metabolize Se into volatile Se forms (phytovolatilization) are discussed, along with the application of phytoremediation for the cleanup of Se contaminated environments.

  4. Fasciola hepatica infection reduces Mycobacterium bovis burden and mycobacterial uptake and suppresses the pro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Cuartero, L; O'Sullivan, J; Blanco, A; McNair, J; Welsh, M; Flynn, R J; Williams, D; Diggle, P; Cassidy, J; Mulcahy, G

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has an annual incidence in cattle of 0.5% in the Republic of Ireland and 4.7% in the UK, despite long-standing eradication programmes being in place. Failure to achieve complete eradication is multifactorial, but the limitations of diagnostic tests are significant complicating factors. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fasciola hepatica infection, highly prevalent in these areas, induced reduced sensitivity of the standard diagnostic tests for BTB in animals co-infected with F. hepatica and M. bovis. This was accompanied by a reduced M. bovis-specific Th1 immune response. We hypothesized that these changes in co-infected animals would be accompanied by enhanced growth of M. bovis. However, we show here that mycobacterial burden in cattle is reduced in animals co-infected with F. hepatica. Furthermore, we demonstrate a lower mycobacterial recovery and uptake in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from F. hepatica-infected cattle which is associated with suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a switch to alternative activation of macrophages. However, the cell surface expression of TLR2 and CD14 in MDM from F. hepatica-infected cattle is increased. These findings reflecting the bystander effect of helminth-induced downregulation of pro-inflammatory responses provide insights to understand host-pathogen interactions in co-infection. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner and suppresses gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake via phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Duck; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Wu, Chunyan; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-11-15

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of saponarin, a flavone glucoside, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Saponarin suppressed the rate of gluconeogenesis and increased cellular glucose uptake in HepG2 and TE671 cells by regulating AMPK. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we showed that saponarin did not directly interact with the AMPK protein. Instead, saponarin increased intracellular calcium levels and induced AMPK phosphorylation, which was diminished by co-stimulation with STO-609, an inhibitor of CAMKKβ. Transcription of hepatic gluconeogenesis genes was upregulated by nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and HDAC5, coactivators of CREB and FoxO1 transcription factors, respectively. This nuclear translocation was inhibited by increased phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5 by saponarin-induced AMPK in HepG2 cells and suppression of CREB and FoxO1 transactivation activities in cells stimulated by saponarin. The results from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the reduced binding of CRTC2 on the PEPCK and G6Pase promoters. In TE671 cells, AMPK phosphorylated HDAC5, which suppressed nuclear penetration and upregulated GLUT4 transcription, leading to enhanced glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner, thus regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uptake and tissue distributions of cadmium, selenium and zinc in striped marsh frog tadpoles exposed during early post-embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, Chantal M; Cresswell, Tom; Melvin, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    Metals and metalloids released through anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic organisms, resulting in adverse effects in sensitive species. We investigated the influence of feeding regime and exposure complexity (i.e., mixture) on bioaccumulation kinetics and body distribution of common metal(loid) pollutants in Limnodynastes peronii during early post-embryonic development. Tadpoles were exposed to radiolabelled 109 Cd, 75 Se and 65 Zn alone and in a mixture for 4 days, followed by 3 days depuration in clean water. One group was fed directly in exposure aquaria, whereas a second group was transferred to clean water for feeding, to investigate the potential influence of sorption to food on uptake. Bioconcentration factor and retention was observed to be greatest for Se. Results demonstrate that tadpoles accumulated and retained half the amount of Cd when exposed in mixture, suggesting that Se and/or Zn may have antagonistic effects against Cd uptake. Additionally, tadpoles fed directly in exposure water accumulated 2-3-times more Cd and Zn compared to tadpoles fed in clean water, indicating that the presence of food particles is an important factor that may influence uptake. Interestingly, this had a negligible impact on Se uptake. The study reveals how exposure conditions can influence the bioaccumulation of metal(loid)s, highlighting experimental factors as important considerations for both controlled toxicity experiments and for understanding exposure risks for amphibian populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Robust Thyroid Gene Expression and Radioiodine Uptake Induced by Simultaneous Suppression of BRAF V600E and Histone Deacetylase in Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Rengyun; Zhu, Guangwu; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Context: Use of BRAF V600E inhibitors to restore thyroid iodide-handling gene expression and radioactive iodine (RAI) avidity is an attractive therapeutic strategy for RAI-refractory thyroid cancer, but recent initial clinical responses were modest. Given histone deacetylation at the sodium/iodide symporter promoter by histone deacetylase (HDAC) as a mechanism, simultaneously targeting BRAF V600E and HDAC could be a more effective strategy. Objectives: The objective of the study was to test whether suppressing both BRAF V600E and HDAC could more effectively induce thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells. Research Design: We tested the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (vorinostat), two major anticancer drugs currently approved for clinical use, in inducing thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells. Results: PLX4032 alone induced a modest expression of thyroid genes and RAI uptake preferentially in thyroid cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E. SAHA showed an effect in a genetic-independent manner in all the cells. A robust synergistic effect on thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake was observed in BRAF V600E-positive thyroid cancer cells when the two inhibitors were simultaneously used. This was dramatically enhanced further by TSH; triple combination of PLX4032, SAHA, and TSH showed the most robust effect on thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in cells harboring BRAF V600E. Abundant sodium/iodide symporter protein expression in thyroid cancer cells under these conditions was confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Conclusions: Simultaneously suppressing BRAF V600E and HDAC, particularly when cotreated with TSH, induced a far more robust expression of thyroid genes and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells than suppressing BRAF V600E alone. Triple combination of PLX4032, SAHA, and TSH is a specific robust regimen to restore RAI avidity in RAI-refractory BRAF V600E-positive thyroid

  8. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  9. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  10. Hypothalamic and Striatal Insulin Action Suppresses Endogenous Glucose Production and May Stimulate Glucose Uptake During Hyperinsulinemia in Lean but Not in Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Gancheva, Sofiya; Roden, Michael; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Preissl, Hubert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal spray application facilitates insulin delivery to the human brain. Although brain insulin modulates peripheral metabolism, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Twenty-one men underwent two hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with d-[6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose infusion to measure endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance. On two separate days, participants received intranasal insulin or placebo. Insulin spillover into circulation after intranasal insulin application was mimicked by an intravenous insulin bolus on placebo day. On a different day, brain insulin sensitivity was assessed by functional MRI. Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) had to be increased more after nasal insulin than after placebo to maintain euglycemia in lean but not in overweight people. The increase in GIRs was associated with regional brain insulin action in hypothalamus and striatum. Suppression of endogenous glucose production by circulating insulin was more pronounced after administration of nasal insulin than after placebo. Furthermore, glucose uptake into tissue tended to be higher after nasal insulin application. No such effects were detected in overweight participants. By increasing insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production and stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, brain insulin may improve glucose metabolism during systemic hyperinsulinemia. Obese people appear to lack these mechanisms. Therefore, brain insulin resistance in obesity may have unfavorable consequences for whole-body glucose homeostasis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuates foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages by suppressing ox-LDL uptake and promoting cholesterol efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yao, Qiying; Xu, Siwei; Wang, Hongyan; Qu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. The activated NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to promote macrophage foam cell formation, but not all studies have obtained the same result, and how NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the formation of foam cells remains elusive. We used selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells to assess the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition on macrophage foam cell formation, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake, esterification, and cholesterol efflux, as well as the expression of associated proteins. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated foam cell formation, diminished ox-LDL uptake, and promoted cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, it downregulated CD36, acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 and neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase expression; upregulated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression; but had no effect on the expression of scavenger receptor class A and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1. Collectively, our findings show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome decreases foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages via suppression of ox-LDL uptake and enhancement of cholesterol efflux, which may be due to downregulation of CD36 expression and upregulation of ABCA1 and SR-BI expression, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Organic cation transporter-mediated ergothioneine uptake in mouse neural progenitor cells suppresses proliferation and promotes differentiation into neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishimoto

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to clarify the functional expression and physiological role in neural progenitor cells (NPCs of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN1/SLC22A4, which accepts the naturally occurring food-derived antioxidant ergothioneine (ERGO as a substrate in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of OCTN1 was much higher than that of other organic cation transporters in mouse cultured cortical NPCs. Immunocytochemical analysis showed colocalization of OCTN1 with the NPC marker nestin in cultured NPCs and mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells differentiated into neural progenitor-like cells (P19-NPCs. These cells exhibited time-dependent [(3H]ERGO uptake. These results demonstrate that OCTN1 is functionally expressed in murine NPCs. Cultured NPCs and P19-NPCs formed neurospheres from clusters of proliferating cells in a culture time-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO or other antioxidants (edaravone and ascorbic acid led to a significant decrease in the area of neurospheres with concomitant elimination of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Transfection of P19-NPCs with small interfering RNA for OCTN1 markedly promoted formation of neurospheres with a concomitant decrease of [(3H]ERGO uptake. On the other hand, exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO markedly increased the number of cells immunoreactive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin, but decreased the number immunoreactive for the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, with concomitant up-regulation of neuronal differentiation activator gene Math1. Interestingly, edaravone and ascorbic acid did not affect such differentiation of NPCs, in contrast to the case of proliferation. Knockdown of OCTN1 increased the number of cells immunoreactive for GFAP, but decreased the number immunoreactive for βIII-tubulin, with concomitant down-regulation of Math1 in P19-NPCs. Thus, OCTN1-mediated uptake of ERGO in NPCs inhibits

  13. WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 nanorods-modified carbon paper was used as the anode of MFC. • WO 3 nanorods suppressed biofilm growth on the electrode surface. • Sustained electron transfer from cells to electrode via riboflavin was achieved. • C–WO 3 nanorods enable stable and efficient EET process in long-time operation. - Abstract: Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO 3 -nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO 3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO 3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO 3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO 3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO 3 -nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO 3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications

  14. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  15. Solution NMR structure of selenium-binding protein from Methanococcus vannielii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Inyamah, Nwakaego; Stadtman, Thressa C; Tjandra, Nico

    2008-09-19

    Selenium is an important nutrient. The lack of selenium will suppress expression of various enzymes that will lead to cell abnormality and diseases. However, high concentrations of free selenium are toxic to the cell because it adversely affects numerous cell metabolic pathways. In Methanococcus vannielii, selenium transport in the cell is established by the selenium-binding protein, SeBP. SeBP sequesters selenium during transport, thus regulating the level of free selenium in the cell, and delivers it specifically to the selenophosphate synthase enzyme. In solution, SeBP is an oligomer of 8.8-kDa subunits. It is a symmetric pentamer. The solution structure of SeBP was determined by NMR spectroscopy. Each subunit of SeBP is composed of an alpha-helix on top of a 4-stranded twisted beta-sheet. The stability of the five subunits stems mainly from hydrophobic interactions and supplemented by hydrogen bond interactions. The loop containing Cys(59) has been shown to be important for selenium binding, is flexible, and adopts multiple conformations. However, the cysteine accessibility is restricted in the structure, reducing the possibility of the binding of free selenium readily. Therefore, a different selenium precursor or other factors might be needed to facilitate opening of this loop to expose Cys(59) for selenium binding.

  16. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  17. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  18. Global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in female patients receiving suppressive doses of L-thyroxine for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frusciante, V.; Dicembrino, F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Carnevale, V. [Division of Internal Medicine, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Scillitani, A.; Zingrillo, M.; Ghiggi, M.R. [Division of Endocrinology, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Giannatempo, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Minisola, S. [Istituto di II Clinica Medica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the possible detrimental effects on bone of levothyroxine (l-T{sub 4}) suppressive therapy in female patients who had undergone surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Twenty female (14 premenopausal and 6 postmenopausal) patients receiving l-T{sub 4} suppressive therapy for DTC were studied. The sample was selected in such a way as to avoid factors influencing bone metabolism other than l-T{sub 4}. All patients were monitored by sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine assays throughout the follow-up. Nineteen healthy (12 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal) matched women served as controls. In all subjects bone turnover was evaluated by the measurement of global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (GSU); bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative computed tomography at the lumbar spine (LS) and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both at the LS and at three femoral sites: the femoral neck, Ward`s triangle and the greater trochanter. No significant difference was found in either GSU or BMD between patients (treated for an average period of 68 months) and controls in the whole sample or in any subgroup. Furthermore, no correlations were found between either GSU or BMD and the duration of therapy, daily doses of l-T{sub 4} or results of thyroid function tests. Our data show that carefully monitored l-T{sub 4} therapy does not influence skeletal turnover (directly reflected by GSU) or the bone density of the spine and femur. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  19. Selenium in Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kryczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge of the role of selenium in Graves’ disease. Recently, in the pathogenesis and course of this autoimmune disease, more attention has been paid to the relationship between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, where selenium compounds play an important role. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium concentration in the human body. Selenium compounds, having antioxidant properties, protect thyrocytes against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are generated during the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, strengthening the body’s defense mechanisms, which protect against the formation and activity of ROS during medical treatment of Graves’ disease patients, may be an effective adjuvant in commonly used methods of therapy.

  20. Selenium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent certain cancers Protect the body from the poisonous effects of heavy metals and other harmful substances ... garlic are also good sources. Meats produced from animals that ate grains or plants found in selenium- ...

  1. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ameliorative stroke of selenium against toxicological effects of mercuric chloride in liver of freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Suresh; Choughule, Neha

    2015-07-08

    Mercury, a prevalent and unrelenting toxin, occurs in a variety of forms in freshwater as well as, in marine life. Mercury is an important inducer of oxidative stress in fish leading to formation of reactive oxygen species. Selenium is an essential micronutrient for animals and has antagonistic effect against mercuric toxicity in fishes. Present study has been made to evaluate toxic effect of HgCl2 (0.15 mg/L) on liver of freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bl.). Protective ability of selenium has been investigated by simultaneous exposure of fish with sodium selenite (0.15 mg/L) along with mercuric chloride. For present study Fishes were divided into three groups of ten fishes each the first group served as control, while the second group fish were exposed to HgCl2 . Animals of third group were treated with HgCl2 and Na2 SeO3 . Results reveal that mercury induced lipid peroxidation and in response to this, antioxidants reduced glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT) were reduced whereas, Glutathione reductase (GR) level was enhanced. These antioxidants scavenge the reactive oxygen radicals. Hg induced histopathological damage and elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and transaminases and reduction in protein and glucose contents were evidently seen in catfish liver. Intriguingly, results indicate that under stress of mercury, the fish actively generate oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, which can be used as biomarkers of pollution. Simultaneous exposure to Selenium along with Hg suppressed Hg uptake and lipid peroxidation. Histological architecture and all biochemical parameters were maintained near normal in the presence of selenium in liver of the catfish. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Change of 99mtechnetium-pertechnetate-thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs) induced by optimization of iodine supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Trupkovic, T.; Schumacher, T.; Krause, T.M.; Oexle, C.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    The present study deals with the change of the 99m Technetium-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTU s ) in dependence on the urinary iodine excretion. The study collective comprises 510 patients with euthyroid goiter (N=91), with functional thyroid autonomy (N=361) and with Graves' disease (N=58), who were examined in the now thyroid ambulance between January 1995 and February 1997 and who presented with endogeneous or exogeneous TSH-supression. All patients received a quantitative thyroid scintigraphy with 99m Technetium-pertechnetate and a measurement of the urinary iodine excretion. The TcTU s from the whole collective shows an inverse correlation to the urinary iodine excretion for the range of 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. The TcTU s remains constant on a low basal level for iodine excretion values over 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. Significant differences occur in dependence on the underlying disease. TcTU s is constantly low in patients with euthyroid goiter, independent of the iodine excretion value. The TcTU s is significantly increased in patients with functional thyroid autonomy or Graves' disease when iodine excretion is below 100 or 50 μg iodine/g creatinine respectively, but shows only minor changes when iodine excretion rises up to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. When iodine excretion exceeds 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, the TcTU s of patients with thyroid autonomy drops down to a low basal level. (orig.) [de

  4. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2. Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans. We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants. We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more RCTs were available for a specific outcome. We conducted RE meta-analyses when five or more observational studies were available for a specific outcome. We assessed risk of bias in RCTs and in observational studies using Cochrane's risk assessment tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. We considered in the primary analysis data pooled from RCTs with low risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We included 83 studies in this updated review: two additional RCTs (10 in total) and a few additional trial reports for previously included studies. RCTs involved 27,232 participants allocated to either selenium supplements or placebo. For analyses of RCTs with low risk of bias, the summary risk ratio (RR) for any cancer incidence was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.10; 3 studies, 19,475 participants; high-certainty evidence). The RR for estimated cancer mortality was 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30; 1 study, 17,444 participants). For the most frequently

  5. Nuclear-based methods for the study of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.A.; Dhani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The essentiality of selenium to the human being and in particular its deficiency state, associated with prolonged inadequate dietary intake, have received considerable attention. In addition, the possible relationship between selenium and cancer and the claim that selenium may possess cancer-prevention properties have focused research effort. It has been observed in a number of studies on laboratory animals that selenium supplementation protects the animals against carcinogen-induced neoplastic growth in various organ sites, reduces the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors, and suppresses the growth of transplanted tumor cells. In these research programs on the relationship between trace element levels and senile dementia and depression and the elemental changes in blood associated with selenium supplementation in a normal group of volunteers, it became obvious that in addition to establishing normal levels of elements in the population of interest, there was a more fundamental requirement for methods to be developed that would allow the study of the distribution of selenium in the body and its binding sites. The authors propose emission tomography and perturbed angular correlation as techniques worth exploring

  6. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  7. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  8. Selenium in food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Conor

    2006-01-01

    ...) to be a carcinogen and banned as an additive in food. Selenium is considered by some to be a serious hazard to the environment and to animal health. Selenium-contaminated water has brought deformity and death to wildlife in nature reserves in western USA. There is even concern that because of selenium contamination of soil, crops supplied to the great cities of California could become unfit for human consumption. In large areas of China, endemic selenium toxicity is a hazard for locals who depend on cr...

  9. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  10. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  11. Effect of selenium deficiency on 75Se and 45Ca metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred, 1 day old broiler chicks were used to study the effect of selenium deficiency on 75 Se and 45 Ca metabolism in chicks. The chicks were randomly divided into five groups. One group was fed a purified basal diet low in selenium ( 75 Se or 45 Ca. Levels of radioisotopes in blood and tissue, as well as total body excretion of radioactivity were determined. Whole body retention of 75 Se was significantly higher (p 45 Ca was significantly higher in selenium deficient chicks than in supplemented animals. Total Ca concentration in muscle was also higher in this group. Studies of red cell uptake of 75 Se demonstrated a clear difference between Se repleted and selenium deficient groups. (author)

  12. Toxicology of selenium: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, C G

    1980-09-01

    The concentration of selenium in soil, water, or minerals is site specific. World or regional averages are of little practical value. In one report from the front range area of Colorado, average selenium concentrations in bodies of standing water were from 0.3 to 15.8 micrograms Se per liter of water. In some aquatic organisms there is a strong correlation between the Se content of the water ant that of the body tissues; in others no such correlation obtains. Some organisms bioaccumulate Se by factors as high as 1300 to 3800. In most fish the amount of Se in the flesh seems to depend on the amount in the food taken in; there are exceptions, however. Aquatic organisms from seleniferous regions bioconcentrate selenium so as to reach total body levels of 60 micrograms Se per gram or up to 100 micrograms Se per gram of liver. There seems to be no evidence for "biomagnification" of selenium by aquatic organisms. Selenium exerts a strong protective action against the poisoning effects of many heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, for example) and of some organic toxicants (paraquat, for example) in birds, mammals, and man. Data on man are sketchy. Selenium is released into the environment from the burning of coal. No identifiable hazard to man or to plants and animals useful to man can, at this time, be attributed to this source. Selenium is poisonous to man and animal in large amounts. It is a necessary micronutrient for many animals in small amounts; it may also be a needed micronutrient for man, but the data are sparse. The usual American diet contains adequate selenium for human health. Occupational selenium poisoning is mostly accidental and rare.

  13. Phytoremediation of selenium using transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; LeDuc, Danika L

    2009-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient for many organisms but also toxic at higher concentrations. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are serious problems worldwide. Owing to the similarity of selenium to sulfur, plants readily take up and assimilate selenate via sulfur transporters and enzymes and can even volatilize selenium. Selenium accumulating or volatilizing plants may be used for phytoremediation of selenium pollution and as fortified foods. Several transgenic approaches have been used successfully to further enhance plant selenium accumulation, tolerance, and volatilization: upregulation of genes involved in sulfur/selenium assimilation and volatilization, methylation of selenocysteine, and conversion of selenocysteine to elemental Se. Lab and field trials with different transgenic plants have yielded promising results, showing up to ninefold higher levels of selenium accumulation and up to threefold faster volatilization rates.

  14. Mechanism of Selenium Loss in Copper Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavin; Tathavadkar, Vilas; Basu, Somnath

    2018-03-01

    During smelting of copper sulfide concentrate, selenium is distributed between silica-saturated iron-silicate slag and copper-iron sulfide matte. The recovery coefficients of selenium between slag and matte were determined as a function of the initial concentration of selenium at 1523 K (1250 °C) under an inert atmosphere in a vertical tubular furnace. The initial concentration of selenium was varied by the addition of metallic selenium as well as selenium dioxide to the mixture of slag and matte. Analysis of the results indicated high affinity of selenium for matte. The apparent loss of selenium with the slag was attributed to the presence of selenium-enriched matte particles entrapped in the slag, rather than dissolved SeO2. The mechanisms proposed by previous investigators were discussed and also compared with the results of the present investigation.

  15. Andrographolide Suppresses MV4-11 Cell Proliferation through the Inhibition of FLT3 Signaling, Fatty Acid Synthesis and Cellular Iron Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Andrographolide (ADR, the main active component of Andrographis paniculata, displays anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines, among which leukemia cell lines exhibit the highest sensitivity to ADR. In particular, ADR was also reported to have reduced drug resistance in multidrug resistant cell lines. However, the mechanism of action (MOA of ADR’s anticancer and anti-drug-resistance activities remain elusive. Methods: In this study, we used the MV4-11 cell line, a FLT3 positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line that displays multidrug resistance, as our experimental system. We first evaluated the effect of ADR on MV4-11 cell proliferation. Then, a quantitative proteomics approach was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins in ADR-treated MV4-11 cells. Finally, cellular processes and signal pathways affected by ADR in MV4-11 cell were predicted with proteomic analysis and validated with in vitro assays. Results: ADR inhibits MV4-11 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. With a proteomic approach, we discovered that ADR inhibited fatty acid synthesis, cellular iron uptake and FLT3 signaling pathway in MV4-11 cells. Conclusions: ADR inhibits MV4-11 cell proliferation through inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, iron uptake and protein synthesis. Furthermore, ADR reduces drug resistance by blocking FLT3 signaling.

  16. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Tang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  17. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  18. Selenium redox biochemistry of zinc–sulfur coordination sites in proteins and enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Claus; Maret, Wolfgang; Vallee, Bert L.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium has been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine. Its biochemistry resembles that of sulfur, yet differs from it by virtue of both redox potentials and stabilities of its oxidation states. Selenium can substitute for the more ubiquitous sulfur of cysteine and as such plays an important role in more than a dozen selenoproteins. We have chosen to examine zinc–sulfur centers as possible targets of selenium redox biochemistry. Selenium compounds release zinc from zinc/thiolate-coordination environments, thereby affecting the cellular thiol redox state and the distribution of zinc and likely of other metal ions. Aromatic selenium compounds are excellent spectroscopic probes of the otherwise relatively unstable functional selenium groups. Zinc-coordinated thiolates, e.g., metallothionein (MT), and uncoordinated thiolates, e.g., glutathione, react with benzeneseleninic acid (oxidation state +2), benzeneselenenyl chloride (oxidation state 0) and selenocystamine (oxidation state −1). Benzeneseleninic acid and benzeneselenenyl chloride react very rapidly with MT and titrate substoichiometrically and with a 1:1 stoichiometry, respectively. Selenium compounds also catalyze the release of zinc from MT in peroxidation and thiol/disulfide-interchange reactions. The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase catalytically oxidizes MT and releases zinc in the presence of t-butyl hydroperoxide, suggesting that this type of redox chemistry may be employed in biology for the control of metal metabolism. Moreover, selenium compounds are likely targets for zinc/thiolate coordination centers in vivo, because the reactions are only partially suppressed by excess glutathione. This specificity and the potential to undergo catalytic reactions at low concentrations suggests that zinc release is a significant aspect of the therapeutic antioxidant actions of selenium compounds in antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:10051568

  19. Selenium speciation and bioavailability in Dutch agricultural soils: the role of soil organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. In the food chain, the intake of Se by animals and humans depends largely on Se content in plants, whereas the major source of Se in plants lies in the soil. Therefore, understanding Se bioavailability in soils for plant uptake

  20. Impaired Uptake and/or Utilization of Leucine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Suppressed by the SPT15-300 Allele of the TATA-Binding Protein Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baerends, RJ; Qiu, Jin-Long; Rasmussen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    us to examine the effect of expression of the SPT15-300 allele in various yeast species of industrial importance. Expression of SPT15-300 in leucine-prototrophic strains of S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, or Saccharomyces pastorianus (lager brewing yeast), however, did not improve tolerance...... to ethanol on complex rich medium (yeast extract-peptone-dextrose). The enhanced growth of the laboratory yeast strain BY4741 expressing the SPT15-300 mutant allele was seen only on defined media with low concentrations of leucine, indicating that the apparent improved growth in the presence of ethanol...... was indeed associated with enhanced uptake and/or utilization of leucine. Reexamination of the microarray data published by Alper and coworkers likewise suggested that expression of genes coding for the leucine permeases, Tat1p and Bap3p, were upregulated in the SPT15-300 mutant, as was expression...

  1. INTERIGIONAL VARIABILITY OF THE HUMAN SELENIUM STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work was evaluation of factors affecting interregional variability of the human selenium status.Discussion. Essentiality of selenium to human beings determines the priority of the selenium status evaluation in different regions of the world. At the same time interregional variability of the human selenium status biomarkers are often underestimated. Among factors affecting the human selenium status geochemical characteristic of soils and anthropogenic influence are proved to be the most significant. The importance of seas and oceans are emphasized as important sources of the element. Examples of great interregional variability of the human selenium status are indicated and the importance of complex approach for evaluation of ecological risks connected with inadequate selenium consumption are emphasized. Such an approach should combine the data of selenium distribution in soils, levels of selenium bio concentration by different plants species, selenium content in water, food products and in human biological fluids and tissues. Difficulties in the human selenium status optimization are shown to be typical in regions with significant geochemical variations and intensive anthropogenic loading.Conclusions. High interregional variability of the human selenium status determines the necessity of complex approach in revealing ecological risks connected with selenium deficiency of excess in the environment both in regions with high utilization of local food products and in large industrial regions and towns and also in conditions of separate specific industrial production. 

  2. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  3. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs 3+ decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. → iAs 3+ attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. → iAs 3+ activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. → iAs 3+ impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. → iAs 3+ decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 μM) inorganic arsenite (iAs 3+ ) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs 3+ exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs 3+ exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in

  4. Quantification of pharmaceutical peptides using selenium as an elemental detection label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura Hyrup; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Franzyk, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    analysis of cell samples by LC-ICP-MS showed mainly uptake of the intact peptides, while the amount of intact peptides in cell lysates was semi-quantitatively determined. The selenium-containing penetratin analogues were to some extent degraded in pure cell medium, while an extensive degradation...... studies. Most pharmaceutical peptides, including penetratin, are synthetic analogues of endogenous peptides, and incorporation of selenium may improve the critical assessment of the native drug or drug delivery candidate early in the drug development process....

  5. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  6. Selenium-containing indolyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaril, Angela M; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chuang, Christine Y

    2017-01-01

    materials, including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, within the artery wall. Here we investigated the potential of selenium-containing indoles to afford protection against these oxidants, by determining rate constants (k) for their reaction, and quantifying the extent of damage on isolated ECM proteins......Tyr on HCAEC-ECM were also reduced. These data demonstrate that the novel selenium-containing compounds show high reactivity with oxidants and may modulate oxidative and nitrosative damage at sites of inflammation, contributing to a reduction in tissue dysfunction and atherogenesis....

  7. Does selenium supplementation affect thyroid function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Cold, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    with placebo, by decreasing serum TSH and FT4 concentrations. Based on these findings, selenium supplementation is not warranted under conditions of marginal selenium deficiency. However, a role for selenium supplementation in the treatment of autoimmune thyroid diseases is still unresolved.......OBJECTIVE: Selenium is present in the active site of proteins important for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium supplementation in different doses on thyroid function, under conditions of suboptimal dietary selenium intake......=0.015), respectively, per 100 μg/day increase, with insignificant differences between 6 months and 5 years. No significant effects were found for FT3 and FT3:FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In euthyroid subjects, selenium supplementation minutely and dose-dependently affects thyroid function, when compared...

  8. Overwinter survival of mallards fed selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Adult male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 g/g selenium in the form of selenomethionine. Mortality in each of these treatments was 0, 10, 25, 95, and 100%, respectively, during a 16-week exposure that started in November. After one week of treatment, body weights were significantly depressed by the 20, 40, and 80-ug/g selenium treatments, but not by 10 :g/g selenium. Four weeks after being returned to an untreated diet, the body weight of birds fed 20 ug/g selenium had increased to the point of being statistically inseparable from the weight of controls. Signs of selenium poisoning in the dead included severe emaciation, mottling of the liver, empty gizzard, and the presence of a yellowish fluid around some organs. Concentrations of selenium in blood were related to dietary treatments, but mortality was not clearly related to a threshold concentration of selenium in blood.

  9. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Combs, Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element, selenium (Se, has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.

  10. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Robiin Ferguson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimising the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design and innovative approaches to data analysis.

  11. Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis. PMID:22303312

  12. Selenium as an alternative peptide label - comparison to fluorophore-labelled penetratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyrup Møller, Laura; Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    lysates, primarily the intact peptide (PenMSe, TAMRA-PenMSe or TAMRA-Pen) was observed. Selenium labelling caused minimal alteration of the physicochemical properties of the peptide and allowed for absolute quantitative determination of cellular uptake by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry......In the present study, the impact on peptide properties of labelling peptides with the fluorophore TAMRA or the selenium (Se) containing amino acid SeMet was evaluated. Three differently labelled variants of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin (Pen) were synthesized, PenMSe, TAMRA....... Selenium is thus proposed as a promising alternative label for quantification of peptides in general, altering the properties of the peptide to a minor extent as compared to commonly used peptide labels....

  13. Soil Redox Chemistry Limitation of Selenium Concentration in Carex Species Sedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher; John Mionczynski; Patrick A. Hnilicka

    2007-09-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is required in the production of enzymes that protect mammalian cells from oxidative damage due to the byproducts of aerobic respiration. Its deficiency in livestock results in the nutritional muscular dystrophy called white muscle disease. This especially affects juveniles in the preweaning period. Symptoms have also been reported in wild herbivores on low-Se forage, and their appearance may be episodic, suggesting temporal variations in Se uptake by plants. Here, we report variations in selenium concentrations in Carex spp. sedges used as forage by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on summer range in the Wyoming, Wind River Mountains, and correlate those variations with soil conditions that affect the bioavailability of selenium. Variations in available Se are explained based upon the known oxidation/reduction chemistry of the element. It is concluded that water-saturated, alpine soils provide conditions suitable for the reduction of Se to the unavailable, elemental form, limiting its concentration in forage plants.

  14. Entrapped elemental selenium nanoparticles affect physicochemical properties of selenium fed activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohan; Seder-Colomina, Marina; Jordan, Norbert; Dessi, Paolo; Cosmidis, Julie; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Weiss, Stephan; Farges, François; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-09-15

    Selenite containing wastewaters can be treated in activated sludge systems, where the total selenium is removed from the wastewater by the formation of elemental selenium nanoparticles, which are trapped in the biomass. No studies have been carried out so far on the characterization of selenium fed activated sludge flocs, which is important for the development of this novel selenium removal process. This study showed that more than 94% of the trapped selenium in activated sludge flocs is in the form of elemental selenium, both as amorphous/monoclinic selenium nanospheres and trigonal selenium nanorods. The entrapment of the elemental selenium nanoparticles in the selenium fed activated sludge flocs leads to faster settling rates, higher hydrophilicity and poorer dewaterability compared to the control activated sludge (i.e., not fed with selenite). The selenium fed activated sludge showed a less negative surface charge density as compared to the control activated sludge. The presence of trapped elemental selenium nanoparticles further affected the spatial distribution of Al and Mg in the activated sludge flocs. This study demonstrated that the formation and subsequent trapping of elemental selenium nanoparticles in the activated sludge flocs affects their physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  16. Is the selenium drinking water standard justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, M G; Calabrese, E J

    1979-08-01

    Four cases are presented which suggest that the present U.S.E.P.A. drinking water standard for selenium of 10 micrograms/L in inappropriate. The rationale upon which this standard is based is that selenium is carcinogenic, induces dental caries formation, and is highly toxic to animals. However, a critical assessment of this literature can not support these claims. Case no. 1 demonstrates that there is insufficient evidence to classify selenium as a carcinogen. Data derived from the three respective groups of researchers claiming a carcinogenic effect induced by selenium are obscure due to 1) the inability to accurately identify malignancies, 2) the apparent opposite effects of different selenium compounds, and 3) the lack of proper controls. Case no. 2 reviews recent evidence that selenium reduces the incidence of cancer in laboratory animals and in man, an effect which can probably be attributed to the antioxidant properties of selenium compounds. Case no. 3 provides evidence which does not permit the classification of selenium as a cariogenic element. Epidemiological studies supporting such a claim are inadequate since they lack properly matched control groups. Animal data do not support this link as well. Case no. 4 is a review of studies which clearly demonstrate the essentiality of selenium, an aspect of selenium metabolism that was not considered when the 10 micrograms/L standard was promulgated. In light of the four cases presented and an assessment of selenium toxicity in man, it is concluded that the 10 micrograms/L standard can not be justified. Instead, it is suggested that 50 micrograms/L selenium should provide sufficient protection from the toxic effects of this element. This is consistent with the current state of knowledge with respect to the potential adverse health effects associated with selenium.

  17. Effect of selenium supplementation for protection of salivary glands from iodine-131 radiation damage in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Haiyoung; Lee, Sang Mi; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Lee, Hakmin; Lee, Ilkyun; Kim, Soon; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Jeong Won

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we examined whether selenium supplementation during iodine-131 ( 131 I) treatment had a radio-protective effect on salivary glands. Sixteen patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were prospectively enrolled in the study. Patients after total thyroidectomy, before 131 I treatment, were divided into two groups; 8 patients in the selenium group and 8 patients in the control group. Patients in the selenium group received 300νg of selenium orally for 10 days, from 3 days before to 6 days after 131 I treatment. The control group received a placebo over the same period. To assess salivary gland function, salivary gland scintigraphy was performed before and 6 months after 131 I treatment. Serum amylase and whole blood selenium levels were measured before and 2 days and 6 months after 131 I treatment. Using salivary gland scintigraphy, maximum uptake ratio (MUR), maximum secretion percentage (MSP), and ejection fraction (EF) of each salivary gland were calculated. Baseline clinical characteristics, baseline amylase and selenium levels, and parameters of baseline salivary gland scintigraphy were not significantly different between selenium and control groups (P>0.05). On a blood test performed 2 days after 131 I treatment, the selenium group showed a significantly higher whole blood selenium level (P=0.008) and significantly lower serum amylase level (P=0.009) than the control group. On follow-up salivary gland scintigraphy, the control group showed significantly decreased, MUR of the bilateral parotid and left submandibular glands, MSP of the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands, and EF of the left submandibular glands (Pgland and EF of the left submandibular gland (Psalivary glands damage by 131 I radiation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  18. Genome-wide association study of serum selenium concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Jian; Hsu, Li; Harrison, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and circulating selenium concentrations have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Candidate gene studies suggest that circulating selenium concentrations may be impacted by genetic variation; however, no study has comprehensively investigated this ...

  19. Meaning and resource of selenium in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    KRATOCHVÍLOVÁ, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis concentrates on functions of selenium in human nutrition. Selenium is an essential trace element of importance to human health. Its availability depends on the concentration of selenium in the soil. The average income of selenium in the Czech population are usually 36 g/day per individuals. Excess or insufficient selenium intakes can result in adverse effects on human health. The most important sources of selenium in the diets of most people are meat, fish, eggs, milk, cerea...

  20. Serum and urinary selenium levels in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1986-04-01

    Information concerning selenium status in thermal injury patients is limited. Therefore, both serum selenium concentration and 24 h urinary excretion of selenium were evaluated throughout the hospital course for 23 patients with partial and full skin thickness thermal burns. Serum selenium levels were depressed throughout the hospital course in the majority of patients, and only two patients' serum selenium levels had reached the normal range by discharge. Urinary selenium losses were essentially within normal range throughout the same period and thus were not responsible for the observed depression in serum selenium levels. A possible antagonistic relationship between selenium and silver is discussed.

  1. Effects of selenium on Pteridium aquilinum and urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Sheila B R; Sanches, Daniel S; Caniceiro, Beatriz D; Wysochi, Harry L; da Silva, Graziela B; Latorre, Andreia O

    2013-10-01

    The results of our previous study demonstrated that ptaquiloside, the main toxic agent found in Pteridium aquilinum, suppresses natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. However, the ability of ptaquiloside to suppress the cytotoxicity of NK cells was prevented by selenium supplementation. NK cells play an important role in the innate immune response and have the ability to kill tumor cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that selenium may prevent the higher susceptibility to urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis that has been observed in mice treated with P. aquilinum. The immunosuppressive effects of ptaquiloside have been associated with a higher number of urethane-induced lung nodules in mice. Hence, we assessed the effects of P. aquilinum-induced immunosuppression on urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice that had been supplemented with selenium. For these experiments, mice were treated with both an aqueous extract of P. aquilinum (20 g/kg/day) and selenium (1.3 mg/kg) by gavage once daily for 14 days followed by a once-weekly intraperitoneal injection of urethane (1 g/kg) for 10 weeks that was accompanied by gavage 5 days a week. Lung adenomas in mice that had been treated with P. aquilinum plus urethane occurred with a frequency that was 44% higher than that in mice that had been treated with only urethane. In mice that had been supplemented with selenium and treated with P. aquilinum plus urethane, the occurrence of lung adenomas was reduced to 26%. These results suggest that selenium prevents the immunosuppressive effects of P. aquilinum on urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis.

  2. Selenium in ruminant nutrition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, C B; Miller, S M

    1975-10-01

    The early interest in selenium related primarily to its toxicity, but since 1957 the element has been recognized as a dietary essential. The dietary requirement for selenium by most species is about .1 ppm. Deficiencies of selenium in cattle and sheep have been confirmed under natural grazing conditions in many countries of the world. Overt signs of inadequacy such as white muscle disease (nutritional muscular dystrophy) occur primarily in young calves or lambs born to selenium deficient dams. Infertility has increased in ewes grazing pastures low in selenium. In general, signs of deficiency have not occurred in older animals such as finishing beef cattle and lactating dairy cows. Subclinical deficiencies of selenium are not determined easily, however, and thus an inadequacy of the element may be limiting maximum animal performance under certain circumstances of drylot feeding. The current nutritional status of ruminant animals in many geographical areas and involving various feeding programs with this element has not been established. The recent widespread deficiency problems with nonruminants suggest that such an assessment should be made. Concentration of selenium in tissue, particularly in the liver, has been used in establishing selenium status of the animal. With lambs glutathione peroxidase activity in certain tissues may be a more accurate indicator of selenium adequacy than is selenium content of the tissue. Supplemental sodium selenite and sodium selenate by either oral administration or parenteral injection have prevented clinical signs of selenium deficiency and animal losses in both ruminant and nonruminant animals. Heavy pellets containing elemental selenium for placement in the rumen have proved effective. In general, organic forms of selenium are absorbed more readily by animals than are inorganic compounds. The dietary requirements for selenium and its metabolism are influenced by many nutrient interrelationships, including its interactions with

  3. [Administration of selenium in lymphedema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasseroller, R

    1997-09-15

    To investigate the effectiveness and dosage of selenium in the treatment of lymphedema. Intensive treatment with decongestive physical therapy in combination with sodium selenite shows significant improvement in the reduction of the volume of the limb and in the histophysiology of secondary lymphedema after mastectomy or Wertheim-operation. The incidence of skin infections decreased significantly. The anti-inflammatory effect should be considered in the treatment of lymphedema.

  4. Selenium determination by fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorenti, A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric method to determine selenium both in vegetable samples and blood serum is developed. The method consists of a radioisotope 75 Se initially in order to optimize the determination of analytical conditions. Three samples digestion processes and also some factors related to methodology is studied. The nitric-percloric digestion process for 40 samples and the analytical process is shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  5. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  6. Learning selenium testing tools with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Gundecha, Unmesh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a quality testing professional, or a software or web application developer looking to create automation test scripts for your web applications, with an interest in Python, then this is the perfect guide for you. Python developers who need to do Selenium testing need not learn Java, as they can directly use Selenium for testing with this book.

  7. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  8. The Role of Selenium in Human Immunity | Chisenga | Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... including selenium deficiency, so it has been postulated that selenium has a role in immune function. Immune dysfunction, susceptibility to viral infections and increased mortality are some of the outcomes associated with selenium deficiency. Key Words: Selenium; Human; Cell-mediated immunity; Innate immunity; HIV; ...

  9. Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha; Santini, Joanne M.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its incorporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in (76)Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies.

  10. The effect of selenium supplementation on acute phase reactants and thyroid function tests in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Mehrali; Nikseresht, Kanan

    2015-03-01

    Selenium deficiency is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This micronutrient has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Selenium is also found in high concentrations in the thyroid gland. To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function tests and acute phase reactants in hemodialysis patients. In this double-blinded randomized clinical in 3 months, 64 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental (received selenium supplementation; 32 cases) or control group (received placebo; 32 cases). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 resin uptake (T3RU), and free T4 were measured before and after the intervention and compared between experimental and control groups. At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding CRP, ESR and ferritin serum levels. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for CRP (14.77 ± 17.93 vs. 18.29 ± 21.56 mg/L), ESR (32.90 ± 32.62 vs. 33.91 ± 31.15 mm/h) and ferritin (528.6 ± 423.07 vs. 519.52 ± 345.59 ng/mL). At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding TFTs. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for TSH (3.7 ± 2.22 vs. 2.84 ± 1.88 µU/mL), free T4 (7.19 ± 1.98 vs. 7.02 ± 1.87 µg/dL) and T3RU (30.04 ± 2.28% vs. 29.2 ± 1.98%). Oral selenium supplementation for three months did not have any significant effect on thyroid function tests or acute phase reactants.

  11. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  12. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and selenite (SeO 3 2− ) or selenate (SeO 4 2− ). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO 3 2− or SeO 4 2− ) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg 2+ levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO 3 2− and SeO 4 2− were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH) 2 and Hg(Met) 2 . Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH) 2 , together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se

  13. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  14. Selenium in Oncology: From Chemistry to Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Micke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with

  15. Molecular chemoprevention by selenium: A genomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Sinha, Raghu

    2005-01-01

    Basic research and clinical chemoprevention trials support the protective role of selenium in cancer prevention but the mechanisms based on the molecular level remain to be fully defined. This mini-review focuses only on the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by selenium using the genomics approach; target organs discussed here are breast, prostate, colon and lung. The results described here support the utility of microarray technology in delineating the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by selenium. These results are based on studies employing human and rodent cell lines and tissues from animal models ranging from normal to frank cancer. The dose and the form of selenium are determining factors in cancer chemoprevention. The results of the microarray analysis reviewed here indicate that selenium, independent of its form and the target organ examined, alters several genes in a manner that can account for cancer prevention. Selenium can up regulate genes related to phase II detoxification enzymes, certain selenium-binding proteins and select apoptotic genes, while down regulating those related to phase I activating enzymes and cell proliferation. Independent of tissue type, selenium arrests cells in G1 phase of cell cycle, inhibits CYCLIN A, CYCLIN D1, CDC25A, CDK4, PCNA and E2F gene expressions while induces the expressions of P19, P21, P53, GST, SOD, NQO1, GADD153 and certain CASPASES. In addition to those described above, genes such as OPN, which is mainly involved in metastasis and recently reported to be down regulated by selenium, should be considered as potential molecular marker in clinical chemoprevention trials. Collectively, literature data indicate that some of these genes that were altered by selenium are also involved in the development of human cancers described in this review. It appears that androgen receptor status may influence the effect of selenium on gene expression profile in prostate cancer; whether estrogen

  16. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  17. Baseline Serum Concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Prolactin in Critically Ill Children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M.; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. Design An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. Setting PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Conclusions Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study. PMID:23392368

  18. Baseline serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Sabrina M; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L; Dean, J Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. None. Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by which they occur merit further study.

  19. Dietary selenium in the Glasgow area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Raie, R.M.; Smith, H.

    1978-01-01

    A typical diet for people in the Glasgow area is analysed and an estimate is made of the daily intake of selenium for the average person (234 μg). Meat, poultry and bread products contribute 65% of the total selenium consumed. There is a significant loss of selenium on cooking but the concentration in the diet is high compared with the estimated requirement. Selenium levels in prepared infant foods, artificial milk and natural milk are reported. Those infants on artificial milk feeds have a selenium intake equivalent to that of adults (3 μg/kg) while those on natural milk or prepared infant foods have an intake of 6 μg/kg. Adult and infant tissue selenium levels are established and are shown to be in equilibrium with the diet. There is no concentration in man as a result of his position at the top of the food chain. Sudden infant death cannot be related to selenium levels in human tissue or diet. (author)

  20. Effect of contraceptive pill on the selenium and zinc status of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Soudabeh; Sani, Fatemeh Valinejad; Firoozrai, Mohsen

    2009-07-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the influence of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) uptake on serum zinc and selenium in contraceptive pill users. The concentration of zinc and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 50 healthy women with normal menstrual cycles as a control group and 50 women taking low-dose OCP. The control reference values were 81.61+/-9.44 and 70.35+/-25.57 mcg/dL, which were obtained for zinc and selenium, respectively. Use of OCP resulted in a significant decrease in serum zinc levels (pselenium levels but not significantly (p=.08, t=0.935). The duration of use beyond 3 months had no effect on the magnitude of the decrease in serum zinc levels. These findings may be important because selenium is currently believed to offer protective benefits against carcinogenesis. It has been thought that the decrease in serum zinc could be reflected in a reduction of tissue zinc status due to changes in zinc absorption, excretion or tissue turnover. If these changes occur, the dietary zinc requirement would be greater in women using OCP.

  1. Nuclear transformations studies in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation is made with regard to the chemical effects produced by nuclear transformations, such as the chemical effects of the beta decay and the chemical effects of the reaction (n,γ) in selenium radioisotopes. As a particular case the chemical effect of the isomeric transition of sup(81m)Se(VI) in potassium selenate crystals marked with radioactive selenium is studied experimentally and the method of adsorption in activated carbon is applied for the analytical separation of the traces of the nuclear isomer tetravalent sup(81b)Se(IV) of one fraction which contains the mixture of the selenium radioisotopes. (author)

  2. Supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast attenuates brain metastatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Jagoda K; Seelbach, Melissa J; Chen, Lei; Power, Ronan F; Toborek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Metastases are the leading cause of cancer mortality and their development may be affected by diet. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with different selenium (Se) compounds on the dynamics of brain metastasis development in a novel mouse model. Mice were fed experimental diets enriched (1 mg/kg) with sodium selenite (Se-S), seleno-1-methionine (Se-Meth), a yeast-derived organic form of selenium (Se-Yeast), or a control diet (Se brain vasculature. The development of brain metastatic tumors was monitored for 2 wk following injection. Mice bearing brain metastatic tumors and fed Se-Yeast- or Se-S-enriched diets displayed a higher survival rate compared with other experimental and control groups. Importantly, Se-Yeast supplementation decreased the growth of brain metastatic tumors as determined by the measurement of the intensity of the bioluminescent signal emitted by K1735-Luc cells upon reaction with luciferin. Different chemical forms of Se have distinct effects on the development of brain metastases. Organic Se in the form of Se-Yeast may be a valuable agent in suppression of brain metastatic disease.

  3. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  4. Selenium supplementation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in trophoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khera, A.; Dong, L. F.; Holland, O.; Vanderlelie, J.; Pasdar, E.A.; Neužil, Jiří; Perkins, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 8 (2015), s. 363-369 ISSN 0143-4004 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Selenium * Reactive oxygen species * Mitochondrial biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.972, year: 2015

  5. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...... developing infections (pyrexia, respiratory infections or meningitis) with no obvious benefit (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.02, 685 participants, very low quality of evidence).Our analyses showed no effect of selenium or ebselen on adverse events (Selenium: RR 1.03, 95% Cl 0.85 to 1.24; six trials, 925...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...

  6. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  7. Selenium nanoparticles: potential in cancer gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona; Singh, Moganavelli

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, colloidal selenium nanoparticles have emerged as exceptional selenium species with reported chemopreventative and therapeutic properties. This has sparked widespread interest in their use as a carrier of therapeutic agents with results displaying synergistic effects of selenium with its therapeutic cargo and improved anticancer activity. Functionalization remains a critical step in selenium nanoparticles' development for application in gene or drug delivery. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the synthesis and functionalization strategies of selenium nanoparticles used in cancer drug and gene delivery systems. We also provide an update of recent preclinical studies utilizing selenium nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

  8. The role of selenium in predicting preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ghaemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is a common disorder that is a leading cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality; however its specific etiology has still remained obscure.The first step in preventing preeclampsia is early detection of women at risk. Since there is no valid and reliable screening test, appropriate diagnostic and screening tests are necessary, which are inexpensive, non-invasive and beneficial for pregnant women. Therefore, regarding the role of selenium as an antioxidant in the prevention preeclampsia, this study was designed which aimed to determine the prognostic value of plasma selenium levels in the diagnosis of preeclampsia in primigravida women Methods: In a nested case control design, a sample of 650 normal primigravida women of 24-28 weeks participated in the study. Subjects who involved the case group were followed up for 3 months and 38 were affected by preeclampsia. Blood samples were obtained from these 38patients as well as from 38 subjects as their matched controls. Moreover, the amount of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean level of selenium in blood plasma of the cases was significantly lower than in their matched controls. The present study findings revealed that pregnant women with serum Se < 66.1 μg/L had a significantly increased risk of preeclampsia. Conclusion: Lower plasma selenium level in women destines to suffering from preeclampsia which confirms the destructive effect of selenium deficiency as an antioxidant in etiopathology of preeclampsia. Measurement of plasma selenium can improve the prediction of preeclampsia; thus, it seems that plasma selenium level test owns an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for predicting preeclampsia.

  9. Selenium and tellurium reagents in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comasseto, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contribution of the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) to the organic synthesis of selenium and tellurium reagents is made. Major reactions amoung selenium compounds and insaturated substrates, phosphorus, ester enolates as well as the use of phase transference catalysed reactions to produce arylselenolate are described. For tellurium, interactions of its compounds with organic substrates and reactive intermediates (e.g. benzino diazomethane) are reported. (C.L.B.) [pt

  10. Sound propagation in selenium and tellurium melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Kim, S.G.; Sulejmenov, T.

    1989-01-01

    Methods, that under similar frequences of ten MHz and using one sample permit to study temperature dependences and propagation velocities, the absorption coefficient of the sound in melts, are described. As a result studying selenium and tellurium melts intricate polytherms of sound propagation velocity and absorption coefficient, that are interpreted usiung representations on breaking chains in associated liquid(selenium) and dissolution of short chains in the melt(tellurium) atomic matrix, are constructed

  11. Selenium levels in neoplastic breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, O I; Babalola, O O; Omoniyi-Esan, G O; Lawal, O O; Adesunkanmi, A R; Agbakwuru, E A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this prospective case controlled study was to evaluate the tissue levels of selenium in patients with cases of fibroadenoma, cancer of the breast and in the controls in order to relate them to the occurrence of breast diseases. Consecutive consenting patients who had histologically confirmed breast cancer and fibroadenoma attending the General surgical outpatients departments of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, were recruited for the study. One gram of core disease breast tissues was taken for Selenium level estimation. There were 127 female subjects;. 95 (74.8%) cases of fibroadenoma and 32 (25.2%) of breast cancer. While breast cancer was common on the left, fibroadenoma was more common on the right breast (? = 8.994; p=0.011). The median tissue level of selenium in patients with fibroadenoma was 0.0272 mg/g with a range of 0.0124 to 0.0576 mg/g and that of the cancer patients was 0.0178 mg/g with a range 0.0072 to 0.0436 mg/g. These were statistically significantly different ( p=0.001). Factors affecting tissue selenium level include age (pbreast cancer (pbreast mass (p=0.023), previous delivery (p=0.004), age at last confinement (p=0.007), parity (pbreast cancer than in fibroadenoma; Tissue selenium inhibits carcinogenesis; low tissue level of selenium therefore may be a factor in the development of breast cancer.

  12. Dietary Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Schomburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Next year (2017, the micronutrient Selenium (Se is celebrating its birthday—i.e., 200 years after first being identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius. Despite its impressive age, research into the functions of this essential trace element is very alive and reaching out for new horizons. This special issue presents some recent fascinating, exciting, and promising developments in Se research in the form of eight original contributions and seven review articles. Collectively, aspects of Se supply, biochemical, physiological, and chemotherapeutic effects, and geobiological interactions are covered by leading scientists in the areas of nutritional, basic, and clinical research. It is obvious from the contributions that the bicentennial anniversary will celebrate a micronutrient still in its infancy with respect to being understood in terms of its biomedical importance.

  13. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In steels, Te is determined photometrically with the aid of KI. The determination is hindered by Fe(3), Cu(2), Bi(3) and Se(4) ions, which must be separated. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in native sulfur is carried out with the aid of 5-mercapto-3-(naphthyl-2)-1,3,4-thiadiazolthione-2 (pH=4.8-5.0). The dyed complex is readily extracted with chloroform and benzene. The spectrophotometric determination of Te in selenium is performed with the aid of 3,5-diphenylpyrazoline-1-dithiocarbamate of sodium. Te is determined in commercial indium, arsenic and their semiconductor compounds photometrically with the aid of copper diethyldithiocarbamate. The method permits determining 5x10 -5 % Te in a weighed amount of 0.5 g. The chloride complex of Te(4) with diantipyriodolpropylmethane is quantitatively extracted with dichloroethane from hydrochloric acid solutions. Thus, any amounts of Te can be separated from Se and determined photometrically. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in commercial lead and bismuth is carried out with the aid of pyrazolone derivatives, in commercial copper with the aid of diantipyridolpropylmethane, and in ores (more than 0.01% Te) with the aid of bismuthol 2. Also described is the extraction-polarographic determination of Te in sulfide ores

  14. The effect of catch crop species on selenium availability for succeeding crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavridou, Eleftheria; Young, Scott D.; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    2007–10 investigated the ability of catch crops (Italian ryegrass, fodder radish and hairy vetch) under different fertiliser regimes to reduce soil Se content in the autumn and to increase its availability in spring to the succeeding crop. Results and Conclusions The catch crops (Italian ryegrass...... and fodder radish) increased water-extractable Se content in the 0.25–0.75msoil layer in only one of the experiments. Selenium uptake by the catch crops varied between 65 and 3263 mg ha−1, depending on species, year and fertilisation treatment; this corresponded to 0.1–3.0% of the water-extractable soil Se......Background and Aims Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. In order to ensure an optimal concentration of Se in crops, Se fertilisers are applied. Catch crops may be an alternative way to increase Se concentrations in vegetables. Methods Three experiments in Denmark between...

  15. Two-dimensional finite elements model for selenium transport in saturated and unsaturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper

    2010-10-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model was developed to simulate species of selenium transport in two dimensions in both saturated and unsaturated soil zones. The model considers water, selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine uptake by plants. It also considers adsorption and desorption, oxidation and reduction, volatilization, and chemical and biological transformations of selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine. In addition to simulating water flow, selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine transport, the model also simulates organic and gaseous selenium transport. The developed model was applied to simulate two different observed field data. The simulation of the observed data was satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 48.5 microg/l and mean relative error of 8.9%.

  16. SELENIUM MOBILITY IN SOME SOILS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium mobility in soil depends on a multitude of physical and chemical factors. The present paper highlights the selenium solubilization degree out of the total soil content in relation with its agrochemical properties. Soils samples were considered collected from different agricultural areas of the Country, with or without certain natural handicaps, from soils under industrial impact and long term agrochemical experiments. The selenium solubilization percentages out of the soil total content ranged between 3.57 and 8.15%. No solubilization percentage was calculated for Central and Southern Dobrudja and the South-Eastern Romanian Plane, because the total selenium quantities in these areas are lower and mobile selenium values are very low. The statistical analysis of the calculated percentage values highlighted homogeneous areas and areas with a higher scattering degree. Thus, in agricultural land, in acknowledged agrarian areas and in long term agricultural experiments, the percentage values are better grouped, showing (expectable soil homogeneousness, on one hand, and a significant soil selenium supply and its adequate solubilization for plant nutrition, on the other. The most scattered values occurred in the Călmăţui and Buzău valleys area in halomorphic soils, and in the Făgăraş Depression which is under the industrial polluting influence of chemical works. Among the causes for these differences is the uniformity or non-uniformity of the terrains, induced by land use and the existence or not of a handicap (polluting impact or halomorphic soils, for example. In general, there are no significant differences between the selenium mobility values and their grouping or scattering degree in the soil depth. A single exception stands out, namely in the Făgăraş Depression, where the selenium solubilization degree tends to increase with soil depth, as well as the scattering degree. In the Danube Delta diked areas Sireasa and Pardina very

  17. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  18. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  20. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  1. EURRECA—Estimating Selenium Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurst, R.; Collings, R.; Harvey, L.J.; King, M.; Hooper, L.; Bouwman, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current reference values for selenium, an essential micronutrient, are based on the intake of selenium that is required to achieve maximal glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma or erythrocytes. In order to assess the evidence of relevance to setting dietary reference values for selenium, the

  2. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  3. Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Germano B. O. N. Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO. Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition. The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity.

  4. Reduced Maternal Selenium levels in Pregnant and Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced Maternal Selenium levels in Pregnant and Lactating Nigerian women: Should Routine Selenium Supplementation be advocated? ... However, there was a non significant increase immediately after birth. In the breast milk, selenium concentration significantly decreased (P<0.0001) as lactation progressed.

  5. Bio-induced solid selenium for recovery from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, S.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium in the form of selenate or selenite in wastewater needs to be removed due to its potential toxicity in the environment. Also, selenium is a valuable element that is used in several industries and current selenium resources are likely to be exhausted in less than 50 years. Waste streams

  6. Toenail mercury and dyslipidemia: Interaction with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Seo, Eunmin

    2017-01-01

    Although compelling evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies exist, limited studies have examined the association between chronic mercury exposure and dyslipidemia. Particularly, data are sparse regarding the influence of selenium on this association of mercury with dyslipidemia in humans. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations of toenail mercury with dyslipidemia and its components, and to examine whether selenium in toenails modifies these associations. We performed cross-sectional analyses using baseline data from a cohort in the Yeungnam area in South Korea, including 232 men and 269 women. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were quantified using neutron activation analysis, and fasting serum lipid measurements were obtained through the medical examination. Odds ratios of the prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia in correlation with mercury levels were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. The mean levels of toenail mercury were 0.47μg/g for men and 0.34μg/g for women. After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the highest tertile of toenail mercury levels had 4.08 (95% CI 1.09-15.32, p for trend=0.02) times higher risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, and 2.24 (95% CI 1.15-4.37, p for trend=0.004) times higher risk of dyslipidemia than those in the lowest tertile. Selenium is a significant effect-modifier for these associations; the highest tertile of toenail mercury were significantly associated with a higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.04-26.38) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.16-7.66) compared to the lowest tertile at toenail selenium levels ≤0.685μg/g, while these associations became weak and non-significant, showing OR 0.98 and 95% CI 0.25-3.80 for hypercholesterolemia and OR 1.99 and 95% CI 0.73-5.45 for dyslipidemia at toenail selenium levels >0.685μg/g. We

  7. Selenium compounds activate ATM-dependent DNA damage responses via the mismatch repair protein hMLH1 in colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that selenium supplementation suppresses risk of colorectal and other cancers. The majority of colorectal cancers are characterized by a defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) process. Here, we have employed the MMR-deficient HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells ...

  8. Selenium in Camel – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for trace minerals in camels, particularly selenium, are not well-known. Selenium supplementation using a pharmaceutical form or commercial mineral mixture is common practice in camels to address the cardiomyopathy often attributed to selenium deficiency. This supplementation is often empirical and based on estimated needs for cattle. Nowadays the use of selenium in animal foodstuffs is commonplace and further investigation of its metabolism (ingestion, dynamic of storage-destocking, excretion in camels is warranted. The present review aimed to synthesize all the experimental research (comparative selenium status in cow and camel, response to different levels of supplementation at different physiological stages, excretion maternal transfer, experimental toxicosis and field observations (deficiency, supplementation practices undertaken in camels. The results underline the particularity of the unique metabolic profile of the camel and lead to practical recommendations for supplementation in camels, highlighting its relative sensitivity to excess Se intake at lower levels than in cattle. The maximal tolerable dose is 8 mg and the recommended doses range from 2 to 4 mg.

  9. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, Prince O.; Uden, Peter C.; Tyson, Julian F.

    2009-01-01

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  10. Speciation of selenium dietary supplements; formation of S-(methylseleno)cysteine and other selenium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoako, Prince O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Uden, Peter C., E-mail: pcuden@chem.umass.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States); Tyson, Julian F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003-9336 (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Speciation of selenium is of interest because it is both essential and toxic to humans, depending on the species and the amount ingested. Following indications that selenium supplementation could reduce the incidence of some cancers, selenium-enriched yeast and other materials have been commercialized as supplements. Most dramatically however, the SELECT trial that utilized L-selenomethionine as the active supplement was terminated in 2008 and there is much debate regarding both the planning and the results of efficacy studies. Further, since dietary supplements are not regulated as pharmaceuticals, there are concerns about the quality, storage conditions, stability and selenium content in selenium supplements. Enzymatic hydrolysis enabled selenium speciation profiles to be obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and following derivatization gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Coated fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile selenium species for determination by GC-AED and GC-MS. Similar speciation patterns were observed between yeast-based supplements subject to extended storage and those heated briefly at elevated temperatures. All the yeast-based supplements and one yeast-free supplement formed S-(methylseleno)cysteine on heating. Evidence was obtained in support of the hypotheses that S-(methylseleno)cysteine is formed from a reaction between dimethyldiselenide and cysteine or cystine.

  11. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  12. Impact of Selenium Addition to Animal Feeds on Human Selenium Status in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status and dietary habits of the Serbian population related to food of animal origin. Plasma selenium concentration in healthy adult volunteers, including residents of one of the regions with the lowest (Eastern Serbia, n = 60 and of one of the regions with the highest Se serum levels reported in the past (Belgrade, n = 82, was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the correlation between Se plasma levels and dietary intake data derived from food frequency questionnaires and laboratory tests. The mean plasma Se level of the participants was 84.3 ± 15.9 μg/L (range: 47.3–132.1 μg/L, while 46% of participants had plasma Se levels lower than 80 μg/L. Frequency of meat, egg, and fish consumption was significantly correlated with plasma selenium level (r = 0.437, p = 0.000. Selenium addition to animal feed in the quantity of 0.14 mg/kg contributed to the improvement of human plasma selenium levels by approximately 30 μg/L.

  13. Fertilizing soil with selenium fertilizers: impact on concentration, speciation, and bioaccessibility of selenium in leek (Allium ampeloprasum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Rama V Srikanth; Du Laing, Gijs; Van de Wiele, Tom; Pratti, Varalakshmi L; Willekens, Koen; Vandecasteele, Bart; Tack, Filip

    2012-11-07

    Leek was fertilized with sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)) and sodium selenate (Na(2)SeO(4)) in a green house to assess the impact of selenium (Se) fertilization on Se uptake by the crop and its speciation in the crop. The bioaccessibility of Se in the Se-enriched leek was assessed using an in vitro extraction protocol mimicking the human gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small intestine, and colon). The lowest Se uptake was observed when Na(2)SeO(3) was used as a fertilizer, which results in a higher risk for Se accumulation in the soil on a longer term. When soil was amended with Na(2)SeO(4), 55 ± 5% of total Se in the leek occurred in an inorganic form, while only 21 ± 8% was inorganic when Na(2)SeO(3) was applied. Se-methylselenocysteine and selenomethione were the major organic species in both treatments. However, concentrations of Se-methylselenocysteine and γ-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine, which were previously reported to induce positive health effects, were lower as compared to other Allium species. The majority of the Se in the leek was found to be bioaccessible in the stomach (around 60%) and small intestine (around 80%). However, a significant fraction also has good chances to reach the colon, where it seems to be taken up by the microbial community and may also induce positive health effects.

  14. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  15. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  16. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  17. Determination of selenium via the fluorescence quenching effect of selenium on hemoglobin-catalyzed peroxidative reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Tian, Feng-Shou

    2015-05-01

    A new method for the determination of selenium based on its fluorescence quenching on the hemoglobin-catalyzed reaction of H2 O2 and l-tyrosine has been established. The effect of pH, foreign ions and the optimization of variables on the determination of selenium was examined. The calibration curve was found to be linear between the fluorescence quenching (F0 /F) and the concentration of selenium within the range of 0.16-4.00 µg/mL. The detection limit was 1.96 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.14%. This method can be used for the determination of selenium in Se-enriched garlic bulbs with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Selenium content in tissues and meat quality in rabbits fed selenium yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dokoupilová, A.; Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Březina, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 165-169 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * selenium * meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2007

  19. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  20. The Relationship between Selenium and T3 in Selenium Supplemented and Nonsupplemented Ewes and Their Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elghany Hefnawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pregnant ewes were selected and classified into two groups. The first group received subcutaneous selenium supplementation (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg BW at the 8th and 5th weeks before birth and 1st week after birth while the other was control group without selenium injection. Maternal plasma and serum samples were collected weekly from the 8th week before birth until the 8th week after birth and milk samples were taken from ewes weekly, while plasma and serum samples were collected at 48 hours, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th weeks after birth from the newborn lambs. Results demonstrated significant positive relationship between maternal plasma selenium and serum T3 in supplemented and control ewes (r=0.69 to 0.72, P<0.05. There was significant (P<0.001 increase in T3 in supplemented ewes and their lambs until the 8th week after birth. There was positive relationship between milk, selenium concentration, and serum T3 in the newborn lambs of the supplemented group (r=0.84, P<0.01, while the relationship was negative in the control one (r=-0.89, P<0.01. Muscular and thyroid pathological changes were independent of selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation was important for maintaining T3 in ewes and newborn lambs until the 8th week after birth.

  1. Speciation of selenium and arsenic in natural waters and sediments. Volume 1. Selenium speciation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutter, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    Fossil fuel combustion can lead to an increased mobilization of selenium to the aquatic environment. In order to examine this process, the different chemical forms of selenium must be determined in water and sediments with high degrees of accuracy and precision. A selective hydride generation procedure was developed to measure the concentrations of dissolved selenite, selenate, total selenium, and organic selenides in natural waters. Two detetor systems were valuated, atomic absorption with quartz tube - air/hydrogen flame atomization, and gas chromatography with photo ionization detection. Results show that the photo ionization system has a high detection limit (10 ng Se), and a non-linear response. In contrast, the atomic absorption technique is able to detect 0.2 ng Se, and the instrumental response is linear to 96 ng Se. For the determination of selenium speciation, the precision (as relative standard deviation) is no greater than 5.4%; accuracy is assured using the standard additions method of calibration. In sediments, total selenium is solubilized using an oxidative digest, and a sodium hydroxide leach releases sedimentary selenite and selenate. Solutions from these pretreatments are analyzed using the dissolved selenium methods.

  2. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  3. [Research advance in characteristics of molybdenum, boron and selenium in red soils of South China and effects of their reasonable application on forage grass growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Boqi; Huang, Dongfeng

    2004-06-01

    Reasonable fertilization and fertility improvement of red soils are the important measures to develop the forage industry in hilly regions of South China. This paper summarized the existing form, chemical feature, availability and content of molybdenum, boron and selenium in red soils of South China. The lack of these three microelements in red soils was in common, and their reasonable application could significantly improve the growth of forage grass and its yield. The authors discussed the effects of molybdenum, boron and selenium application on the uptake and accumulation of available nutrients by forage grass and relevant physiological functions, described the molybdenum, boron and selenium deficiency symptoms of forage grass, their diagnostic methods and correcting measures, and put forward some suggestions for deepening the study.

  4. 21 CFR 573.920 - Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reproduction of livestock and poultry; and (5) the manufacture and use of selenium at such levels cannot... follows: (1) In complete feed for chickens, swine, turkeys, sheep, cattle, and ducks at a level not to exceed 0.3 part per million. (2) In feed supplements for limit feeding as follows: (i) Sheep: At a level...

  5. Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methidathion-induced hematological, biochemical and hepatohistological alterations in rat: Ameliorative effects of selenium and zinc. ... In contrast, reduced glutathione level (GSH), and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) content of hepatic tissue decreased ...

  6. Selenium speciation in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Gmerek, A.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Chromatographic (IC-CD, GC-FID) and spectroscopic (XRD) techniques that allow the specific determination of several selenium species present or formed during bioremediation processes of selenate contaminated drinking, ground, or wastewaters have been established. The developed techniques are shown

  7. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  8. Recovery of stream communities from experimental selenium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, M.C.; Kuklinskal, B.; Ferkull, K. [Univ. of Minnesota, Monticello, MN (United States); Allen, K.N.; Hermanutz, R.O.; Roush, T.H.; Hedtke, S.F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of selenium on stream communities and their recovery from those effects were studied at MERS from 1987--1991. Selenium was dosed into two replicate streams each at concentrations of 30, 10, 2.5 and 0 (control) {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for 18, 30, and 12 months, respectively. Recovery was monitored for three (30) or two (1 0, 2.5) years following cessation of selenium dosing. Selenium rapidly accumulated in the sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates and fish during dosing. Selenium concentrations in sediment, macroinvertebrates, and plants were as high as 2X--4X, 2X--4X, and 1X--1OX the dosed concentration in the 30, 10, and 2.5 treatments, respectively. Selenium decreased relatively rapidly following cessation of dosing. By two years after dosing ceased, selenium concentrations in plants and macroinvertebrates were little different from the controls; selenium in sediment from the 30 and 10 streams was still higher than in the control streams two years after dosing ceased. The macroinvertebrate community changed little during the dosing and recovery period. Commonly used indices of community structure showed no effect of selenium dosing. The isopod Asellus and oligochaetes in the family Tubificidae decreased rapidly following the onset of selenium dosing; their recovery following cessation of dosing was slow.

  9. Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drutel, Anne; Archambeaud, Françoise; Caron, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per gram of tissue because it expresses specific selenoproteins. Since the discovery of myxoedematous cretinism and thyroid destruction following selenium repletion in iodine- and selenium-deficient children, data on links between thyroid metabolism and selenium have multiplied. Although very minor amounts of selenium appear sufficient for adequate activity of deiodinases, thus limiting the impact of its potential deficiency on synthesis of thyroid hormones, selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been emphasized. Most authors attribute the effect of supplementation on the immune system to the regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species and their metabolites. In patients with Hashimoto's disease and in pregnant women with anti-TPO antibodies, selenium supplementation decreases anti-thyroid antibody levels and improves the ultrasound structure of the thyroid gland. Although clinical applications still need to be defined for Hashimoto's disease, they are very interesting for pregnant women given that supplementation significantly decreases the percentage of postpartum thyroiditis and definitive hypothyroidism. In Graves' disease, selenium supplementation results in euthyroidism being achieved more rapidly and appears to have a beneficial effect on mild inflammatory orbitopathy. A risk of diabetes has been reported following long-term selenium supplementation, but few data are available on the side effects associated with such supplementation and further studies are required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Mittag

    Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  11. Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: A comparative study in humans using stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, T.E.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Atherton, C.A.; Dainty, J.R.; Lewis, D.J.; Langford, N.J.; Crews, H.M.; Luten, J.B.; Lorentzen, M.; Sieling, F.W.; Aken-Schneyder, P. van; Hoek, M.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Dael, P. van; Firweather-Tail, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure the bioavailability of selenium from cooked and raw fish in humans by estimating and comparing apparent absorption and retention of selenium in biosynthetically labelled fish with labelled selenate and biosynthetically labelled selenium in brewers yeast. Design: The

  12. Selenium and its redox speciation in rainwater from sites of Valparaiso region in Chile, impacted by mining activities of copper ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Gregori Ida; Lobos, Maria G; Pinochet, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    speciation of selenium, Se(IV) and Se(VI) were the species found in all rainwater samples analyzed, providing selenium in species which are most favorable for their uptake by the vegetation grown in these soils.

  13. Erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase: Its relationship to plasma selenium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, G.; Cellerino, R.; Guidi, G.C.; Moschini, G.; Stievano, B.M.; Tregnaghi, C.

    1977-01-01

    Erythrocytic glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and plasma selenium concentrations were measured in 14 patients: 7 with iron deficiency and 7 with raised serum iron levels. The decreased enzymatic activity in iron deficiency was confirmed. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients with lower serum iron; furthermore there is a significant correlation between serum iron and plasma selenium concentrations. Another correlation even more significant was found between plasma selenium and enzyme activity in all the cases we studied. These data suggests that the importance of iron for GSH-Px activity may be merely due to its relationship with selenium and that plasma selenium concentration may be of critical importance for enzyme activity. (author)

  14. Effect of long-term selenium supplementation on mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayman, Margaret P.; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    concentrations higher than this are beneficial, or indeed detrimental, is unknown. Objective: In a population of relatively low selenium status, we aimed to determine the effect on mortality of long-term selenium supplementation at different dose levels. Design: The Denmark PRECISE study was a single......Background: Selenium, an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins with a wide range of health effects. Selenoproteins may reach repletion at a plasma selenium concentration of ∼ 125 μg/L, at which point the concentration of selenoprotein P reaches a plateau; whether sustained...... for extension of the study and mortality assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with 100, 200, or 300 μg selenium/d as selenium-enriched-yeast or placebo-yeast for 5 years from randomization in 1998-1999 and were followed up for mortality for a further 10 years (through March 31, 2015...

  15. Biogeochemical studies of selenium in the Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, H.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kimura, M.; Koike, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium that is a one of trace essential elements exists mainly in the chemical form of Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic selenium in ocean. Moreover, the monitoring of the selenium species has become a matter of interest as a mean of estimating their influence in biological processes in ocean. In recent works, some investigators reported that Se(IV) shows nutrient-type especially like silica's behavior, Se(VI) shows an approximately constant value, and the biological activities control the distribution of organic selenium. However, these reports were not included the whole world's oceans. It is necessary to research several oceans for the explication of fate on selenium. We investigated at the most interesting area - the Eastern Indian Ocean where should play a key role in global ocean's cycle for acquiring the new knowledge of selenium species at first

  16. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  17. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  18. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

  19. Selenoprotein P is the essential selenium transporter for bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Nicole; Rijntjes, Eddy; Hoeg, Antonia; Stoedter, Mette; Schweizer, Ulrich; Seemann, Petra; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Selenium (Se) plays an important role in bone physiology as best reflected by Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic Se-dependent osteoarthritis. Bone development is delayed in children with mutations in SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2), a central factor for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Circulating selenoprotein P (SePP) is positively associated with bone turnover in humans, yet its function for bone homeostasis is not known. We have analysed murine models of altered Se metabolism. Most of the known selenoprotein genes and factors needed for selenoprotein biosynthesis are expressed in bones. Bone Se is not associated with the mineral but exclusively with the organic matrix. Genetic ablation of Sepp-expression causes a drastic decline in serum (25-fold) but only a mild reduction in bone (2.5-fold) Se concentrations. Cell-specific expression of a SePP transgene in hepatocytes efficiently restores bone Se levels in Sepp-knockout mice. Of the two known SePP receptors, Lrp8 was detected in bones while Lrp2 was absent. Interestingly, Lrp8 mRNA concentrations were strongly increased in bones of Sepp-knockout mice likely in order to counteract the developing Se deficiency. Our data highlight SePP as the essential Se transporter to bones, and suggest a novel feedback mechanism for preferential uptake of Se in Se-deprived bones, thereby contributing to our understanding of hepatic osteodystrophy and the consistent bone phenotype observed in subjects with inherited selenoprotein biosynthesis mutations.

  20. Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

    2015-05-01

    The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 µg g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 μg g(-1)) > stems (16.4 μg g(-1)) > roots (15.5 μg g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 μg g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. The essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants, and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garousi F.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available After its discovery, selenium was most noted for its harmful effects. Selenium was the first element identified to occur in native vegetation at levels toxic to animals. Poisoning of animals can occur through consumption of plants containing toxic levels of selenium. Livestock consuming excessive amounts of selenized forages are afflicted with “alkali disease” and “blind staggers”. Typical symptoms of these diseases include loss of hair, deformed hooves, blindness, colic, diarrhoea, lethargy, increased heart and respiration rates, and eventually death. On the other hand, selenium deficiency in animal feeds can cause “white muscle disease”, a degenerative disease of the cardiac and skeletal muscles. In this regard, this review paper attempts to summarize the essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology.

  2. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  3. Brazil nuts: an effective way to improve selenium status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Christine D; Chisholm, Alexandra; McLachlan, Sarah K; Campbell, Jennifer M

    2008-02-01

    Brazil nuts provide a rich natural source of selenium, yet no studies have investigated the bioavailability of selenium in humans. We investigated the efficacy of Brazil nuts in increasing selenium status in comparison with selenomethionine. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 59 New Zealand adults. Participants consumed 2 Brazil nuts thought to provide approximately 100 mug Se, 100 mug Se as selenomethionine, or placebo daily for 12 wk. Actual intake from nuts averaged 53 mug Se/d (possible range: 20-84 mug Se). Plasma selenium and plasma and whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk, and effects of treatments were compared. Plasma selenium increased by 64.2%, 61.0%, and 7.6%; plasma GPx by 8.3%, 3.4%, and -1.2%; and whole blood GPx by 13.2%, 5.3%, and 1.9% in the Brazil nut, selenomethionine, and placebo groups, respectively. Change over time at 12 wk in plasma selenium (P nut (P nut group than in the placebo (P = 0.002) and selenomethionine (P = 0.032) groups. Consumption of 2 Brazil nuts daily is as effective for increasing selenium status and enhancing GPx activity as 100 mug Se as selenomethionine. Inclusion of this high-selenium food in the diet could avoid the need for fortification or supplements to improve the selenium status of New Zealanders.

  4. Ecological Importance of Insects in Selenium Biogenic Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Golubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for animal and human beings. Despite the importance of insects in most ecosystems and their significant contribution to the biological cycling of trace elements due to high abundance, population productivity, and diverse ecosystem functions, surprisingly little information is available on selenium bioaccumulation by these arthropods. This review considers selenium essentiality and toxicity to insects as well as insects’ contribution to selenium trophic transfer through the food chains. Data on Se accumulation by insects of the Dniester River Valley with no anthropogenic Se loading reveal typically low Se content in necrophagous insects compared to predators and herbivores and seasonal variations in Se accumulation.

  5. Serotonin uptake and serotonin uptake inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R W; Wong, D T

    1990-01-01

    Serotonin uptake carriers occur on serotonin neurons, on glial cells and on blood platelets. The uptake carrier on serotonin neurons inactivates serotonin that has been released into the synaptic cleft by transporting it back into the nerve terminal. The serotonin uptake carrier is the means by which blood platelets acquire serotonin, since they do not synthesize it. The function of the serotonin uptake carrier on glial cells is poorly understood. Selective inhibitors of serotonin uptake enhance neurotransmission via serotonergic neurons and have been useful pharmacologic tools for studying physiologic roles of serotonin neurons. Some serotonin uptake inhibitors are finding therapeutic uses in mental depression and other psychiatric disorders and in treating obesity and bulimia; other therapeutic applications continue to be evaluated.

  6. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  7. Influence of Se concentrations and species in hydroponic cultures on Se uptake, translocation and assimilation in non-accumulator ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Antoine; Di Tullo, Pamela; Aubry, Emmanuel; Bueno, Maïté; Thiry, Yves; Pannier, Florence; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse

    2016-11-01

    The success of biofortification and phytoremediation practices, addressing Se deficiency and Se pollution issues, hinges crucially on the fate of selenium in the plant media in response to uptake, translocation and assimilation processes. We investigate the fate of selenium in root and shoot compartments after 3 and 6 weeks of experiment using a total of 128 plants grown in hydroponic solution supplied with 0.2, 2, 5, 20 and 100 mg L -1 of selenium in the form of selenite, selenate and a mixture of both species. Selenate-treated plants exhibited higher root-to-shoot Se translocation and total Se uptake than selenite-treated plants. Plants took advantage of the selenate mobility and presumably of the storage capacity of leaf vacuoles to circumvent selenium toxicity within the plant. Surprisingly, 28% of selenate was found in shoots of selenite-treated plants, questioning the ability of plants to oxidize selenite into selenate. Selenomethionine and methylated organo-selenium amounted to 30% and 8% respectively in shoots and 35% and 9% in roots of the identified Se, suggesting that selenium metabolization occurred concomitantly in root and shoot plant compartments and demonstrating that non-accumulator plants can synthesize notable quantities of precursor compound for volatilization. The present study demonstrated that non-accumulator plants can develop the same strategies as hyper-accumulator plants to limit selenium toxicity. When both selenate and selenite were supplied together, plants used selenate in a storage pathway and selenite in an assimilation pathway. Plants might thereby benefit from mixed supplies of selenite and selenate by saving enzymes and energy required for selenate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cultivation and SeleniumEnrichment of SeleniumEnriched Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Xiao-fei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a bio-carrier, Eisenia fetida was fed with cow dung that added with sodium selenite in order to transfer inorganic selenium(Se into organic selenium. Targeting on survival rate and selenium content, the effects of five Se concentrations(0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg·kg-1 and four cultivation periods(15, 30, 45, 60 don earthworm growth and Se contents were investigated. The cultivation method with high survival rate, high Se content of earthworm and short breeding time would be screened out. The experimental results showed that the earthworm survival rate decreased and the Se content in earthworm increased with the increase of Se application and the extension of breeding time. The most optimummethod was screened out when the Se concentration was 80 mg·kg-1 and the cultivation period was 45 days, Se content in earthworm was up to 33.25 mg·kg-1.

  9. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...

  10. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  11. Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Among the rapidly progressing interdisciplinary areas of physics, chemistry, material science etc. ion induced modifications of materials is one such evolving field. It has been realized in recent years that a material, in the form of an accelerated ion beam, embedded into a target specimen offers a most productive tool for transforming its properties in a controlled manner. In semiconductors particularly, where the transport behavior is determined by very small concentrations of certain impurities, implantation of ions may bring considerable changes. The present work is based on the study of the effect of krypton ion implantation on selenium nanowires. Selenium nanowires of diameter 80 nm were synthesized by template assisted electro deposition technique. Implantation of krypton ions was done at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The effect of implantation on structural, electrical and optical properties of selenium nanowires was investigated. XRD analysis of pristine and implanted nanowires shows no shifting in the peak position but there is a variation in the relative intensity with fluence. UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the decrease in the optical band gap with fluence. PL spectra showed emission peak at higher wavelength. A substantial rise in the current was observed from I-V measurements, after implantation and with the increase in fluence. The increase in current conduction may be due to the increase in the current carriers.

  12. Selenium speciation influences bioaccumulation in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanctôt, C.M., E-mail: c.lanctot@griffith.edu.au [Central Queensland University, School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Gladstone, QLD 4680 (Australia); Australian Rivers Institute, School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4215 (Australia); Melvin, S.D., E-mail: s.melvin@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4215 (Australia); Cresswell, T., E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Differences in SeIV and SeVI bioaccumulation and biodistribution were assessed. • Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles accumulated more selenite than selenate. • Selenium depuration kinetics was similar for both forms. • Tadpoles accumulated Se predominantly in the digestive and excretory organs. - Abstract: Despite being essential for animal health and fitness, Se has a relatively narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and excess Se can cause a variety of adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants during larval aquatic life stage, because they can accumulate toxic ions through various routes including skin, gills, lungs and digestive tract. Few attempts have been made to understand the tissue-specific accumulation of trace elements, including the impacts of chemical speciation in developing amphibian larvae. We used radiolabelled {sup 75}Se to explore the biokinetics and tissue distributions of the two dominant forms occurring in surface waters, selenite (SeIV) and selenate (SeVI). Tadpoles of the native Australian frog Limnodynastes peronii were exposed to Se in both forms, and live-animal gamma spectroscopy was used to track accumulation and retention over time. Tissue biodistributions were also quantified at the end of the uptake and depuration phases. Results showed the bioconcentration of SeIV to be 3 times greater compared to SeVI, but rates of elimination were similar for both forms. This suggests a change of Se speciation within the organism prior to excretion. Depuration kinetics were best described by a one-phase exponential decay model, and tadpoles retained approximately 19% of the accumulated Se after 12 days of depuration in clean water. Selenium bioaccumulation was greatest in digestive and excretory organs, as well as the eye, which may directly relate to previously reported Se-induced impairments. Results demonstrate how the use of radiotracing techniques can significantly

  13. Low blood selenium: A probable factor in essential hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood selenium (BSe) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (plGSH-Px) activity were measured as biochemical markers of selenium status of 103 hypertensive patients (44 males and 59 females) and 88 apparently healthy subjects (40 males and 48 females). The hypertensive patients were classified into three groups based ...

  14. The selenium status of grazing herbivores in different regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The selenium status of grazing herbivores in different regions of Southern Africa. J. B. J. van Ryssen. Dept of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa. E-mail:jvryssen@postino.up.ac.za. Although a substantial amount of information is available on the selenium status of grazing animals ...

  15. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  16. Relationship between soil contents and plasma levels of selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil contents of trace elements selenium, chromium and manganese were measured to determine their impact on the plasma levels of 160 healthy adult Nigerians in five different experimental locations in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, South - South Nigeria. The mean (±SD) soil selenium, chromium and ...

  17. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Selenium is an antioxidant that prevents oxygen radical from damaging cells from chronic diseases that can develop from cell injury and inflammation such as diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible protective effect of selenium yeast on cholesterol diet induced type-2 diabetes mellitus ...

  18. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    2004-01-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to...

  19. Mercury and selenium in wild and experimental seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de W.S.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Svenson, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the tissue distribution of inorganic mercury, organic mercury selenium in Dutch and British seals as well as in seals which were dosed with methylmercury under experimental conditions. In the experimental animals, a time-related increase of both mercury and selenium was found in

  20. Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid profile in British adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent findings have raised concern about possible associations of high selenium exposure with diabetes and hyperlipidemia in the US, a population with high selenium status. In the UK, a population with lower selenium status, there is little data on the association of selenium status with cardio-met...

  1. ACCUMULATION OF SELENIUM IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of establishing the levels of selenium accumulation in fish Marine has consistently attracted the attention of researchers. This is due, no doubt, with a surprisingly high concentrations of trace elements in fishmuscle mass compared with terrestrial animals and the wide spread lack of public consumption of selenium in most countries of the world. By the ability to accumulate selenium species investigated can be arranged in series: carp < rudd < pike Kutum < perch < carp < mullet < silverside < pike < roach < sprat common < gobies < sprat anchovy << sturgeon. It is known that the main source of selenium to fish is the food, although there is some element passes through the gills during respiration. Comparing the results with data accumulation of selenium muscle tissue of fish from different regions of the world indicates the absence of express selenodefitsita in the Caspian Sea.

  2. Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian H.; Bonnema, Steen; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid...... diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing...... supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed....

  3. Recent Microextraction Techniques for Determination and Chemical Speciation of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed S. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research designed to improve extraction has led to the development of microextraction techniques (ME, which involve simple, low cost, and effective preconcentrationof analytes in various matrices. This review is concerned with the principles and theoretical background of ME, as well as the development of applications for selenium analysis during the period from 2008 to 2016. Among all ME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was found to be most favorable for selenium. On the other hand, atomic absorption spectrometry was the most frequently used instrumentation. Selenium ME have rarely been coupled to spectrophotometry and X-ray spectrophotometry methods, and there is no published application of ME with electrochemical techniques. We strongly support the idea of using a double preconcentration process, which consists of microextraction prior to preconcentration, followed by selenium determination using cathodic stripping voltammetry (ME-CSV. More attention should focus on the development of accurate, precise, and green methods for selenium analysis.

  4. Level of selenium intake the region of algiers ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, M.A.; Tahtat, D.; Aklil, K.; Azbouche, A.; Mozai, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this present work, we have measured the selenium content in different food frequently consumed in the region of Algiers, a nutritional deficiency in selenium may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the function mainly as a protection agent against the toxic effects of free radicals, selenium are related to its presence at the active site of the enzyme glutathion peroxidase. Freeze-dried samples of food were put in cell and measured by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). We have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories (private employers, high commissioned officers, medium commissioned officers, workers, maneuvers ), on the basis of data given by government agencies. We have determined as mean daily consumption of selenium by people in region of Algiers was 130 ug per day

  5. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladel, B.; Nedjimi, B.; Mansouri, A.; Tahtat, D.; Belamri, M.; Tchanchane, A.; Khelfaoui, F.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. - Highlights: ► Cereals and cereal products represent a staple food in Algeria. ► The objective of this study is to determine the Se intake in wheat produced locally. ► The concentration of Se in the wheat reflects the level of the Se in regional soils. ► The mean of Se daily consumption is close to the minimal WHO/FAO recommendation.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... capturing images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for ... Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  14. Iodine and selenium migration through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasca, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium ( 79 Se) and iodine ( 129 I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusion properties of selenium and iodine through argillaceous rocks was realized with the aim to determine the effects of both the redox conditions and the mineralogy on the migration of these two elements. For these purposes, we have studied two argillaceous rocks: Toarcian argillite from Tournemire (France) and Opalinus clay (OPA) from the Mont-Terri (Switzerland). The study of the iodide migration allowed to confirm the control on the iodide retention of both oxidized pyrite and natural organic matter. A kinetic control of the iodide sorption is also suspected. We focus the selenium study on the more oxidized species, Se(IV) and Se(VI). The Se(IV) migration is strongly dependant from oxido-reduction processes. Indeed, the Se(IV) diffusion experiments through Tournemire argillite and OPA indicated a significant reduction associated to Fe(II). The Se(VI) study evidenced a behavior dependant from the initial concentration: at the highest concentration, no significant retention was observed while the retention is significant at the lowest concentration. Furthermore, spectroscopic analyses tend to show a low Se(VI) reduction at the Fe contact. However, biotic origin cannot be excluded. (author)

  15. SELENIUM SUBSTITUTION – EFFECT ON THYROID FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Pešić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the essential role of selenium (Se in thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and action, as well as normal thyroid function, increased during the past decades. The thyroid gland is among the human tissues with the highest Se content per mas unit, similar to other endocrine organs and brain. Biological actions of Se are mediated, in most cases, through the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins coded by 25 selenoprotein genes in the human. Via the selenoproteins, selenium can influence the cell function through antioxidant activites, modifying redox status and thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins iodothyronine deiodinases are present in most tissues and have a role to increase the production of bioactive tri-iodothyronine. Futhermore, Se has been shown to be important in the regulation of immune function. Se deficiency is accompained by the loss of immune competence. The links between Se deficiency, altered immune function and inflamation have prompted studies in humans to examine if Se suplementation can modify auto-antibodies production in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Until now, several randomised prospective clinical trials have been performed in patients with established chronic autoimmune thyrioditis. The clinical endpoint of each study was the decrease in TPO antibodies concentration after 3-12 months of treatment. Ussualy, the dosage of daily Se supplementation was 200µg. Selenium suplemetation had no significant effect on the concentration of TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. These studies indicate that Se treatment result in reduced inflammatory activity, but it does not cure chronc autoimmune process.

  16. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations for trigonal selenium have been calculated on the basis of a short range potential field model. Electrostatic long range forces have not been included. The force field is defined in terms of symmetrized coordinates which reflect partly the symmetry of the space group....... With such coordinates a potential energy, calculated with only a diagonal force matrix, is equivalent to one calculated with both off diagonal and diagonal elements when conventional coordinates are used. Another advantage is that often some force constants may be determined directly from frequencies at points of high...

  17. The influence of selenium addition during germination of Brassica seeds on health-promoting potential of sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Anna; Kołodziejski, Dominik; Pilipczuk, Tadeusz; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Konieczka, Piotr; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika; Cyprys, Joanna; Groszewska, Milena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Bartoszek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-01

    The correlation among selenium uptake, the content of bioactive compounds in sprouts, and biological activities triggered in cultured human cells by sprout extracts was investigated. Seeds of Brassica crops and rye were treated with SeO2 water solution. The selenium levels in sprouts increased from 1.0-4.1 to 53.3-382 μg/g dw with no influence on plant physiology according to the indices used. Neither the composition of glucosinolates (GL) in Brassica sprouts nor the myrosinase activity nor the composition of GL breakdown lipophilic products were significantly affected. In all Brassica sprouts, conversion to health-promoting isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles corresponded to only 1% of total GLs. Low ITC concentration may explain observed lack of induction of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) detoxifying enzymes in HT29 cells exposed to sprout extracts. The insignificant impact on cell growth and genome function suggests that Brassica sprouts may be safe vehicle of selenium to combat its dietary deficiency.

  18. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  19. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  20. COMPARISON OF DETERMINING METHODS REGARDING SELENIUM CONTENT IN WHEAT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Monica Stanciu-Burileanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a metallic chemical element, selenium has received special attention from biologists because of its dual role as a trace element essential and toxic. The important part of enzymes that protect cells against the effects of free radicals that are produced during normal metabolism of oxygen. Also, selenium is essential for normal immune system and thyroid gland, The concentration of selenium in the soil, which varies by region, determines the default concentration of selenium in plants growing in the soil.The purpose of this paper is to present methods of comparison, dry oxidation at 450ºC and wet digestion – digestion with acids in high concentrations at microwave system digestion, for determining selenium content from wheat samples collected from the south-eastern part of Romania, namely Bărăgan Plain and Central-South Dobrogea. Selenium separation and dosage from obtained extracts carry out through a selective hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With the software SURFER, a tendency map of selenium distribution was drawn.

  1. Selenium reverses Pteridium aquilinum-induced immunotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, A O; Caniceiro, B D; Wysocki, H L; Haraguchi, M; Gardner, D R; Górniak, S L

    2011-02-01

    We have previously shown that bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has immunomodulatory effects on mouse natural killer (NK) cells by reducing cytotoxicity. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated that selenium can enhance NK cell activity. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate if ptaquiloside, the main toxic component found in P. aquilinum, is responsible for the immunotoxic effects observed in mice, and if selenium supplementation could prevent or even reverse these effects. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered the P. aquilinum extract by daily gavage for 30 days, and histological analyses revealed a significant reduction in splenic white pulp area that was fully reversed by selenium treatment. In addition, mice administered ptaquiloside by daily gavage for 14 days demonstrated the same reduction of NK cell activity as the P. aquilinum extract, and this reduction was prevented by selenium co-administration. Lastly, non-adherent splenic cells treated in vitro with an RPMI extract of P. aquilinum also showed diminished NK cell activity that was not only prevented by selenium co-treatment but also fully reversed by selenium post-treatment. The results of this study clearly show that the immunosuppressive effects of P. aquilinum are induced by ptaquiloside and that selenium supplementation can prevent as well as reverse these effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Selenium and Ceruloplasmin in Nigerians with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilu M. Karaye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine if selenium deficiency, serum ceruloplasmin and traditional birth practices are risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM, in Kano, Nigeria. This is a case-control study carried out in three hospitals, and PPCM patients were followed up for six months. Critically low serum selenium concentration was defined as <70 µg/L. A total of 39 PPCM patients and 50 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Mean serum selenium in patients (61.7 ± 14.9 µg/L was significantly lower than in controls (118.4 ± 45.6 µg/L (p < 0.001. The prevalence of serum selenium <70 µg/L was significantly higher among patients (76.9% than controls (22.0% (p < 0.001. The mean ceruloplasmin and prevalence of socio-economic indices, multiparity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obesity and twin pregnancy were not different between the groups (p > 0.05. Logistic regression showed that rural residency significantly increased the odds for serum selenium <70 µg/L by 2.773-fold (p = 0.037. Baseline serum levels of selenium and ceruloplasmin were not associated with six-month mortality. This study has shown that selenium deficiency is a risk factor for PPCM in Kano, Nigeria, and is related to rural residency. However, serum ceruloplasmin, customary birth practices and some other characteristics were not associated with PPCM in the study area.

  3. The application of Fe–Mn hydrous oxides based adsorbent for removing selenium species from water

    KAUST Repository

    Szlachta, Małgorzata

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the adsorptive removal of selenium(IV) and selenium(VI) from water by a newly developed ion exchange adsorbent, based on Fe(III) and Mn(III) hydrous oxides, was examined. This study was conducted to determine the influence of various operating parameters, such as initial anion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, pH, solution temperature, and the presence of competitive anions, on the treatment performance. The high Se(IV) adsorptive capacity of the adsorbent (up to 41.02. mg/g at pH 4) was due to its high affinity for selenite, as reflected in the fast rate of uptake (batch studies) and an efficient long-term removal (column experiments). Although adsorption of anions traditionally decreases as pH increases, the mixed adsorbent was capable of purifying large volumes of Se(IV)-containing water (at pH 7) to reach concentrations lower than 10 μg/L, which meets the European Commission standards. The presence of sulphate and carbonate did not influence Se(IV) adsorption. However, high phosphate and silicate concentrations may have decreased the removal efficiency of Se(IV). Data from the batch and column adsorption experiments were fitted with a number of approved models, which revealed the adsorption mechanism and allowed for a comparison of the results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Speciation of selenium in groundwater: Seasonal variations and redox transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A. Ramesh; Riyazuddin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Selenium(VI) was the predominant species of Se present in groundwater. → Groundwater recharge increased Se mobilization. → Dissolved oxygen and redox potential control the mobilization of soil selenium. → Shallow groundwater is susceptible for more selenium enrichment than deeper ones. - Abstract: Speciation of selenium in groundwater is essential from the viewpoint of toxicity to organisms and biogeochemical cycling. Selenium speciation in groundwater is controlled by aquifer redox conditions, microbial transformations, dissolved oxygen (DO) and other redox couples. A suburban area of Chennai city in India, where improper waste disposal measures have been practiced is selected for this study. Se(IV), Se(VI) and other hydrochemical parameters were monitored in shallow ground water during pre- and post-monsoon seasons for a period of three years. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of groundwater recharge on selenium speciation. The concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-0.43 μg L -1 and 0.16-4.73 μg L -1 , respectively. During post-monsoon period the concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-1.25 μg L -1 and 0.58-10.37 μg L -1 , respectively. Se(VI) was the dominant species of selenium during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. During the post-monsoon periods, leaching of selenium from soil was more effective due to the increased oxidizing nature of the groundwater as indicated by the DO and redox potential (Eh) measurements. This finding has important implications on the behavior of selenium in groundwater, and also on the health of people consuming groundwater from seleniferous areas.

  5. Biogenesis of Selenium Nanoparticles Using Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeibi, Sara; Mozdziak, Paul; Golkar-Narenji, Afsaneh

    2017-11-09

    Selenium binds some enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, which may be activated in biological infections and oxidative stress. Chemical and physical methods for synthesizing nanoparticles, apart from being expensive, have their own particular risks. However, nanoparticle synthesis through green chemistry is a safe procedure that different biological sources such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and plants can be the catalyst bed for processing. Synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by macro/microorganisms causes variation in morphology and shape of the particles is due to diversity of reduction enzymes in organisms. Reducing enzymes of microorganisms by changing the status of redox convert metal ions (Se 2- ) to SeNPs without charge (Se 0 ). Biological activity of SeNPs includes their protective role against DNA oxidation. Because of the biological and industrial properties, SeNPs have wide applications in the fields of medicine, microelectronic, agriculture and animal husbandry. SeNPs can show strong antimicrobial effects on the growth and proliferation of microorganisms in a dose-dependent manner. The objective of this review is to consider SeNPs applications to various organisms.

  6. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  7. Selenium and tellurium as carbon substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This review has summarized structure-activity studies with 75 Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in which the selenium or tellurium heteroatom has been inserted between carbon-carbon bonds. The agents that have been investigated in most detail include steroids for adrenal imaging and long-chain fatty acids, and a variety of other unique agents have also been studied. Because of the great versatility of the organic chemistry of selenium and tellurium, there is continuing interest in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 75 Se, 73 Se, and /sup 123m/Te. There are two important factors which will determine the extent of future interest in such agents. These include the necessity of a decrease in the cost of highly enriched 122 Te to make the reactor production of /sup 123m/Te cost effective. In addition, the potential preparation of large amounts of 73 Se should stimulate the development of 73 Se-labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  8. Biofortification and phytoremediation of selenium in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for humans and animals but at high concentrations, Se becomes toxic to organisms due to Se replacing sulfur in proteins. Selenium biofortification is an agricultural process that increases the accumulation of Se in crops, through plant breeding, genetic engineering, or use of Se fertilizers. While Se phytoremediation is a green biotechnology to clean up Se-contaminated environments, primarily through phytoextraction and phytovolatilization. By integrating Se phytoremediation and biofortification technologies, Se-enriched plant materials harvested from Se phytoremediation can be used as Se-enriched green manures or other supplementary sources of Se for producing Se-biofortified agricultural products. Earlier studies primarily aimed at enhancing efficacy of phytoremediation and biofortification of Se based on natural variation in progenitor or identification of unique plant species. In this review, we discuss promising approaches to improve biofortification and phytoremediation of Se using knowledge acquired from model crops. We also explored the feasibility of applying biotechnologies such as inoculation of microbial strains for improving the efficiency of biofortification and phytoremediation of Se. The key research and practical challenges that remain in improving biofortification and phytoremediation of Se have been highlighted, and the future development and uses of Se-biofortified agricultural products in China has also been discussed.

  9. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  10. Selenium Level and Dyslipidemia in Rural Elderly Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Su

    Full Text Available Higher selenium level has been hypothesized to have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases including dyslipidemia. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between selenium level and dyslipidemia in elderly Chinese with relatively low selenium status.A cross-sectional study of 1859 participants aged 65 or older from four rural counties in China was conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC, nail selenium concentration and APOE genotype were measured in all subjects. The four types of dyslipidemia were defined as >5.17 mmol/L for High-TC, >1.69 mmol/L for High-TG, >3.36 mmol/L for High-LDLC, and <1.04 mmol/L for Low-HDLC according to Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Logistic models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, medication use for cardiovascular diseases were used to examine the relationship between selenium levels and the risk of dyslipidemia.Mean nail selenium concentration was 0.465 μg/gin this sample. Rates for High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, Low-HDLC were 18.13%, 13.23%, 12.21% and 32.76% respectively. Results from logistic models indicated that higher selenium levels were significantly associated with higher risk of High-TC, High-LDLC and lower risk of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates (p < 0.0001. Compared with the lowest selenium quartile group, participants in selenium quartile groups 2, 3 and 4 had significantly higher rates of High-TC, High-LDLC, High-TG, and lower rate of Low-HDLC adjusting for covariates. No significant association was observed between selenium level and the risk of High-TG. APOEε4 carriers had higher rates of High-TC and High-LDLC. There was no interaction between selenium level and APOE with the rates of

  11. An Introduction to Testing Web Applications with twill and Selenium

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Titus; Huggins, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut is an introduction tobuilding automated web tests using twotools, twill and Selenium. twill is a simpleweb scripting language that can be usedto automate web tests, while Selenium isa web testing framework that runs in anybrowser and can be used to test complexweb sites that make extensive use ofJavaScript. The best way to use this Short Cut is torun through the examples. We expectthat within an hour you can start writingyour own functional tests in either twillor Selenium, and within a day you willunderstand most, if not all, of the possibilitiesand the limitations of these t

  12. Microgravimetric Studies of Selenium Electrodeposition Onto Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of selenium electrodeposition from sulfuric acid solution on different substrates was studied with the electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetry was combined with the quartz crystal microbalance technique to analyze selenium deposition process. The electrochemical reduction of selenous acid on gold, silver and copper electrodes was investigated. It was found that reduction of selenous acid is a very complex process and it strongly depends from the applied substrate. The voltammetric measurements indicate the range of potentials in which the process of reduction of selenous acids on the applied substrate is possible. Additionally, the microgravimetric data confirm the deposition of selenium and they reveal the mechanism of the deposition process.

  13. Synergistic Effects of SAM and Selenium Compounds on Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Licui; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Qiu; Si, Yang; Liu, Yiqun; Wang, Qin; Han, Feng; Huang, Zhenwu

    2017-08-01

    To determine the antitumor activities and molecular mechanism of selenium compounds in HeLa cells. Western blotting was used to detect ERK and AKT activation in HeLa cells induced by selenium compounds selenomethionine (SeMet), methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) and methylseleninic acids (MeSeA). Using MTT, wound-healing and Matrigel adhesion assays, the antitumor effects of SAM and selenium compounds were evaluated in HeLa cells. MeSeA inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways and suppressed the proliferation (pHeLa control), migration (pHeLa control) and adhesion (pHeLa control) of HeLa cells. MeSeCys and SeMet inhibited AKT signaling pathways and the migration (pHeLa control) and adhesion (pHeLa control) of HeLa cells. The synergistic action of MeSeA with SAM led to a statistically significant inhibition of proliferation, migration and adhesion of HeLa cells. MeSeA, MeSeCys and SeMet exert different antitumor activities by inhibiting ERK and AKT signaling pathways. The combination of MeSeA and SAM exhibited better antitumor effects compared to the other treatments. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings by the application of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, T.; Wang, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the role of selenium in cadmium toxicity was investigated in cucumber seedlings by hydroponic experiments. The application of Se for cucumber exposed to Cd significantly reduced Cd accumulation in all tissues, elevated Cd-depressed chlorophyll content, and improved photosynthetic performance. External Se significantly reduced ·OH, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content. Exogenous Se balanced Cd-depressed elements (e.g., Se enhanced Cd-induced decreases in root Zn, leaf/stem/root Mn concentrations) and carbohydrate contents. External Se also significantly decreased the Cd-induced increases in Na+K+-, Ca2+Mg2+- and total ATPase activities, which recovered almost to control level. Results indicate that application of Se can alleviate Cd toxicity in cucumber seedlings by reducing Cd uptake and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, moreover protecting photosynthetic machinery from damaging, balancing elements and carbohydrate contents, and improving ATPase activities in cucumber.

  15. Comparative effect of selenium and selenium tolerant microbes on brachiaria reptans l. growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Faisal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Brachiaria reptans L. is an annual grass. It is good fodder grass which is distributed in tropical Asia, Kenya, Pakistan and India and introduced throughout the tropics. In present study we determine the growth correlation among B. reptans, selenium (Se) and two Se tolerant bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis-YAP7 and Bacillus cereus-YAP6). Plants treated with Se showed a significant decrease in shoot length (33%) and fresh biomass (41%) compared to control. When plants were co-cultivated in the presence of bacteria or Se and bacteria both the shoot length increased (16-34%) significantly compared to control. B. reptans plants treated with Se have shown a significant decrease in peroxidase contents (59%) compared to control. However, bacterial inoculation of Se treated plants resulted in significant increase in peroxidase contents (113-171%). Selenium treatment caused increase in leaf soluble protein contents compared to control. In conclusion, bacteria can enhance B. reptans growth under Se stress. (author)

  16. Comparison of Selenium Toxicity in Sunflower and Maize Seedlings Grown in Hydroponic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Farzaneh; Veres, Szilvia; Kovács, Béla

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selenium (Se) at low concentrations is beneficial, whereas high Se concentrations can induce toxicity. Controlling Se uptake, metabolism, translocation and accumulation in plants is important to decrease potential health risks and helping to select proper biofortification methods to improve the nutritional content of plant-based foods. The uptake and distribution of Se, changes in Se content, and effects of various concentrations of Se in two forms (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) on sunflower and maize plants were measured in nutrient solution experiments. Results revealed the Se content in shoots and roots of both sunflower and maize plants significantly increased as the Se level increased. In this study, the highest exposure concentrations (30 and 90 mg/L, respectively) caused toxicity in both sunflower and maize. While both Se forms damaged and inhibited plant growth, each behaved differently, as toxicity due to selenite was observed more than in the selenate treatments. Sunflower demonstrated a high Se accumulation capacity, with higher translocation of selenate from roots to shoots compared with selenite. Since in seleniferous soils, a high change in plants' capability exists to uptake Se from these soils and also most of the cultivated crop plants have a bit tolerance to high Se levels, distinction of plants with different Se tolerance is important. This study has tried to discuss about it.

  17. Mechanisms of Selenium Enrichment and Measurement in Brassicaceous Vegetables, and Their Application to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Wiesner-Reinhold

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for human health. Se deficiency affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries, and there is increasing awareness that suboptimal supply of Se can also negatively affect human health. Selenium enters the diet primarily through the ingestion of plant and animal products. Although, plants are not dependent on Se they take it up from the soil through the sulphur (S uptake and assimilation pathways. Therefore, geographic differences in the availability of soil Se and agricultural practices have a profound influence on the Se content of many foods, and there are increasing efforts to biofortify crop plants with Se. Plants from the Brassicales are of particular interest as they accumulate and synthesize Se into forms with additional health benefits, such as methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys. The Brassicaceae are also well-known to produce the glucosinolates; S-containing compounds with demonstrated human health value. Furthermore, the recent discovery of the selenoglucosinolates in the Brassicaceae raises questions regarding their potential bioefficacy. In this review we focus on Se uptake and metabolism in the Brassicaceae in the context of human health, particularly cancer prevention and immunity. We investigate the close relationship between Se and S metabolism in this plant family, with particular emphasis on the selenoglucosinolates, and consider the methodologies available for identifying and quantifying further novel Se-containing compounds in plants. Finally, we summarize the research of multiple groups investigating biofortification of the Brassicaceae and discuss which approaches might be most successful for supplying Se deficient populations in the future.

  18. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the tissues of the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913), from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, and associated consumption risks.

  19. Mixed Surfactant Template Method for Preparation of Nanometer Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles have been synthesized in an aqueous solution by using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinyl alcohol as a soft template. The factors on synthesis, such as reaction time, concentration of reactants and ultrasonic irradiation were studied. The uniform stable selenium nanospheres were obstained in the conditions of 1.0 (mass fraction sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.0 (mass fraction polyvinyl alcohol, n(Vc:n(H2SeO3=7:1 and 7 minutes after the initiation of the reaction at room temperature. The average particle size of selenium is about 30 nm. The product was characterized by UV and TEM. Finally the applications of the red element nanometer selenium in anti-older cosmetics are presented.

  20. Geographical distribution of the selenium status of herbivores in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    : jvryssen@postino.up.ac.za. Introduction. The decision to provide selenium (Se) as a supplement to natural pastures for grazing livestock should be based on the anticipated response to supplementation at that specific locality. This requires.

  1. Male infertility: decreased levels of selenium, zinc and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Silver; Mändar, Reet; Mahlapuu, Riina; Viitak, Anu; Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the level of zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and antioxidant status in following populations of men: severe inflammation in prostate (>10(6) white blood cells in prostate secretion; n=29), severe leukocytospermia, (>10(6) white blood cells in semen; n=31), mild inflammation, (0.2-1M white blood cells in semen or prostate secretion; n=24), non-inflammatory oligozoospermia (n=32) and healthy controls (n=27). Male partners of infertile couples had reduced level of antioxidative activity, selenium and zinc in their seminal plasma. Most importantly, reduced selenium levels were evident in all patient groups regardless of inflammation status. Therefore, these patients might gain some benefit from selenium supplementation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Catalytic oxidant scavenging by selenium-containing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Luke; Pattison, David I; Fu, Shanlin

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase produces strong oxidants during the immune response to destroy invading pathogens. However, these oxidants can also cause tissue damage, which contributes to the development of numerous inflammatory diseases. Selenium containing compounds, including selenomethionine (SeMet) and 1,...

  3. Protective effect of selenium on radiation-induced HPRT mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Feiyue; Yang Suxia; Cao Zhenshan; Li Yu; Liu Guolian

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of HPRT in human embryo lung cells induced by γ-ray was analyzed by way of CB. Efficiency of HPRT mutation was gradually increased with increasing of γ-ray doses after-irradiation. The relationship between mutation efficiency and radiation dose showed linear relative. The efficiency of HPRT mutation in cells exposed to γ-ray and selenium was lower than that in cells exposed to γ-ray only. This indicated that selenium possessed protective effect on HPRT mutation induced by γ-ray. This protective effect of selenium was more efficient when the cells were exposed to lower dose of γ-ray than to higher dose. The character of protective effect of selenium is very significant in medical protection on people exposed to low dose of radiation

  4. Selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Novel selenium derivatives of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine are described. They preferably contain at least one 75 Se atom. The compounds are useful in dual isotope assays of thyroid function. (U.K.)

  5. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  6. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  7. Biomarkers of selenium status in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Gray, Kerry; Staunton, Ruth; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P J

    2016-01-19

    Inadequate dietary selenium (Se) intake in humans and animals can lead to long term health problems, such as cancer. In view of the owner's desire for healthy longevity of companion animals, the impact of dietary Se provision on long term health effects warrants investigation. Little is currently known regards biomarkers, and rate of change of such biomarkers in relation to dietary selenium intake in dogs. In this study, selected biomarkers were assessed for their suitability to detect changes in dietary Se in adult dogs within eight weeks. Twenty-four dogs were fed a semi-purified diet with an adequate amount of Se (46.1 μg/MJ) over an 8 week period. They were then divided into two groups. The first group remained on the adequate Se diet, the second were offered a semi-purified diet with a low Se concentration (6.5 μg/MJ; 31% of the FEDIAF minimum) for 8 weeks. Weekly urine and blood was collected and hair growth measurements were performed. The urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentration were significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from week 1 onwards, by 84% (adequate 25.3, low 4.1) and 7% (adequate 257 μg/L, low 238 μg/L) respectively. Serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase were also significantly lower in dogs consuming the low Se diet from weeks 6 and 8 respectively. None of the other biomarkers (mRNA expression and serum copper, creatine kinase, triiodothyronine:thyroxine ratio and hair growth) responded significantly to the low Se diet over the 8 week period. This study demonstrated that urinary Se to creatinine ratio, serum Se and serum and whole blood glutathione peroxidase can be used as biomarkers of selenium status in dogs. Urinary Se to creatinine ratio and serum Se concentrations responded faster to decreased dietary Se than the other parameters. This makes these biomarkers candidates for early screening of long term effects of dietary Se provision on canine health.

  8. Mercury and selenium levels, and selenium:mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A number of contaminants affect fish health, including mercury and selenium, and the selenium: mercury molar ratio. Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for consumption of saltwater fish. Yet the relative ameliorating effects of selenium on toxicity within fish have not been examined, nor has the molar ratio in different tissues, (i.e. brain). We examined mercury and selenium levels in brain, kidney, liver, red and white muscle, and skin and scales in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from New Jersey to determine whether there were toxic levels of either metal, and we computed the selenium: mercury molar ratios by tissues. Total mercury averaged 0.32 ± 0.02 ppm wet weight in edible muscle and 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm in brain. Selenium concentration averaged 0.37 ± 0.03 in muscle and 0.36 ± 0.03 ppm in brain. There were significant differences in levels of mercury, selenium, and selenium: mercury molar ratios, among tissues. Mercury and selenium levels were correlated in kidney and skin/scales. Mercury levels were highest in kidney, intermediate in muscle and liver, and lowest in brain and skin/scales; selenium levels were also highest in kidney, intermediate in liver, and were an order of magnitude lower in the white muscle and brain. Mercury levels in muscle, kidney and skin/scales were positively correlated with fish size (length). Selenium levels in muscle, kidney and liver were positively correlated with fish length, but in brain; selenium levels were negatively correlated with fish length. The selenium: mercury molar ratio was negatively correlated with fish length for white muscle, liver, kidney, and brain, particularly for fish over 50 cm in length, suggesting that older fish experience less protective advantages of selenium against mercury toxicity than smaller fish, and that consumers of bluefish similarly receive less advantage from eating larger fish. PMID:23202378

  9. Effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-six thousand one-day-old AA broilers were randomly assigned to two groups, 5 replicates in each group, and 9,600 chickens for each replicate. In the control group, 0.3 part per million (ppm) inorganic selenium (Na2SeO3) was added to the diets; while in the experimental group, 0.3 ppm organic selenium ...

  10. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Reynolds, Ray JB; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Lindblom, Stormy D; Quinn, Erin K; Bennett, Lindsay E; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth AH

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf pe...

  11. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  12. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid... of vitamin E (17 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid succinate.) (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510...

  13. Selenium in the Blackfoot, Salt, and Bear River Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nine stream sites in the Blackfoot River, Salt River, and Bear River watersheds in southeast Idaho, USA were sampled in May 2001 for water, surficial sediment, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Selenium was measured in these aquatic ecosystem components, and a hazard assessment was performed on the data. Water quality characteristics such as pH, hardness, and specific conductance were relatively uniform among the nine sites. Of the aquatic components assessed, water was the least contaminated with selenium because measured concentrations were below the national water quality criterion of 5 μ g/L at eight of the nine sites. In contrast, selenium was elevated in sediment, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish from several sites, suggesting deposition in sediments and food web cycling through plants and invertebrates. Selenium was elevated to concentrations of concern in fish at eight sites (> 4 μ g/g in whole body). A hazard assessment of selenium in the aquatic environment suggested a moderate hazard at upper Angus Creek (UAC) and Smoky Creek (SC), and high hazard at Little Blackfoot River (LiB), Blackfoot River gaging station (BGS), State Land Creek (SLC), upper (UGC) and lower Georgetown Creek (LGC), Deer Creek (DC), and Crow Creek (CC). The results of this study indicate that selenium concentrations from the phosphate mining area of southeast Idaho were sufficiently elevated in several ecosystem components to cause adverse effects to aquatic resources in southeastern Idaho.

  14. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Selenium concentrations of selected medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkutlu, Faruk; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Koca, Ufuk; Yazici, Gizem

    2011-10-01

    Recent scientific studies have proven the importance of trace elements on human health. The main food supplies are plants and animals, which are significant sources of these minerals. Studies on determining mineral compositions of herbs, spices and some other crops have increased all over the world. Published works revealed that spices, herbs and medicinal plants should be consumed to obtain beneficial trace elements. Selenium (Se), one of the most vital trace elements, has a significant role in human diet acting as a preventative agent against some serious illnesses. Despite numerous scientific works on mineral compositions of medicinal and aromatic plants, investigations of selenium content in these foods could not be successfully studied until recently due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for selenium analysis. Thus, publications on selenium concentrations of foods are recent. In this regard, selenium contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants commonly used as spices, herbal teas and traditional medicines in Turkey were studied in the present research. Selenium contents of the most used parts of these plants were analyzed by ICP-OES (Varian Vista-Pro, Australia). Of the analyzed 26 medicinal and aromatic plants, the highest Se concentration (1133 microg kg-1) was found in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and the lowest in sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (11 microg kg(-1)).

  16. Daily dietary selenium intake of selected Brazilian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Gonzaga, I.B.; Silva, V.L.; Cozzolino, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Due to its essential characteristics, the daily dietary selenium intake of individuals should be monitored accurately. Daily selenium intake of different Brazilian population groups based on duplicate portion diet analysis was evaluated and compared with the new estimated average requirement values (EAR), to assess if selenium deficiency or excess could be observed in these groups. Selenium content was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The average daily dietary selenium intake found was 26.3 (±8.3) μg/day for children from the city of Sao Paulo, 37.4 (±16.0) μg/day for children from Belem, 107 (±107) μg/day for children from Macapa, 28.4 (±7.5) μg/day for institutionalized elderly, 32 (±6) μg/day for non-institutionalized elderly and 37 (±17) μg/day for university students from Sao Paulo. Most daily dietary selenium intake range observed were below the EAR values. The values obtained for children groups from Belem and Macapa cities, whose intake levels were much higher than the recommendation, were an exception. (author)

  17. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  18. Aflatoxin B1Induced Systemic Toxicity in Poultry and Rescue Effects of Selenium and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Jameel; Peng, Xi; Kamboh, Asghar Ali; Zhou, Yi; Fang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Among many challenges, exposure to aflatoxins, particularly aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), is one of the major concerns in poultry industry. AFB 1 intoxication results in decreased meat/egg production, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, disturbance in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and reproduction, immune suppression, and increased disease susceptibility. Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), in dietary supplementation, offer easy, cost-effective, and efficient ways to neutralize the toxic effect of AFB 1 . In the current review, we discussed the impact of AFB 1 on poultry industry, its biotransformation, and organ-specific noxious effects, along with the action mechanism of AFB 1 -induced toxicity. Moreover, we explained the biological and detoxifying roles of Se and Zn in avian species as well as the protection mechanism of these two trace elements. Ultimately, we discussed the use of Se and Zn supplementation against AFB 1 -induced toxicity in poultry birds.

  19. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvicala, J.; Hrda, P.; Zamrazil, V.; Nemecek, J.; Hill, M.; Jiranek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is an essential component of selenoproteins, enzymes with extensive regulatory and protective effect in organism. Immunological effects of Se are documented and are distinct even above concentrations necessary for maximal activity of selenoenzymes. Therefore, we investigated effect of supplementation by 100 μg of yeast-bound Se on concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies TPOAb and TgAb in the group of 253 seniors living in the Asylum Houses of South Bohemia. Increase of serum selenium from 59 to 150 μg Se/L serum in supplemented group and from 59 to 72 μg Se/L serum in group with placebo were detected by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and proved increased Se intake during the trial. Autoantibodies were analyzed by ELISA at the beginning of the trial and after 1 year. Statistical evaluation of results in whole groups (regardless of increased autoantibodies) by ANOVA manifested significant decrease of TPOAb and TgAb in non-supplemented group while supplementation did not effect serum autoantibodies concentrations. Evaluation of groups of seniors created from those with increased autoantibodies, ANOVA demonstrated decrease of TPOAb in both groups but Se supplementation did not affect the decrease. In opposite, TgAb increased significantly and Se supplementation led to higher increase of TgAb. Recent results of possibility to decrease serum concentration of TPOAb proved this effect only for high TPOAb concentrations and for higher Se supplements. From this point of view, it is necessary to conduct subsequent trials with the patients with autoimmune thyreoiditis with different levels of autoantibodies and detect also serum Se levels. (author)

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  2. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  3. Selenium levels in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls in lower Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, I; Hartmann, T; Brustbauer, R; Minear, G; Dam, K

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases; genetic as well as environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per unit weight. Selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. We investigated a possible difference of selenium serum levels as a marker of nutritional selenium supply between patients with AIT in central Lower Austria and a matched group of healthy persons living in the same region. Selenium serum levels in the patients with AIT were 98.0 ± 15.6 μg/l. A significant difference to the matched group of normal persons, whose selenium serum levels were 103.2 ± 12.4 μg/l, could not be detected by the t-test (p>0.05). We considered the serum selenium levels to be indicators of selenium supply (by alimentation). A serum level of 120-160 μg/l of selenium represents the normal range. According to this, most patients and control persons showed mild to moderate selenium deficiency (80-120 μg/l selenium). Although our data present slightly higher selenium levels in normal persons than in patients with AIT, this weak and statistically insignificant trend is not sufficient to support the conclusion of a link between inadequate selenium supply and autoimmune thyroid disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1.

  5. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  6. Transformation of Selenium-Containing Phases in Copper Anode Slimes During Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue Jiao; Yang, Hong Ying; Jin, Zhe Nan; Chen, Guo Bao; Tong, Lin Lin

    2017-10-01

    The transformation of selenium-containing phases in copper anode slimes during the leaching process was investigated based on the Eh-pH diagram, leaching efficiencies of metals, and characterization of the residues produced during leaching. The leaching efficiency of selenium increases slowly to 17.7% in the first 50 min and then more rapidly to 98.3% in the next 110 min. The Eh-pH diagram indicates that elemental selenium is an intermediate product of the oxidation of selenide to selenite. The x-ray powder diffraction data and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy data demonstrate that selenium leaching can be divided into three stages. Ag-Cu selenide first transforms into silver selenide and then converts to elemental selenium. Finally, elemental selenium is dissolved as selenite. The intermediate product, elemental selenium, is the main reason for the slow initial leaching rate of selenium.

  7. Comparison of selenium bioaccumulation in the clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis: A bioenergetic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.-G.; Lee, J.-S.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Selenium uptake from food (assimilation efficiency) and dissolved phase (influx rate) as well as loss kinetics (efflux rate) were compared between two bivalves, Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. The effects of salinity and temperature on these kinetic parameters for both clam species also were evaluated. The Asiatic clam, C. fluminea, more efficiently assimilated Se associated with algae (66-87%) than Se associated with oxic sediments (20-37%). However, no consistent difference was found between Se assimilation efficiencies from both food types (19-60%) for P. amurensis. The temperature and salinity had a minor influence on the Se assimilation from ingested food. However, the effects of temperature and salinity were more evident in the uptake from dissolved sources. The influx rate of Se(IV) increased by threefold with the increase of temperature from 5 to 21??C for C. fluminea. The increase of salinity from 4 to 20 psu decreased the uptake rate constant (ku) of Se in P. amurensis from 0.011 to 0.005 L/g/h, whereas salinity change (0-8 psu) had a negligible effect on the Se influx rate of C. fluminea. The Se influx rate of P. amurensis decreased by half with the 3.5-fold increase in tissue dry weight. The rate constant of loss was greater for P. amurensis (0.029/d at 8 psu) than for C. fluminea (0.014/d at 0 psu and 0.01/d at 8 psu). A bioenergetic model suggests that dietary uptake is the dominant pathway for Se bioaccumulation in the two clams in San Francisco Bay and that interspecies differences in Se bioaccumulation can be explained by differences in food ingestion rates. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  8. Selenium redox biochemistry of zinc–sulfur coordination sites in proteins and enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Claus; Maret, Wolfgang; Vallee, Bert L.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium has been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine. Its biochemistry resembles that of sulfur, yet differs from it by virtue of both redox potentials and stabilities of its oxidation states. Selenium can substitute for the more ubiquitous sulfur of cysteine and as such plays an important role in more than a dozen selenoproteins. We have chosen to examine zinc–sulfur centers as possible targets of selenium redox biochemistry. Selenium compounds release zi...

  9. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of selenium in bovine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, Sonia E.; Resnizky, Sara M.; Gil, Susana B.; Pawlak, Eva

    1999-01-01

    The procedure used to determine selenium in bovine plasma by neutron irradiation of the samples, followed by a radiochemical separation, is described. This procedure allows the direct determination of the value of the selenium plasmatic level, instead of the indirect conventional method that determines the blood glutathion peroxidase enzyme, as an indicator of the selenium content in the blood. (author)

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... of any allergies you may have or other problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  2. Nanosized Selenium: A Novel Platform Technology to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    As an important category of bacterial infections, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are considered an increasing threat to the safety and health of patients worldwide. HAIs lead to extended hospital stays, contribute to increased medical costs, and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, infections encountered in the hospital or a health care facility affect more than 1.7 million patients, cost 35.7 billion to 45 billion, and contribute to 88,000 deaths in hospitals annually. The most conventional and widely accepted method to fight against bacterial infections is using antibiotics. However, because of the widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics, many strains of bacteria have rapidly developed antibiotic resistance. Those new, stronger bacteria pose serious, worldwide threats to public health and welfare. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported antibiotic resistance as a global serious threat that is no longer a prediction for the future but is now reality. It has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The most effective strategy to prevent antibiotic resistance is minimizing the use of antibiotics. In recent years, nanomaterials have been investigated as one of the potential substitutes of antibiotics. As a result of their vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume, nanomaterials will likely exert a stronger interaction with bacteria which may affect bacterial growth and propagation. A major concern of most existing antibacterial nanomaterials, like silver nanoparticles, is their potential toxicity. But selenium is a non-metallic material and a required nutrition for the human body, which is recommended by the FDA at a 53 to 60 μg daily intake. Nanosized selenium is considered to be healthier and less toxic compared with many metal-based nanomaterials due to the generation of reactive oxygen species from metals, especially heavy metals. Therefore, the objectives of

  3. Serum selenium and zinc levels in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Young; Shim, Hongjin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jae Gil

    2014-04-01

    The authors designed this study to determine how serum selenium and zinc affect the outcomes of critically ill surgical patients. The medical records of 162 patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) from October 2010 to July 2012 and managed for more than 3 days were retrospectively investigated. Overall, the mean patient age was 61.2 ± 15.0 years, and the median ICU stay was 5 (3-115) days. The mean Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18.0 ± 8.0. Eighteen (11.1%) of the study subjects died in ICU. mean selenium levels were 83.5 ± 23.8 ng/dL in the survivor group and 83.3 ± 29.6 ng/dL in the nonsurvivor group, and corresponding mean zinc levels were 46.3 ± 21.7 and 65.6 ± 41.6 μg/dL, respectively. Mean selenium concentrations were significantly different in patients with and without shock (77.9 ± 25.4 and 87.2 ± 23.1 ng/dL, P = .017). Furthermore, mean serum selenium was lower in patients with sepsis than in traumatic or simply postoperative patients (P selenium and zinc levels on critically ill surgical patients, a large-scale prospective study is needed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF SELENIUM IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential microelement, sometimes redoubtable, through its beneficial role - risk depending on its concentration in the food chain, at low dose is an important nutrient in the life of humans and animals, contrary at high doses, it becomes toxic. Selenium may be find itself in the environment (soil, sediment, water in many forms (oxidized, reduced, organometallic which determine their mobility and toxicity. Determination of chemical speciation (identification of different chemical forms provides much more complete information for a better understanding of the behavior and the potential impact on the environment. In this work we present the results of methodological research on the extraction of sequential forms of selenium in the soil and the coupling of analytical methods capable of identifying very small amounts of selenium in soils An efficient scheme of sequential extractions forms of selenium (SES consisting in atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation (HGAAS has been developed into five experimental steps, detailed in the paper. This operational scheme has been applied to the analysis of chemical speciation in the following areas: the Bărăgan Plain and Central Dobrogea of Romania.

  5. [Plasma selenium and peripartum cardiomyopathy in Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénac, A; Touré, K; Diarra, M B; Sergeant, C; Jobic, Y; Sanogo, K; Dembele, M; Fayol, V; Simonoff, M

    2004-01-01

    Peripartum heart failure due to unexplained dilated cardiomyopathy is a common disorder as Savannak-Sahelian Africa. One of the many suspected risk factors identified is selenium deficiency. The purpose of this study was to measure plasma selenium levels in patients with peripartum heart failure due to cardiomyopathy in Bamako, Republic of Mali and compare data with healthy Sahalian women with the same obstetrical status. Plasma selenium was measured in a patient group consisting of 28 Malian women presenting peripartum heart failure and in a control group of 28 healthy breast-feeding Nigerien women of comparable age. The criteria for matching the two groups was parity (similar number of deliveries) since multiparity is a risk factor for peripartum cardiomyopathy. The Wilcoxon test (nonparametric) was used to compare the 2 groups considering up value < 0.05 as significant. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients from Mali than in controls from Niger (65 +/- 17 ng/ml vs. 78 +/- 17 ng/ml, p = 0.01). The results of this study showing lower plasma selenium in Bamako patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy than in a matching healthy control population confirms the previous data from the Niamey study.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein B expression: Regulation by selenium status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Mohinder P

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein B (apoB contains ligand-binding domain for the binding of LDL to LDL-R site, which enables the removal of LDL from circulation. Our recent data showed that selenium (Se is involved in the lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to understand the effect of Se deficiency (0.02 ppm and selenium supplementation (1 ppm on apoB expression in liver during hypercholesterolemia in male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were fed with control and high cholesterol diet (2% for 1 and 2 months. ApoB levels by ELISA and protein expression by western blot was done. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R activity (in vivo and mRNA expression by RT-PCR was monitored. Results In selenium deficiency and on high cholesterol diet (HCD feeding apoB levels increased and LDL-R expression decreased significantly after 2 months. On 1 ppm selenium supplementation apoB expression significantly decreased and LDL-R expression increased after 2 months. But after one month of treatment there was no significant change observed in apoB and LDL-R expression. Conclusion So the present study demonstrates that Se deficiency leads to up regulation of apoB expression during experimental hypercholesterolemia. Selenium supplementation upto 1 ppm leads to downregulation of apoB expression. Further, this study will highlight the nutritional value of Se supplementation in lipid metabolism.

  7. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  8. Plant selenium hyperaccumulation- Ecological effects and potential implications for selenium cycling and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Jason B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2018-04-25

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation occurs in ~50 plant taxa native to seleniferous soils in Western USA. Hyperaccumulator tissue Se levels, 1000-15,000 mg/kg dry weight, are typically 100 times higher than surrounding vegetation. Relative to other species, hyperaccumulators also transform Se more into organic forms. We review abiotic and biotic factors influencing soil Se distribution and bioavailability, soil being the source of the Se in hyperaccumulators. Next, we summarize the fate of Se in plants, particularly hyperaccumulators. We then extensively review the impact of plant Se accumulation on ecological interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of Se hyperaccumulators on local community composition and Se cycling. Selenium (hyper)accumulation offers ecological advantages: protection from herbivores and pathogens and competitive advantage over other plants. The extreme Se levels in and around hyperaccumulators create a toxic environment for Se-sensitive ecological partners, while offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through these dual effects, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition in their local environment, as well as Se cycling. The implied effects of Se hyperaccumulation on community assembly and local Se cycling warrant further investigations into the contribution of hyperaccumulators and general terrestrial vegetation to global Se cycling and may serve as a case study for how trace elements influence ecological processes. Furthermore, understanding ecological implications of plant Se accumulation are vital for safe implementation of biofortification and phytoremediation, technologies increasingly implemented to battle Se deficiency and toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Removal of colloidal biogenic selenium from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Lucian C; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A; Ackerson, Christopher J; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic selenium, Se(0), has colloidal properties and thus poses solid-liquid separation problems, such as poor settling and membrane fouling. The separation of Se(0) from the bulk liquid was assessed by centrifugation, filtration, and coagulation-flocculation. Se(0) particles produced by an anaerobic granular sludge are normally distributed, ranging from 50 nm to 250 nm, with an average size of 166±29 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.18. Due to its nanosize range and protein coating-associated negative zeta potential (-15 mV to -23 mV) between pH 2 and 12, biogenic Se(0) exhibits colloidal properties, hampering its removal from suspension. Centrifugation at different centrifugal speeds achieved 22±3% (1500 rpm), 73±2% (3000 rpm) and 91±2% (4500 rpm) removal. Separation by filtration through 0.45 μm filters resulted in 87±1% Se(0) removal. Ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were used as coagulants in coagulation-flocculation experiments. Aluminum sulfate achieved the highest turbidity removal (92±2%) at a dose of 10(-3) M, whereas ferric chloride achieved a maximum turbidity removal efficiency of only 43±4% at 2.7×10(-4) M. Charge repression plays a minor role in particle neutralization. The sediment volume resulting from Al2(SO3)4 treatment is three times larger than that produced by FeCl3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size......The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... (Jurkat E6-1) were incubated with five selenium compounds representing inorganic as well as organic Se compounds in different oxidation states. Selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), methylseleninic acid (MeSeA), selenite and selenate in the concentration range 5-100 mu M were...

  11. Chemopreventive functional food through selenium biofortification of cauliflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oancea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a biotechnological approach for production of cauliflower as safe functional food, with an optimal content of chemopreventive compounds, by a protective biofortification, through selenium application together with betaine and spraying adjuvants. In the control and treated cauliflower plants we determined the amount of total selenium, glucosinolates (sulforaphane and SAH (S-Adenosyl-homocysteine. We also assayed the chemopreventive effects of compounds formed in the treated cruciferous plants through in vitro tests, using human colorectal tumor cell line (CaCo2. Extracts of plants treated with selenium applied together with betaine and spraying adjuvant were significantly more active on reduction of tumoral cell viability than the extract of control plants. Cauliflower plants, obtained after our treatments for protective biofortification, were used to feed rabbits, for 10 days. The ingestion of biofortified cauliflower did not modify the hematological and biochemical parameters on the laboratory animals.

  12. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  13. [Studies on the hydroxyl free radical-scavenging effect of combined selenium and germanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Chen, X; Yang, K; Xia, T

    2001-07-01

    The effect of selenium, carboxyethyl-germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) and the combination of selenium and Ge-132 on the production of hydroxyl free radical in liver microsomes of rats treated with Fe2SO4-NADPH system was studied with electron spin resonance technique (ESR). The results showed that the production of hydroxyl free radical was decreased significantly by adding selenium, Ge-132 and combined selenium and Ge-132, indicating a direct scavenging effect on hydroxyl free radical. It was also observed a enhanced scavenging effect at the low concentration of combined selenium and Ge-132.

  14. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    /week for 26 weeks (similar to 50 mu g selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid......Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake...... on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels...

  15. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by lens of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkova, J.; Ostadalova, I.; Babicky, A.; Obenberger, J.

    1988-01-01

    The uptake was observed of 75 Se-selenite by the lens in Wistar strain rats in adult animals, in 17-day old rats kept with their mothers and in prematurely weaned rats. Also measured was the excretion of 75 Se by the lens of young and adult rats following incubation in the medium with radioselenium. The metabolites were analysed which were discharged by the lens containing 75 Se. In Brattleboro rats the uptake of 75 Se-selenite was also measured by the lens in young and adult rats. The uptake of 75 Se-selenite by the lens in young Wistar rats was found to be 1.6 times higher than by the lens of adult rats and the time course of the radioselenium uptake was slightly different. In the lens of prematurely weaned rats no significant difference was found in the uptake of radioselenium after 4 hours as compared with rats of the same age kept with their mothers. In homozygous Brattleboro rats, a higher uptake of 75 Se-selenite was found as compared with both young and adult heterozygous rats. The time course and the quantity of 75 Se efflux from the lens of young and adult Wistar rats differed significantly after 0.5 hour of pre-incubation. From metabolites containing 75 Se excreted by the lens following preincubation, glutathione selenotrisulfide and a not yet accurately determined fraction with a large share of radioactivity were isolated. The stated results provide yet more proof that selenium cataract is a manifestation of the ontogenic dependence of selenium metabolism in the lens and in the entire organism. (author). 4 tabs., 30 refs

  16. Reduction of selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohan; Matassa, Silvio; Singh, Satyendra; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Total selenium removal by the activated sludge process, where selenite is reduced to colloidal elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) that remain entrapped in the activated sludge flocs, was studied. Total selenium removal efficiencies with glucose as electron donor (2.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) at neutral pH and 30 °C gave 2.9 and 6.8 times higher removal efficiencies as compared to the electron donors lactate and acetate, respectively. Total selenium removal efficiencies of 79 (±3) and 86 (±1) % were achieved in shake flasks and fed batch reactors, respectively, at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations above 4.0 mg L(-1) and 30 °C when fed with 172 mg L(-1) (1 mM) Na2SeO3 and 2.0 g L(-1) COD of glucose. Continuously operated reactors operating at neutral pH, 30 °C and a DO >3 mg L(-1) removed 33.98 and 36.65 mg of total selenium per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) at TSS concentrations of 1.3 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. However, selenite toxicity to the activated sludge led to failure of a continuously operating activated sludge reactor at the applied loading rates. This suggests that a higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) or different reactor configurations need to be applied for selenium-removing activated sludge processes. Graphical Abstract Scheme representing the possible mechanisms of selenite reduction at high and low DO levels in the activated sludge process.

  17. A study using neutron activation analysis of the short-term changes in the selenium content of blood components in human following supplementation with low doses of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.; Sleet, R.

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the short-term changes in the concentration of selenium in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes following supplementation with low doses of four different selenium supplements. Fourteen volunteers took one of the supplements each day with breakfast or a period of six weeks. Two blood samples were taken each week during this time and selenium was determined on its components using neutron activation analysis via the 77m Se isotope. (author) 17 refs.; 6 figs

  18. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the selenium-binding and reducing site in Arabidopsis thaliana homologue to mammals selenium-binding protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Florie; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Palencia, Andrés; Cobessi, David; Sarret, Géraldine; Zubieta, Chloé; Jourdain, Agnès; Dumas, Renaud; Forge, Vincent; Testemale, Denis; Bourguignon, Jacques; Hugouvieux, Véronique

    2014-11-14

    The function of selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1), present in almost all organisms, has not yet been established. In mammals, SBP1 is known to bind the essential element selenium but the binding site has not been identified. In addition, the SBP family has numerous potential metal-binding sites that may play a role in detoxification pathways in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSBP1 over-expression increases tolerance to two toxic compounds for plants, selenium and cadmium, often found as soil pollutants. For a better understanding of AtSBP1 function in detoxification mechanisms, we investigated the chelating properties of the protein toward different ligands with a focus on selenium using biochemical and biophysical techniques. Thermal shift assays together with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that AtSBP1 binds selenium after incubation with selenite (SeO3(2-)) with a ligand to protein molar ratio of 1:1. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirmed the 1:1 stoichiometry and revealed an unexpectedly large value of binding enthalpy suggesting a covalent bond between selenium and AtSBP1. Titration of reduced Cys residues and comparative mass spectrometry on AtSBP1 and the purified selenium-AtSBP1 complex identified Cys(21) and Cys(22) as being responsible for the binding of one selenium. These results were validated by site-directed mutagenesis. Selenium K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy performed on the selenium-AtSBP1 complex demonstrated that AtSBP1 reduced SeO3(2-) to form a R-S-Se(II)-S-R-type complex. The capacity of AtSBP1 to bind different metals and selenium is discussed with respect to the potential function of AtSBP1 in detoxification mechanisms and selenium metabolism. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The necessity of selenium substitution in total parenteral nutrition and artificial alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramm, H J; Kopf, A; Brätter, P

    1995-03-01

    For the trace element selenium, in contrast to zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and iodine, there is still no clear official recommendation with regard to routine substitution in artificial nutrition. An overview of the manifestations of selenium deficiency in humans during the period 1979-1995 shows that nutritive deficiencies are exclusively TPN-induced or the result of severe malnutrition. The pathology of TPN-induced selenium deficiency and the analytic assessment of selenium status are described. Patients undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition or suffering from an increased loss of intestinal secretions have to be characterized as being especially at risk for clinical selenium deficiency. The relationship of the serum selenium kinetics in pediatric and adult patients to the depletion of body compartments during the course of short-term and prolonged TPN is discussed. Because of the importance of the selenoproteins, the regularly occurring depletion during selenium-free TPN and the borderline supply of selenium in Germany the routine substitution of selenium in TPN is strongly recommended. The pharmaceutical industry should be encouraged to develop a trace element solution that includes selenium, so that the nutritive requirement of patients on TPN can be satisfied. Adequate intravenous dosage recommendations are based on maintenance of glutathione peroxidase homeostasis. The routine supplementation dosage may not meet the selenium requirements of intensive care patients under conditions of increased metabolic demands on their anti-oxidative system.

  20. Selenium and Its Supplementation in Cardiovascular Disease—What do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, Carina; Goetzenich, Andreas; Kraemer, Sandra; Borosch, Sebastian; Manzanares, William; Hardy, Gil; Stoppe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The trace element selenium is of high importance for many of the body’s regulatory and metabolic functions. Balanced selenium levels are essential, whereas dysregulation can cause harm. A rapidly increasing number of studies characterizes the wide range of selenium dependent functions in the human body and elucidates the complex and multiple physiological and pathophysiological interactions of selenium and selenoproteins. For the majority of selenium dependent enzymes, several biological functions have already been identified, like regulation of the inflammatory response, antioxidant properties and the proliferation/differentiation of immune cells. Although the potential role of selenium in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has been investigated for decades, both observational and interventional studies of selenium supplementation remain inconclusive and are considered in this review. This review covers current knowledge of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the human body and its functional role in the cardiovascular system. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia/infarction and reperfusion injury are reviewed. We describe, in depth, selenium as a biomarker in coronary heart disease and highlight the significance of selenium supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:25923656

  1. Muonic X-ray intensities in phosphorus- and selenium modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, K.; Robert-Tissot, B.; Schaller, L.A.; Schellenberg, L.; Schneuwly, H.

    1979-01-01

    Muonic X-ray intensity measurements have been performed at SIN on allotropic modifications of phosphorus (white, red and black) and of selenium (red and black). Structure effects have been found in the intensity ratios of the K-series between amorphous and crystalline modifications of the same element. The effect in the higher series (Se) is less pronounced. On the other hand, the two crystalline phosphorus modifications (red and black) show the same intensity behavior. The root-mean-square radii 2 >sup(1/2) of phosphorus and (natural) selenium were found to be 3.187(3) fm and 4.138(1) fm respectively. (Auth.)

  2. Blood selenium content determination by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of some elements in small amounts (traces) in the human body is of foremost importance for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. It has been recently shown that traces of selenium in blood are closely related to the occurrence of miotonic distrophy, a muscular disease that is affecting a significant percentage of the population. This work describes a simple procedure to determine selenium in human blood serum by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Final quantification is achieved through the addition of titanium as an internal standard. (Author) [es

  3. Theoretical predictions of arsenic and selenium species under atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan-Pendergast, M.T.; Przybylek, M.; Lindblad, M.; Wilcox, J. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Thermochemical properties of arsenic and selenium species thought to be released into the atmosphere during the coal combustion were examined using ab initio methods. At various levels of theory, calculated geometries and vibrational frequencies of the species were compared with experimental data, where available. Through a comparison of equilibrium constants for a series of gaseous arsenic and selenium oxidation reactions involving OH and HO{sub 2}, five thermodynamically favored reactions were found. In addition, it was determined that all favored reactions were more likely to go to completion tinder tropospheric, rather than stratospheric, conditions.

  4. Effect of irradiation on sod activity and selenium content in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weimin; Zheng Anjian; Yan Jianmin; Cao Qingsui; Wu Haihong; Cao Shifeng

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation at 0.1 kGy, 1.0 kGy on SOD activity and the content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium in garlic (Allium sativum L.) stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment with 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy significantly slowed the reduction of SOD activities in garlic stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C, while the treatment irradiation had no influence on the content of all kinds of selenium. But the garlic stored at 25 degree C had higher content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium than that in garlic stored at 10 degree C. (authors)

  5. Novel elvitegravir nanoformulation approach to suppress the viral load in HIV-infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Gong

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: PLGA-based EVG nanoformulation increased the intracellular uptake of EVG, as well as enhanced viral suppression in HIV-infected macrophages, suggesting its potential for improved HIV treatment in monocytic cells.

  6. DIETARY SELENIUM AND COPPER INTAKE BY RESIDENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... ability to accept and donate electrons explains its important role in the oxidation - reduction and in the .... deficiency include premature babies, individuals with malabsorption syndrome including celiac disease, ... decreasing oxidation stress in HIV infested cells and possibly suppressing the rate of HIV ...

  7. Selenium species determination in selenium-enriched pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds by HPLC-UV-HG-AFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrkolj, Polona; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Kreft, Ivan; Kapolna, Emese

    2005-12-01

    Pumpkins were treated by spraying the leaves in the flowering period with a water solution containing 1.5 mg Se per liter in the form of Na2SeO4. The average total selenium content of seeds was found to be 0.19 microg g(-1) in nontreated pumpkins and 1.1 microg g(-1) in exposed ones. For speciation analysis, enzymatic hydrolysis with different amounts of Protease XIV was carried out. Under optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis, 90% of the total selenium was found in soluble forms. Separation of species was performed using HPLC on anion and cation exchange columns and for detection UVHG-AFS was applied. In enzymatic hydrolysis extracts, the main fraction of selenium was bound as selenomethionine (SeMet), representing on average of 81 +/- 8% of the total Se content in the sample.

  8. Dietary intake of selenium and serum selenium in patients with chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Juan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyse dietary intake of selenium and serum selenium levels in patients with different types of chronic liver diseases, and to explore the relationship between selenium and severity of liver diseases. Methods Seventy-four patients admitted to Beijing YouAn Hospital from August 2008 to October 2014, as well as 16 healthy persons as healthy control (HC group, were recruited in this study. Based on liver disease types, these patients were divided into chronic hepatitis (CH group (n=23, liver cirrhosis (LC group (n=27, and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF group (n=24. Dietary intake of selenium was calculated on admission by dietary assessment software, and serum selenium levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Comparison of continuous data between groups was made by one-way ANOVA; comparison of categorical data between groups was made by χ2 test; the correlation between variables was determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Results The dietary selenium intake in the HC group was 4545±18.10 μg. Compared with the HC group, the CH group, LC group, and ACLF group had insufficient dietary intake of selenium (37.69±11.30 μg, 32.65±13.55 μg, and 28.95±13.30 μg, respectively. Dietary selenium intake gradually decreased with the progression of liver disease. Compared with the HC group, the LC group and ACLF group had significantly lower dietary selenium intake (P=0.004 and 0.000, respectively. Serum selenium in the HC group was 0.17±0.04 μg/ml. Compared with the HC group, the CH group, LC group, and ACLF group had significantly lower serum selenium levels (0.12±0.05 μg/ml, P=0.007; 0.11±0.06 μg/ml, P=0.000; 0.13±0.05 μg/ml, P=0.015. Serum selenium in the LC group was reduced most among these groups. Furthermore, serum selenium was significantly associated with prealbumin level, white blood cell count, and platelet count (r=0.229, P=0.030; r=0.213, P=0.044; r=0.255, P=0

  9. Selenium speciation profiles in biofortified sangiovese wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Maria Chiara; D'Amato, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Proietti, Primo; Beone, Gian Maria; Businelli, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Biofortification is an agronomic-based strategy, utilized by farmers, to produce selenium (Se)-enriched food products that may help reduce dietary deficiencies of Se occurring throughout susceptible regions of the world. The foliar exposure route application ensures a high efficiency of Se assimilation by the plant since it does not depend on root-to-shoot translocation. In this study we treated grapevines of Sangiovese variety in the pre-flowering period with sodium selenate (100mg Se L -1 ). Se content was measured in leaves, fruit at harvest time and in wine respectively in treated and not treated samples with ICP-MS. At harvest, a higher amount of Se in the treated leaves compared to untreated ones was found, 16.0±3.1mgkg -1 dry weight (dw) against 0.17±0.006mgkg -1 dw in the untreated ones. The treated grapes had a content of Se of 0.800±0.08mgkg -1 dw, while that untreated one 0.065±0.025mgkg -1 dw. Immediately after the malolactic fermentation, the wine obtained from treated and untreated vines had a Se content of 0.620±0.09mg Se L -1 and 0.024±0.010mg Se L -1 respectively. In our case the percentage of inorganic Se is 26% of the total Se in the untreated wine, while in Se enriched wine this percentage increase to 47.5% of the total Se. The Se(VI) was the inorganic chemical form more present in enriched wine, probably due to foliar application with selenate. Distributions of Se species suggested being careful to the choice of the enrichment solutions to promote a balanced distribution of different chemical forms, perhaps favouring the accumulation of organic forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more

  11. Vitamin C, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Broccoli Florets Grown under Different Nitrogen Treatments Combined with Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñas Elena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli consumption is rising worldwide and fertilization is a tool to increase its production. However, little is known about the effect of mineral supplementation to the soil on the bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to analyze the content of vitamin C, total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of broccoli florets cultivated under different nitrogen (N conditions in combination with selenium (IV and VI. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in broccoli grown in commercial soil treated with different N sources [(NH42SO4, NaNO3, NH4NO3 or CO(NH22 at 160 kg N/ha]. In addition, selenium (Se salts [Na2SeO3 (Se IV or Na2SeO4 (Se VI at 10 and 20 kg Se/ha] were applied. There were no evidences of the influence of N treatment on vitamin C content whilst Se (IV or VI uptake led to a significant reduction of this vitamin in broccoli florets, irrespective of the N source. In contrast, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity underwent a significant increment under N application. However, their combination with Se salts modified total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities in broccoli florets depending on N source and Se doses. Among all the experimental trials, application of NH4NO3 combined with 10 g Se (IV/ha was the elective treatment strategy to produce broccoli florets with higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity and, therefore, enhanced functionality.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  15. Dietary selenium and copper intake by resident undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary selenium and copper intake by resident undergraduate students of the University of Ghana. ... Conclusion: Due to the importance of these micronutrients and in the face of poor nutritional status, as judged by the few that met the required RDAs as well as excess, there is a need to carry out blood analyses to ...

  16. Bioavailability of cobalt, zinc and selenium and anthelmintic effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to compare the use of liver and plasma analysis as methods of assessing the status of cobalt, zinc and selenium in sheep, and to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of fortified and non-fortified albendazole preparations. Plasma and liver samples were collected in duplicate from fourteen ...

  17. Serum Levels of Selenium, Zinc, Copper and Magnesium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Free radicals have harmful effects on cells and tissues and are thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of many diseases including bronchial asthma. Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) are trace elements required for the antioxidant enzymes and hence the optimal functions of ...

  18. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  19. Effects Of Dietary Supplementation Of Vitamin E And Selenium On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se) on total white blood cells, mononucleated cells, polymorphonucleated cells and packed cell volume of Trypanosoma congolense-infected rats (Rattus rattus). Ninety adult R. rattus of pure breed of ...

  20. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  1. Addition of Selenium to Carica papaya Linn Pulp Extract Enhances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water extracts of unripe Carica papaya. papaya were analyzed for mineral element composition (Ca, calcium; Mg, magnesium; Na, sodium; Fe, iron; Mn, manganese; Zn, zinc; Ag, silver; and Se, selenium) using a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Atomic absorption ...

  2. Biogeochemistry of selenium isotopes: processes, cycling and paleoenvironmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, which, with multiple oxidation states and six stable isotopes, has been suggested as a potentially powerful environmental tracer and paleoenvironmental proxy. Chapter 1 provides a literature review of the Se cycle. While the Se cycle shares some

  3. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc as well as blood selenium were determined in single and twin lambs and their dams for a period of 120 days from the birth of the lambs, using Merino, Dohne Merino and SA Mutton Merino sheep. The ewes and their lambs were kept on the same pastures and received the same ...

  4. Zinc and Selenium levels in Motor Mechanics, Paints Sprayers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This work was designed to determine zinc and Selenium levels in Motor Mechanics, Paints Sprayers, Smokers, Lubricant Workers and BatteryWorkers exposed to lead in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria. Subjects and methods: 100 exposed subjects were used for the study. The subjects were aged 25-30 years.

  5. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in which up to 1 billion people worldwide are deficient, causing a range of health disorders and potentially an increased risk of certain cancers. Consequently, there is much interest in Se biofortification of rice, the staple food for...

  6. Selenium and mercury interactions wtih emphasis on fish tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses the effects of mercury (Hg) in fish as it relates to the health of the fish themselves as well as potential risks of toxicity in wildlife and humans that consume fish. In particular, it addresses selenium (Se) as a bioindicator of susceptibility to harmful e...

  7. Selenium-containing enzymes in mammals: Chemical perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    thione peroxidases.5,6,29–32 Many books and reviews available in the literature describe various biological functions of selenium, including nutritional impor- ...... of cancer and represents an attractive target for further pharmacological examination. In recent years, the biological screening has led to the identification of a.

  8. Selenium-containing enzymes in mammals: Chemical perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemical and biochemical route to the synthesis of the 21st amino acid in living systems, selenocysteine, is described. The incorporation of this rare amino acid residue into proteins is described with emphasis on the role of monoselenophosphate as selenium source. The role of selenocysteine moiety in natural ...

  9. Dyslipidemia, altered erythrocyte fatty acids and selenium are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects and erythrocytes separated for the determination of fatty acids. Plasma lipids, selenium and vitamin E levels were also measured. There were no differences in BMI, weight and height among the three groups except for systolic BP that was lower in VD (148.3±41.8mmHg) ...

  10. 2. Serum Selenium levels in Essential hypertension among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases . Selenium a co-factor of antioxidant enzyme is found incorporated in some antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. (GPx). Antioxidant enzymes are crucial in prevention of oxidative stress ...

  11. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  12. Chemoenzymatic approaches to obtain chiral-centered selenium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Guilmoto, Nathalie M. A. F.; Dudek, Hanna M.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral-centered selenium compounds is presented. Enantioselective oxidations of these organoselenium compounds were performed using a wide range of biocatalysts, including Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, oxidoreductases-containing Aspergillus terreus and lipase (Cal-B) in the

  13. Selenium affects biosilica formation in the demosponge Suberites domuncula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, W.E.G.; Borejko, A.; Brandt, D.; Osinga, R.; Ushijima, H.; Hamer, B.; Krasko, A.; Xupeng, C.; Mueller, I.M.; Schroeder, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Selenium is a trace element found in freshwater and the marine environment. We show that it plays a major role in spicule formation in the demosponge Suberites domuncula. If added to primmorphs, an in vitro sponge cell culture system, it stimulates the formation of siliceous spicules. Using

  14. Ameliorative effects of selenium and vitamin e supplementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on some haematological parameters and red blood cell osmotic fragility in Wistar rats subjected to water immersion restraint stress (WRS) (n= 35). Male Wistar rats, weighing 200-220 g were divided in to five groups of ...

  15. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  16. The influence of zinc and selenium on some biochemical responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of zinc and selenium on some biochemical responses (lipid peroxidation, ascorbate, glutathione, growth rate, mineral content, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) of cowpea and maize seedlings to water deficit condition and rehydration were investigated. Plants seedlings were exposed to water ...

  17. Selenium and the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium was discovered by Berzelius in 1817, and the essentiality of Se was demonstrated that trace amounts of Se protected against liver necrosis in vitamin E deficient rats in the mid-1950s. The benefits of Se are many including protection against cancer, heart diseases, muscle disorders, immunit...

  18. Synthesis of selenium nanorods with assistance of biomolecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nanorods of one-dimensional (1D) trigonal selenium (t-Se) are synthesized using biomolecule substances for five different aging times (1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 1 day and 4 days) by precipitation method. XRD analysis indicates a shift of the (1 0 1) plane towards higher diffraction angle for 1 day aging time. It is observed that ...

  19. Selenium Characterization In The Global Rice Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by u...

  20. Selenium speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to understand selenium (Se) speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils. Top soil samples were taken from 42 grassland fields and 41 arable land fields in the Netherlands. Total Se contents measured in aqua regia were between 0.12 and 1.97mgkg-1(on average

  1. 6. THE ROLE OF SELENIUM IN HUMAN IMMUNITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    that selenium has a role in immune function. Immune dysfunction, susceptibility to viral infections and increased mortality are some of the outcomes associated .... In another experimental system, Listeria monocytogenes was administered to mice orally to assess the effect of Se. 17 on innate immunity. Mice were infected ...

  2. Synthesis of selenium nanorods with assistance of biomolecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FTIR analysis confirmed that the presence of stretching and bending vibrations of Se–O in both synthesized and commercial selenium samples at 465, 668 and 1118 cm-1. The FESEM micrographs are evident for the changes of rod size as a function of aging time. It is observed that the optical band gap energy is increased ...

  3. Selenium oxyanion inhibition of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Janzen, N.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of selenite and selenate towards hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis were evaluated in anaerobic toxicity assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of both selenium oxyanions was below 6.1 X 10(-5) M in hydrogenotrophic assays, whereas acetoclastic methanogens

  4. Do selenium and glutathione inhibit the toxic effects of mercury in marine lamellibranchs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Chandy, J P; Patel, S

    1988-10-15

    The effect of selenium (SeO2) and glutathione (GSH) on the bioaccumulation of mercury (HgCl2) and on the activities of lysosomal enzymes in four species of tropical estuarine lamellibranchs is reported. A definite correlation between mercury levels in the external medium and tissue uptake and physiological behaviour--opening and closing of shell valves, response to mechanical stimulus, mucus secretion, and incidence of bleeding--was evident. In the clams exposed to Hg (range 0.1-5.0 mg l-1), bioaccumulation was dependent on the ambient concentration of Hg. The highest bioaccumulation of Hg occurred during the initial 24 h exposure period. Further exposure of up to 7 days did not increase the body burden of Hg. Of the four bivalve species exposed to 0.1 mg Hg l-1, Perna viridis showed the highest levels of Hg (approximately 47 ppm) followed by Anadara granosa, A. rhombea (approximately 25 ppm) and Meretrix casta (approximately 9 ppm). The uptake of Hg by A. granosa was greatly reduced by GSH, whereas Se enhanced it by 50% when administered in combination with Hg. However, the presence of Hg did not influence the uptake of Se. Exposure to combined GSH and Hg resulted in almost complete inhibition of Hg uptake in all four bivalve species. Prior exposure to GSH, however, did not have the same influence on their uptake of Hg. Nevertheless, exposure of clams to GSH following initial exposure to Hg resulted in complete depuration of accumulated Hg. The activities of lysosomal enzymes--arylsulfatase, acid phosphatase, beta-galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase--varied considerably. Treatment with Hg and GSH, separately and in combination, significantly enhanced the levels of beta-galactosidase (P less than 0.05) and beta-glucuronidase (P less than 0.001) in the digestive gland after 96 h exposure. Although Se increased beta-glucuronidase activity (P less than 0.001), it had no effect on beta-galactosidase. On exposure to Hg + Se the activity of both enzymes decreased

  5. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01

    In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with

  6. Glucose oxidation positively regulates glucose uptake and improves cardiac function recovery after myocardial reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Jie; Qin, Xinghua; Hou, Zuoxu; Guo, Yongzheng; Liu, Zhenhua; Wu, Jianjiang; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Xing; Gao, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Myocardial reperfusion decreases glucose oxidation and uncouples glucose oxidation from glycolysis. Therapies that increase glucose oxidation lessen myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the regulation of glucose uptake during reperfusion remains poorly understood. We found that glucose uptake was remarkably diminished in the myocardium following reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats as detected by 18 F-labeled and fluorescent-labeled glucose analogs, even though GLUT1 was upregulated by threefold and GLUT4 translocation remained unchanged compared with those of sham-treated rats. The decreased glucose uptake was accompanied by suppressed glucose oxidation. Interestingly, stimulating glucose oxidation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), a rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation, increased glucose uptake and alleviated I/R injury. In vitro data in neonatal myocytes showed that PDK4 overexpression decreased glucose uptake, whereas its knockdown increased glucose uptake, suggesting that PDK4 has a role in regulating glucose uptake. Moreover, inhibition of PDK4 increased myocardial glucose uptake with concomitant enhancement of cardiac insulin sensitivity following myocardial I/R. These results showed that the suppressed glucose oxidation mediated by PDK4 contributes to the reduced glucose uptake in the myocardium following reperfusion, and enhancement of glucose uptake exerts cardioprotection. The findings suggest that stimulating glucose oxidation via PDK4 could be an efficient approach to improve recovery from myocardial I/R injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Distribution and accumulation of selenium in wild plants growing naturally in the Gumuskoy (Kutahya) mining area, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmaz, Merve; Akgül, Bunyamin; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated selenium uptake and transport from the soil to 12 plant species in the mining area of Gumuskoy (Kutahya), Turkey. Plant samples and their associated soils were collected and analyzed for Se content by ICP-MS. Mean Se values in the soils, roots, and shoots of all plants were 0.9, 0.6, and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean enrichment coefficients for roots (ECR) and shoots (ECS) of these plants were 0.78 and 0.97. The mean translocation factors (TLF) were 1.33. These values indicate that all 12 plant species had the ability to transfer Se from the roots to the shoot, but that transfer was more efficient in plants with higher ECR and ECS. Therefore, these plants may be useful in phytoremediation in rehabilitating areas contaminated by Se because their ECR, ECS and TLFs are >1.

  8. Effect of selenium on the lipids of two unicellular marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennity, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of selenium into the lipids of two unicellar marine algae has been investigated. Axenic cultures of the green algae Dunaliella primolecta and the red algae Porphyridium cruentum were grown in the presence of sublethal quantities of selenium (10 ppm) as selenite. Both algae were found to contain selenium bound to all purified lipids, except for saturated hydrocarbons. Of the lipids which contain selenium, carotenoid pigments show the greatest selenium concentration (..beta..-carotene: 1.3..mu..gSe/mg lipid; zeaxanthin: 1.1..mu..gSe/mg lipid) in both algae. P. cruentum contains about ten times as much lipid-associated selenium as D. primolecta, even though the lipids of both algae were very similar. This selenium has been shown to be incorporated non-metabolically into the lipid molecule. The lipid-associated selenium is probably non-covalently bound to the lipid molecule and may interact with double bonds. Selenite does not affect the lipid composition of D. primolecta, as compared with algae grown in the absence of added selenium. A selenium-induced 40% decrease in the cell content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and 20% decrease in arachidonic acid (20:4omega6) in polar lipids (glycolipids plus phospholipids) was observed in P. cruentum. A 25% decrease in the chlorophyll a content of this red algae also occurred. The cell content of other fatty acids, phospholipids and glycolipids was unaltered by selenium. These results are consistent with a selenite-induced oxidation of P. cruentum lipids. Selenium is able to increase the antioxidant potential of algal cells. However, no in vivo selenium-induced protection of algal lipids from oxidation was apparent.

  9. Influence of blood serum selenium on udder health in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selenium concentration in early lactation on mammary gland health and histological characteristics of the udder. The experiment included 30 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Selenium concentrations in blood and milk serum, and the average somatic cell count in the first and sixth months of lactation were analyzed. After exclusion of the experimental cows from the herd, histological characteristics of the udder were examined (the degree of leukocyte infiltration and the number of granulomas in the parenchyma. The mean selenium concentration in the blood serum was 0.62±0.11 mmol/L and that in the milk serum was 0.12±0.07 mmol/L. Optimal blood levels of selenium were found in 19 cows and suboptimal levels in 11 cows. A significant negative correlation was observed between blood and milk selenium concentrations and somatic cell count in early and mid lactation. There was no relationship between blood selenium concentration, milk selenium concentration and the amount of milk produced. Selenium-deficient cows had a significantly higher milk somatic cell count in early and mid lactation and significantly lower levels of selenium in milk. Upon histological analysis, 120 samples of individual quarters of the udder were grouped according to the degree of leukocyte infiltration and number of granulomas. Results showed that an increase in the degree of leukocyte infiltration and number of granulomas leads to an increase in the proportion of quarters from selenium-deficient cows and a decline in the percentage of quarters from cows exhibiting normal blood selenium concentrations. Selenium has a significant impact on udder health. Changes caused by selenium deficiency occur due to marked inflammation process in the mammary gland.

  10. Binding and Conversion of Selenium in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeasts in Bioreactor Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kieliszek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is considered an essential component of all living organisms. The use of yeasts as a selenium supplement in human nutrition has gained much interest over the last decade. The accumulation and biochemical transformation of selenium in yeast cells is particularly interesting to many researchers. In this article, we present the results of the determination of selenium and selenomethionine content in the biomass of feed yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 obtained from the culture grown in a bioreactor. The results indicated that C. utilis cells performed the biotransformation of inorganic selenium(IV to organic derivatives (e.g., selenomethionine. Selenium introduced (20–30 mg Se4+∙L−1 to the experimental media in the form of sodium(IV selenite (Na2SeO3 salt caused a significant increase in selenium content in the biomass of C. utilis,irrespective of the concentration. The highest amount of selenium (1841 μg∙gd.w.−1 was obtained after a 48-h culture in media containing 30 mg Se4+∙L−1. The highest content of selenomethionine (238.8 μg∙gd.w.−1 was found after 48-h culture from the experimental medium that was supplemented with selenium at a concentration of 20 mg Se4+∙L−1. Biomass cell in the cultures supplemented with selenium ranged from 1.5 to 14.1 g∙L−1. The results of this study indicate that yeast cell biomass of C. utilis enriched mainly with the organic forms of selenium can be a valuable source of protein. It creates the possibility of obtaining selenium biocomplexes that can be used in the production of protein-selenium dietary supplements for animals and humans

  11. Features of selenium metabolism in humans living under the conditions of North European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshukova, Olga; Potolitsyna, Natalya; Shadrina, Vera; Chernykh, Aleksei; Bojko, Evgeny

    2014-08-01

    Selenium supplementation and its effects on Northerners have been little studied. The aim of our study was to assess the selenium levels of the inhabitants of North European Russia, the seasonal aspects of selenium supplementation, and the interrelationships between selenium levels and the levels of thyroid gland hormones. To study the particular features of selenium metabolism in Northerners over the course of 1 year, 19 healthy male Caucasian volunteers (18-21 years old) were recruited for the present study. The subjects were military guards in a Northern European region of Russia (Syktyvkar, Russia, 62°N latitude) who spent 6-10-h outdoors daily. The study was conducted over a 12-month period. Selenium levels, glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity, as well as total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, were determined in the blood serum. The study subjects showed low levels of plasma selenium throughout the year. We observed a noticeable decrease in plasma selenium levels during the period from May to August, with the lowest levels in July. Selenium levels in the military guards correlated with the levels of selenium-dependent GP enzyme activity throughout the year. Additionally, we demonstrated a significant correlation between selenium and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (total T3, free T4, and TSH) in periods in which plasma selenium levels were lower than the established normal ranges. Over the course of 1 year, low levels of plasma selenium affect GP activity and thyroid hormone levels in humans living in North European Russia.

  12. Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; De Marco, Griselda; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Carmen Tormos, M; Martin-Nuñez, Gracia M; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Saez, Guillermo T; Martín-Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Javier Chaves, F

    2014-09-01

    The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 μg/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  14. Selenium speciation in different organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) enriched through a selenium-enriched garlic based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Murillo, S.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Jakubowski, N.; Madrid, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Speciation of Se in fish is needed to elucidate the metabolism of this element in living organisms in the marine environment. In this paper, selenium concentration and its species distribution in several organs and tissues (liver, gills, kidney, muscle and gastrointestinal tract) of African catfish

  15. Radiopharmaceutical cellular uptake mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Cipriana; Rusu, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cellular radiopharmaceutical specificity depends mainly of the uptake mechanisms. Usually, this can be one of the classical membrane transport type (a passive or active transport, a receptor mediated one or a combination of them). It can also be an electrochemical gradient dependent membrane transport in relation with Nernst equation, as in case of 99m Tc MIBI, the representative molecule of a widely studied family tracers, with applications in cardiac and oncological scintigraphy. Another mechanism can be an ATP dependent active transport, that results in the most important 201 Tl inflow. 201 Tl inflow is also an example of multiple mechanisms involved in cellular ionic inflow. Over 30% of 201 Tl transport imply other ways, like Na + - K + - Cl - co-transport. For a given tracer, the mechanism may depend also on the cell type. In conclusion, knowledge of the radiotracer uptake mechanisms allows finding the 'ideal' radiotracer with high specificity for the tissue to be visualized. (authors)

  16. Effects on the accumulation of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc of adding the two inorganic forms of selenium to solution cultures of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchamp, M; Angeli, N; Castrec-Rouelle, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of selenate or selenite to common fertilizers for crop production could be an effective way of producing selenium-rich food and feed. However, this would be feasible only if the increase in plant selenium (Se) content did not negatively influence the uptake of other essential elements. We therefore need to understand the interactions between Se and other major and trace elements during uptake by the plant. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of inorganic forms of Se on the accumulation of selected macronutrients (Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu). Those essential elements are involved in the oxidative balance of cells. Zea mays seedlings were grown hydroponically in growth chambers in nutrient solutions to which we added 10, 50 or 1000 μg.L(-1) of selenate and/or selenite. Cation accumulation was significantly affected by the addition of 50 μg.L(-1) or 1000 μg.L(-1) Se, but not by the presence of 10 μg.L(-1) of Se in the nutrient solution. The highest concentration (1000 μg.L(-1)) of Se in the nutrient solution affected the accumulation of essential cations in Zea mays: selenate tended to increase the accumulation of Mg, Zn and Mn, whereas a selenate/selenite mixture tended to decrease the accumulation of Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn. Only Fe accumulation was unaffected by Se whatever its form or concentration. Selenium may also affect the distribution of cations on Zea mays. For example, levels of Mg and Zn translocation to the shoots were lower in the presence of selenite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of wet digestion procedure of blood and tissue for selenium determination by means of 75Se tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.; Lipinska-Kalita, K.

    1977-01-01

    Selenium-75 tracer has been used for optimization of analytical procedure of selenium determination in blood and tissue. Wet digestion procedure and reduction of selenium to its elemental form with tellurium as coprecipitant have been tested. It is seen that the use of a mixture of perchloric and sulphuric acid with sodium molybdenate for the wet digestion of organic matter followed by the reduction of selenium to its elementary form by a mixture of stannous chloride and hydroxylamine hydrochloride results in very good recovery of selenium. Recovery of selenium obtained with the use of optimized analytical procedure amounts to 95% and precision is equal to 4.2%. (T.I.)

  18. Effect of Zeolite, Selenium and Silicon on Yield, Yield Components and Some Physiological Traits of Canola under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bybordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola can be cultivated in large areas of the country due to its specific characteristics such as suitable composition of the fatty acids, its germination ability under low temperature, as well as its good compatibility with different climates. Canola is a high demanding crop in terms of fertilizers so that it uptakes considerable amount of nutrients from the soil during the growing season. Canola cultivation in poor soils or application of imbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen, can reduce qualitaty and quantity of final yield. On the other hand, salinity is known as one of the major limiting factors in canola production. Therefore, the aim of this study is the application of zeolite, selenium and silicon treatments to amend soil and increasing salinity tolerance in canola. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of soil applied zeolite and foliar application of selenium and silicon on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of canola grown under salinity stress, a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center in East Azerbaijan during 2011-2013 cropping seasons. Zeolite was applied at three levels (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and foliar selenium and silicon were applied at three levels as well (each one zero, 2 and 4 g l-1. For this purpose, seedbed was prepared using plow and disk and then plot were designed. Canola seeds, cultivar Okapi, were sown in sandy loam soil with 4 dS.m-1 salinity at the depth of 2-3 cm. Irrigation was performed using local well based on 60% field capacity using the closed irrigation system. Potassium selentae and potassium silicate were used for selenium and silicon treatments. Treatments at rosette and stem elongation stages were sprayed on plants using a calibrated pressurized backpack sprayer. At flowering stage, photosynthesis rate was recorded. Then leaf samples were randomly collected to assay

  19. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...... to increase the risk for development of multiple nodules (P=0.087).Conclusions: Low serum selenium concentration was associated with a larger thyroid volume and a higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement....

  1. Nutritional deficiency of selenium secondary to weight loss (bariatric) surgery associated with life-threatening cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldery, Rachel; Fielding, George; Rafter, Tony; Pascoe, Andrew L; Scalia, Gregory M

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of vitamins and minerals have been associated with reversible and irreversible cardiomyopathic processes. Selenium deficient dilated cardiomyopathy, first described in 1935 in the Keshan Province of China, was sometimes reversed with selenium supplementation. In the past three decades, selenium deficient cardiomyopathy has re-emerged in western medicine secondary to gastrointestinal disorders, long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and gastrointestinal surgery. This report describes a case of selenium deficient cardiomyopathy secondary to the bariatric (weight loss) surgical operation bilio-pancreatic diversion (Scopinaro procedure). This patient presented with life-threatening heart failure nine months after this surgery, having lost 100 kg of body weight. Multiple nutritional deficiencies were detected and corrected including severely depleted selenium levels. Cardiac function and the clinical scenario improved dramatically over three weeks. Screening patients at risk of malnourishment for selenium deficiency as a potential cause of cardiomyopathy is indicated.

  2. Potential reproduction and response of selenium and zinc mineral supplementation on quality of goat samosir semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswoyo, P.; Tafsin, M.; Handarini, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of suppllementattion of selenium and zinc on semen quality and growth of samosir goat. The experimental design used latin square design (4x4). The treatment supplementation mineral on multi nutrient block (MNB) composed of without sipplementation (p0), +10ppm selenium (p1), +10ppm zinc (p2), +10ppm selenium and +10ppm zinc (p3). The result showed that supplementation mineral selenium and zinc increased significantly (pselenium and zinc influenced motility, viability, volume concentration, and responding hypo osmotic swelling (HOS). Combination supplementation selenium and zinc significanly had higher semen quality than ither treatment. It is concluded that supplementation selenium and zinc improve growth and semen quality of samosir goat.

  3. New scientific challenges - the possibilities of using selenium in poultry nutrition and impact on meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, R.; Glišić, M.; Bošković, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress is one of many concerns facing modern broiler production. In conditions when birds are exposed to stress, supplementation of selenium, which is a crucial glutathione peroxidase enzymatic cofactor, increases the antioxidant capacity of the animals and decreases the harmful effects of free radicals. Dietary selenium improves production performance and health of animals, and positively affects the immune system, the quality, selenium content and fatty acid composition of meat and eggs. There are several different forms of selenium, the most common dietary supplements being an inorganic form (sodium selenite) and anorganic form (selenomethionine). However, in recent years, new forms of selenium, such as a 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) and nanoselenium, which have more bioavailability, bioefficacy, and low toxicity have been designed. In this short comparative overview discusses the effects of inorganic, organic and nanoforms of selenium on production results, glutathione peroxidase activity, meat quality and level of toxicity in poultry.

  4. Current Knowledge on the Importance of Selenium in Food for Living Organisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kieliszek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is one of the elements classified within the group of micronutrients which are necessary in trace amounts for the proper functioning of organisms. Selenium participates in the protection of cells against excess H2O2, in heavy metal detoxification, and regulation of the immune and reproductive systems as well. It also ensures the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Selenium induces the occurrence of the selenoprotein synthesis process involved in the antioxidant defense mechanism of the organism. Recent years have brought much success in the studies on selenium. Anticarcinogenic properties of selenium against some cancers have been reported. Supplementation is increasingly becoming a solution to this problem. A large number of different supplementation methods are promoting studies in this area. Slight differences in the selenium content can result in excess or deficiency, therefore supplementation has to be done carefully and cautiously.

  5. Redox-Active Selenium Compounds—From Toxicity and Cell Death to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Misra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is generally known as an antioxidant due to its presence in selenoproteins as selenocysteine, but it is also toxic. The toxic effects of selenium are, however, strictly concentration and chemical species dependent. One class of selenium compounds is a potent inhibitor of cell growth with remarkable tumor specificity. These redox active compounds are pro-oxidative and highly cytotoxic to tumor cells and are promising candidates to be used in chemotherapy against cancer. Herein we elaborate upon the major forms of dietary selenium compounds, their metabolic pathways, and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant potentials with emphasis on cytotoxic mechanisms. Relative cytotoxicity of inorganic selenite and organic selenocystine compounds to different cancer cells are presented as evidence to our perspective. Furthermore, new novel classes of selenium compounds specifically designed to target tumor cells are presented and the potential of selenium in modern oncology is extensively discussed.

  6. Evaluation of Selenium Content of Plant Samples Collected from Indigenous Sources for Se-supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.; Sosan, A.; Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/ and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 mu g selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications. (author)

  7. Current Knowledge on the Importance of Selenium in Food for Living Organisms: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2016-05-10

    Selenium is one of the elements classified within the group of micronutrients which are necessary in trace amounts for the proper functioning of organisms. Selenium participates in the protection of cells against excess H₂O₂, in heavy metal detoxification, and regulation of the immune and reproductive systems as well. It also ensures the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Selenium induces the occurrence of the selenoprotein synthesis process involved in the antioxidant defense mechanism of the organism. Recent years have brought much success in the studies on selenium. Anticarcinogenic properties of selenium against some cancers have been reported. Supplementation is increasingly becoming a solution to this problem. A large number of different supplementation methods are promoting studies in this area. Slight differences in the selenium content can result in excess or deficiency, therefore supplementation has to be done carefully and cautiously.

  8. Comparative effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenium status in camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency is widely described in livestock from the Arabian Peninsula, notably in the camel, and selenium supplementation is based on cattle or horse requirements, usually with sodium selenite product. In order to test the effect of organic Se supplementation vs inorganic Se, 24 pregnant camels were subjected to 3 treatment groups starting one month before delivery (control without Se, non-organic bolus, organic Se. Blood, milk and feces samples were collected from one month before delivery to 3 months of lactation. At delivery, the organic group had a significant higher Se concentration (P < 0.01 in serum (8.21 ± 1.38 μg/100 mL and in colostrum (7.27 ± 2.89 μg/100 mL than in inorganic group (3.90 ± 0.68 and 3.72 ± 0.71, respectively and than in control group (5.45 ± 2.38 and 2.70 ± 0.66, respectively. In calf serum, the Se concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the two supplemented groups (6.32 ± 2.81 and 5.99 ± 3.31 μg/100 mL in organic and inorganic groups, respectively than in control (3.42 ± 1.41 μg/100 mL. The Se in mother serum decreased after parturition but was highly correlated to Se serum in calf and to Se fecal excretion. Se in milk was lower than in colostrum in all groups (P < 0.01. Treatments had no significant effect on somatic cell count. This study revealed that organic supplementation in camel appeared more efficient.

  9. Active oxygen generation as a possible mechanism of selenium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Y; Imura, N

    1997-09-01

    Selenium plays an important role in scavenging active oxygen (AO) species as an essential constituent of glutathione peroxidase. On the other hand, several reports proposed a possible induction of toxic AO by selenium compounds in vitro. However, some of these experiments including ours, were revealed to conclude on the basis of experimental artifacts, and to have problems in the interpretation of data. Methods or principles so far used for the detection of AO species generated by selenium compound were measurement of chemiluminescence from lucigenin or luminol by AO species, the spectrophotometric analysis of reduction of ferricytochrome c or nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) by superoxide anion (O2-), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra using dimethylpyrroline oxide (DMPO) as a spin trapping agent, the deoxyribose decomposition by hydroxyl radical (HO.), the salicylate hydroxylation by HO., and the strand breakage of DNA by AO. Many of these methods together with their principles seem to have some defects which prevent clear conclusion as stated below. (i) Lucigenin was found to mediate the formation of O2- in the presence of selenite and reduced glutathione (GSH). Therefore, lucigenin is not a suitable reagent. (ii) Luminol may also mediate O2- generation in the presence of HO.. (iii) ferricytochrome c can be reduced to ferrocytochrome c in the mixture of selenite and GSH in the absence of oxygen. Moreover, the spectrophotometric method is interfered by turbidity of elemental selenium formed under some conditions in the reaction mixture containing selenite and GSH. (iv) NBT is also reduced by selenium compounds in the absence of O2. (v) ESR signals of AO species were obtained in the reaction mixture containing selenite and GSH, or in the solution of hydrogen selenide in the presence of O2. However, selenide decomposed spin adduct of DMPO with HO. (DMPO-OH). Therefore, the intensity of the signals is not quantitative. (vi) CuZn-SOD is not necessarily a good tool to

  10. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by excimer pulsed laser ablation in water

    OpenAIRE

    O. Van Overschelde; G. Guisbiers; R. Snyders

    2013-01-01

    Pure selenium nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Liquid Phase - Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA) in de-ionized water. Excimer laser (248 nm) operating at low fluence (F ∼ 1 J/cm2) was used to generate colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles. The obtained selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We describe the multi-modal size distributions generated and use the cen...

  11. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia C.R. Santos; Gabriela Ungureanu; Rui Boaventura; Cidália Botelho

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastew...

  12. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Lutz

    2011-10-18

    The trace element selenium is an essential micronutrient that is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Most of the known selenoproteins are expressed in the thyroid gland, including some with still unknown functions. Among the well-characterized selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, enzymes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism, regulation of redox state and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium content in selenium-sensitive tissues such as the liver, kidney or muscle and expression of nonessential selenoproteins, such as the glutathione peroxidases GPx1 and GPx3, is controlled by nutritional supply. The thyroid gland is, however, largely independent from dietary selenium intake and thyroid selenoproteins are preferentially expressed. As a consequence, no explicit effects on thyroid hormone profiles are observed in healthy individuals undergoing selenium supplementation. However, low selenium status correlates with risk of goiter and multiple nodules in European women. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that selenium-deficient patients with autoimmune thyroid disease benefit from selenium supplementation, although the data are conflicting and many parameters must still be defined. The baseline selenium status of an individual could constitute the most important parameter modifying the outcome of selenium supplementation, which might primarily disrupt self-amplifying cycles of the endocrine-immune system interface rectifying the interaction of lymphocytes with thyroid autoantigens. Selenium deficiency is likely to constitute a risk factor for a feedforward derangement of the immune system-thyroid interaction, while selenium supplementation appears to dampen the self-amplifying nature of this derailed interaction.

  13. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  14. Topographical Distribution of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in the Normal Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Agersnap; Pakkenberg, H.; Damsgaard, Else

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of arsenic, manganese and selenium per gram wet tissue weight were determined in samples from 24 areas of normal human brains from 5 persons with ages ranging from 15 to 81 years of age. The concentrations of the 3 elements were determined for each sample by means of neutron......% for selenium. The results seem to indicate that arsenic is associated with the lipid phase, manganese with the dry matter and selenium with the aqueous phase of brain tissue....

  15. Effect of Selenium Enrichment on the Growth, Photosynthesis and Mineral Nutrition of Broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef GHASEMI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is placed in primary selenium (Se accumulator group plants, which is considered as an important source of Se for providing human daily need. This experiment used an outdoor hydroponic system to evaluate the effects of Se foliar application at the rates of 0, 10, 50, and 100 μg Se/ml concentrations fortnightly. Among yield parameters, the head weight of broccoli was significantly affected. Se treated broccoli plants produced heavier head than the control; however, head weight among three Se concentrations (Se10, Se50, Se100 was not significantly different. Although most of the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not significant, Se treated broccolis maximal fluorescence yield (Fm was higher than the control. Significant increase in chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll was observed as a result of Se treatments. Different Se concentrations did not have positive or negative effects on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. Se treatment at 100 μg Se/ml concentration however, contributed to the highest content of sulfur in broccoli head. Se content of broccoli head increased with the increase in sprayed Se concentrations. The highest concentration of Se (1.41 mg Se/kg dry matter in broccoli head was recorded in Se100, which showed significant difference compared with Se0 and Se10.

  16. Selenium Cycling Across Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Interfaces: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny H.E. Winkel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential element for humans and animals, which occurs ubiquitously in the environment. It is present in trace amounts in both organic and inorganic forms in marine and freshwater systems, soils, biomass and in the atmosphere. Low Se levels in certain terrestrial environments have resulted in Se deficiency in humans, while elevated Se levels in waters and soils can be toxic and result in the death of aquatic wildlife and other animals. Human dietary Se intake is largely governed by Se concentrations in plants, which are controlled by root uptake of Se as a function of soil Se concentrations, speciation and bioavailability. In addition, plants and microorganisms can biomethylate Se, which can result in a loss of Se to the atmosphere. The mobilization of Se across soil-plant-atmosphere interfaces is thus of crucial importance for human Se status. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on Se cycling with a specific focus on soil-plant-atmosphere interfaces. Sources, speciation and mobility of Se in soils and plants will be discussed as well as Se hyperaccumulation by plants, biofortification and biomethylation. Future research on Se cycling in the environment is essential to minimize the adverse health effects associated with unsafe environmental Se levels.

  17. The fascinating facets of plant selenium accumulation - biochemistry, physiology, evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1582 I. 1582 II. 1583 III. 1588 IV. 1590 V. 1592 1592 References 1592 SUMMARY: The importance of selenium (Se) for medicine, industry and the environment is increasingly apparent. Se is essential for many species, including humans, but toxic at elevated concentrations. Plant Se accumulation and volatilization may be applied in crop biofortification and phytoremediation. Topics covered here include beneficial and toxic effects of Se on plants, mechanisms of Se accumulation and tolerance in plants and algae, Se hyperaccumulation, and ecological and evolutionary aspects of these processes. Plant species differ in the concentration and forms of Se accumulated, Se partitioning at the whole-plant and tissue levels, and the capacity to distinguish Se from sulfur. Mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation and its adaptive significance appear to involve constitutive up-regulation of sulfate/selenate uptake and assimilation, associated with elevated concentrations of defense-related hormones. Hyperaccumulation has evolved independently in at least three plant families, probably as an elemental defense mechanism and perhaps mediating elemental allelopathy. Elevated plant Se protects plants from generalist herbivores and pathogens, but also gives rise to the evolution of Se-resistant specialists. Plant Se accumulation affects ecological interactions with herbivores, pollinators, neighboring plants, and microbes. Hyperaccumulation tends to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while facilitating Se-resistant partners, potentially affecting species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from <65.76 to 625.91 μg kg - 1 , with highest Se concentrations being observed in soil samples from the state of Amazonas. Se accumulation in Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of selenocompounds from selenium-enriched culture of edible sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes-Collado, Virginia; Morell-Garcia, Albert; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2013-12-15

    Selenium is recognised as an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. One of the main sources of selenocompounds in the human diet is vegetables. Therefore, this study deals with the Se species present in different edible sprouts grown in Se-enriched media. We grew alfalfa, lentil and soy in a hydroponic system amended with soluble salts, containing the same proportion of Se, in the form of Se(VI) and Se(IV). Total Se in the sprouts was determined by acidic digestion in a microwave system and by ICP/MS. Se speciation was carried out by enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV) and measured by LC-ICP/MS. The study shows that the Se content of plants depends on the content in the growth culture, and that part of the inorganic Se was biotransformed mainly into SeMet. These results contribute to our understanding of the uptake of inorganic Se and its biotransformation by edible plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  1. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON PIG PRODUCTION PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND MEAT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šperanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of

  2. Examination of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λexcitation = 380 nm, λemission = 519 nm of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level. The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23.

  3. Selenium homeostasis and induction of thioredoxin reductase during long term selenite supplementation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkhembayar, Suvd; Mollbrink, Annelie; Eriksson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    selenium levels was also seen, and the induction of TrxR1 mRNA was seen only during the first three days of treatment, when the levels of selenium in the liver were increasing. Sodium selenite at 1 and 5μg/mL did not affect body weight or relative liver mass. We concluded that long-term treatment...... with selenite did not cause accumulation of selenium and that the activity of TrxR1 in the liver rose with the selenium levels. We therefore suggest that sodium selenite at doses up to 5μg/mL could be used for long-term tumour prevention....

  4. A STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELENIUM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN LAMPUNG, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutakin; Rivai, Ida F; Setiawan, Andi; Abdulah, Rizky; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Nakazawa, Minato; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Selenium deficient areas have been associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in some countries. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cardiovascular disease prevalence and selenium concentration in paddy soil and rice grains, the main staple food in Lampung, Indonesia. Paddy soil and rice samples (n(s) = 35) from eight regencies (n(d) = 8) in Lampung were analyzed for selenium content. The prevalences of heart disease, stroke, and hypertension in those regencies were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Indonesia. The Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to examine the data distribution. The Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlation between cardiovascular disease prevalence and selenium concentration in the paddy soil and rice grains. Heart disease prevalence was negatively correlated with the selenium concentration in the paddy soil (r = -0.77, p = 0.02) and rice grain (r = -0.71, p = 0.05). A negative correlation was seen for stroke prevalence and selenium concentration in paddy soil (r = -0.76, p = 0.02). Hypertension prevalence was negatively correlated with the selenium concentration in the rice grains (r = -0.83, p = 0.01). These findings suggest that the selenium concentration in paddy soil and rice grains in the Lampung area may play a role in the fact the area has the lowest cardiovascular disease prevalence in Indonesia. Keywords: selenium, cardiovascular diseases, paddy soil, rice grain, Indonesia

  5. Direct solution-phase synthesis of Se submicrotubes using Se powder as selenium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Wang Haitao; Zhang Yuping; Li Shuchun; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    The selenium submicrotubes were directly prepared using Se powder as selenium source by microwave-assisted method. Field-emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to characterize the as-prepared products. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and XRD pattern proved that the selenium submicrotubes were single crystalline in nature and [0 0 1] oriented. A possible growth mechanism of the selenium submicrotubes was proposed. The effects of the experimental conditions, such as alkaline concentration and solvent properties, on the morphology and dimension of the products have also been discussed

  6. Selenium in the central nervous system of the rat after exposure to L-selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1990-01-01

    ~ek and Thorlacius-Ussing 1988). Earlier studies have correlated this selenium accumulation in the anterior pituitary to endocrine dysfunction in selenium-intoxicated animals (Jensen 1975; Glover et al. 1979). Recent results from our laboratory have demonstrated a substantial decrease in growth hormone secretion...... in the anterior pituitary of rats exposed to sodium selenite (Thorlacius-Ussing and Danscher 1985). This histochemical method demonstrates complexes of exogenous selenium and endogenous metal. In the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary, selenium is suggested to form bonds with zinc (Danscher 1984...

  7. Loss of selenium in drying and storage of agronomic plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1970-01-01

    In two experiments with Se75, loss of selenium from agricultural species was noted during both drying and storage. The loss of selenium during drying was to some extent overshadowed by the influence of self-absorption caused by the water in the fresh material. The results showed that even plant m...... material of non-indicator plantslose volatile selenium at drying temperatures of 60°C or higher, and in some cases even at temperatures below 60°C. The results also showed that storage as briquettes gives the lowest storage loss of selenium....

  8. The effect of different selenium levels on production performance and biochemical parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshun Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for animal and human. Supplementation of Se usually in livestock diet has been proved as effective element. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of selenium yeast on growth performance, slaughter performance, immune trait, oxidation resistance, meat quality and selenium content in tissue of broilers to comprehensively evaluate the effect of selenium. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres (AA broilers were selected and feeded with the diets of treatments supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, l.0 and 2.0 mg/kg organic selenium respectively. The trial period was 42 days and divided into two periods. Our results showed that effect of different levels of selenium on growth performance, slaughter performance, the immune status, drip loss and flesh had not significant difference (P>0.05. The activities of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, total superoxide dismutase (TSOD, the abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical (OH•, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC and the content of GSH were significantly increased along with selenium level (P<0.05, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased with organic selenium level (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that organic selenium had no obvious effect on production performance of broilers, but significantly influenced the broiler oxidation resistance.

  9. Selenium dynamics in boreal streams: the role of wetlands and changing groundwater tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Björkvald, Louise; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of selenium in 10 catchments of a stream network in northern Sweden were monitored over two years, yielding almost 350 observations of selenium concentrations in streamwater. The export of selenium was found to be systematically greater from forests than from mires. Accounting for atmospheric deposition, which was monitored over four years, there was a net accumulation of selenium in mires, while the export from forest soils was approximately equal to the atmospheric deposition. In forest dominated catchments the concentrations of selenium oscillated rapidly back and forth from high to low levels during spring floods. High selenium concentrations coincided with rising groundwater tables in the riparian forest soils, while low selenium concentrations were associated with receding groundwater. Thermodynamic modeling indicated that precipitation of elemental selenium would occur under reducing conditions in the riparian soils. Since changes in the redox conditions are likely to occur near the transition from the unsaturated to the saturated zone, it is hypothesized that the transport of selenium from forest soils to streams is controlled by redox reactions in riparian soils.

  10. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  11. Benefits of raising crops and animals naturally enriched with selenium in areas with selenium deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhudich, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is implicated in the protection of body tissues against oxidative stress, maintenance of defences against infection, and modulation of growth and development. The natural environment has a profound influence on its contents in the food chain and the development and distribution of Se responsive diseases. To overcome the Se deficiency problem and assure safe and adequate Se intakes, different methods were developed. Its efficiency depends on Se compounds absorption, its nutritional availability, long-term retention, convertibility of tissue Se stores into biologically active forms and the history of Se nutrition, influencing the proportion of absorbed retained, or excreted Se from diet. Since the dominant metabolically active Se forms are found in proteins as seleno analogues of sulphur amino acids, rather than selenotrisulphides and other acid labile Se compounds, we developed our own procedure for foliar enrichment of crops with Se, enabling the production of crops and animals with adequate Se content in low Se areas. By foliar application of Se salts, we optimize Se contents of many parameters important for plants quality, thus contributing to the better status of many essential, in diet often deficient nutrients. The utilization of these crops in animal nutrition, contributes to the nutritive value of animal products not only due to adequate Se content, but also higher values of other quality parameters. Consumption of such produced crops and animal products by humans in areas with low dietary Se intake has shown to have significant overall health benefits

  12. Comparison of Selenium Treatments of Crops in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments with spring and winter barley and ryegrass were carried out to compare the effect of fertilizers enriched with selenate or selenite with foliar application on the selenium (Se) concentrations in the crops. Application of about 20 g Se/ha given as selenate or about 100 g as selen......Field experiments with spring and winter barley and ryegrass were carried out to compare the effect of fertilizers enriched with selenate or selenite with foliar application on the selenium (Se) concentrations in the crops. Application of about 20 g Se/ha given as selenate or about 100 g...... as selenite in a PK fertilizer and about 5 g Se/ha sprayed on the plants increased the Se-concentrations from insufficient levels to levels that met the animal nutritional requirement. Ryegrass obtained sufficient Se concentrations at lower levels of added Se than did the barley. Toxic concentrations did...

  13. Sources of particulate selenium in the Baltic Sea atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Dudziñska-Huczuk

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of particulate selenium (Se, aerosols were collected by air filtration and impactor sampling at the Kap Arkona coastal weather station on the Island of Rügen. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to determine Se and numerous other elements as well. The dependence of the Se concentration on the wind direction and the results of a regression analysis indicated that Se associated with sub-micron particles is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. The pronounced relationship between Se and Cu indicated that copper smelting is a major source of atmospheric selenium. A marine Se contribution was identified for particles larger than 2 µm.

  14. Soil ingestion may be an important route for the uptake of contaminants by some reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, C Nelson; Talent, Larry G

    2009-02-01

    Some species of reptiles regularly ingest soil in the wild. Therefore, we evaluated the importance of soil ingestion as a route for the uptake of contaminants in lizards. We used sand as a substitute for soil during the present study. Different groups of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) were provided with a control and five sodium selenite-spiked sand mixtures during a 28-d study. Twenty lizards were assigned to a control group and to each of five selenium-spiked sand mixtures that consisted of nominal selenium (Se) concentrations of 0.05, 0.46, 4.57, 11.41, and 22.83 mg Se/kg dry sand. Leopard geckos readily ingested the Se-spiked sand. We observed concentration-related effects in several endpoints. Overall growth in body mass was the most sensitive endpoint and was significantly (p leopard geckos appear to be as sensitive to sodium selenite as birds and mammals. The present study suggests that ingestion of soil could be an important potential route for the uptake of soil contaminants in some reptiles and should be evaluated in ecotoxicological studies and risk analyses of reptiles.

  15. Protective effect of pre-supplementation with selenium on cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the antioxidant nutrient selenium, Se, on biologic response to cadmium-induced oxidative cytotoxicity was investigated in rats pretreated with Se prior to exposure to mild doses of Cd. Male wistar strain rats (200-250 g b.wt) were exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water ...

  16. Selenium and Chronic Diseases: A Nutritional Genomics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Méplan

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic data have revealed a key role for selenium (Se) and selenoproteins in biological pathways known to be altered in multifactorial diseases, such as cellular maintenance, response to oxidative stress and correct protein folding. Although epidemiological studies indicate that low Se intake is linked to increased risk for various chronic diseases, supplementation trials have given confusing outcomes, suggesting that additional genetic factors could affect the relationship between Se an...

  17. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  18. Copper, selenium and zinc content of canned and noncanned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The levels of copper, selenium and zinc in beverages purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The zinc levels ranged from 0.0 - 1.34 mg/L for the canned and 0.01 - 1.11 mg/L for the ...

  19. Selenium supplementation restores the antioxidative capacity and prevents cell damage in bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Regina; Ulmer, Matthias; Zeck, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    signaling, cumulative cell damage, senescence, and tumor development. Selenium-dependent (glutathione peroxidases [GPxs] and thioredoxin reductases [TrxRs]) and selenium-independent (superoxide dismutases [SODs] and catalase [CAT]) enzyme systems regulate cellular ROS steady state levels. SODs process...

  20. Plasma selenium concentrations are sufficient and associated with protease inhibitor use in treated HIV-infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Selenium (Se) is an essential constituent of selenoproteins which play significant roles in antioxidant defense and inflammatory cascades. Selenium deficiency is associated with disease states characterized by inflammation including cardiovascular disease (CVD). While HIV infection has b...

  1. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  2. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  3. Immune response of stressed calves deficient in selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffett, J.K.; Spears, J.W.; Brown, T.T. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    A selenium deficiency in animals may reduce their metabolic and immunological response to stress. Twenty beef calves (212 kg) from a common origin were weaned, transported 322 km and then allotted to one of the following treatments: (1) control, (2) control/stress, (3) selenium (Se) and (4) Se/stress. Previous Se nutriture was controlled as dams of control calves were fed diets marginally deficient in Se (.04-.05 ppm) while dams of Se treatment calves received supplemental Se. Calves in the Se treatments received 0.1 ppm supplemental Se during the study. All animals were subjected to the stresses of weaning and transport. Calves allotted to the stress treatments were also given intratracheal inoculations of Pasteurella hemolytica on day 3 after weaning and transport. Serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) and antibody titers to P. hemolytica were measured on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, 17 of the study. Serum IgG was lower for calves in the stress treatments on days 7 and 17. Selenium supplemented calves had higher serum IgM concentrations on day 17. Antibody titers to P. hemolytica were higher on days 10 and 17 for calves in the stress treatments. Calves in the Se treatments had lower antibody titers than controls on days 7, 10 and 17. These results indicate that a marginal Se deficiency can affect the immunological response to stress.

  4. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether...... this relationship is modified by selenium. A total of 55 subjects were evaluated in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic species, induced sputum for AAT and toenails for selenium and arsenic. Household tap-water arsenic, toenail arsenic and urinary inorganic...... arsenic and metabolites were significantly higher in Ajo (20.6±3.5 μg/l, 0.54±0.77 μg/g and 27.7±21.2 μg/l, respectively) than in Tucson (3.9±2.5 μg/l, 0.16±0.20 μg/g and 13.0±13.8 μg/l, respectively). In multivariable models, urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was negatively, and toenail selenium...

  5. Thiolated eggshell membranes sorb and speciate inorganic selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Chen, Ming-Li; Hu, Xian-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Wen; Wang, Jian-Hua; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-01-07

    Eggshell membranes (ESMs) provide a unique, disulfide bond-rich surface. Thioglycolate reduction was used to generate thiol (-SH) groups on the ESM surface by S-S bond cleavage. The thiol-bearing ESMs (TESMs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The fibrous network structure of the ESM is retained in the TESMs. TESMs adsorb both Se(IV) and Se(VI) but by different mechanisms: Se(VI) is retained reversibly, possibly via ionic interactions, while Se(IV) is reduced to Se(0) and deposited. We thus demonstrate speciation of selenium species, by using samples (a) as such and after prior oxidation to Se(VI), (b) preconcentration on a TESM microcolumn, (c) elution by 0.5 M HNO(3) that only elutes Se(VI) and (d) detection by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The Se(IV) amount is determined by difference. For a 1.0 mL sample, the enrichment factor was 17.2, the S/N = 3 detection limit was 0.06 μg L(-1) and the precision was 3.3% at 0.50 μg L(-1). The linear range was 0.25-2.50 μg L(-1). The procedure was validated by analyzing selenium in certified reference materials of human hair (GBW 09101) and rice (GBW 10010). We further demonstrate utility by speciation of inorganic selenium in a series of water samples.

  6. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  7. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl

    1990-01-01

    3 H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na + -dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na + -independent component. The Na + -dependent component of inositol uptake had a K m of 50 μM and a V max of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca 2+ - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells

  8. Removal of Selenium and Nitrate in Groundwater Using Organic Carbon-Based Reactive Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of selenium and nitrate in groundwater was evaluated through column experiments. Four columns consisting of reactive mixtures, either organic carbon-limestone (OC-LS) or organic carbon-zero valent iron (OC-ZVI), were used to determine the removal efficiency of selenium with different concentrations of nitrate. The source waters were collected from a mine site in Korea or were prepared artificially based on the mine drainage water or deionized water, followed by spiking of elevated concentrations of Se (40 mg/L) and nitrate (100 or 10 mg/L as NO3-N). The results for the aqueous chemistry showed that selenium and nitrate were effectively removed both in the mine drainage water and deionized water-based artificial input solution. However, the removal of selenium was delayed when selenium and nitrate coexisted in the OC-LS columns. The removal of selenium was not significant when the influent nitrate concentration was 100 mg/L as NO3-N, while most of nitrate was gradually removed within the columns. In contrast, 94% of selenium was removed when the influent nitrate concentration was reduced to 10 mg/L as NO3-N. In the OC-ZVI column, selenium and nitrate was removed almost simultaneously and completely even with the high nitrate concentration; however, a high concentration of ammonia was produced as a by-product of abiotic reaction between ZVI and nitrate. The elemental analysis for the solid samples after the termination of the experiments showed that selenium was accumulated in the reactive materials where removal of aqueous-phase selenium mostly occurred. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study indicated that selenium existed in the forms of SeS2 and Se(0) in the OC-LS column, while selenium was present in the forms of FeSe, SeS2 and absorbed Se(IV) in the OC-ZVI column. This study shows that OC-based reactive mixtures have an ability to remove selenium and nitrate in groundwater. However, the removal of selenium was influenced by the high

  9. Mobilization of selenium from the Mancos Shale and associated soils in the lower Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Mills, Taylor J.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Keith, Gabrielle; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates processes controlling mobilization of selenium in the lower part of the Uncompahgre River Basin in western Colorado. Selenium occurs naturally in the underlying Mancos Shale and is leached to groundwater and surface water by limited natural runoff, agricultural and domestic irrigation, and leakage from irrigation canals. Soil and sediment samples from the study area were tested using sequential extractions to identify the forms of selenium present in solid phases. Selenium speciation was characterized for nonirrigated and irrigated soils from an agricultural site and sediments from a wetland formed by a leaking canal. In nonirrigated areas, selenium was present in highly soluble sodium salts and gypsum. In irrigated soils, soluble forms of selenium were depleted and most selenium was associated with organic matter that was stable under near-surface weathering conditions. Laboratory leaching experiments and geochemical modeling confirm that selenium primarily is released to groundwater and surface water by dissolution of highly soluble selenium-bearing salts and gypsum present in soils and bedrock. Rates of selenium dissolution determined from column leachate experiments indicate that selenium is released most rapidly when water is applied to previously nonirrigated soils and sediment. High concentrations of extractable nitrate also were found in nonirrigated soils and bedrock that appear to be partially derived from weathered organic matter from the shale rather than from agricultural sources. Once selenium is mobilized, dissolved nitrate derived from natural sources appears to inhibit the reduction of dissolved selenium leading to elevated concentrations of selenium in groundwater. A conceptual model of selenium weathering is presented and used to explain seasonal variations in the surface-water chemistry of Loutzenhizer Arroyo, a major tributary contributor of selenium to the lower Uncompahgre River.

  10. Cross sectional study of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Natalie R; Burgert, Stephen L; Murphy, Gwen A; Brockman, John D; White, Russell E; Lando, Justus; Chepkwony, Robert; Topazian, Mark D; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Mwachiro, Michael M

    2017-12-08

    Low serum selenium status has been associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). East Africa is a region of high ESCC incidence and is known to have low soil selenium levels, but this association has not previously been evaluated. In this study we assessed the association of serum selenium concentration and the prevalence of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of ESCC, in a cross-sectional study of subjects from Bomet, Kenya. 294 asymptomatic adult residents of Bomet, Kenya completed questionnaires and underwent endoscopy with Lugol's iodine staining and biopsy for detection of ESD. Serum selenium concentrations were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between serum selenium and ESD were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The mean serum selenium concentration was 85.5 (±28.3) μg/L. Forty-two ESD cases were identified (14% of those screened), including 5 (12%) in selenium quartile 1 (Q1), 5 (12%) in Q2, 15 (36%) in Q3, and 17 (40%) in Q4. Higher serum selenium was associated with prevalence of ESD (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.05-8.74) and this association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (Q4 vs Q1: OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.06-14.19). This is the first study to evaluate the association of serum selenium concentration and esophageal squamous dysplasia in an African population at high risk for ESCC. We found a positive association between higher serum selenium concentration and prevalence of ESD, an association contrary to our original hypothesis. Further work is needed to better understand the role of selenium in the etiology of ESCC in this region, and to develop effective ESCC prevention and control strategies.

  11. Selenium content in the blood serum and urine of ewes receiving selenium-enriched unicellular alga Chlorella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, J.; Písek, I.; Herzig, I.; Doucha, Jiří; Kvíčala, J.; Kroupová, V.; Rodinová, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2007), s. 42-48 ISSN 0375-8427 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD523/03/H076 Program:GD Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : sodium selenite * organically bound selenium * ewes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  12. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  13. 78 FR 22442 - Infant Formula: The Addition of Minimum and Maximum Levels of Selenium to Infant Formula and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... children, has been linked to selenium deficiency. Keshan disease occurs in areas of China where the population has severe selenium deficiency. Chronic selenium toxicity (selenosis) has also been observed in... adult values on the basis of body weight and with a factor allowed for growth (Ref. 2). Although...

  14. Determination of total selenium and Se-77 in isotopically enriched human samples by ICP-dynamic reaction cell-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Bügel, Susanne H.

    2003-01-01

    and the digested faecal samples were diluted using an aqueous diluent containing 0.5% Triton X-100, 2% nitric acid and 3% methanol. Selenium was detected as Se-76, Se-77 and Se-80 by ICP- DRC- MS. Selenium originating from the natural isotope abundance yeast and other selenium sources from the diet was determined...

  15. Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebin Yin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enshi is a high selenium (Se region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg−1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg−1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg−1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg−1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg−1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg−1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg−1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg−1 (n = 122 and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg−1 (n = 122 for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern.

  16. Selenium treatment differentially affects sulfur metabolism in high and low glucosinolate producing cultivars of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Leung, Susanna; Joshi, Srishti; Rippon, Paula E; Joyce, Nigel I; McManus, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) application on the sulfur (S)-rich glucosinolate (GSL)-containing plant, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was examined with a view to producing germplasm with increased Se and GSL content for human health, and to understanding the influence of Se on the regulation of GSL production. Two cultivars differing in GSL content were compared. Increased Se application resulted in an increase in Se uptake in planta, but no significant change in total S or total GSL content in either cultivar. Also no significant change was observed in the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, EC 2.7.7.4) or O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL, EC 2.5.1.47) with increased Se application. However, in the first investigation of APS kinase (APSK, EC 2.7.1.25) expression in response to Se fertilisation, an increase in transcript abundance of one variant of APS kinase 1 (BoAPSK1A) was observed in both cultivars, and an increase in BoAPSK2 transcript abundance was observed in the low GSL producing cultivar. A mechanism by which increased APSK transcription may provide a means of controlling the content of S-containing compounds, including GSLs, following Se uptake is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary selenium and moisture on the physical activity and thyroid axis of cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Hooper; R. Backus; S. Amelon

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of canned cat food is considered a risk factor for the development of feline hyperthyroidism. Because selenium and water are substantially higher in canned diets compared to dry diets, objectives of this study were to determine whether increased dietary selenium or water alters the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary– thyroid axis and leads to an...

  18. Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, J.R.; Belknap, A.M.; Janz, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 μg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphyton < plankton and filterer invertebrates < detritivore and predator invertebrates < small bodied (forage) fish and predatory fish. Biomagnification of selenium resulted in an approximately 1.5-6 fold increase in the selenium content between plankton, invertebrates and forage fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage fish and predatory fish. Selenium content in organisms from exposure areas exceeded the proposed 3-11 μg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, suggesting that the selenium released into these aquatic systems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. - Selenium bioaccumulation patterns in a north temperate, cold water aquatic ecosystem were similar to those reported from warm water systems

  19. Dietary supplements based on selenium containing culture of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tregub

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of selenium in the humankind being. The analysis based on the published data shows that the biological synthesis is a perspective way to obtain an organic form of selenium, which can be used in dietary supplements. The ability of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus 412/307to accumulate inorganic forms of selenium (selenites, selenates, turning them into organic forms, with purposeful trace element enrichment of culture medium is described in the article. The main organic forms of selenium, which are being used in the process of biotransformation from its inorganic forms by microorganisms, have been reorganized. The relationship between the increasing of concentrations of sodium selenite in the culture medium and the growth of biomass of lactic acid bacteria was established. It was found the depressing effect of increasing concentrations of sodium selenite on optical density rate. It was estabilished the optimal conditions for the maximum accumulation of selenium containing culture of lactic acid bacteria. The influence of selenium concentration on the lactic acid bacteria biomass accumulation was determined also by changing the values of optical density. Due to the obtained data, the selenium containing dietary supplement «Selenolakt» was created. The main microbiological indicators that characterize the quality of the obtained product are given. The content of organic form of selenium in products reaches –195 ± 1 mkg/g.

  20. Selenium deficiency and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Kehinde S; Olowoselu, Olusola F; Osanyin, Gbemisola E; John-Olabode, Sarah; Akanmu, Sulaimon A; Anorlu, Rose I

    2018-04-16

    To investigate the prevalence of maternal selenium deficiency and its effects on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria. The present descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled women aged 15-49 years with HIV who were at 14-26 weeks of a singleton pregnancy and were attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, between August 1, 2016, and April 30, 2017. Participants were selected by consecutive sampling and baseline data were collected through interviews. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure selenium concentrations, and associations between low maternal selenium concentrations (defined as <0.89 μmol/L) and pregnancy outcomes were examined using bivariate and multivariate analysis. The final analysis included 113 patients; selenium deficiency was recorded in 23 (20.4%) patients. Women with selenium deficiency had an approximately eight-fold higher risk of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio 7.61, 95% confidence interval 4.37-18.89; P=0.031) and of delivering a term neonate with a low delivery weight (adjusted odds ratio 8.11, 95% confidence interval 3.27-17.22; P=0.012), compared with women with a normal selenium concentration. The prevalence of selenium deficiency among pregnant women with HIV in Lagos was relatively high. The significant associations observed between maternal selenium deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes could have implications for the future management of HIV in pregnancy. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Selenium, selenoprotein genes and Crohn's disease in a case-control population from Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentschew, Liljana; Bishop, Karen S; Han, Dug Yeo; Morgan, Angharad R; Fraser, Alan G; Lam, Wen Jiun; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Campbell, Bobbi; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2012-09-01

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidence rates of Crohn's Disease (CD), whilst the serum selenium status of New Zealanders is amongst the lowest in the world. A prospective case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand considered serum selenium as a potential CD risk factor. Serum selenium levels were significantly lower in CD patients compared to controls (101.8 ± 1.02 vs. 111.1 ± 1.01 ng/mL) (p = 5.91 × 10(-8)). Recent detailed studies in the United Kingdom have suggested an optimal serum level around 122 ng/mL, making the average CD patient in New Zealand selenium deficient. Of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, 13 were found to significantly interact with serum selenium on CD. After adjustment for multiple testing, a significant interaction with serum selenium on CD was found for three SNPs, namely rs17529609 and rs7901303 in the gene SEPHS1, and rs1553153 in the gene SEPSECS. These three SNPs have not been reported elsewhere as being significantly associated with selenium or CD. It is unclear as to whether lower selenium levels are a cause or an effect of the disease.

  2. Serum selenium and selenoprotein P status in adult Danes-8-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Hollenbach, B.; Laurberg, P.

    2009-01-01

    subjects had filled in a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire with information about smoking habits, alcohol consumption and exercise habits. Mean serum selenium level was 98.7+/-19.8microg/L and median selenoprotein P level was 2.72 (2.18-3.49)mg/L. Serum selenium and selenoprotein P...

  3. Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Jordi; Domínguez, Carmen; Salas-Vázquez, Dora I; Parera, Juan; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

    2014-02-01

    Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1 )dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 μg kg(-1) dm). Zinc concentrations were significantly greater in anaerobically digested samples, whereas no significant differences were found for copper or selenium. In addition, the leaching potential of zinc, copper, and selenium in cropped (lettuce heart) and uncropped experimental units subject to drip irrigation was assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Generally, the addition of swine slurry to soil (1.7 g kg(-1) dm) significantly increased zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations in leachates, which decreased in accordance with the volume of leachate eluted. Under the experimental conditions, the leaching potential of zinc and selenium was more strongly correlated with bulk parameters directly associated with the composition of the pig slurry (dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and ammonium), whereas copper mobility was more strongly associated with the crop root exudates. Although selenium has been shown to be mobile in soil, the selenium content found in the leachates did not pose any appreciable risk according to current drinking water standards.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  5. Plasma levels of α-tocopherol, -tocopherol and selenium in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-09

    Aug 9, 2014 ... 2) at 3000g for 5 minutes. The plasma obtained was separated into plane serum bottles and stored frozen (-200C) until analysed. Determination of selenium and tocopherols. Plasma selenium was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) using a direct method described by. Kaneko.[14].

  6. Development of in-plant reference material for composition of chinese cabbage with certified selenium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In-plant reference material for composition of Chinese cabbage with certified selenium content was developed for accuracy control of the results of selenium determination and within-laboratory quality control of analytical work in the analysis of food raw material.

  7. Toenail selenium levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Bode, P.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial have suggested a protective effect of selenium against prostate cancer. Few other prospective studies have been conducted to confirm or refute this. The association between prostate cancer and baseline toenail selenium level was evaluated in the Netherlands

  8. Selenium Speciation Assessed by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Sequentially Extracted Anaerobic Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, M.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Farges, F.; Nikitenko, S.; Borca, C.N.; Grolimund, D.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Wet chemical methods such as sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to assess selenium fractionation in anoxic environments, allowing an estimation of the mobility and bioavailability of selenium. However, the interpretation can be biased by unselective extraction of targeted species and

  9. Efficacy of Dietary Selenium to Counteract Toxicity of Deoxynivalenol in Growing Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Faixová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol on plasma indicators and efficacy of dietary selenium to counteract toxicity of deoxynivalenol in growing broiler chicks. Three groups of broilers were formed with 14 birds in each group. Three diets included control (0.2 ppm deoxynivalenol, 0.4 mg selenium/kg diet, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol, 0.4 mg selenium/kg diet and deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol plus selenium-enriched yeast (1.4 mg selenium/kg diet. After 6 weeks of feeding all birds were sacrifi ced and blood samples for chemical analyses were collected. Plasma calcium, chloride and alanine aminotransferase activity were signifi cantly elevated and magnesium, total proteins, triglycerides and free glycerol were decreased in chicks fed deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet compared with those fed the control diet. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast to the diet reversed plasma levels of calcium, magnesium and alanine aminotransferase activity in chicks induced by dietary deoxynivalenol. Phosphorus, albumin and cholesterol levels and alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were not affected by diets. The inclusion of selenium to DON-contaminated diet, however, did not completely alleviate toxic effect on protein and lipid metabolism by the liver. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast product counteracted most of the plasma indicator alterations caused by deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet in chicks.

  10. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.

    2014-10-24

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30–400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness.

  11. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...

  12. Genome Sequence of Selenium-Solubilizing Bacterium Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yihua; Qin, Yanan; Kot, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Caulobacter vibrioides T5M6 is a Gram-negative strain that strongly solubilizes selenium (Se) mineral into Se(IV) and was isolated from a selenium mining area in Enshi, southwest China. This strain produces the phytohormone IAA and promotes plant growth. Here we present the genome of this strain...

  13. Characterization of selenium doped silica glasses synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, R.A.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: toffoli@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Selenium is a rare element in nature. It is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and glass industries. In commercial glasses, selenium is the element responsible for most of the pink or light red color, but its effect is primarily dependent on the oxidation state of the element in the glassy matrix. Besides, selenium is highly volatile, and as high as 80 wt% may be lost in the furnace during the industrial glass elaboration. The sol– gel method yields synthesized materials of high purity and homogeneity, and uses low processing temperatures. Samples of silica glass were obtained by sol-gel method, incorporating precursors of selenium, with the main objective of reducing selenium losses during its heating. The results of optical absorption, XRD and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC) of the glasses are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Chemical Forms of Mercury And Selenium in Fish Following Digestion With Simulated Gastric Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, G.N.; Singh, S.P.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-05-18

    Fish is a major dietary source of potentially neurotoxic methylmercury compounds for humans. It is also a rich source of essential selenium. We have used in situ mercury L{sub III}-edge and selenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to chemically characterize the methylmercury and selenium in both fresh fish and fish digested with simulated gastric fluid. For the mercury, we confirm our earlier finding [Harris et al. (2003) Science301, 1203] that the methylmercury is coordinated by a single thiolate donor, which resembles cysteine, and for the selenium, we find a mixture of organic forms that resemble selenomethionine and an aliphatic selenenyl sulfide such as Cys-S-Se-Cys. We find that local chemical environments of mercury and selenium do not change upon digestion of the fish with simulated gastric fluid. We discuss the toxicological implications for humans consuming fish.

  15. The Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Serum Selenium Levels in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nur; Kose, Engin; Guzel, Orkide

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum selenium levels in children receiving olive oil-based ketogenic diet (KD) for intractable seizures for at least 1 year. Out of 320 patients who were initiated on KD, patients who continued receiving KD for at least 12 months were enrolled. Sixteen patients who had selenium deficiency at the time of starting KD were excluded. Finally, a total of 110 patients (mean age 7.3 ± 4.2 years) were included. Serum selenium levels were measured at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment initiation by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Selenium deficiency was defined as a serum selenium level ketogenic diet suggests that patients on this highly prescriptive dietary treatment need close monitoring of this trace element.

  16. Characterization of selenium doped silica glasses synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, R.A.; Toffoli, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is a rare element in nature. It is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and glass industries. In commercial glasses, selenium is the element responsible for most of the pink or light red color, but its effect is primarily dependent on the oxidation state of the element in the glassy matrix. Besides, selenium is highly volatile, and as high as 80 wt% may be lost in the furnace during the industrial glass elaboration. The sol– gel method yields synthesized materials of high purity and homogeneity, and uses low processing temperatures. Samples of silica glass were obtained by sol-gel method, incorporating precursors of selenium, with the main objective of reducing selenium losses during its heating. The results of optical absorption, XRD and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC) of the glasses are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Selenium protection against toxicity from cadmium and mercury studied at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, U; Danersund, A; Lindvall, A

    1996-02-01

    Interaction between selenium and the heavy metals cadmium and mercury was studied in an experimental rat model (Sprague-Dawley). The rats were administered either one single trace element or combinations of selenium and cadmium as well as selenium and mercury. Salts of these trace elements were administered intraperitoneally daily during thirty days. Thereafter the animals were sacrificed and kidneys and livers excised rapidly. Thin sections were produced by a cryotome and subsequently freeze-dried. Nuclear microscopy of the sections showed that in the combination groups there was a co-localization of selenium and the heavy metals. None of the expected pathological signs of cadmium and mercury toxicity were observed. The conclusion was that selenium exerted a protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and mercury through mechanisms still to be unveiled.

  18. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  20. Reduced selenium-binding protein 1 in breast cancer correlates with poor survival and resistance to the anti-proliferative effects of selenium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Supplemental dietary selenium is associated with reduced incidence of many cancers. The antitumor function of selenium is thought to be mediated through selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1. However, the significance of SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer is still largely unknown. A total of 95 normal and tumor tissues assay and 12 breast cancer cell lines were used in this study. We found that SELENBP1 expression in breast cancer tissues is reduced compared to normal control. Low SELENBP1 expression in ER(+ breast cancer patients was significantly associated with poor survival (p<0.01, and SELENBP1 levels progressively decreased with advancing clinical stages of breast cancer. 17-β estradiol (E2 treatment of high SELENBP1-expressing ER(+ cell lines led to a down-regulation of SELENBP1, a result that did not occur in ER(- cell lines. However, after ectopic expression of ER in an originally ER(- cell line, down-regulation of SELENBP1 upon E2 treatment was observed. In addition, selenium treatment resulted in reduced cell proliferation in endogenous SELENBP1 high cells; however, after knocking-down SELENBP1, we observed no significant reduction in cell proliferation. Similarly, selenium has no effect on inhibition of cell proliferation in low endogenous SELENBP1 cells, but the inhibitory effect is regained following ectopic SELENBP1 expression. Furthermore, E2 treatment of an ER silenced high endogenous SELENBP1 expressing cell line showed no abolishment of cell proliferation inhibition upon selenium treatment. These data indicate that SELENBP1 expression is regulated via estrogen and that the cell proliferation inhibition effect of selenium treatment is dependent on the high level of SELENBP1 expression. Therefore, the expression level of SELENBP1 could be an important marker for predicting survival and effectiveness of selenium supplementation in breast cancer. This is the first study to reveal the importance of monitoring SELENBP1 expression

  1. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  2. Identification of a novel compound that inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing nucleoside transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Shun; Sugino, Kumi; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Aono, Harumi; Morishita, Keisuke; Kawatani, Makoto; Umezawa, Kazuo; Osada, Hiroyuki; Simizu, Siro

    2016-04-01

    We screened small-molecule compounds that inhibit osteoclast differentiation to find new anti-osteoporosis agents and found that a novel compound, SUKU-1, suppressed osteoclastogenesis. We also synthesized 38 derivatives of SUKU-1 and discovered that nine of them had inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and that SUKU-33 was the most potent inhibitor. Next, we investigated the mechanisms by which SUKU-33 suppressed osteoclast differentiation. By measuring the uptake of [(3) H]-uridine in cells, we found that SUKU-33 suppressed both equilibrative nucleoside transporters and concentrative nucleoside transporters. These results suggest that SUKU-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing nucleoside transporters. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  4. Aquaporins and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  5. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  6. Designing the selenium and bladder cancer trial (SELEBLAT, a phase lll randomized chemoprevention study with selenium on recurrence of bladder cancer in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Maria E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2% and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%. Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported that selenium concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer. This suggests that selenium may also be suitable for chemoprevention of recurrence. Method The SELEBLAT study opened in September 2009 and is still recruiting all patients with non-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder on TURB operation in 15 Belgian hospitals. Recruitment progress can be monitored live at http://www.seleblat.org. Patients are randomly assigned to selenium yeast (200 μg/day supplementation for 3 years or matching placebo, in addition to standard care. The objective is to determine the effect of selenium on the recurrence of bladder cancer. Randomization is stratified by treatment centre. A computerized algorithm randomly assigns the patients to a treatment arm. All study personnel and participants are blinded to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. Design The SELEnium and BLAdder cancer Trial (SELEBLAT is a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, academic, double-blind superior trial. Discussion This is the first report on a selenium randomized trial in bladder cancer patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00729287

  7. Abscopal suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Johnson, M.J.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Abscopal responses of hemopoietic tissue, which we noted in preliminary studies of mice receiving partial-body irradiation, led us to clarify these effects. In studies reported here, one hind leg of CF-1 female mice received 1000, 5000, or 10,000 rad of x radiation. We found a persistent shift from medullary to splenic erythropoiesis preventing anemia in mice receiving 5000 or 10,000 rad. Splenectomy prior to 5000-rad irradiation resulted in anemia, which was not ameliorated by exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Despite evidence for increased levels of erythropoietin in the animals, namely, a reticulocytosis and increased erythrocyte radioiron incorporation, both 59 Fe uptake and erythroblast counts in shielded marrow remained below normal. We found 50 to 90% suppression of the growth of marrow stromal colonies (MSC) from bone marrow aspirates of the shielded and irradiated femoral marrow at 1 month and at least 20% depression of MSC at 1 year, with each dose. We conclude that: (i) high doses of x radiation to one leg of mice caused prolonged suppression of medullary erythropoiesis with splenic compensation to prevent anemia; (ii) splenectomy, anemia, and hypoxia prevented the severe abscopal depression of medullary erythropoiesis; and (iii) suppressed medullary erythropoiesis with decreased growth of MSC suggested a change in the hemopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow

  8. Enrichment of meat products with selenium by its introduction to mixed feed compounds for birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sobolev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a biologically active microelement, contained in a number of hormones and enzymes. In a bird or animal organism selenium performs the following functions: strengthens the immune system, stimulates formation of antibodies, macrophages and interferons. Also, it is a powerful antioxidant agent. It stimulates processes of metabolism in the organism, protects the organism against toxic manifestations of cadmium, lead, thalium and silver; stimulates reproductive function, decreases acute development of inflammatory processes; stabilizes functioning of the nervous system; normalizes functioning of the endocrine system. Furthermore, it stimulates synthesis of hemoglobin, takes part in secretion of erythrocutes, neutralizes toxins, prevents and stops development of malignant tumors. It also has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system of an animal organism: prevents myocardosis and decreases the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. Deficiency of selenium in the organism causes (depending upon the extent of deficiency either physiological changes within the regulatory norm, significant disorders of the metabolism, or specific diseases. Around 75 different diseases and symptoms of pain are related to selenium deficiency. In most countries, the level of selenium consumption remains low (20–40 µg/day. There are several ways of improving of the selenium consumption of a population: consumption of selenium as a medication or dietary supplement, producing selenium-enriched bread, growing greens and vegetables rich in selenium, producing selenium-enriched beverages, products of animal origin, which would be rich in selenium. In the scientific-agricultural sphere studies have been made on the influence of adding different doses (0.2–0.6 mg/kg of selenium in mixed feeds and peculiarities of its depositing and distribution in the muscle tissues of young growth of different species of poultry. It has been found that feeding broiler

  9. A tale of two toxicities: malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress both contribute to selenium stress in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoewyk, Doug

    2013-10-01

    Despite selenium's toxicity in plants at higher levels, crops supply most of the essential dietary selenium in humans. In plants, inorganic selenium can be assimilated into selenocysteine, which can replace cysteine in proteins. Selenium toxicity in plants has been attributed to the formation of non-specific selenoproteins. However, this paradigm can be challenged now that there is increasingly abundant evidence suggesting that selenium-induced oxidative stress also contributes to toxicity in plants. This Botanical Briefing summarizes the evidence indicating that selenium toxicity in plants is attributable to both the accumulation of non-specific selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress. Evidence is also presented to substantiate the claim that inadvertent selenocysteine replacement probably impairs or misfolds proteins, which supports the malformed selenoprotein hypothesis. The possible physiological ramifications of selenoproteins and selenium-induced oxidative stress are discussed. Malformed selenoproteins and oxidative stress are two distinct types of stress that drive selenium toxicity in plants and could impact cellular processes in plants that have yet to be thoroughly explored. Although challenging, deciphering whether the extent of selenium toxicity in plants is imparted by selenoproteins or oxidative stress could be helpful in the development of crops with fortified levels of selenium.

  10. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei, E-mail: hmliu2004@126.com [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) values and maximal reaction velocity (V{sub max}) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  11. Medical geology of arsenic, selenium and thallium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Xiao, Tangfu; Zheng, Baoshan

    2012-04-01

    Arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and thallium (Tl) are three trace metals (metalloids) of high concern in China because deficiency or excess expose can cause a range of endemic diseases, such as endemic arsenism, selenosis, Keshan disease (KD), Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and thallotoxicosis. These specific endemic diseases were attributable for overabundance or deficiency (mainly referring to selenium) of these three elements in the local environment as a result of natural geochemical processes and/or anthropologic activities. The geochemistry and human health impacts of these three trace elements have been intensively studied since the 1970s in China, in terms of geochemical sources, distribution, transportation, health impact pathways, and prevention/remediation measures. Endemic arsenism in China are induced from the exposures of high As in either drinking water or domestic combustion of As-rich coals. Both endemic selenium deficiency and selenosis occurred in China. The KD and KBD were related to the deficiency of Se in the low-Se geological belt with Se contents in soil less than 0.125mg/kg stretching from northeast to southwest of China. Endemic selenosis occurred in areas with high Se concentrations in soils derived from the Se-enriched black carbonaceous siliceous rocks, carbonaceous shale and slate. Endemic Tl poisoning occurred in southwestern China due to Tl contamination in local drinking water and vegetables surrounding the Tl-rich sulfide mineralized areas. Some measures have been taken to control and remedy the endemic diseases with significant effects in reducing health risk and damage of As, Se and Tl. However, the states of the endemic diseases of As, Se and Tl in China are still serious in some areas, and substantial research efforts regarding the health impacts of these elements are further required. This paper reviews the progress of medical geology of As, Se and Tl in China, and provides with some outlooks for future research directions. Copyright

  12. Assessment of dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads in the lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, as part of the Selenium Management Program, from 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Mark F.

    2018-04-23

    The Gunnison Basin Selenium Management Program implemented a water-quality monitoring network in 2011 in the lower Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Selenium is a trace element that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other harmful effects. This report presents the percentile values of selenium because regulatory agencies in Colorado make decisions based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act Section 303(d) that uses percentile values of concentration. Also presented are dissolved-selenium loads at 18 sites in the lower Gunnison River Basin for water years (WYs) 2011–2016 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2016). Annual dissolved-selenium loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations. Annual dissolved-selenium loads for WY 2011 through WY 2016 ranged from 179 and 391 pounds (lb) at Uncompahgre River at Colona to 11,100 and 17,300 lb at Gunnison River near Grand Junction (herein called Whitewater), respectively. Instantaneous loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and 13 ancillary sites where discrete water-quality sampling also took place, using discrete water-quality samples and the associated discharge measurements collected during the period. Median instantaneous loads ranged from 0.01 pound per day (lb/d) at Smith Fork near Lazear to 33.0 lb/d at Whitewater. Mean instantaneous loads ranged from 0.06 lb/d at Smith Fork near Lazear to 36.2 lb/d at Whitewater. Most tributary sites in the basin had a median instantaneous dissolved-selenium load of less than 20.0 lb/day. In general, dissolved-selenium loads at Gunnison River main-stem sites showed an increase from upstream to downstream. The State of Colorado water-quality standard for dissolved selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter (µg/L) was compared to the 85th percentiles for dissolved

  13. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SELENIUM IN DIET ON LIVER FUNCTION AND BODY WEIGHT OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stanko Kanački

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main biological role of selenium is performed via enzyme glutathione peroxidase, and includes the participation in the defense mechanism of the cell membrane from the peroxide damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of added selenium in foods in varying amounts and from various sources (organic and inorganic selenium. The experiment was conducted on the broilers, and the following parameters were monitored: body weight, total serum protein and the activity of the liver enzymes AST and ALT. The study demonstrated that organically-bound selenium had the most pronounced protective property, while both forms of selenium did not significantly affect the growth and concentration of the total serum protein. Therefore, this research suggests economic benefits of organic selenium in the diet of broiler chickens. Key words: selenium, body weight, liver function, broiler chickens

  14. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  16. Acute selenium poisoning by paradise nuts (Lecythis ollaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dieter; Desel, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    Two previously healthy women developed nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness for several days, a massive hair loss about 2 weeks later and a discoloration of the fingernails. Detailed diagnostic procedures did not reveal any pathological results. Therapeutic measures did not show any effect. Thallium and arsenic were within normal range in plasma. Delayed quantitative determination of selenium in blood, however revealed toxic values (in case I: 479 microg/L of serum, 8 weeks after ingestion, and in case II 300 microg/L of serum, 9 weeks after ingestion). In retrospect, a relation to the ingestion of paradise nuts could be established.

  17. The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Watt, Torquil; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells......-enriched yeast or matching placebo tablets daily for 12 months. The experimental supplement will be SelenoPrecise(R). The primary outcome is thyroid-related quality of life assessed by the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include serum thyroid peroxidase antibody...

  18. Tissue uptake of 3H-noradrenaline at radiation injuries of different degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonova, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The absorbability of hypothalamus and myocardium for 3 H-noradrenaline was tested in differently injured rats. In all forms of injuries (irradiation with doses of 5.0 Gy, 7.5 Gy, combination of irradiation with fracture of the femur) a considerable suppression of the energy-dependent neurotransmitter uptake was found with increased level of the 'total uptake', including passive diffusion and absorption of catecholamines in the cells. The results revealed a mechanism, of neurotransmitter depletion. Increase of radiation dose, and additional trauma rended the interference with the uptake process more difficult

  19. Low selenium status affects arsenic metabolites in an arsenic exposed population with skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Pei, Qiuling; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Sichum; Liang, Jiang; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xinrong

    2008-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low selenium status plays important roles in arsenism development. However, no study has been reported for humans suffering from chronic arsenic exposure with low selenium status. Sixty-three subjects were divided into 2 experimental groups by skin lesions (including hyperkeratosis, depigmentation, and hyperpigmentation). Total urine and serum concentrations of arsenic and selenium were determined by ICP-MS with collision/reaction cell. Arsenic species were analysed by ICP-MS coupled with HPLC. The mean concentration of As in the drinking waters was 41.5 microg/l. The selenium dietary intake for the studied population was 31.7 microg Se/d, and which for the cases and controls were 25.9 and 36.3 microg Se/d, respectively. Compared with the controls, the skin lesions cases had lower selenium concentrations in serum and urine (41.4 vs 49.6 microg/l and 71.0 vs 78.8 microg/l, respectively), higher inorganic arsenic (iAs) in serum (5.2 vs 3.4 microg/l, PiAs in serum and urine (20.2) vs 16.9% and 18.3 vs 14.5%, respectively, PiAs and its inhibition to be biotransformed to DMA occurred in human due to chronic exposure of low selenium status.

  20. Effects of selenium-rich yeast supplementation on the plasma progesterone levels of postpartum dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachiro Kamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of the pre- and postpartum supplementation of cows with Se on their plasma P4 concentrations after calving were investigated. Methods Thirty-four Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the postpartum recovery of the luteal function in cows. Selenium-rich yeast (containing 300 ppm selenium was mixed with total mixed ration fed to 17 pregnant cows from 30 days before they were due to calve (10 g yeast daily to 100 days after calving (20 g yeast daily. The control cows (n = 17 were fed the same amount of ordinary yeast. The cows’ plasma progesterone concentrations were determined every two days using an enzyme immunoassay after calving. Results Feed intake (total digestive nutrient, crude protein, milk production, body weight and the biochemical properties of blood plasma did not differ between the two groups; however, the plasma selenium concentrations of the supplemented animals were significantly greater than those of the controls at and after calving. The postpartum plasma progesterone concentrations of the selenium-yeast-supplemented group increased earlier than those of the control group. Moreover, during the estrus cycle after the 3rd ovulation or ovulation with estrus between 60 to 80 days after calving, the selenium-supplemented cows exhibited greater progesterone concentrations than the control cows. Conclusion Selenium supplementation promotes the postpartum progesterone production of cows.

  1. Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne M.; Huel, Guy; Godin, Jean; Hellier, Georgette; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Moreau, Thierry; Blot, Phillipe

    1994-01-01

    Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure. The present investigation, therefore, examines the respective reliability of maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta as epidemiological indicators as well as inter-individual variation of this trace element. An unselected population of 128 pregnancies was studied. Obstetrical characteristics were noted. Selenium concentrations were determined for maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placental tissue by fluorometric analysis. Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. The present study demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure

  2. Mining-Related Selenium Contamination in Alaska, and the State of Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibyek Khamkhash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium pollution has been a topic of extensive research dating back further than the last decade and has attracted significant attention from several environmental and regulatory agencies in order to monitor and control its discharge from myriad industrial sources. The mining industry is a prime contributor of hazardous selenium release in the aquatic systems and is responsible for both acute and chronic impacts on living organisms. Herein we provide an overview of selenium contamination issues, with a specific focus on selenium release from mining industries, including a discussion of various technologies commonly employed to treat selenium-impacted waters from mining discharge. Different cases pertaining to selenium release from Alaskan mines (during years 2000–2015 are also presented, along with measures taken to mitigate high concentration releases. For continued resource exploration and economic development activities, as well as environmental preservation, it is important to fundamentally understand such emerging and pressing issues as selenium contamination and investigate efficient technological approaches to counter these challenges.

  3. Inter-individual variation of selenium in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anne M.; Huel, Guy; Godin, Jean; Hellier, Georgette; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Moreau, Thierry [Epidemiological Research Unit, National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Villejuif (France); Blot, Phillipe [Clinique obstetricale Baudelocque, Paris (France)

    1994-12-09

    Selenium (Se) in high doses has been known to cause injury to the fetus and newborn. The major difficulty in assessing the effects of selenium on human reproduction stems from the need for a suitable means of estimating maternal and fetal exposure. The present investigation, therefore, examines the respective reliability of maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta as epidemiological indicators as well as inter-individual variation of this trace element. An unselected population of 128 pregnancies was studied. Obstetrical characteristics were noted. Selenium concentrations were determined for maternal plasma, cord plasma, and placental tissue by fluorometric analysis. Maternal plasma selenium concentrations (Se-Bm) were significantly greater than fetal concentrations (Se-Bc). Placental selenium (Se-Pl) levels were four times that of fetal levels. Variability of Se-Bc is best explained by placental concentrations. Maternal weight and ethnic origin are significantly correlated with Se-Bc. Female newborn have higher selenium levels than male newborn. The present study demonstrates the significance of the placenta as an indicator of fetal selenium exposure.

  4. Association between Toenail Mercury and Metabolic Syndrome Is Modified by Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Asian populations consume relatively large amounts of fish and seafood and have a high prevalence of metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the association between chronic mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome and its effect modification by selenium. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in the Yeungnam area. Participants included 232 men and 269 women, aged 35 years or older, who had complete data regarding demographic, lifestyle, diet, toenail mercury and selenium levels, and health. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were measured using instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The metabolic biomarker levels were obtained through biannual medical checkups. Results: Higher toenail mercury levels were associated with habitual consumption of whale and shark meats, older age, obesity, smoking, alcohol drinking, and higher household income. Multivariable analysis showed a positive association between toenail mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome. In addition, this association was significantly stronger at lower selenium levels and was weaker at higher selenium levels. Conclusion: The possible harmful effects of mercury on metabolic syndrome may be attenuated by high levels of selenium. Future studies are needed to suggest optimal dietary guidelines regarding fish and selenium intakes, particularly for Asians with high levels of fish intake.

  5. Determination of molybdenum and selenium in bioenvironmental samples using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Samra, A.; Morris, J.S.; Koirtyohann, S.R.; Vogt, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    Because of the increasing interest as to their roles in biological systems, a procedure has been developed by which molybdenum and selenium can be determined at nanogram levels in these types of samples. Results from the analysis of orchard leaves and bovine liver are presented. The samples are packaged in pre-cleaned quartz vials prepared from GE-204 tubing. If both selenium and molybdenum are to be determined, the samples are irradiated for 40 or more hours at a thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . After the samples have decayed for approximately 48 hours the vials are unpackaged, cleaned in aqua-regia, and broken. The irradiation period can be reduced to 24 hours if molybdenum is to be determined individually or if the selenium content is known to be 1 microgram or more. The sample is digested with carriers and the selenium is then distilled as a volatile selenium halide. Elemental selenium is precipitated by reduction with SO 2 produced through the protonation of the hydrogen sulfite ion and subsequent decomposition of the resulting sulfurous acid. The 401 keV summation peak of 75 Se is normally used for quantitative determination. The chemical yield is determined by drying and weighing the elemental selenium

  6. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Vasco [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: vbranco@ipimar.pt; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Miguel Neves dos [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), South Regional Center for Fisheries Research (IPIMAR/CRIPSul), Avenida 5 de Outubro s/n, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2007-12-15

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs.

  7. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao; Santos, Miguel Neves dos

    2007-01-01

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 μg g -1 ; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 μg g -1 ) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs

  8. Determining Selenium Serum Level in Healthy Young Couples by Furnace Atomic Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani nodoushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metal ions are required for various vital body functions and metabolism. Selenium is an active element in selenoproteins and plays an important role in public health, though the increase of its concentration in the body can cause toxicity. Therefore, it seems essential to investigate the serum selenium status of individuals of a society. This study was conducted to determine serum level of selenium in healthy young couples. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 60 young couples who were chosen in 2013 via convenience sampling. The participants' general health was determined using a GHQ28 questionnaire and their serum selenium concentration was measured by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS software utilizing descriptive statistics. Results: The participants' mean age was 23.18 ± 4.31 years. The 44.6% of subjects had university degrees, 35.7% were reported to have diploma and 19.6% were under diploma. The mean serum selenium level was obtained as 89.1 ± 24.2 µg/l in males, and 80.5 ± 20.7 µg/l in females. The data analysis revealed a statistically significant difference of the serum selenium at the 95% confidence level in regard with participants' gender and education level. Conclusion: The present study showed that the mean serum selenium of participants lay in the lower part of its normal range. Regarding the role of selenium in human health and prevention of disease, nutrition education is recommended for taking selenium-rich foods to enhance community health and to prevent disease progression

  9. Interplay between Selenium Levels and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Hammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are essential components of antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and cell signaling in mammals, where selenium is found in the form of a rare amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenium, which is often limited both in food intake and cell culture media, is a strong regulator of selenoprotein expression and selenoenzyme activity. Aging is a slow, complex, and multifactorial process, resulting in a gradual and irreversible decline of various functions of the body. Several cellular aspects of organismal aging are recapitulated in the replicative senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts, such as embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. We previously reported that the long-term growth of young WI-38 cells with high (supplemented, moderate (control, or low (depleted concentrations of selenium in the culture medium impacts their replicative lifespan, due to rapid changes in replicative senescence-associated markers and signaling pathways. In order to gain insight into the molecular link between selenium levels and replicative senescence, in the present work, we have applied a quantitative proteomic approach based on 2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE to the study of young and presenescent cells grown in selenium-supplemented, control, or depleted media. Applying a restrictive cut-off (spot intensity ±50% and a p value < 0.05 to the 2D-DIGE analyses revealed 81 differentially expressed protein spots, from which 123 proteins of interest were identified by mass spectrometry. We compared the changes in protein abundance for three different conditions: (i spots varying between young and presenescent cells, (ii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in young cells, and (iii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in presenescent cells. Interestingly, a 72% overlap between the impact of senescence and selenium was observed in our proteomic results, demonstrating a strong interplay between

  10. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao Zhidong [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Degang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Tang Xun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Dafang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu Yonghua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yhhu@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 {+-} 0.013 {mu}g/g in soil, 0.017 {mu}g/L {+-} 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 {+-} 0.002 {mu}g/g in rice, and 0.034 {+-} 0.012 {mu}g/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 {+-} 28.35 {mu}g/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 {mu}g/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 {mu}g/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 {mu}g/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 {mu}g/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index ({beta} = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC ({beta} = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure ({beta} = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride ({beta} = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  11. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The temporal release of Se from coal combustion and gasification was measured. • Kinetic laws for Se release from coal combustion and gasification were determined. • The influences of temperature and chemical composition of flue gas were clarified. • The interactions of Se species with mineral affect the release kinetics of Se. - Abstract: The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x) = 0.94e −26.58/RT (−0.56 x 2 −0.51 x + 1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x) = 11.96e −45.03/RT (−0.53 x 2 −0.56 x + 1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  12. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators ( 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuhori, Masahiro; Nagaoka, Tamae; Ito, Nobuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in plasma, urine, and feces were determined by PIXE analysis before and after intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (a dose equivalent to 2 mg/kg of selenium) to rats. The concentration-time profiles of Se were analyzed by a pharmacokinetic approach. The plasma Se profile after iv injection was biphasic and well-fit to a 2-compartment open model, showing two half lives (tl/2). The first tl/2 was about 0.3 hr and the second tl/2 was 6.9 hrs. The plasma concentration reached almost basal level after about 80 hrs of injection. On the other hand, plasma profiles after po administration showed absorption rate-limiting elimination. The bioavailability of oral sodium selenite (about 49%) and significantly higher amount of fecal Se excretion indicated relatively poor intestinal absorption of sodium selenite, compared to the previously published data. Urinary Se excretion was almost comparable between iv and po groups. The total recovery of the dose excreted in urine and feces was 30 ± 10% in iv and 56 ± 15% in po group. The renal excretion was considered to be a major route of Se excretion after absorption. Significant amount of Se that was not fully excreted was noted, suggesting Se distribution or accumulation in organs, together with volatile excretion. (author)

  14. Fate of selenium in a small urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, D A; Wright, L E; Shanahan, S A; Hausrath, E

    2014-05-01

    A field study was conducted on a small urban watershed (residential and golf course dominated) in southern Nevada to assess the concentration and speciation of selenium (Se) in a series of drain lines and monitoring wells and to quantify the mass discharge of Se from the drain system. Water samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for total Se, selenate (SeO4 (=)) and selenite (SeO3 (=)). In addition, where possible, flow was assessed as was, temperature, redox potential, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) along with all major cations and anions. The data were then modeled with PhreeqC to identify selenium speciation. Results revealed a SeO4 (=) dominated system with SeO4 (=) concentrations ranging from 13 to 62 ppb. In the monitoring wells, 66 % of the variation in the total Se concentration could be described based on depth to groundwater, temperature and sulfate concentrations (P 0.05). Flow discharge from the main drain system to the Las Vegas Wash was estimated at 559 acre feet during the 1 year study period. This flow was estimated to carry 4,203 Mg of salts 6.71 Mg of nitrate-N and 27.1 kg of total Se.

  15. Structure of amorphous selenium studied by neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Knudsen, Torben Steen; Carneiro, K.

    1975-01-01

    treatment, the neutron scattering cross sections of selenium are determined to be sigmacoh = 8.4±0.1 b and sigmainc = 0.1±0.1 b. Using the fact that S (kappa) for large kappa's is determined by the short distances in the sample, a new method for extrapolation of the experimental S (kappa) until convergence......Neutron diffraction measurements on amorphous selenium have been performed at 293 and 80 K. Careful analyses of the instrumental corrections were made to avoid systematic errors in the measured structure factor S (kappa) in the wave vector region 0 ? kappa ? 12 Å−1. As a result of the data...... is proposed. This allows an accurate determination of g (r) showing peaks at distances that agree well with the previous x−ray experiment by Kaplow et al. for distances up to 11 Å. However, only partial agreement is obtained when finer details of g (r), e.g., the width of the first peak, are considered...

  16. Hydrological and geochemical investigations of selenium behavior at Kesterson Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Benson, S.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report describes research relevant to selenium specification, fractionation, physical redistribution, reduction and oxidation, and spatial distribution as related to Kesterson Reservoir. The work was carried out by scientists and engineers from the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory over a two year period from October 1992 to September 1994. Much of the focus of these efforts was on the effects of two above-average rainfall years (1991/1992 and 1992/1993). These events marked a departure from the previous six years of drought conditions, under which oxidation of Se in the soil profile led to a marked increase in soluble Se. Evidence from the last two years show that much of the re-oxidized Se was once more reduced due to increased soil moisture content. Also, in areas of high hydraulic conductivity, major vertical displacement of selenium and other solutes due to rainfall infiltration was observed. Such observations underscore the dependence of the future of Se speciation and distribution on environmental conditions.

  17. Selenium and Sulfur to Produce Allium Functional Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Morales, Susana; Pérez-Labrada, Fabián; García-Enciso, Ema Laura; Leija-Martínez, Paola; Medrano-Macías, Julia; Dávila-Rangel, Irma Esther; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Rivas-Martínez, Erika Nohemí; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2017-03-30

    Selenium is an element that must be considered in the nutrition of certain crops since its use allows the obtaining of biofortified crops with a positive impact on human health. The objective of this review is to present the information on the use of Se and S in the cultivation of plants of the genus Allium . The main proposal is to use Allium as specialist plants for biofortification with Se and S, considering the natural ability to accumulate both elements in different phytochemicals, which promotes the functional value of Allium . In spite of this, in the agricultural production of these species, the addition of sulfur is not realized to obtain functional foods and plants more resistant; it is only sought to cover the necessary requirements for growth. On the other hand, selenium does not appear in the agronomic management plans of most of the producers. Including S and Se fertilization as part of agronomic management can substantially improve Allium crop production. Allium species may be suitable to carry out biofortification with Se; this practice can be combined with the intensive use of S to obtain crops with higher production and sensory, nutritional, and functional quality.

  18. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by excimer pulsed laser ablation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Van Overschelde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pure selenium nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Liquid Phase - Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA in de-ionized water. Excimer laser (248 nm operating at low fluence (F ∼ 1 J/cm2 was used to generate colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles. The obtained selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We describe the multi-modal size distributions generated and use the centrifugation method to isolate the smallest nanoparticles (∼60 nm in diameter.

  19. Metabolic deposition of selenium and cadmium into the hair and other tissues of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Holzbecher, J.; Katz, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    To better understand the significance of hair trace-element measurements and their relationships with the trace-element levels in body organs and fluids, a series of controlled animal experiments were conducted in which several trace elements were periodically measured (neutron activation and AA) during a 90-day chronic exposure to selenium and cadmium. Chronic selenium exposure appeared to be reflected by elevated selenium levels in the hair, kidneys, and liver. Chronic cadmium exposure, although reflected by kidney and liver elevation, appeared not to be reflected by corresponding increases in its concentration in the hair

  20. The concentration and variability of selenium and mercury measured in vacuum-packed tuna fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockman, J.D.; Sharp, N.; Ngwenyama, R.A.; Shelnutt, L.D.; McElroy, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury (meHg) is a known toxin commonly found in fish. Fish is also a rich source of the trace nutrient selenium which has been hypothesized to modify the toxicity of meHg. We analyzed 28 samples of commercially packaged albacore and light tuna fish for selenium and mercury using standard comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis. Significant differences in the concentration of mercury and selenium were associated with the type of fish, brand and batch. Fish consumers should vary the brand of tuna fish to avoid routine consumption of a brand high in mercury. (author)

  1. Selenium in the upper Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho, 2001-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn; Williams, Marshall L.; Hardy, Mark A.; Garbarino, John R.

    2014-11-05

    The upper Blackfoot River in southeastern Idaho receives runoff from 12 large phosphate mines. Waste shales that are removed to access the phosphate ore are highly enriched with selenium, resulting in elevated selenium in runoff from the mine waste dumps. In 2001, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring streamflow, selenium, and other water-quality parameters at a single location near the outlet of the upper Blackfoot River to the Blackfoot Reservoir. Water samples primarily were collected by a flow triggered, automated pump sampler, supplemented by manual point and equal-width integrated manual samples.

  2. Clinical Correlation between Gastric Cancer Type and Serum Selenium and Zinc Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Jae Hyo; Shin, Dong Gue; Kwon, Yujin; Cho, Dong Hui; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Sang Soo; Yoon, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We conducted this study to study the clinical correlation between the characteristics of gastric cancer and serum selenium and zinc levels. Materials and Methods The following data were measured in the baseline serum selenium and zinc levels of 74 patients with curative gastrectomy subsequent to confirmed gastric cancer, from March 2005 to August 2012. Results Among the 74 gastric cancer patients, 53 patients were male. Mean serum selenium and zinc levels were 118.7?33.1 ug/L and 72.2...

  3. Selenium-induced autometallographic demonstration of endogenous zinc in organs of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1989-01-01

    of selenium obtained by each organ was determined by gamma-spectrometry, and compared with the autometallographic deposition of silver grains. The relative accumulation of selenium in the organs was: liver greater than spleen greater than kidney greater than intestine greater than gills greater than brain......, the intestine, and the gills, whereas, no such grains were found in preparations from fish having received 1 ppm Se. The use of selenium for the histochemical demonstration of endogenous zinc versus exogenous metals is discussed. Also, consideration is given to the question of which part of the total tissue...

  4. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica Sorak-Pokrajac; Dermelj, M.; Zdenka Slejkovec; Eskinja, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  6. Mercury, cadmium, lead and selenium content of mushroom species belonging to the genus Agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stijve, T.; Besson, R.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of the mushroom genus Agaricus were collected in areas strongly influenced by human activities, lawns, gardens, parks, etc., and analyzed for mercury methylmercury, selenium, cadmium, and lead. The rate of accumulation of selenium was enormous, but not the maximum possible. Boletus edulis had a concentration factor of approximately 600. The mechanism by which the elements are accumulated is still obsure, but it appears probable that mercury is chelated by reaction with the sulfhydryl groups of protein. It also seems that mercury and selenium concentrations in these fungi are closely related to the methionine fraction. (JTE)

  7. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium compounds in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umysová, Dása; Vítová, Milada; Dousková, Irena; Bisová, Katerina; Hlavová, Monika; Cízková, Mária; Machát, Jirí; Doucha, Jirí; Zachleder, Vilém

    2009-05-15

    Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. It usually affects organisms in a strictly dosage-dependent manner being essential at low and toxic at higher concentrations. The impact of selenium on mammalian and land plant cells has been quite extensively studied. Information about algal cells is rare despite of the fact that they could produce selenium enriched biomass for biotechnology purposes. We studied the impact of selenium compounds on the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Both the dose and chemical forms of Se were critical factors in the cellular response. Se toxicity increased in cultures grown under sulfur deficient conditions. We selected three strains of Scenedesmus quadricauda specifically resistant to high concentrations of inorganic selenium added as selenite (Na2SeO3) - strain SeIV, selenate (Na2SeO4) - strain SeVI or both - strain SeIV+VI. The total amount of Se and selenomethionine in biomass increased with increasing concentration of Se in the culturing media. The selenomethionine made up 30-40% of the total Se in biomass. In both the wild type and Se-resistant strains, the activity of thioredoxin reductase, increased rapidly in the presence of the form of selenium for which the given algal strain was not resistant. The selenium effect on the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was not only dose dependent, but the chemical form of the element was also crucial. With sulfur deficiency, the selenium toxicity increases, indicating interference of Se with sulfur metabolism. The amount of selenium and SeMet in algal biomass was dependent on both the type of compound and its dose. The activity of thioredoxin reductase was affected by selenium treatment in dose-dependent and toxic-dependent manner. The findings implied that the increase in TR activity in algal cells was a stress response to selenium cytotoxicity. Our study provides a new insight into the impact of selenium on

  8. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium compounds in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doucha Jiří

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. It usually affects organisms in a strictly dosage-dependent manner being essential at low and toxic at higher concentrations. The impact of selenium on mammalian and land plant cells has been quite extensively studied. Information about algal cells is rare despite of the fact that they could produce selenium enriched biomass for biotechnology purposes. Results We studied the impact of selenium compounds on the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Both the dose and chemical forms of Se were critical factors in the cellular response. Se toxicity increased in cultures grown under sulfur deficient conditions. We selected three strains of Scenedesmus quadricauda specifically resistant to high concentrations of inorganic selenium added as selenite (Na2SeO3 – strain SeIV, selenate (Na2SeO4 – strain SeVI or both – strain SeIV+VI. The total amount of Se and selenomethionine in biomass increased with increasing concentration of Se in the culturing media. The selenomethionine made up 30–40% of the total Se in biomass. In both the wild type and Se-resistant strains, the activity of thioredoxin reductase, increased rapidly in the presence of the form of selenium for which the given algal strain was not resistant. Conclusion The selenium effect on the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was not only dose dependent, but the chemical form of the element was also crucial. With sulfur deficiency, the selenium toxicity increases, indicating interference of Se with sulfur metabolism. The amount of selenium and SeMet in algal biomass was dependent on both the type of compound and its dose. The activity of thioredoxin reductase was affected by selenium treatment in dose-dependent and toxic-dependent manner. The findings implied that the increase in TR activity in algal cells was a stress response to selenium cytotoxicity

  9. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  10. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Se-related effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in american avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  11. Cytochemical demonstration of mercury deposits in trout liver and kidney following methyl mercury intoxication: differentiation of two mercury pools by selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Danscher, G

    1988-01-01

    The amount and the ultrastructural distribution of mercury was studied in seven different organs of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings following exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg)-contaminated fodder for periods of 2 and 7 weeks. The amounts of mercury retained by the whole fish...... and the selected organs were determined by measuring the uptake of 203Hg-labeled MeHg. Spleen, liver, and kidney had the highest concentrations after both experimental periods, while the largest relative increases were found in brain, muscle, and kidney. The subcellular distribution of mercury accumulations...... was demonstrated cytochemically in liver and kidney using the silver enhancement method by which accumulations of mercury-sulfides and/or mercury-selenides are made visible for light and electron microscopy. When sections prepared from the liver and kidney from fish, injected with selenium 2 hr prior to being...

  12. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  13. Maternal selenium-supplementation at various stages of periconception period: influence on murine blastocyst morphology and implantation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony C. Mamon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is one of the trace minerals whose deficiency is known to lead to complications of female reproduction. The identified gaps in researches regarding selenium and pregnancy include optimizing the dosage of selenium supplementation, timing of supplementation, finding the best form and type of selenium, and selenium administration combined with other antioxidants. Hence, this study was conceptualized to address one of the identified gaps, that is, to find out the best timing of selenium administration around the time of pregnancy. Specifically, this study aimed to assess the effects of maternal Selenium-supplementation, administered at various stages of periconception period, on murine blastocyst morphology, percent occurrence of good quality blastocysts, and implantation status. Methods ICR female mice were randomly assigned into the unsupplemented group (Group I receiving basal diet without selenium, and treatment groups given with 3.0 μg selenium-supplement per day during pregestation only (Group II, pregestation-throughout-gestation (Group III and gestation only (Group IV. Both blastocyst morphology and implantation status were assessed. Results The morphometric measurements of blastocysts appeared to be unaffected by selenium-supplementation at different stages of periconception. Selenium-supplementation at pregestation only (Group II and gestation only (Group IV produced higher percent occurrence of good quality blastocysts and lower percent pre-implantation loss than Group III. Among all the treatment groups, Group III (Selenium-supplementation during pregestation-to-gestation yielded the lowest quality blastocysts and highest percent pre-implantation loss. Conclusion Maternal selenium-supplementation during pregestation and gestation stages of the periconception period yielded a high percent occurrence of good quality blastocysts and pre-implantation success.

  14. Interference of selenium and selenoproteins with the insulin-regulated carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Holger

    2013-12-01

    An assumed link between supranutritional intake of the micronutrient selenium (Se) and type 2 diabetes mellitus is discussed controversially. Se concentrations in the habitual diet and in dietary supplements are probably not sufficient to induce overt diabetes in healthy individuals. On the other hand, high plasma Se and selenoprotein P (Sepp1) levels have been found to be associated with biomarkers of an impaired carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis in humans. Moreover, abundant expression of antioxidant selenoproteins due to dietary Se oversupply resulted in hyperinsulinemia and decreased insulin sensitivity in animal models. This review discusses findings from animal and cell culture studies in search of molecular mechanisms underlying an interference of Se and selenproteins such as the Se transport and supply protein Sepp1 and the hydrogen peroxide-reducing selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) with insulin-controlled metabolic pathways. A probable rationale derives from the positive and negative regulation of both glucose-induced insulin secretion and insulin-induced signaling by hydrogen peroxide. Se status and GPx1 expression have been reported to affect the activity of insulin-antagonistic phosphatases that are regulated by hydrogen peroxide-mediated reversible oxidation of catalytic cysteine residues. GPx1 and/or Sepp1 inhibited phosphorylation (activation) of key mediators in energy metabolism such as protein kinase B (Akt) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and/or skeletal muscle. Conversely, a dys-regulated carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes might affect plasma Se and Sepp1 levels, as the hepatic biosynthesis of Sepp1 is suppressed by insulin and stimulated under hyperglycemic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LXR regulates cholesterol uptake through Idol-dependent ubiquitination of the LDL receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelcer, Noam; Hong, Cynthia; Boyadjian, Rima; Tontonoz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Cellular cholesterol levels reflect a balance between uptake, efflux, and endogenous synthesis. Here we show that the sterol-responsive nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) helps maintain cholesterol homeostasis, not only through promotion of cholesterol efflux but also through suppression of low-density

  16. Effects of organic selenium in broiler feed on the content of selenium and fatty acid profile in lipids of thigh muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effects of selenium supplementation to broiler feed on the content of selenium, total fatty acids in lipids and on the oxidative stability of broiler thigh muscle tissue. The experiment involved 40 broilers fattened for 42 days. During the first three weeks, all broilers consumed starter diet containing 22% crude protein. After three weeks, broilers were divided into two groups and fed finisher diets containing 18% crude protein and supplemented with 3% sunflower oil and 3% linseed oil. Group 1 was not administered artificial selenium; Group 2 was supplemented with organic selenium at the amount of 0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Significantly higher (P P P > 0.05 and increase of linolenic acid and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05 in thigh muscle tissue of broilers. Since selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are nutricines, our results show that the produced broiler meat may be considered as functional food.

  17. The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, R.; Horne, T.; Barr, J.; Ramot, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

  18. Selenium and vitamin E enriched diet increases NK cell cytotoxicity in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia O. Latorre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies has shown that antioxidants, fatty acids and trace minerals may modulate different immune cell activities, and that their deficiency may be associated with diseases and impaired immune responses. In innate immunity, natural killer (NK cells have a central role, killing virally infected and cancerous cells, and also secreting cytokines that shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enriched diets in selenium plus vitamin E and/or canola oil on complete blood count and on NK cell cytotoxicity from blood lymphocytes of Nellore bulls. Bulls that received selenium plus vitamin E had (P=0.0091 higher NK cell cytotoxicity than control bulls. This result positively correlated with serum selenium levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed immunostimulatory effects of selenium plus vitamin E on NK cell cytotoxicity of Nellore bulls.

  19. Selenium Status and the Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Subtypes: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims: Selenium may protect against the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA). Only in very few studies have the associations with ESCC and GCA been investigated, and no epidemiologic studies

  20. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...