Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, DaHua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying
Autobiographical memory is the ability to recollect past events from one's own life. Both emotional tone and memory remoteness can influence autobiographical memory retrieval along the time axis of one's life. Although numerous studies have been performed to investigate brain regions involved in retrieving processes of autobiographical memory, the effect of emotional tone and memory age on autobiographical memory retrieval remains to be clarified. Moreover, whether the involvement of hippocampus in consolidation of autobiographical events is time dependent or independent has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of memory remoteness (factor1: recent and remote) and emotional valence (factor2: positive and negative) on neural correlates underlying autobiographical memory by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Although all four conditions activated some common regions known as "core" regions in autobiographical memory retrieval, there are some other regions showing significantly different activation for recent versus remote and positive versus negative memories. In particular, we found that bilateral hippocampal regions were activated in the four conditions regardless of memory remoteness and emotional valence. Thus, our study confirmed some findings of previous studies and provided further evidence to support the multi-trace theory which believes that the role of hippocampus involved in autobiographical memory retrieval is time-independent and permanent in memory consolidation.
Steinvorth, Sarah; Corkin, Suzanne; Halgren, Eric
Ecphory occurs when one recollects a past event cued by a trigger, such as a picture, odor, or name. It is a central component of autobiographical memory, which allows us to “travel mentally back in time” and re-experience specific events from our personal past. Using fMRI and focusing on the role of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, we investigated the brain bases of autobiographical memory and whether they change with the age of memories. Importantly, we used an ecphory task in which the remote character of the memories was ensured. The results showed that a large bilateral network supports autobiographical memory: temporal lobe, temporo-occipito-parietal junction, dorsal prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, retrosplenial cortex and surrounding areas, and MTL structures. This network, including MTL structures, changed little with the age of the memories. PMID:16257547
Full Text Available The capacity to remember self-referential past events relies on the integrity of a distributed neural network. Controversy exists, however, regarding the involvement of specific brain structures for the retrieval of recently experienced versus more distant events. Here, we explored how characteristic patterns of atrophy in neurodegenerative disorders differentially disrupt remote versus recent autobiographical memory. Eleven behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, 10 semantic dementia, 15 Alzheimer's disease patients and 14 healthy older Controls completed the Autobiographical Interview. All patient groups displayed significant remote memory impairments relative to Controls. Similarly, recent period retrieval was significantly compromised in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, yet semantic dementia patients scored in line with Controls. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses, for all participants combined, were conducted to investigate grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval. Neural correlates common to both recent and remote time periods were identified, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices, and the forceps minor and left hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundle. Regions exclusively implicated in each time period were also identified. The integrity of the anterior temporal cortices was related to the retrieval of remote memories, whereas the posterior cingulate cortex emerged as a structure significantly associated with recent autobiographical memory retrieval. This study represents the first investigation of the grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval in neurodegenerative disorders. Our findings demonstrate the importance of core brain structures, including the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, irrespective of time period, and point towards the
Full Text Available Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old and recent (the ten last years autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.
Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël
Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.
Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie
Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…
Brown, Thackery I; Rissman, Jesse; Chow, Tiffany E; Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D
Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering. During scanning, participants made memory judgments about photograph sequences depicting past events from their life or from others' lives, and indicated whether memory was based on episodic or semantic knowledge. Results revealed several distinct functional patterns: activity in most MTL subregions was selectively associated with autobiographical episodic memory; the hippocampal tail, superior parietal lobule, and intraparietal sulcus were similarly engaged when memory was based on retrieval of an autobiographical episode or autobiographical semantic knowledge; and angular gyrus demonstrated a graded pattern, with activity declining from autobiographical recollection to autobiographical semantic remembering to correct rejections of novel events. Collectively, our data offer insights into MTL and parietal cortex functional organization, and elucidate circuitry that supports different forms of real-world autobiographical memory.
Piefke, Martina; Weiss, Peter H; Markowitsch, Hans J; Fink, Gereon R
Autobiographical memory is based on interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions, and a sense of self-continuity along the time axis of one's life. The functional neuroanatomy subserving autobiographical memory is known to include prefrontal, medial and lateral temporal, as well as retrosplenial brain areas; however, whether gender differences exist in neural correlates of autobiographical memory remains to be clarified. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to investigate gender-related differences in the neural bases of autobiographical memories with differential remoteness and emotional valence. On the behavioral level, there were no significant gender differences in memory performance or emotional intensity of memories. Activations common to males and females during autobiographical memory retrieval were observed in a bilateral network of brain areas comprising medial and lateral temporal regions, including hippocampal and parahippocampal structures, posterior cingulate, as well as prefrontal cortex. In males (relative to females), all types of autobiographical memories investigated were associated with differential activation of the left parahippocampal gyrus. By contrast, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was activated differentially by females. In addition, the right insula was activated differentially in females during remote and negative memory retrieval. The data show gender-related differential neural activations within the network subserving autobiographical memory in both genders. We suggest that the differential activations may reflect gender-specific cognitive strategies during access to autobiographical memories that do not necessarily affect the behavioral level of memory performance and emotionality. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
EL HAJ, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios
Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. We present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographical recall in AD is mainly characterized by loss of associated episodic information, which leads to de-contextualisation of autobiographical memories and a shift from reliving past events to a general sense of familiarity. This decline refers to retrograde, but also anterograde amnesia that affects newly acquired memories besides remote ones. One consequence of autobiographical memory decline in AD is decreased access to memories that shape self-consciousness, self-knowledge, and self-images, leading to a diminished sense of self and identity. The link between autobiographical decline and compromised sense of self in AD can also manifest itself as low correspondence and coherence between past memories and current goals and beliefs. By linking cognitive, neuroanatomical, and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AD, our review provides a theoretical foundation, which may lead to better rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26876367
Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian
The comparison of recent and remote autobiographical memories is often confounded by qualitative disparities across memories of different ages, such as vividness. In this study, ten individuals prospectively collected audio recordings that were used to cue memories of recent (~1 month old) and remote (~1.5 year old) everyday events. Because the retrieval cues were recorded at the time of event, they were highly potent. Although remote events did not differ in novelty, importance, or emotional change at the time at the time of encoding, half of the cues for these events induced retrieval comparable in vividness to recent events (all of which were vividly re-experienced). Recent and remote vivid memories were associated with a neural pattern that included right frontal, left parietal and limbic regions that were active early in the retrieval period. Non-vivid remote memories were associated with a later onset of a bilateral distributed pattern that included regions in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. Functional connectivity analysis indicated that the left anterior hippocampus was co-activated with bilateral frontal, parahippocampal, and parietal regions for vivid memories (irrespective of memory age) early in the retrieval period, whereas non-vivid memories, alongside recent memories, showed later and broader co-activation with frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal regions. The absence of a significant difference between the recent and remote vivid memories may be due to insufficient power to detect potential subtle differences between these conditions. Nonetheless, there was evidence for different patterns of hippocampal-neocortical connectivity for remote memories and recent memories, irrespective of vividness. These findings suggest that while there is a functional shift in hippocampal connectivity that is associated with memory age when very recent events are used, vividness is strongly associated with both activation and functional connectivity
Full Text Available The aim of the present volumetric study was to explore the neuro-anatomical correlates of autobiographical memory loss in Alzheimer's patients and healthy elderly, in terms of the delay of retention, with a particular interest in the medial temporal lobe structures. Fifteen patients in early stages of the disease and 11 matched control subjects were included in the study. To assess autobiographical memory and the effect of the retention delay, a modified version of the Crovitz test was used according to five periods of life. Autobiographical memory deficits were correlated to local atrophy via structural MRI using Voxel Based Morphometry. We used a 'lateralized index' to compare the relative contribution of hippocampal sub-regions (anterior vs posterior, left vs right according to the different periods of life. Our results confirm the involvement of the hippocampus proper in autobiographical memory retrieval for both recent and very remote encoding periods, with larger aspect for the very remote period on the left side. Contrary to the prominent left-sided involvement for the young adulthood period, the implication of the right hippocampus prevails for the more recent periods and decreases with the remoteness of the memories, which might be associated with the visuo-spatial processing of the memories. Finally, we suggest the existence of a rostrocaudal gradient depending on the retention duration, with left anterior aspects specifically related to retrieval deficits of remote memories from the young adulthood period, whereas posterior aspects would result of simultaneous encoding and/or consolidation and retrieval deficit of more recent memories.
Piolino, Pascale; Martinelli, Pénélope; Viard, Armelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice
From an early age, autobiographical memory models our feeling of identity and continuity. It grows throughout lifetime with our experiences and is built up from general self-knowledge and specific memories. The study of autobiographical memory depicts the dynamic and reconstructive features of this type of long-term memory, combining both semantic and episodic aspects, its strength and fragility. In this article, we propose to illustrate the properties of autobiographical memory from the field of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging research through the analysis of the mechanisms of disturbance in normal and Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cognitive and neural bases of autobiographical memory are distinct in both cases. In normal aging, autobiographical memory retrieval is mainly dependent on frontal/executive function and on sense of reexperiencing specific context connected to hippocampal regions regardless of memory remoteness. In Alzheimer's disease, autobiographical memory deficit, characterized by a Ribot's temporal gradient, is connected to different regions according to memory remoteness. Our functional neuroimaging results suggest that patients at the early stage can compensate for their massive deficit of episodic recent memories correlated to hippocampal alteration with over general remote memories related to prefrontal regions. On the whole, the research findings allowed initiating new autobiographical memory studies by comparing normal and pathological aging and developing cognitive methods of memory rehabilitation in patients based on preserved personal semantic capacity. © Société de Biologie, 2010.
Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by decline in anterograde memory as measured by the ability to learn and remember new information. We investigated whether retrograde memory for autobiographical information was affected by aMCI. Eighteen control (age 66-84 years) and 17 aMCI (age 66-84 years) participants described a personal event from each of the five periods across the lifespan. These events were transcribed and scored according to procedures that separate episodic (specific happenings) from semantic (general knowledge) elements of autobiographical memory. Although both groups generated protocols of similar length, the composition of autobiographical recall differentiated the groups. The aMCI group protocols were characterized by reduced episodic and increased semantic information relative to the control group. Both groups showed a similar pattern of recall across time periods, with no evidence that the aMCI group had more difficulty recalling recent, rather than remote, life events. These results indicate that episodic and semantic autobiographical memories are differentially affected by the early brain changes associated with aMCI. Reduced autobiographical episodic memories in aMCI may be the result of medial temporal lobe dysfunction, consistent with multiple trace theory, or alternatively, could be related to dysfunction of a wider related network of neocortical structures. In contrast, the preservation of autobiographical semantic memories in aMCI suggests neural systems, such as lateral temporal cortex, that support these memories, may remain relatively intact.
Robert S Gardner
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.
El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios
Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. In our model (AMAD: Autobiographical Memory in Alzheimer's Disease), we present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographical recall in AD is mainly characterized by loss of associated episodic information, which leads to de-contextualization of autobiographical memories and a shift from reliving past events to a general sense of familiarity. This decline refers to retrograde, but also anterograde amnesia that affects newly acquired memories besides remote ones. One consequence of autobiographical memory decline in AD is decreased access to memories that shape self-consciousness, self-knowledge, and self-images, leading to a diminished sense of self and identity. The link between autobiographical decline and compromised sense of self in AD can also manifest itself as low correspondence and coherence between past memories and current goals and beliefs. By linking cognitive, neuroanatomical, and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AD, our review provides a theoretical foundation, which may lead to better rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios
Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. In our model (AMAD: Autobiographical Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease), we present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographical recall in AD is mainly characterized by loss of associated episodic information, which leads to de-contextualization of autobiographical memories and a shift from reliving past events to a general sense of familiarity. This decline refers to retrograde, but also anterograde amnesia that affects newly acquired memories besides remote ones. One consequence of autobiographical memory decline in AD is decreased access to memories that shape self-consciousness, self-knowledge, and self-images, leading to a diminished sense of self and identity. The link between autobiographical decline and compromised sense of self in AD can also manifest itself as low correspondence and coherence between past memories and current goals and beliefs. By linking cognitive, neuroanatomical, and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AD, our review provides a theoretical foundation, which may lead to better rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26169474
The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is regarded as a region of the brain that supports self-referential processes, including the integration of sensory information with self-knowledge and the retrieval of autobiographical information. I used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel procedure for eliciting autobiographical memories with excerpts of popular music dating to one's extended childhood to test the hypothesis that music and autobiographical memories are integrated in the MPF...
Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.
Herold, Christina Josefa; L?sser, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schr?der, Johannes
Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older ...
Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.
According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…
Conway, Martin A
This commentary highlights some of the interesting points to emerge from the preceding papers about the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. Additionally some cognitive functions are also considered and especially the way in which autobiographical memory supports, constrains, and maintains the goals of the self. Directions for future research into the self, social, directive, and cognitive-affective functions and processes of autobiographical memory are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on future research into the function of autobiographical memory in representations of attachment.
Rensen, Yvonne C M; Kessels, Roy P C; Migo, Ellen M; Wester, Arie J; Eling, Paul A T M; Kopelman, Michael D
The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences between autobiographical memory interview (AMI) and autobiographical interview (AI) procedures influence the presence of a temporal gradient in semantic and episodic autobiographical memory in Korsakoff patients. The procedure used in the present study combined the AMI and AI into one study session. We compared the performance of 20 patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and 27 healthy controls. First, participants were asked to recall knowledge from different life periods. Second, participants were asked to recall memories from five life periods. Thirdly, participants were asked to rate their subjective experience of each event recalled on a 5-point scale. Finally, we analyzed the findings in terms of all the memories recalled versus the first memory from each life-period only. Both the AMI and the AI showed a temporally graded retrograde amnesia in the Korsakoff patients for personal semantic and episodic autobiographical memories. The pattern of amnesia in Korsakoff patients was not affected by examining only one event per life-period. Subjective ratings of recalled memories were largely comparable between the groups. The findings were generally consistent across the AMI and AI. Varying the number of events did not affect the pattern of the gradient. Hence, the temporal gradient in Korsakoff patients is not an artefact of either the AMI or the AI method.
Current research on autobiographical memory distinguishes between a self function, a directive function, and a social function of autobiographical memory. From a lifespan perspective, the use of autobiographical memory for these functions is expected to decrease with age. The present study extended these functions by the function of nostalgia: Often triggered by negative emotions, remembering personal and positive experiences might, among others, enhance positive effects. This emotion-regulating function is expected to become more important in old age. In the present study 273 adults (aged between 19 and 90 years) completed the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE) as well as 11 newly developed items to assess the nostalgia function. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-factor model reflecting the presumed self, directive, social, and nostalgia functions of autobiographical memory. The results showed a decrease in the use of autobiographical memory for self, directive and social functions with increasing age, whereas the nostalgia function followed a U-shaped pattern.
Meilán García, Juan José; Iodice, Rosario; Carro, Juan; Sánchez, José Antonio; Palmero, Francisco; Mateos, Ana María
Autobiographic memory undergoes progressive deterioration during the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms which facilitate recovery of autobiographic memories. We used a repeatedly employed mechanism, music, with the addition of an emotional factor. Autobiographic memory provoked by a variety of sounds (music which was happy, sad, lacking emotion, ambient noise in a coffee bar and no sound) was analyzed in a sample of 25 patients with AD. Emotional music, especially sad music for remote memories, was found to be the most effective kind for recall of autobiographic experiences. The factor evoking the memory is not the music itself, but rather the emotion associated with it, and is useful for semantic rather than episodic memory.
Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel
Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.
Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD.
The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is regarded as a region of the brain that supports self-referential processes, including the integration of sensory information with self-knowledge and the retrieval of autobiographical information. I used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel procedure for eliciting autobiographical memories with excerpts of popular music dating to one's extended childhood to test the hypothesis that music and autobiographical memories are integrated in the MPFC. Dorsal regions of the MPFC (Brodmann area 8/9) were shown to respond parametrically to the degree of autobiographical salience experienced over the course of individual 30 s excerpts. Moreover, the dorsal MPFC also responded on a second, faster timescale corresponding to the signature movements of the musical excerpts through tonal space. These results suggest that the dorsal MPFC associates music and memories when we experience emotionally salient episodic memories that are triggered by familiar songs from our personal past. MPFC acted in concert with lateral prefrontal and posterior cortices both in terms of tonality tracking and overall responsiveness to familiar and autobiographically salient songs. These findings extend the results of previous autobiographical memory research by demonstrating the spontaneous activation of an autobiographical memory network in a naturalistic task with low retrieval demands.
The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is regarded as a region of the brain that supports self-referential processes, including the integration of sensory information with self-knowledge and the retrieval of autobiographical information. I used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel procedure for eliciting autobiographical memories with excerpts of popular music dating to one's extended childhood to test the hypothesis that music and autobiographical memories are integrated in the MPFC. Dorsal regions of the MPFC (Brodmann area 8/9) were shown to respond parametrically to the degree of autobiographical salience experienced over the course of individual 30 s excerpts. Moreover, the dorsal MPFC also responded on a second, faster timescale corresponding to the signature movements of the musical excerpts through tonal space. These results suggest that the dorsal MPFC associates music and memories when we experience emotionally salient episodic memories that are triggered by familiar songs from our personal past. MPFC acted in concert with lateral prefrontal and posterior cortices both in terms of tonality tracking and overall responsiveness to familiar and autobiographically salient songs. These findings extend the results of previous autobiographical memory research by demonstrating the spontaneous activation of an autobiographical memory network in a naturalistic task with low retrieval demands. PMID:19240137
Foster, N A; Valentine, E R
Elderly individuals with mild-moderate ("high ability") or moderate ("low ability") dementia, answered autobiographical memory questions drawn from three life eras (remote, medium-remote, and recent), in familiar music, novel music, cafeteria noise or quiet. Recall was significantly better in the high-ability than the low-ability group, in sound than in quiet, and in music than in noise. Recall was significantly related to life era, declining from remote to recent memory. The superiority of recall in music compared with noise was apparent for recall from remote and medium-remote but not recent eras. The results are interpreted as favoring an explanation of the beneficial effect of auditory stimulation, predominantly in terms of enhanced arousal or attention deployment, with a possible subsidiary role for associative facilitation.
Hepner, Ilana J; Mohamed, Armin; Fulham, Michael J; Miller, Laurie A
According to Consolidation Theory (Squire, 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 195; Squire & Alvarez, 1995, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 169), the mesial temporal lobes have a time-limited role in the maintenance, storage and retrieval of retrograde declarative memories, such that they are not necessary for recalling remote memories. In contrast, proponents of the Multiple Trace Theory (Fuji, Moscovitch, & Nadel, 2000, Handbook of neuropsychology, 2nd ed., p 223, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier; Nadel & Moscovitch, 1999, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 217) posit that the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is necessary for remembering detailed autobiographical and topographical material from all time periods. A third theory of hippocampal function, the Cognitive Map Theory (O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978, The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Clarendon), states that the hippocampus is involved in the processing of allocentric spatial representations. The precise role of the MTL in remote memory has been difficult to elucidate, as the majority of studies present cases with widespread brain damage that often occurred many years prior to testing. We investigated retrograde autobiographical, semantic and topographical memories in a subject (SG) who had recently sustained infarctions confined to the MTL and retrosplenial region bilaterally. Inconsistent with the predictions of Cognitive Map Theory, memory for spatial maps that were learned in the past was preserved. Additional testing indicated that SG suffered from a landmark agnosia, which affected remotely and recently acquired information equally. SG was also poor at imagining which direction he would have to turn his body to move from one landmark to another. In accordance with Consolidation Theory, SG performed similarly to control subjects for remote time periods on various measures of retrograde autobiographical memory and demonstrated intact knowledge regarding famous faces and vocabulary terms that were acquired in
Janssen, S.M.J.; Kristo, G.; Rouw, R.; Murre, J.M.J.
The basic-systems approach (Rubin, 2005, 2006) states that autobiographical memory is supported by other cognitive systems and argues that autobiographical memories are constructed from interactions between cognitive systems, such as language, vision and emotion. Although deficiencies in one or more
Rathbone, Clare J; Moulin, Chris J A
Autobiographical memory is widely considered to be fundamentally related to concepts of self and identity. However, few studies have sought to test models of self and memory directly using experimental designs. Using a novel autobiographical fluency paradigm, the present study investigated memory accessibility for different levels of self-related knowledge. Forty participants generated 20 "I am" statements about themselves, from which the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th were used as cues in a two-minute autobiographical fluency task. The most salient aspects of the self, measured by both serial position and ratings of personal significance, were associated with more accessible sets of autobiographical memories. This finding supports theories that view the self as a powerful organizational structure in memory. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory.
Lin, Wen-Jing; Horner, Aidan J; Burgess, Neil
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been consistently implicated in autobiographical memory recall and decision making. Its function in decision making tasks is believed to relate to value representation, but its function in autobiographical memory recall is not yet clear. We hypothesised that the mPFC represents the subjective value of elements during autobiographical memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical memory recall task, we found that the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was parametrically modulated by the affective values of items in participants' memories when they were recalling and evaluating these items. An unrelated modulation by the participant's familiarity with the items was also observed. During retrieval of the event, the BOLD signal in the same region was modulated by the personal significance and emotional intensity of the memory, which was correlated with the values of the items within them. These results support the idea that vmPFC processes self-relevant information, and suggest that it is involved in representing the personal emotional values of the elements comprising autobiographical memories.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe
facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby......The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...
Herfurth, Kirsten; Kasper, Burkhard; Schwarz, Michael; Stefan, Hermann; Pauli, Elisabeth
The present study was aimed at investigating the impact of hippocampal and temporal cortical lesions on remote autobiographical memories in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Episodic specificity, episodic richness, and personal semantic memory from different life periods were assessed using a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) (M.D. Kopelman, A.E. Wilson, A. Baddeley, The autobiographical memory interview. Bury St. Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Co.; 1990) in 47 patients with unilateral mesial or lateral TLE and 38 healthy controls. Patients with TLE performed significantly more poorly than controls. Patients with left and right mTLE were equally moderately impaired, but patients with left lateral TLE had the most severe episodic memory deficits, particularly for childhood memories. With respect to personal semantic memory, patients with left TLE were significantly more impaired than those with right TLE, most pronounced for childhood memories. Both autobiographical memory aspects, episodic and personal semantic memory, were significantly intercorrelated, but both did not correlate with anterograde memory, indicating a structural dissociation between both functions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harvey J. Sagar
Full Text Available Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is relatively preserved in dementia, possibly reflecting integrity of semantic relative to episodic memory. We examined recall of specific, consistent autobiographical episodes in Alzheimer's disease (AD in response to cue words. Patients and control subjects drew most memories from the recent 20 years: episode age related to anterograde memory function but not subject age or dementia. Subjects also related a secondary peak of memories from early adulthood; episode age related to subject age and severity of dementia. The results suggest that preferential recall of memories from early adulthood is based on the salience of retrieval cues, altered by age and dementia, superimposed on a temporal gradient of semantic memory. Further, AD shows behavioural similarity to normal ageing.
St Jacques, Peggy L; Szpunar, Karl K; Schacter, Daniel L
The dynamic and flexible nature of memories is evident in our ability to adopt multiple visual perspectives. Although autobiographical memories are typically encoded from the visual perspective of our own eyes they can be retrieved from the perspective of an observer looking at our self. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of shifting visual perspective during long-term memory retrieval and its influence on online and subsequent memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants generated specific autobiographical memories from the last five years and rated their visual perspective. In a separate fMRI session, they were asked to retrieve the memories across three repetitions while maintaining the same visual perspective as their initial rating or by shifting to an alternative perspective. Visual perspective shifting during autobiographical memory retrieval was supported by a linear decrease in neural recruitment across repetitions in the posterior parietal cortices. Additional analyses revealed that the precuneus, in particular, contributed to both online and subsequent changes in the phenomenology of memories. Our findings show that flexibly shifting egocentric perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval is supported by the precuneus, and suggest that this manipulation of mental imagery during retrieval has consequences for how memories are retrieved and later remembered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The “cry of pain” model for suicidal behavior has received empirical support in studies of several mental disorders. As the first of its kind this study aims at investigating the association between overgeneral autobiographical memory, a vital aspect in the “cry of pain” model, and suicidal behavior in Bipolar Disorder. Further, this study seeks to explore the association between overgeneral autobiographical memory and hopelessness and exposure to trauma. Individuals with previous sui...
Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.
By assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772–780.
Full Text Available The story of our lifetime - our narrative self - is constructed from our autobiographical memories. A central claim of social psychology is that this narrative self is inherently social: When we construct our lives, we do so in a real or imagined interaction. This predicts that self-referential processes which are involved in recall of autobiographical memories overlap with processes involved in social interactions. Indeed, previous functional MRI studies indicate that regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are activated during autobiographical memory recall and virtual communication. However, no fMRI study has investigated recall of autobiographical memories in a real-life interaction. We developed a novel paradigm in which participants overtly reported self-related and other-related memories to an experimenter, whose non-verbal reactions were being filmed and online displayed to the participants in the scanner. We found that recall of autobiographical vs. non-autobiographical memories was associated with activation of the mPFC, as was recall in the social as compared to a non-social control condition; however, both contrasts involved different non-overlapping regions within the mPFC. These results indicate that self-referential processes involved in autobiographical memory recall are different from processes supporting social interactions, and argue against the hypothesis that autobiographical memories are inherently social.
Cassol, Helena; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial
Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one’s life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the construction of such narratives. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants approached a set of personally significant memories in two different ways: in some trials, they remembered the concrete content of the events (autobiographical remembering), whereas in other trials they reflected on the broader meaning and implications of their memories (autobiographical reasoning). Relative to remembering, autobiographical reasoning recruited a left-lateralized network involved in conceptual processing [including the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus]. The ventral MPFC—an area that may function to generate personal/affective meaning—was not consistently engaged during autobiographical reasoning across participants but, interestingly, the activity of this region was modulated by individual differences in interest and willingness to engage in self-reflection. These findings support the notion that autobiographical reasoning and the construction of personal narratives go beyond mere remembering in that they require deriving meaning and value from past experiences. PMID:23482628
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory is commonly impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, little is known about the very recent past which is though highly important in daily life adaptation. In addition, the impact of sleep disturbances, also frequently reported in AD, on the consolidation and retrieval of autobiographical memories remains to be assessed. Using an adaptation of the TEMPau task, we investigated the neural substrates of autobiographical memory for recent events and the potential relationship with sleep in 14 patients with mild AD. On day 1, autobiographical memory was explored across 3 periods: remote (18-30 years, the last two years and the last month. After testing, sleep was recorded using polysomnography. The next day, AD patients benefited a resting state 18FDG-PET scan and a second exploration of autobiographical memory, focusing on the very recent past (today and yesterday. Total recall and episodic recall scores were obtained. In addition, for all events recalled, Remember responses justified by specific factual, spatial and temporal details were measured using the Remember/Know paradigm. Retrieval of autobiographical memories was impaired in AD, but recall of young adulthood and very recent events was relatively better compared to the two intermediate periods. Recall of recent events (experienced the day and the day preceding the assessment was correlated with brain glucose consumption in the precuneus and retrosplenial cortex, the calcarine region, the angular gyrus and lateral temporal areas. AD patients also provided more Justified Remember responses for events experienced the previous day than for those experienced the day of the assessment. Moreover, Justified Remember responses obtained for events experienced before sleep were positively correlated with the amount of slow-wave sleep. These data provide the first evidence of an association between the ability to retrieve recent autobiographical memories and sleep in mild
Schulkind, Matthew D; Woldorf, Gillian M
The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal cues were associated with reduced response latencies. A significant bias to report positive memories was observed, especially for the older adults, but neither the distribution of memories across the life span nor response latencies varied across memories differing in valence or arousal. These data indicate that emotional information can serve as effective cues for autobiographical memories and that autobiographical memories are organized in terms of emotional valence but not emotional arousal. Thus, current theories of autobiographical memory must be expanded to include emotional valence as a primary dimension of organization.
Moss, H E; Kopelman, M D; Cappelletti, M; Davies, P de Mornay; Jaldow, E
Recent reports have suggested that patients with semantic dementia show a loss of early (remote) auto-biographical memories with pronounced sparing of recent memories (Graham & Hodges, 1997; Snowden, Griffiths, & Neary, 1996), i.e., a 'reversed' temporal gradient or 'Ribot effect'. At first sight, these findings suggest that the deficits in 'semantic' dementia go beyond the semantic domain, involving aspects of autobiographical (episodic) memory. It has also been proposed that there is a 'step-like' function with personal memories preserved for 18 months to 2 years in the immediate past. This view is consistent with the theory that the hippocampal complex/medial temporal lobe (relatively intact in semantic dementia) plays a time-limited role in the acquisition and storage of memories, while the temporal neocortex (damaged in semantic dementia) is required for long-term storage and retrieval. In this study we ask whether (a) previous tests have underestimated the integrity of remote memory in semantic dementia as a result of not allowing for these patients' comprehension and language production difficulties, and (b) whether a recency effect, if obtained, is genuinely step-like or more graded. We used a cued autobiographical memory interview with semantic dementia patient, IH, to examine the effect of providing increasingly specific lexical cues to probe salient events throughout his lifespan. Results demonstrated that the provision of specific cues enabled IH to access and express memories from his childhood and early adulthood as well as from more recent times. There was a gentle recency effect only for intermediate levels of cueing, indicating that recent memories were easier to retrieve and/or express in the absence of specific cues, but this effect was graded, with no evidence of a step-like cut-off at 18 months or 2 years before testing. In brief, our findings are consistent with the view that the deficits in semantic dementia are predominantly or exclusively
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus volunta...... concern related involuntary and voluntary memories. The findings support the view that involuntary and voluntary remembering is subject to similar motivational constraints.......Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...
Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip
Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D.
Using a novel autobiographical think/no-think procedure (ATNT; a modified version of the think/no-think task), 2 studies explored the extent to which we possess executive control over autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 30 never-depressed participants generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories. Memories associated with…
Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition......, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection reviews and integrates current theories on autobiographical memory when viewed in a clinical perspective....... It presents an overview of basic applied and clinical approaches to autobiographical memory, covering memory specificity, traumatic memories, involuntary and intrusive memories, and the role of self-identity. The book discusses a wide range of psychological disorders, including depression, posttraumatic...
Full Text Available Background: Despite some studies indicating improving role of stress on memory consolidation, very few animal and human studies show that stress impairs reconsolidation of memories. This study aimed to determine the effect of stress on autobiographical memory reconsolidation.Materials and Methods: The present study was done with an experimental method (Solomon Four-Group design. The statistical society of this study was all undergraduate female students in 2009-2010 academic year at Tabriz University. Forty students were selected using random cluster sampling, and we ensure about their physical and mental health by GHQ-28 and interview. Tools for this study were cueing autobiographical memory test, SECPT (for raising blood pressure and stress induction, autobiographical memory test, PANAS and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. MANOVA was used for data analysis by SPSS-17.Results: The results show that stress after activation of memory impairs memory for neutral events (p0.05. None of stress and memory activation alone had effect on memory performance (p>0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicate that stress impairs autobiographical memory reconsolidation, which is opposite to its effects on memory consolidation, so it supports the view that consolidation and reconsolidation are separate process.
Fitzgerald, Joseph M; Broadbridge, Carissa L
Many researchers employ single-item scales of subjective experiences such as imagery and confidence to assess autobiographical memory. We tested the hypothesis that four latent constructs, recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, account for the variance in commonly used scales across four different types of autobiographical memory: earliest childhood memory, cue word memory of personal experience, highly vivid memory, and most stressful memory. Participants rated each memory on scales hypothesised to be indicators of one of four latent constructs. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses and structural analyses confirmed the similarity of the latent constructs of recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, as well as the similarity of the structural relationships among those constructs across memory type. The observed pattern of mean differences between the varieties of autobiographical experiences was consistent with prior research and theory in the study of autobiographical memory.
Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Bocharov, Andrey V; Dorosheva, Elena A; Tamozhnikov, Sergey S; Saprigyn, Alexander E
Recollection of events from one's own life is referred to as autobiographical memory. Autobiographical memory is an important part of our self. Neuroimaging findings link self-referential processes with the default mode network (DMN). Much evidence coming primarily from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies shows that autobiographical memory and DMN have a common neural base. In this study, electroencephalographic data collected in 47 participants during recollection of autobiographical episodes were analyzed using temporal and spatial independent component analyses in combination with source localization. Autobiographical remembering was associated with an increase of spectral power in alpha and beta and a decrease in delta band. The increase of alpha power, as estimated by sLORETA, was most prominent in the posterior DMN, but was also observed in visual and motor cortices, prompting an assumption that it is associated with activation of DMN and inhibition of irrelevant sensory and motor areas. In line with data linking delta oscillations with aversive states, decrease of delta power was more pronounced in episodes associated with positive emotions, whereas episodes associated with negative emotions were accompanied by an increase of delta power. Vividness of recollection correlated positively with theta oscillations. These results highlight the leading role of alpha oscillations and the DMN in the processes accompanying autobiographical remembering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne
Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chu, Simon; Downes, John J
The Proust phenomenon is an enduring piece of folk wisdom that asserts that odors are particularly powerful autobiographical memory cues. We provide a more formal exposition of this phenomenon and test it in two experiments, using a novel double-cuing methodology designed to negate less interesting explanations. In both studies, recall of an autobiographical event was initially cued by a verbal label (an odor name) for a fixed period, following which a second, extended recall attempt was cued by the same verbal label, the relevant odor, an irrelevant odor, or a visual cue. The focus of Experiment 1 was participants' ratings of the emotional quality of their autobiographical memories. In Experiment 2, content analysis was employed to determine the quantity of information in participants' recollections. Results revealed that odor-cued autobiographical memories were reliably different in terms of qualitative ratings and reliably superior in the amount of detail yielded. Moreover, visual cues and incongruent olfactory cues appeared to have a detrimental effect on the amount of detail recalled. These results support the proposal that odors are especially effective as reminders of past experience.
Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan
Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk
Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.
Svoboda, Eva; Levine, Brian
This study examined the effects of rehearsal on the neural substrates supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Stimuli were collected prospectively using audio recordings, thereby bringing under experimental control ecologically-valid, naturalistic autobiographical stimuli. Participants documented both autobiographical and semantic stimuli over a period of 6 to 8 months, followed by a rehearsal manipulation during the three days preceding scanning. During fMRI scanning participants were exposed to recordings that they were hearing for the first, second or eighth time. Rehearsal increased the rated vividness with which information was remembered, particularly for autobiographical events. Neuroimaging findings revealed rehearsal-related suppression of activation in regions supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Episodic autobiographical and semantic memory produced distinctly different patterns of regional activation that held even after eight repetitions. Region of interest analyses further indicated a functional anatomical dissociation in response to rehearsal and memory conditions. These findings revealed that the hippocampus was specifically engaged by episodic autobiographical memory, whereas both memory conditions engaged the parahippocampal cortex. Our data suggest that when retrieval cues are potent enough to engage a vivid episodic recollection, the episodic/semantic dissociation within medial temporal lobe structures endure even with multiple stimulus repetitions. These findings support the Multiple Trace Theory (MTT) which predicts that the hippocampus is engaged in the retrieval of rich episodic recollection regardless of repeated reactivation such as that occurring with the passage of time. PMID:19279244
Marie M. P. Vandekerckhove
Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to study the neural correlates of neutral, stressful, negative and positive autobiographical memories. The brain activity produced by these different kinds of episodic memory did not differ significantly, but a common pattern of activation for different kinds of autobiographical memory was revealed that included (1 largely bilateral portions of the medial and superior temporal lobes, hippocampus and parahippocampus, (2 portions of the ventral, medial, superior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, (3 the anterior and posterior cingulate, including the retrosplenial, cortex, (4 the parietal cortex, and (5 portions of the cerebellum. The brain regions that were mainly activated constituted an interactive network of temporal and prefrontal areas associated with structures of the extended limbic system. The main bilateral activations with left-sided preponderance probably reflected reactivation of complex semantic and episodic self-related information representations that included previously experienced contexts. In conclusion, the earlier view of a strict left versus right prefrontal laterality in the retrieval of semantic as opposed to episodic autobiographical memory, may have to be modified by considering contextual variables such as task demands and subject variables. Consequently, autobiographical memory integration should be viewed as based on distributed bi-hemispheric neural networks supporting multi-modal, emotionally coloured components of personal episodes.
Chin, Taylor; Ward, Jamie
People with synaesthesia have enhanced memory on a wide range of laboratory tests of episodic memory, but very little is known about their real-world memory. This study used a standard measure of autobiographical remembering (the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, AMQ) considering four constructs (Recollection, Belief, Impact and Rehearsal) and two time periods (recent memories from adulthood, remote memories from childhood). Synaesthetes reported more Recollection (e.g., sensory detail) and Belief (e.g., confidence) which interacted with time, such that remote memories are reported to be comparatively better preserved in synaesthetes. This cannot be explained by synaesthetes recalling more salient episodes (the groups did not differ in Impact). It suggests instead that childhood memories have a special status in synaesthesia that reflects the different neurodevelopmental trajectory of this group. With regards to Rehearsal, controls tended to report that more recent memories tend to resurface (i.e., adulthood > childhood), but the synaesthetes showed the opposite dissociation (i.e., childhood > adulthood).
Antalikova, Radka; de la Mata, Manuel; Santamaría, Andrés
Systematic cross-cultural variation in autobiographical memory has been demonstrated in previous research. This variation has been interpreted as mirroring differences in culturally diverging self-conceptions, implying that content characteristics of autobiographical memories can be used...... to capture how the self is present, and presented, in autobiographical memory in a more nuanced way than done in previous research. Hence, the system could be applicable for use in studies with a variety of culturally diverse populations....
Schulkind, Matthew D; Rahhal, Tamara A; Klein, Megan R; Lacher, Samantha R
Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories are over-general and are organised according to life periods. One experiment assessed the specificity and organisation of autobiographical memory by manipulating two variables. The retrieval cues were either a set of three words (a theme, a time period, and an emotional valence) or a short narrative that included a specific theme, time period, and emotional valence. The instructions either encouraged the participants to respond as though they were conversing with a friend (social instructions) or did not specify a target audience (standard instructions). Narrative cues and standard instructions elicited more specific responses than word cues and social instructions, respectively. Whereas word cues elicited memories that were most likely to match the cues in terms of time period, narrative cues elicited memories that were most likely to match the cues in terms of theme. These data suggest that previous research underestimated the specificity of the autobiographical knowledge base and overestimated the importance of temporally defined life periods for organising autobiographical memory. Previous conclusions regarding the specificity and organisation of autobiographical memory may reflect the structure of autobiographical narratives and the methodologies used to collect such narratives rather than the content of autobiographical memory itself.
Lin, W. J.; Horner, A. J.; Burgess, N.
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been consistently implicated in autobiographical memory recall and decision making. Its function in decision making tasks is believed to relate to value representation, but its function in autobiographical memory recall is not yet clear. We hypothesised that the mPFC represents the subjective value of elements during autobiographical memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical memory recall task, we found tha...
Fuentes, Amanda; Desrocher, Mary
Despite consistent evidence that women exhibit greater episodic memory specificity than men, little attention has been paid to gender differences in the production of episodic details during autobiographical recall under conditions of high and low retrieval support. Similarly the role of gender on the production of semantic details used to support autobiographical memory recollections of specific events has been largely unexplored. In the present study an undergraduate sample of 50 men and 50 women were assessed using the Autobiographical Interview (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002). Women recalled more episodic information compared to men in the high retrieval support condition, whereas no gender differences were found in the low retrieval support condition. In addition, women produced more repetitions compared to men in the high retrieval support condition. No gender differences were found in the production of semantic details. These results are interpreted in terms of gender differences in encoding and reminiscence practices. This research adds to the literature on gender differences in memory recall and suggests that gender is an important variable in explaining individual differences in AM recall.
Svoboda, Eva; Levine, Brian
This study examined the effects of rehearsal on the neural substrates supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Stimuli were collected prospectively using audio recordings, thereby bringing under experimental control ecologically valid, naturalistic autobiographical stimuli. Participants documented both autobiographical and semantic stimuli over a period of 6-8 months, followed by a rehearsal manipulation during the 3 d preceding scanning. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants were exposed to recordings that they were hearing for the first, second, or eighth time. Rehearsal increased the rated vividness with which information was remembered, particularly for autobiographical events. Neuroimaging findings revealed rehearsal-related suppression of activation in regions supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Episodic autobiographical and semantic memory produced distinctly different patterns of regional activation that held even after eight repetitions. Region of interest analyses further indicated a functional anatomical dissociation in response to rehearsal and memory conditions. These findings revealed that the hippocampus was specifically engaged by episodic autobiographical memory, whereas both memory conditions engaged the parahippocampal cortex. Our data suggest that, when retrieval cues are potent enough to engage a vivid episodic recollection, the episodic/semantic dissociation within medial temporal lobe structures endure even with multiple stimulus repetitions. These findings support the multiple trace theory, which predicts that the hippocampus is engaged in the retrieval of rich episodic recollection regardless of repeated reactivation such as that occurring with the passage of time.
Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA
Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...
Lemogne, C; Piolino, P; Jouvent, R; Allilaire, J-F; Fossati, P
Autobiographical memory and personal identity (self) are linked by a reciprocal relationship. Autobiographical memory is critical for both grounding and changing the self. Individuals' current self-views, beliefs, and goals influence their recollections of the past. According to Tulving, episodic memory is characterized by autonoetic consciousness, which is associated with a sense of the self in the past (emotions and goals) and mental reliving of an experience. Its close relationship with self and emotion strongly involves episodic autobiographical memory in the psychopathology of depression. However, due to methodological and conceptual issues, little attention has been paid to episodic autobiographical memory in depression. Since the seminal work of Williams et al. 15 years ago, there is now growing interest around this issue. We reviewed the evidence for three major features of autobiographical memory functioning in depression: an increase in general memory retrieval (overgenerality), a mood-congruent memory effect and the high occurrence of intrusive memories of stressful events. Although it was first observed among suicidal patients, overgenerality is actually associated with both depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overgenerality is not associated with anxious disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or borderline personality disorder. Most of controlled studies carried out on autobiographical memory in depression rely on the Williams' Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). When presented with positive and negative cue words and asked to retrieve specific personal events, depressed patients (unlike matched controls) are less specific in their memories. They tend to recall repeated events (categorical overgeneral memories) rather than single episodes (specific memories). Overgenerality in depression is: 1) more evident with positive than with negative events (mood-congruent memory effect); 2) related to
Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A
Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.
Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.
Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a
Dutra, Tarcísio Gomes; Kurtinaitis, Laila da Camara Lima; Cantilino, Amaury; Vasconcelos, Maria Carolina Souto de; Hazin, Izabel; Sougey, Everton Botelho
This article aims to review studies focusing on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive disorders. Such characteristic has attracted attention because of its relationship with a poor ability to solve problems and to imagine the future, as well as with the maintenance and a poor prognosis of depression. Data were collected through a systematic search on LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and IBECS databases, and also on the health sciences records of Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), a Brazilian journal database, focusing on articles published between 2000 and 2010. The following keywords were used: memória autobiográfica, supergeneralização da memória autobiográfica, and memória autobiográfica e depressão in Portuguese; and autobiographical memory, overgeneral autobiographical memory, and autobiographical memory and depression in English. Following application of exclusion criteria, a total of 27 studies were reviewed. Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been investigated in several depressive disorders. However, further longitudinal studies are required to confirm the relevant role of this cognitive characteristic in anamnesis and in the treatment of mood disorders.
Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A
Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.
Autobiographical reasoning is the activity of creating relations between different parts of one's past, present, and future life and one's personality and development. It embeds personal memories in a culturally, temporally, causally, and thematically coherent life story. Prototypical autobiographical arguments are presented. Culture and socializing interactions shape the development of autobiographical reasoning especially in late childhood and adolescence. Situated at the intersection of cognitive and narrative development and autobiographical memory, autobiographical reasoning contributes to the development of personality and identity, is instrumental in efforts to cope with life events, and helps to create a shared history. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K
Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.
Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe
Recalling the past and imagining the future is thought to employ very similar cognitive mechanisms. The strategic retrieval of specific past autobiographical events has been shown to depend on executive processes, and to be affected by cue imageability. The cognitive mechanisms underlying...... that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...... of details in both memories and future thoughts, indicating the involvement of some common component processes in autobiographical memory and future thinking....
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task. Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection gave reduced sense of reliving (R responses and more familiarity (K responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness.
Noulhiane, M.; Piolino, P.; Hasboun, D.; Clemenceau, S.; Baulac, M.; Samson, S.
This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task). Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection) gave reduced sense of reliving (R) responses and more familiarity (K) responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness. PMID:18413911
Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.
Levine, Brian; Svoboda, Eva; Turner, Gary R; Mandic, Marina; Mackey, Allison
autobiographical memory network. Reductions were also evident in M.L. in association with personal semantic stimuli (e.g., recordings describing personal habits and routines). These data suggest an association between M.L.'s impoverished recollection of autobiographical material and reduced activation in midline sectors of the autobiographical memory network that support the autonoetic, first-person element of episodic memory.
Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Mothakunnel, Annu; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier; Irish, Muireann
Autobiographical memory (ABM) is typically held to comprise episodic and semantic elements, with the vast majority of studies to date focusing on profiles of episodic details in health and disease. In this context, 'non-episodic' elements are often considered to reflect semantic processing or are discounted from analyses entirely. Mounting evidence suggests that rather than reflecting one unitary entity, semantic autobiographical information may contain discrete subcomponents, which vary in their relative degree of semantic or episodic content. This study aimed to (1) review the existing literature to formally characterize the variability in analysis of 'non-episodic' content (i.e., external details) on the Autobiographical Interview and (2) use these findings to create a theoretically grounded framework for coding external details. Our review exposed discrepancies in the reporting and interpretation of external details across studies, reinforcing the need for a new, consistent approach. We validated our new external details scoring protocol (the 'NExt' taxonomy) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 18) and semantic dementia (n = 13), and 20 healthy older Control participants and compared profiles of the NExt subcategories across groups and time periods. Our results revealed increased sensitivity of the NExt taxonomy in discriminating between ABM profiles of patient groups, when compared to traditionally used internal and external detail metrics. Further, remote and recent autobiographical memories displayed distinct compositions of the NExt detail types. This study is the first to provide a fine-grained and comprehensive taxonomy to parse external details into intuitive subcategories and to validate this protocol in neurodegenerative disorders. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Waters, Theodore E A
Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type.
Ritchie, Timothy D; Batteson, Tamzin J
We examined the extent to which the perceived changes in visual imagery colorfulness impact on the affect intensity associated with ordinary autobiographical events across time. We garnered support for the hypothesis that recent events become memorial phenomena via an emotion regulation process such that positive events retained their affective pleasantness longer than negative events retained affective unpleasantness because, in part, across 2 weeks the former retained their imagery colorfulness longer than the latter events did. A similar but distinct model was unsupported. We discuss the significance of imagery colorfulness and affect intensity in the context of memory for everyday autobiographical events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.
The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...
Bryant, Richard A; Bali, Agnes
Although much research indicates that proximity to attachment figures confers many psychological benefits, there is little evidence pertaining to how attachment activation may impact autobiographical memory retrieval. Following a negative mood induction to elicit overgeneral autobiographical retrieval, participants (N = 70) were administered an induction in which they imagined a person who is a strong attachment figure or an acquaintance. Participants then completed an autobiographical memory task to retrieve memories in response to neutral and negative cue words. Attachment priming resulted in less distress, increased retrieval of specific memories, and reduced retrieval of categoric memories. These findings indicate that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can impact on the specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval, and extends prevailing models of autobiographical memory by integrating them with attachment theory.
Involuntary autobiographical memories are memories of personal experiences that pop into mind without a conscious attempt at their retrieval. This study investigated individual differences in the number of involuntary autobiographical memories, and explored the relationship between the frequency of occurrence in involuntary autobiographical memory and cognitive failures in everyday memory, as indexed by metamemory questionnaires. A total of 24 undergraduate students reported involuntary autobiographical memories in controlled field interviews, and completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. The results showed that, despite controlled conditions, considerable individual differences were observed in the number of involuntary autobiographical memories reported while walking along a prescribed route on the campus, and that reported memories were predominantly serving self function. In addition, the number of involuntary autobiographical memories was positively related to cognitive failures in everyday memory: participants who acknowledged more problems in everyday memory had a higher frequency of involuntary memories. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the complementary function of involuntary autobiographical memory in everyday life.
Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T.; Stey, Paul C.
"Overgeneral memory" refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in…
Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C
In healthy individuals, autobiographical memory recall is biased toward positive and away from negative events, while the opposite is found in depressed individuals. This study examined amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a putative mechanism underlying biased memory recall and depressive symptoms in currently depressed adults and two vulnerable populations: individuals remitted from depression and otherwise healthy individuals at high familial risk of developing depression. Identification of such vulnerability factors could enable interception strategies that prevent depression onset. Sixty healthy control subjects, 45 unmedicated currently depressed individuals, 25 unmedicated remitted depressed individuals, and 30 individuals at high familial risk of developing depression underwent functional MRI while recalling autobiographical memories in response to emotionally valenced cue words. Amygdala reactivity and connectivity with anatomically defined amygdala regions were examined. During positive recall, depressed participants exhibited significantly decreased left amygdala activity and decreased connectivity with regions of the salience network compared with the other groups. During negative recall, control subjects had significantly decreased left amygdala activity compared with the other groups, while depressed participants exhibited increased amygdala connectivity with the salience network. In depressed participants, left amygdala activity during positive recall correlated significantly with depression severity (r values >-0.38) and percent of positive specific memories recalled (r values >0.59). The results suggest that left amygdala hyperactivity during negative autobiographical recall is a trait-like marker of depression, as both vulnerable groups showed activity similar to the depressed group, while amygdala hypoactivity during positive autobiographical recall is a state marker of depression manifesting in active disease. Treatments
Ekaterina A. Esenina
Full Text Available Anastasia Tsvetayeva’s literary work can be largely defined as autobiographical. Her first pen probe, “Royal reflections,” is a philosophical essay where the author represents herself as a “theomachist” and the debunker of all moral values. Later, Tsvetaeva ventured into the genre of autobiographical novel, yet her novel may be called “autobiographical” only with some reservations. On the one hand, this work reflects real facts of the author’s life. On the other, the narrator, at some points, deliberately departs from truth, obscures and alters the facts, pursuing specific aims. The elements of autobiographical mythmak- ing may be found in the Memoirs of Anastasia Tsvetayeva that would be worthwhile to compare with the autobiographical prose of her elder sister Marina.
Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv
Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant - memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this 'threshold hypothesis'. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions to report only memories) on the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. Participants were instructed to (1) intentionally retrieve autobiographical memories, (2) intentionally retrieve any type of thought (3) wait for an autobiographical memory to spontaneously appear, or (4) wait for any type of thought to spontaneously appear. They rated the mental content on a number of phenomenological characteristics both during retrieval and retrospectively following retrieval. The results support the prediction that highly accessible memories mostly enter awareness unintended and without selective monitoring, while memories with low accessibility rely on intention and selective monitoring. We discuss the implications of these effects. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett
By assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772-780. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x ] aims to determine which of two contrasting statements is true. To efficiently run well-powered aIAT experiments, we propose a web-based aIAT (web-aIAT). Experiment 1 (n = 522) is a web-based replication study of the first published aIAT study [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772-780. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x ; Experiment 1]. We conclude that the replication was successful as the web-based aIAT could accurately detect which of two playing cards participants chose (AUC = .88; Hit rate = 81%). In Experiment 2 (n = 424), we investigated whether the use of affirmative versus negative sentences may partly explain the variability in aIAT accuracy findings. The aIAT could detect the chosen card when using affirmative (AUC = .90; Hit rate = 81%), but not when using negative sentences (AUC = .60; Hit rate = 53%). The web-based aIAT seems to be a valuable tool to facilitate aIAT research and may help to further identify moderators of the test's accuracy.
Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J
The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.
Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki
The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.
Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki
The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312
Full Text Available The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.
Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Genevieve; Bois, Katy
The present research examined the role of autobiographical memory networks on negative emotional experiences. Results from 2 studies found support for an active but also discriminant role of autobiographical memories and their related networked memories on negative emotions. In addition, in line with self-determination theory, thwarting of the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness was found to be the critical component of autobiographical memory affecting negative emotional experiences. Study 1 revealed that need thwarting in a specific autobiographical memory network related to the theme of loss was positively associated with depressive negative emotions, but not with other negative emotions. Study 2 showed within a prospective design a differential predictive validity between 2 autobiographical memory networks (an anger-related vs. a guilt-related memory) on situational anger reactivity with respect to unfair treatment. All of these results held after controlling for neuroticism (Studies 1 and 2), self-control (Study 2), and for the valence (Study 1) and emotions (Study 2) found in the measured autobiographical memory network. These findings highlight the ongoing emotional significance of representations of need thwarting in autobiographical memory networks. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M
The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.
Wammes, Jeffrey D; Good, Tyler J; Fernandes, Myra A
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI. We first investigated whether there were observable episodic and autobiographical memory impairments associated with mTBI within an otherwise healthy young group. Next, because previous work had demonstrated some overlap in patterns of behavioral impairment in normally aging adults and younger adults with a history of mTBI (e.g. Ozen, Fernandes, Clark, & Roy, 2015), we sought to determine whether these groups displayed similar cognitive profiles. Lastly, we conducted an exploratory analysis to test whether having suffered an mTBI might exacerbate age-related cognitive decline. Results showed the expected age-related decline in episodic memory performance, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory in older adults. Importantly, this pattern was also present in younger adults with a history of remote mTBI. No differences were observed across older adult groups based on mTBI status. Logistic regression analyses, using each measure in our battery as a predictor, successfully classified mTBI status in younger participants with a high degree of specificity (79.5%). These results indicate that those who have had an mTBI demonstrate a distinct cognitive signature, characterized by impairment in episodic and autobiographical memory, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study investigated autobiographical memory for emotionally flavoured experiences in amnesia. Ten amnesic patients and 10 matched control subjects completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview and three semi-structured interviews which assessed memory for personal events associated with pain, happiness and fear. Despite retrograde amnesia for autobiographical facts and incidents, amnesics remembered a similar number of emotionally significant personal experiences as control subjects. Their recollections generally lacked elaboration and detail, but pain-related memories appeared to be more mildly impaired than memories associated with happiness and fear. The findings are discussed in relation to recent views on the relationship between affect and memory.
Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki
The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.
Tekcan, Ali Í; Yılmaz, Engin; Kızılöz, Burcu Kaya; Karadöller, Dilay Z; Mutafoğlu, Merve; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan
Although visual imagery is argued to be an essential component of autobiographical memory, there have been surprisingly few studies on autobiographical memory processes in blind individuals, who have had no or limited visual input. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how blindness affects retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories. We asked 48 congenital/early blind and 48 sighted participants to recall autobiographical memories in response to six cue words, and to fill out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire measuring a number of variables including imagery, belief and recollective experience associated with each memory. Blind participants retrieved fewer memories and reported higher auditory imagery at retrieval than sighted participants. Moreover, within the blind group, participants with total blindness reported higher auditory imagery than those with some light perception. Blind participants also assigned higher importance, belief and recollection ratings to their memories than sighted participants. Importantly, these group differences remained the same for recent as well as childhood memories.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
This symposium presents four studies that illustrate how cultural life scripts and collective transitions brought about by historical events have a strong impact on autobiographical remembering and the organization of autobiographical memories across the life span. Further, knowledge about...
Beike, Denise R; Brandon, Nicole R; Cole, Holly E
Theories of autobiographical memory posit a social function, meaning that recollecting and sharing memories of specific discrete events creates and maintains relationship intimacy. Eight studies with 1,271 participants tested whether sharing specific autobiographical memories in conversations increases feelings of closeness among conversation partners, relative to sharing other self-related information. The first 2 studies revealed that conversations in which specific autobiographical memories were shared were also accompanied by feelings of closeness among conversation partners. The next 5 studies experimentally introduced specific autobiographical memories versus general information about the self into conversations between mostly unacquainted pairs of participants. Discussing specific autobiographical memories led to greater closeness among conversation partners than discussing nonself-related topics, but no greater closeness than discussing other, more general self-related information. In the final study unacquainted pairs in whom feelings of closeness had been experimentally induced through shared humor were more likely to discuss specific autobiographical memories than unacquainted control participant pairs. We conclude that sharing specific autobiographical memories may express more than create relationship closeness, and discuss how relationship closeness may afford sharing of specific autobiographical memories by providing common ground, a social display, or a safety signal. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chiu, Connie P Y; Griffith, James W; Lenaert, Bert; Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Barry, Tom J
The CaRFAX model, proposed by Williams J. M. G. (2006. Capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and executive control (CaRFAX): Three processes that underlie overgeneral memory. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 548-568. doi: 10.1080/02699930500450465 ; Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Herman, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 122-148. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 ) posits that reduced autobiographical memory specificity, a key factor associated with the emergence and maintenance of emotional disorders, may result from heightened rumination. We provide the first meta-analysis of the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and trait rumination. PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and MEDLINE databases were searched and the following were extracted: the correlation between the number of specific memories recalled in the Autobiographical Memory Test and self-reported trait rumination scores, and its sub-factors - brooding and reflection. The pooled effect size for the correlation between memory specificity and trait rumination was small (d = -.05) and did not differ significantly from zero (p = .09). The effect sizes for the correlation with brooding and reflection were not significantly different from zero. There is limited support for the association between trait rumination and memory specificity suggested in CaRFAX.
Overgeneral memory (OGM) is a phenomenon that refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall has been commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared to those without emotional disorders. Despite significant advances in identifying…
Christina Josefa Herold
Full Text Available Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21 with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume, executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution.
Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes
Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution.
Wolf, Tabea; Zimprich, Daniel
In the present study, the distribution of autobiographical memories was examined from a functional perspective: we examined whether the extent to which long-term autobiographical memories were rated as having a self-, a directive, or a social function affects the location (mean age) and scale (standard deviation) of the memory distribution. Analyses were based on a total of 5598 autobiographical memories generated by 149 adults aged between 50 and 81 years in response to 51 cue-words. Participants provided their age at the time when the recalled events had happened and rated how frequently they recall these events for self-, directive, and social purposes. While more frequently using autobiographical memories for self-functions was associated with an earlier mean age, memories frequently shared with others showed a narrower distribution around a later mean age. The directive function, by contrast, did not affect the memory distribution. The results strengthen the assumption that experiences from an individual's late adolescence serve to maintain a sense of self-continuity throughout the lifespan. Experiences that are frequently shared with others, in contrast, stem from a narrow age range located in young adulthood.
El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall). Analysis showed lower "Mean Phenomenological Experience" in the Korsakoff patients than in controls. However, the Korsakoff patients attributed relatively high emotional value and importance to their memories. Although our findings suggest compromised phenomenological reliving of autobiographical memory in patients with KS, affective characteristics such as emotion and importance are likely to play a main role in the subjective experience of the past in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boals, Adriel; Hayslip, Bert; Banks, Jonathan B
This study examined whether older adults recollect autobiographical memories of negative events so as to minimize unpleasant emotions to a greater extent than do younger adults. A sample of healthy older adults (N = 126) and younger adults (N = 119) completed the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and a measure of PTSD symptoms in response to their most negative recalled event. Results supported the hypothesis that older adults rated their negative memories as having: 1) less of a sense of traveling back to the time the event occurred, 2) less associated visceral emotional reactions, 3) fewer associated negative emotions, and 4) fewer PTSD symptoms, all relative to younger adults. In addition, older adults exhibited higher ratings of belief in accuracy, higher ratings that the memory comes as a coherent story, and more associated positive emotions, again all relative to younger adults. After controlling for differences between the types of events younger and older adults reported and how long ago the event occurred, the above age differences remained statistically significant, though the effect sizes were attenuated in some cases. These results are consistent in their support for the positivity effect, and suggest that older adults modify their recollections of negative events in a manner that is emotionally adaptive for them.
Habermas, Tilmann; Köber, Christin
Personal identity depends on synchronic coherence and diachronic continuity of the self. Autobiographical remembering and autobiographical knowledge as well as the stability of bodily integrity, of social roles, of significant others and of physical and sociocultural environment have been suggested as supporting a pre-reflective sense of self-continuity. Stark biographical discontinuities or disruptions in these areas may destabilise the sense of self-continuity. To test the hypothesis that autobiographical reasoning in life narratives helps to compensate the effects of biographical discontinuities on the sense of self-continuity, life narratives of a lifespan sample with the ages of 16, 20, 24, 28, 44 and 69 (N = 150, 78 female) were investigated. Results confirm that if, and only if there have been biographical disruptions in the past four years, then autobiographical reasoning correlates positively with a sense of self-continuity. The findings contradict the thesis that mere remembering of past episodes is sufficient to maintain a sense of self-continuity under conditions of biographical change.
Arshamian, Artin; Iannilli, Emilia; Gerber, Johannes C; Willander, Johan; Persson, Jonas; Seo, Han-Seok; Hummel, Thomas; Larsson, Maria
Behavioral evidence indicates that odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) are older, more emotional, less thought of and induce stronger time traveling characteristics than autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by other modalities. The main aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of AMs evoked by odors as a function of retrieval cue. Participants were screened for specific OEAMs and later presented with the odor cue and its verbal referent in an fMRI paradigm. Because the same OEAM was retrieved across both cue formats (odor and word), potential cue dependent brain activations were investigated. The overall results showed that odor and word cued OEAMs activated regions typically associated with recollection of autobiographical information. Although no odors were presented, a verbal cuing of the OEAMs activated areas associated with olfactory perception (e.g., piriform cortex). However, relative to word cuing, an odor cuing of OEAMs resulted in more activity in MTL regions such as the parahippocampus, and areas involved in visual vividness (e.g., occipital gyrus and precuneus). Furthermore, odor cues activated areas related to emotional processing, such as limbic and tempopolar regions significantly more. In contrast, word cues relative to odor cues recruited a more widespread and bilateral prefrontal activity. Hippocampus activity did not vary as function of the remoteness of the memory, but recollection of OEAMs from the 1(st) vs the 2(nd) decade of life showed specific activation in the right OFC, whereas the 2(nd) reflected a higher activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil
The effects of handedness and saccadic bilateral eye movements on autobiographical recollection were investigated. Recall of autobiographical memories was cued by the use of neutral and emotional words. Autobiographical recollection was assessed by the autobiographical memory questionnaire. Experiment 1 found that mixed-handed (vs. right handed)…
Full Text Available Autobiographical narratives, which include autobiography, autobiographical novel, memoir, and chronicle, constitute a major genre in African francophone literature. Informed by history, they do not celebrate personal accomplishment, but rather accentuate the group experience. These self-stories rely on realistic representation in order to document events for future generations and function to correct stereotypical misconceptions—therein lies their political consciousness.
Yamamoto, Hiroki; Higuma, Koji; Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakuma, Masatake; Sonoda, Yukio; Kanemoto, Shigeru
Toshiba Corporation constructed e-Toshiba Operating Plant Service (e-TOPS TM ) system and began remote operation and maintenance support service for nuclear power plants. The service put into practice remote operation and maintenance by harmony of information technologies such as internet and mobile, and nuclear power measurement/diagnostic technologies and security techniques. Outline of e-TOPS TM , remote-control service, -inspection system, -diagnostic service and technologies support service are explained. Construction, objects and application effects of e-TOPS TM , remote diagnostic system using image treatment techniques, construction of device record card control system are illustrated. (S.Y.)
Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J
A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature.
Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing
The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El Haj, Mohamad; Daoudi, Mohamed; Gallouj, Karim; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
Thanks to the current advances in the software analysis of facial expressions, there is a burgeoning interest in understanding emotional facial expressions observed during the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This review describes the research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval showing distinct emotional facial expressions according to the characteristics of retrieved memoires. More specifically, this research demonstrates that the retrieval of emotional memories can trigger corresponding emotional facial expressions (e.g. positive memories may trigger positive facial expressions). Also, this study demonstrates the variations of facial expressions according to specificity, self-relevance, or past versus future direction of memory construction. Besides linking research on facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval to cognitive and affective characteristics of autobiographical memory in general, this review positions this research within the broader context research on the physiologic characteristics of autobiographical retrieval. We also provide several perspectives for clinical studies to investigate facial expressions in populations with deficits in autobiographical memory (e.g. whether autobiographical overgenerality in neurologic and psychiatric populations may trigger few emotional facial expressions). In sum, this review paper demonstrates how the evaluation of facial expressions during autobiographical retrieval may help understand the functioning and dysfunctioning of autobiographical memory.
del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe
. In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20–70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall......Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age...... autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Higher reflective and ruminative functions, as well as lower social function, predicted higher levels of PTSS. There were no moderating effects of age. The results suggest that although...
Gardner, Robert S; Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A
Autobiographical memory (AM) is an essential component of the human mind. Although the([A-z]+) amount and types of subjective detail (content) that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info), an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features), e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18-78 years old) to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ∼16% more details (∼25 vs. ∼21 in typical AMs). This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile.
Robert S Gardner
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is an essential component of the human mind. Although the amount and types of subjective detail (content that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info, an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features, e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18-78 years old to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ~16% more details (~25 vs. ~21 in typical AMs. This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile.
Allen, Andrew P; Doyle, Caoilainn; Commins, Seán; Roche, Richard A P
Elucidating the impact of healthy cognitive ageing and dementia on autobiographical memory (AM) may help deepen our theoretical understanding of memory and underlying neural changes. The distinction between episodic and semantic autobiographical memory is particularly informative in this regard. Psychological interventions, particularly those involving reminiscence or music, have led to differential effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory. We propose that executive function is a key mediator of psychological therapies on autobiographical memory. We also highlight that interventions that alleviate stress and improve mood, including in major depression, can enhance autobiographical memory. Future research employing more longitudinal approaches and examining moderating factors such as gender and education level will deepen our understanding of changes in AM in later life, enhance our theoretical understanding of the neuroscience of AM and ageing, and help to develop better targeted interventions for preserving AM in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huntjens, Rafaële J. C.; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J.
Background A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Methods Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. Findings Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. Conclusion The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature. PMID:22815769
Rafaële J C Huntjens
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. METHODS: Using a concealed information task, we assessed recognition of autobiographical details in an amnesic identity. Eleven DID patients, 27 normal controls, and 23 controls simulating DID participated. Controls and simulators were matched to patients on age, education level, and type of autobiographical memory tested. FINDINGS: Although patients subjectively reported amnesia for the autobiographical details included in the task, the results indicated transfer of information between identities. CONCLUSION: The results call for a revision of the DID definition. The amnesia criterion should be modified to emphasize its subjective nature.
Carretti, Barbara; Facchini, Giulia; Nicolini, Chiara
A large body of research has demonstrated that, although specific memory activities can enhance the memory performance of healthy older adults, the extent of the increment is negatively associated with age. Conversely, few studies have examined the case of healthy elderly people not living alone. This study has two mains goals: to understand whether older adults with limited autonomy can benefit from activities devoted to increasing their episodic memory performance, and to test the efficacy of a memory training program based on autobiographical memories, in terms of transfer and maintenance effect. We postulated that being able to rely on stable autobiographical memories (intrinsically associated with emotions) would be a valuable memory aid. Memory training was given to healthy older adults (aged 75-85) living in a retirement home. Two programs were compared: in the first, participants were primed to recall autobiographical memories around certain themes, and then to complete a set of episodic memory tasks (experimental group); in the second, participants were only given the episodic tasks (control group). Both groups improved their performance from pre- to post-test. However, the experimental group reported a greater feeling of well-being after the training, and maintained the training gains relating to episodic performance after three months. Our findings suggest that specific memory activities are beneficial to elderly people living in a retirement home context. In addition, training based on reactivation of autobiographical memories is shown to produce a long-lasting effect on memory performance.
Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura
This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity.
Souchay, Celine; Smith, Sarah Jane
This study examined the effects of providing cues to facilitate autobiographical memory retrieval in Parkinson's disease. Previous findings have shown that individuals with Parkinson's disease retrieve fewer specific autobiographical memories than older adult controls. These findings are clinically significant since the quality of autobiographical memory is linked to identity and sense of self. In the current study, 16 older adults with Parkinson's disease without dementia and 16 matched older adult controls were given 3 min in which to recall autobiographical memories associated with five different time periods and to give each memory a short title. Participants were later asked to retrieve the memories in three phases: firstly in a free recall phase; secondly in response to general cues (time periods) and finally in response to specific cues (the short titles previously given). The number of memories and the quality of the memory (general or specific) was recorded in each condition. Compared with matched older adult controls, the Parkinson's disease group was impaired in retrieving the memories that they had previously given in the free recall phase and in response to general cues. The performance of the group with Parkinson's disease was only equivalent to the older adults when they retrieved memories in response to self-generated cues. The findings are discussed in relation to theories of autobiographical memory and the neuropsychology of Parkinson's disease. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas
The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in
Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter
The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fivush, Robyn; Habermas, Tilmann; Waters, Theodore E A; Zaman, Widaad
Autobiographical memory is a uniquely human form of memory that integrates individual experiences of self with cultural frames for understanding identities and lives. In this review, we present a theoretical and empirical overview of the sociocultural development of autobiographical memory, detailing the emergence of autobiographical memory during the preschool years and the formation of a life narrative during adolescence. More specifically, we present evidence that individual differences in parental reminiscing style are related to children's developing autobiographical narratives. Parents who structure more elaborated coherent personal narratives with their young children have children who, by the end of the preschool years, provide more detailed and coherent personal narratives, and show a more differentiated and coherent sense of self. Narrative structuring of autobiographical remembering follows a protracted developmental course through adolescence, as individuals develop social cognitive skills for temporal understanding and causal reasoning that allows autobiographical memories to be integrated into an overarching life narrative that defines emerging identity. In addition, adolescents begin to use culturally available canonical biographical forms, life scripts, and master narratives to construct a life story and inform their own autobiographical narrative identity. This process continues to be socially constructed in local interactions; we present exploratory evidence that parents help adolescents structure life narratives during coconstructed reminiscing and that adolescents use parents and families as a source for their own autobiographical content and structure. Ultimately, we argue that autobiography is a critical developmental skill; narrating our personal past connects us to our selves, our families, our communities, and our cultures.
Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka
Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories. Showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the prese...
EL HAJ, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios
Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. We present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographi...
Wessel, Ineke; Postma, Ineke R.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Crane, Catherine; Smets, Jorien; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Barnhofer, Thorsten
According to the CaRFAX model (Williams et al., 2007), several processes may result in overgeneral autobiographical memory. The present study examined whether the type of cue used in the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is important for illuminating relationships between autobiographical memory
Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.
Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity
El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe
Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…
El Haj, Mohamad; Roche, Jean; Gallouj, Karim; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte
Autobiographical memory refers to memory for personal information. The compromise of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in a loss of knowledge about events and facts that defined the patients' life, and consequently, degradation of their self-knowledge and sense of identity. The compromise of autobiographical memory in AD can be attributed to a diminished subjective experience of memory and a diminished sense of the self. Our review provides a comprehensive overview of cognitive and clinical processes that may be involved in difficulties to retrieve autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease. Our review also proposes a theoretical model according to which, the diminished ability to retrieve contextual information and the overgenerality of recall result in a diminished subjective experience of past and future thinking. Besides its theoretical contribution, our review proposes clinical applicability for evaluation and rehabilitation of autobiographical memory in AD.
Melendez, Juan C; Torres, Marta; Redondo, Rita; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sales, Alicia
The objective is to examine the effects of reminiscence therapy (RT) on total, episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups, testing the effects of RT on different stages of autobiographical memory, and its effectiveness at follow-up. A sample composed of 43 aMCI (27 treatments, 16 controls) and 30 AD (15 treatments, 15 controls) subjects were evaluated with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) test. The RT consisted of 10 sessions lasting 60 minutes each. Both groups, aMCI and AD, showed significant effects on overall autobiographical memory; aMCI showed significant main effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in the treatment group, increasing scores in both cases. For AD, significant effects were observed on autobiographical episodic memory, showing an increase in the treatment group from Time 1 to follow-up; semantic memory showed a decrease in the control group from Time 1 to follow-up. Results show that RT implementation and follow-up are effective in increasing autobiographical memory in subjects with aMCI and AD. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik
Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although a number of studies have been published results remain inconsistent. Furthermore, we find that many of the studies suffer from inadequate designs particularly regarding the reported measures of autobiographical memory. We discuss potential links between personality functioning, identity diffusion, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sackeim, Harold A.
Retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information is the most critical side effect of ECT. Much, if not most, modern research demonstrating long-term autobiographical amnesia following ECT has used either the Columbia University Autobiographical Memory Interview (CUAMI) or the short form of this scale (CUAMI-SF). Semkovska and McLoughlin claimed that studies using these instruments should be dismissed and the findings ignored due to a lack of normative data, as well as concerns about the re...
Autobiographical reasoning is the activity of creating relations between different parts of one's past, present, and future life and one's personality and development. It embeds personal memories in a culturally, temporally, causally, and thematically coherent life story. Prototypical autobiographical arguments are presented. Culture and…
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day. Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has developed as two largely independent research domains, even though they show much overlap. This raises some important theoretical questions. How do these two characteristics of autobiographical memory relate to each other, both theoretically and empirically? Additionally, how can the integration of these two facilitate our understanding of the importance of autobiographical memory for the self? In this article, we give a critical overview of memory specificity and memory coherence and their relation to the self. We link both features of autobiographical memory by describing some important similarities and by formulating hypotheses about how they might relate to each other. By situating both memory specificity and memory coherence within Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System, we make a first attempt at a theoretical integration. Finally, we suggest some new and exciting research possibilities and explain how both research fields could benefit
Beck, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik
Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us...... to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although......, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder....
Brandon, Nicole R; Beike, Denise R; Cole, Holly E
Autobiographical memories (AMs) can be used to create and maintain closeness with others [Alea, N., & Bluck, S. (2003). Why are you telling me that? A conceptual model of the social function of autobiographical memory. Memory, 11(2), 165-178]. However, the differential effects of memory specificity are not well established. Two studies with 148 participants tested whether the order in which autobiographical knowledge (AK) and specific episodic AM (EAM) are shared affects feelings of closeness. Participants read two memories hypothetically shared by each of four strangers. The strangers first shared either AK or an EAM, and then shared either AK or an EAM. Participants were randomly assigned to read either positive or negative AMs from the strangers. Findings suggest that people feel closer to those who share positive AMs in the same way they construct memories: starting with general and moving to specific.
Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes
Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution. PMID:25954208
Full Text Available Multiple trace theory (MTT predicts that hippocampal memory traces expand and strengthen as a function of repeated memory retrievals. We tested this hypothesis utilizing fMRI, comparing the effect of memory retrieval versus the mere passage of time on hippocampal activation. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants retrieved remote autobiographical memories that had been previously retrieved either one month earlier, two days earlier, or multiple times during the preceding month. Behavioral analyses revealed that the number and consistency of memory details retrieved increased with multiple retrievals but not with the passage of time. While all three retrieval conditions activated a similar set of brain regions normally associated with autobiographical memory retrieval including medial temporal lobe structures, hippocampal activation did not change as a function of either multiple retrievals or the passage of time. However, activation in other brain regions, including the precuneus, lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and perirhinal cortex increased after multiple retrievals, but was not influenced by the passage of time. These results have important implications for existing theories of long-term memory consolidation.
El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis
There is a substantial body of research on the relationship between emotion and autobiographical memory. Using facial analysis software, our study addressed this relationship by investigating basic emotional facial expressions that may be detected during autobiographical recall. Participants were asked to retrieve 3 autobiographical memories, each of which was triggered by one of the following cue words: happy, sad, and city. The autobiographical recall was analyzed by a software for facial analysis that detects and classifies basic emotional expressions. Analyses showed that emotional cues triggered the corresponding basic facial expressions (i.e., happy facial expression for memories cued by happy). Furthermore, we dissociated episodic and semantic retrieval, observing more emotional facial expressions during episodic than during semantic retrieval, regardless of the emotional valence of cues. Our study provides insight into facial expressions that are associated with emotional autobiographical memory. It also highlights an ecological tool to reveal physiological changes that are associated with emotion and memory.
Edouard, Sherlande; Kurczek, Jake
Edouard, S., & Kurczek, J. (2016, April). An investigation of the interaction between autobiographical memory and narrative practices. Poster Presentation at the 31st Annual LVAIC Undergraduate Psychology Conference. Bethlehem, PA. • Autobiographical memories are at the interface of memory and narrative capacities, however in the memory literature there is a debate surrounding how much these capacities contribute to autobiographical and general narrative prac...
There is a growing theoretical and empirical consensus on the central role of visual imagery in autobiographical memory. However, findings from studies that explore how individual differences in visual imagery are reflected on autobiographical thinking do not present a coherent story. One reason for the mixed findings was suggested to be the treatment of visual imagery as an undifferentiated construct while evidence shows that there is more than one type of visual imagery. The present study investigates the relative contributions of different imagery constructs; namely, object and spatial imagery, on autobiographical memory processes. Additionally, it explores whether a similar relation extends to imagining the future. The results indicate that while object imagery was significantly correlated with several phenomenological characteristics, such as the level of sensory and perceptual details for past events - but not for future events - spatial imagery predicted the level of episodic specificity for both past and future events. We interpret these findings as object imagery being recruited in tasks of autobiographical memory that employ reflective processes while spatial imagery is engaged during direct retrieval of event details. Implications for the role of visual imagery in autobiographical thinking processes are discussed.
Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe
of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced...... for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised......The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...
Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A
Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.
Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…
Griffith, James W; Sumner, Jennifer A; Raes, Filip; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Debeer, Elise; Hermans, Dirk
Autobiographical memory is a multifaceted construct that is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. The relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and psychopathology has been of particular interest, and many studies of this cognitive phenomenon rely on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess it. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Methodological recommendations and suggestions for future studies are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Viard, Armelle; Lebreton, Karine; Chételat, Gaël; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Young, Alan; De La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale
We previously demonstrated that Episodic Autobiographical Memories (EAMs) rely on a network of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and distributed neocortical regions regardless of their remoteness. The findings supported the model of memory consolidation which proposes a permanent role of MTL during EAM retrieval (Multiple-Trace Theory or MTT) rather than a temporary role (standard model). Our present aim was to expand the results by examining the interactions between the MTL and neocortical regions (or MTL-neocortical links) during EAM retrieval with varying retention intervals. We used an experimental paradigm specially designed to engage aged participants in the recollection of EAMs, extracted from five different time-periods, covering their whole life-span, in order to examine correlations between activation in the MTL and neocortical regions. The nature of the memories was checked at debriefing by means of behavioral measures to control the degree of episodicity and properties of memories. Targeted correlational analyses carried out on the MTL, frontal, lateral temporal and posterior regions revealed strong links between the MTL and neocortex during the retrieval of both recent and remote EAMs, challenging the standard model of memory consolidation and supporting MTT instead. Further confirmation was given by results showing that activation in the left and right hippocampi significantly correlated during the retrieval of both recent and remote memories. Correlations among extra-MTL neocortical regions also emerged for all time-periods, confirming the critical role of the prefrontal, temporal (lateral temporal cortex and temporal pole), precuneus and posterior cingulate regions in EAM retrieval. Overall, this paper emphasizes the role of a bilateral network of MTL and neocortical areas whose activation correlate during the recollection of rich phenomenological recent and remote EAMs. PMID:19338022
El Haj, M.; Clement, S.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of music exposure on autobiographical memory in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Our paper was aimed at revealing the linguistic characteristics of these music-evoked autobiographical narrations. Eighteen AD patients and 18
Casper, T.A.; Jong, R.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.
Major fusion experiments and modeling efforts rely on joint research of scientists from several locations around the world. A variety of software tools are in use to provide remote interactive access to facilities and data are routinely available over wide-area-network connections to researchers. Audio and video communications, monitoring of control room information and synchronization of remote sites with experimental operations all enhance participation during experiments. Remote distributed computing capabilities allow utilization of off-site computers that now help support the demands of control room analyses and plasma modeling. A collaborative software development project is currently using object technologies with CORBA-based communications to build a network executable transport code that further demonstrates the ability to utilize geographically dispersed resources. Development to extend these concepts with security and naming services and possible applications to instrumentation systems has been initiated. An Information Technology Initiative is deploying communication systems, ISDN (telephone) and IP (network) audio/video (A/V) and web browser-based, to build the infrastructure needed to support remote physics meetings, seminars and interactive discussions
Casper, T A; Jong, R A; Meyer, W H; Moller, J M
Major fusion experiments and modeling efforts rely on joint research of scientists from several locations around the world. A variety of software tools are in use to provide remote interactive access to facilities and data are routinely available over wide-area-network connections to researchers. Audio and video communications, monitoring of control room information and synchronization of remote sites with experimental operations all enhance participation during experiments. Remote distributed computing capabilities allow utilization of off-site computers that now help support the demands of control room analyses and plasma modeling. A collaborative software development project is currently using object technologies with CORBA-based communications to build a network executable transport code that further demonstrates the ability to utilize geographically dispersed resources. Development to extend these concepts with security and naming services and possible applications to instrumentation systems has been initiated. An Information Technology Initiative is deploying communication systems, ISDN (telephone) and IP (network) audio/video (A/V) and web browser-based, to build the infrastructure needed to support remote physics meetings, seminars and interactive discussions
Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Toyota, Hiroshi
The relationship between individual differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) and self-reported arousal from remembering an autobiographical emotional or neutral event was examined. Participants (N = 235; 75 men; M age = 18.7 yr., SD = 0.9, range = 18-22) were required to complete the Japanese version of the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire to assess EI. Participants were then asked to recall personal episodes from autobiographical memory, and then completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ). A group with high EI-rated, emotionally neutral episodes higher than did a group with low EI on several MCQ subscales: sound, participants, overall memory, and doubt/certainty. However, differences in ratings between the two groups were not observed for emotionally positive episodes. These results suggest that high EI is related to more effective use of weak retrieval cues when recalling neutral autobiographical memories.
Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Voerman, Gerlienke; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Remotely supported myofeedback treatment (RSMT) is considered to be a potentially valuable alternative to the conventional myofeedback treatment, as it might increase efficiency of care. This study was aimed at examining the receptiveness of potential end users (patients and professionals) with
Master's thesis in Offshore technology Based on advanced technology in condition monitoring and online sensor data, a new style of operation and maintenance management called remote operation and maintenance support services has been created to improve oil and gas E&P performance. This master thesis will look into how the remote support service is conducted including the concept, design, technology and management philosophies; the current implementation of remote support services in China,...
Full Text Available Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance.
Jorge Luiz da Cunha
Full Text Available The thematic focus in this text are the estrangement/denaturation processes in (autobiographical narrations. The aim of this study was to reflect on the possibility to promote estrangement/denatura - tion in (autobiographical writings made by teenagers in the space/ time of the classroom environment. The methodological proposal consisted on developing (autobiographical writings by students from sociology classes in High School. A total of 138 teenagers from a public school, attending the first school trimester in the year 2013, have participated in the study. The concepts of estrangement/de - naturation are located in the anthropology field and, the work with (autobiographical narrations is located in the socio-clinic perspec - tives and of biographization processes. The results indicate that (autobiographical narrations provide estrangements/denaturation and go towards teaching what one does not know. We can, then, conclude that this possibility, as an educational act, may generate knowledge suspension to self-inventiveness.
Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann
According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering.
Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G.; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K.
Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) has robust associations with psychopathology. As such, understanding the development of AMS (or its inverse, overgeneral autobiographical memory) and how it may be unique from other aspects of memory performance is important. In particular, it is unclear whether child AMS is distinct from…
Selimbegović, Leila; Régner, Isabelle; Huguet, Pascal; Chatard, Armand
Autobiographical memories are a major feature of mental life in humans. However, research on the influence of autobiographical recall on actual behaviour is scarce. We predicted and found that general memories of failure and specific memories of success resulted in worse performance than general memories of success and specific memories of failure. This performance pattern was mediated by task appraisal, suggesting that autobiographical memories (of failure and success) impact performance by shaping the perception of the upcoming task. Combined with the fact that these effects occurred even when the content of autobiographical memories was unrelated to the upcoming task, the present research represents an important step forward in understanding how autobiographical recall influences actual behaviour.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
Two studies examined the connection between motivation and autobiographical memories. We expected memories recalled in response to dieting-related cue words to be more central to the person's identity and life story and to contain more body and weight related elements for dieters than for non......-dieters. We expected no differences on memories recalled in response to neutral cue words. Study 1: 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters participated. Study 2: 18 obese dieters and 19 non-dieters participated. We conducted repeated measures tests. The hypotheses were supported, which support...
Full Text Available A comparative analysis of two autobiographical texts of two contemporaries, Julije Benešić and Josip Kosor, is based on three aspects: analysis of basic tenets of autobiographical text, use of self-references, and the presence of literary panoramas in them. Analysis reveals that both autobiographical texts are autobiographies in the narrow sense of the term, but the thoughts contained in them take the form of associations in Benešić’s, and the form of chronological-travelogue elements in Kosor’s text. In both authors’ texts the auto-text encompasses both biographic and poetic elements. However, the tenets of literary panoramas in Benešić’s text are mostly expressed through topographic and natural elements with only occasional travelogue elements, while Kosor’s autobiographical text contains prominent topographic-travelogue panoramas.
Kalin, Sally W.
Discusses the needs of remote users of online public access catalogs (OPACs). User expectations are discussed; problems encountered by remote-access users are examined, including technical problems and searching problems; support services are described, including instruction, print guides, and online help; and differences from the needs of…
Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika
Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.
Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann
This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.
Policelli, Frederick S.
Over the past 30 years, the scientific community has learned a great deal about the Earth as an integrated system. Much of this research has been enabled by the development of remote sensing technologies and their operation from space. Decision makers in many nations have begun to make use of remote sensing data for resource management, policy making, and sustainable development planning. This paper makes an attempt to provide a survey of the current state of the requirements and use of remote sensing for sustainable development in Africa. This activity has shown that there are not many climate data ready decision support tools already functioning in Africa. There are, however, endusers with known requirements who could benefit from remote sensing data.
de Leeuw, Jan; Georgiadou, P.Y.; Georgiadou, Yola; Kerle, Norman; de Gier, Alfred; Inoue, Yoshio; Ferwerda, Jelle; Smies, Maarten; Narantuya, Davaa
Limited awareness of environmental remote sensing’s potential ability to support environmental policy development constrains the technology’s utilization. This paper reviews the potential of earth observation from the perspective of environmental policy. A literature review of “remote sensing and policy” revealed that while the number of publications in this field increased almost twice as rapidly as that of remote sensing literature as a whole (15.3 versus 8.8% yr−1), there is apparently lit...
Baird, A; Samson, S
Music evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) have been characterised in the healthy population, but not, to date, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Our aim was to investigate music compared with verbal evoked autobiographical memories. Five patients with severe ABI and matched controls completed the experimental music (MEAM) task (a written questionnaire) while listening to 50 "Number 1 Songs of the Year" (from 1960 to 2010). Patients also completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and a standard neuropsychological assessment. With the exception of Case 5, who reported no MEAMs and no autobiographical incidents on the AMI and who also had impaired pitch perception, the range of frequency and type of MEAMs in patients was broadly in keeping with their matched controls. The relative preservation of MEAMs in four cases was particularly noteworthy given their impaired verbal and/or visual anterograde memory, and in three cases, autobiographical memory impairment. The majority of MEAMs in both cases and matched controls were of a person/people or a period of life. In three patients music was more efficient at evoking autobiographical memories than the AMI verbal prompts. This is the first study of MEAMs after ABI. The findings suggest that music is an effective stimulus for eliciting autobiographical memories, and may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of autobiographical amnesia, but only in patients without a fundamental deficit in autobiographical recall memory and intact pitch perception.
Fuentemilla, L; Barnes, G R; Düzel, E; Levine, B
Remembering autobiographical events can be associated with detailed visual imagery. The medial temporal lobe (MTL), precuneus and prefrontal cortex are held to jointly enable such vivid retrieval, but how these regions are orchestrated remains unclear. An influential prediction from animal physiology is that neural oscillations in theta frequency may be important. In this experiment, participants prospectively collected audio recordings describing personal autobiographical episodes or semantic knowledge over 2 to 7 months. These were replayed as memory retrieval cues while recording brain activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). We identified a peak of theta power within a left MTL region of interest during both autobiographical and General Semantic retrieval. This MTL region was selectively phase-synchronized with theta oscillations in precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and this synchrony was higher during autobiographical as compared to General Semantic knowledge retrieval. Higher synchrony also predicted more detailed visual imagery during retrieval. Thus, theta phase-synchrony orchestrates in humans the MTL with a distributed neocortical memory network when vividly remembering autobiographical experiences. © 2013.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce the reader to autobiographical biblical criticism. Autobiographical biblical criticism entails an explicitly autobiographical performance within the act of criticism. Autobiographical biblical criticism is to implement personal criticism as a form of self-disclosure, wittingly, while reading a text as a critical exegete. It thus has to do with a willing, knowledgeable, outspoken involvement on the part of the critic with the subject matter. This phenomenon is a natural consequence of the postmodern shift towards a personal spirituality. These issues are investigated and the phenomenon of this exegetical method is evaluated in the article.
El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Antoine, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel; Lenoble, Quentin
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades. Positive and negative retrieval triggered similar eye movement (i.e., similar number of fixations and saccades, fixation duration, duration of saccades, and amplitude of saccades). Interestingly, the participants reported higher visual imagery for emotional memories than for neutral memories. The findings demonstrate similarities and differences in eye movement during retrieval of neutral and emotional memories. Eye movement during autobiographical retrieval seems to be triggered by the creation of visual mental images as the latter are indexed by autobiographical reconstruction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Scoboria, Alan; Boucher, Chantal; Mazzoni, Giuliana
Previous studies have shown that many people hold personal memories for events that they no longer believe occurred. This study examines the reasons that people provide for choosing to reduce autobiographical belief in vividly recollected autobiographical memories. A body of non-believed memories provided by 374 individuals was reviewed to develop a qualitatively derived categorisation system. The final scheme consisted of 8 major categories (in descending order of mention): social feedback, event plausibility, alternative attributions, general memory beliefs, internal event features, consistency with external evidence, views of self/others, personal motivation and numerous sub-categories. Independent raters coded the reports and judged the primary reason that each person provided for withdrawing belief. The nature of each category, frequency of category endorsement, category overlap and phenomenological ratings are presented, following which links to related literature and implications are discussed. This study documents that a wide variety of recollective and non-recollective sources of information influence decision-making about the occurrence of autobiographical events.
Allé, Mélissa C; Manning, Liliann; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice
Autobiographical memory, central in human cognition and every day functioning, enables past experienced events to be remembered. A variety of disorders affecting autobiographical memory are characterized by the difficulty of retrieving specific detailed memories of past personal events. Owing to the impact of autobiographical memory impairment on patients' daily life, it is necessary to better understand these deficits and develop relevant methods to improve autobiographical memory. The primary objective of the present systematic PRISMA review was to give an overview of the first empirical evidence of the potential of wearable cameras in autobiographical memory investigation in remediating autobiographical memory impairments. The peer-reviewed literature published since 2004 on the usefulness of wearable cameras in research protocols was explored in 3 databases (PUBMED, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar). Twenty-eight published studies that used a protocol involving wearable camera, either to explore wearable camera functioning and impact on daily life, or to investigate autobiographical memory processing or remediate autobiographical memory impairment, were included. This review analyzed the potential of wearable cameras for 1) investigating autobiographical memory processes in healthy volunteers without memory impairment and in clinical populations, and 2) remediating autobiographical memory in patients with various kinds of memory disorder. Mechanisms to account for the efficacy of wearable cameras are also discussed. The review concludes by discussing certain limitations inherent to using cameras, and new research perspectives. Finally, ethical issues raised by this new technology are considered.
El Haj, M.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.
The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E.; Fanuele, Suzanne
Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the…
Rasmussen, Anne Scharling
It has been proposed that autobiographical memory contains three broad functions: The directive function, the self-function and the social function. The purpose of the present study is to examine if this tripartite model reflect on both singular memories and personality traits.......It has been proposed that autobiographical memory contains three broad functions: The directive function, the self-function and the social function. The purpose of the present study is to examine if this tripartite model reflect on both singular memories and personality traits....
Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil
Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory) and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory) over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods) but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance.
El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe
The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El Haj, Mohamad; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Antoine, Pascal
Multiple studies have shown compromise of autobiographical memory and phenomenological reliving in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated various phenomenological features of autobiographical memory to determine their relative vulnerability in AD. To this aim, participants with early AD and cognitively normal older adult controls were asked to retrieve an autobiographical event and rate on a five-point scale metacognitive judgments (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, and realness), component processes (i.e., visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, and emotion), narrative properties (i.e., rehearsal and importance), and spatiotemporal specificity (i.e., spatial details and temporal details). AD participants showed lower general autobiographical recall than controls, and poorer reliving, travel in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, rehearsal, and spatial detail-a decrease that was especially pronounced for visual imagery. Yet, AD participants showed high rating for emotion and importance. Early AD seems to compromise many phenomenological features, especially visual imagery, but also seems to preserve some other features.
Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael
Previous research has raised questions regarding the necessity of the frontal cortex in autobiographical memory and the role that it plays in actively retrieving contextual information associated with personally relevant events. Autobiographical memory was studied in patients with unilateral excisions restricted to the frontal cortex or temporal lobe involving the amygdalo-hippocampal region and in normal controls using an event-sampling method. We examined accuracy of free recall, use of strategies during retrieval and memory for specific aspects of the autobiographical events, including temporal order. Patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired in autobiographical recall. By contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions exhibited normal autobiographical recall but were less likely to use temporal order spontaneously to organize event retrieval. Instruction to organize retrieval by temporal order failed to improve recall in temporal lobe patients and increased the incidence of plausible intrusion errors in left temporal patients. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions now surpassed control subjects in recall of autobiographical events. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy for the temporal order of diary events was not impaired in these patients. In a subsequent cued recall test, temporal lobe patients were impaired in their memory for the details of the diary events and their context. In conclusion, a basic impairment in autobiographical memory (including memory for temporal context) results from damage to the temporal lobe and not the frontal cortex. Patients with frontal excisions fail to use organizational strategies spontaneously to aid retrieval but can use these effectively if instructed to do so.
Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi
Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…
Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong
Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.
Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S
Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.
Spreng, R Nathan; Lockrow, Amber W; DuPre, Elizabeth; Setton, Roni; Spreng, Karen A P; Turner, Gary R
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior. Here we provide direct evidence for this mechanism within the domain of autobiographical memory. In a large sample of healthy adult participants (n = 103 Young; n = 80 Old) the strength of default - executive coupling reliably predicted more semanticized, or knowledge-based, recollection of autobiographical memories in the older adult cohort. The findings are consistent with the default - executive coupling hypothesis of aging and identify this shift in network dynamics as a candidate neural mechanism associated with crystalized cognition in later life that may signal adaptive capacity in the context of declining fluid cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Addis, Donna Rose; Knapp, Katie; Roberts, Reece P; Schacter, Daniel L
Models of autobiographical memory propose two routes to retrieval depending on cue specificity. When available cues are specific and personally-relevant, a memory can be directly accessed. However, when available cues are generic, one must engage a generative retrieval process to produce more specific cues to successfully access a relevant memory. The current study sought to characterize the neural bases of these retrieval processes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were shown personally-relevant cues to elicit direct retrieval, or generic cues (nouns) to elicit generative retrieval. We used spatiotemporal partial least squares to characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of the networks associated with direct and generative retrieval. Both retrieval tasks engaged regions comprising the autobiographical retrieval network, including hippocampus, and medial prefrontal and parietal cortices. However, some key neural differences emerged. Generative retrieval differentially recruited lateral prefrontal and temporal regions early on during the retrieval process, likely supporting the strategic search operations and initial recovery of generic autobiographical information. However, many regions were activated more strongly during direct versus generative retrieval, even when we time-locked the analysis to the successful recovery of events in both conditions. This result suggests that there may be fundamental differences between memories that are accessed directly and those that are recovered via the iterative search and retrieval process that characterizes generative retrieval. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children, Chinese children from first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the U.S., and European American children. Children's developing emotion knowledge and autobiographical memory were assessed three times at home, when children were 3, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. Children's emotion knowledge uniquely predicted their autobiographical memory ability across groups and time points. Emotion knowledge further mediated culture effects on autobiographical memory. The findings provide important insight into early autobiographical memory development, and extend current theoretical understandings of the emotion-memory interplay. They further have implications for the phenomenon of infantile amnesia and cross-cultural differences in childhood recollections.
Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi
Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.
Meléndez, Juan C; Redondo, Rita; Torres, Marta; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sales, Alicia
The present study distinguishes three memory stages across the lifespan, and aims to compare episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in healthy older adults, with amnesic mild cognitive impairment, and with Alzheimer's disease. This information can offer evidence about the way semantic and episodic autobiographical memory work, and how the disease affects them. The sample was composed of 56 people, all aged over 60 years; 15 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 12 with Alzheimer's disease and 29 healthy older people. Participants were evaluated with the Autobiographical Memory Interview. A mixed anova showed significant main effects of memory and time-period, and significant interactions of memory × group, time-period × group and memory × time × group. Assessment of autobiographical memory provides information to differentiate amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients from Alzheimer's disease patients. Although the decline in episodic memory starts with the onset of the disease, semantic memory is maintained until moderate stages of dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16:1220-1225. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H
Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. The affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample ( n = 99) using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures) was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory. Main findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state) measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal) processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that ruminative processing of
Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L
The present study aimed to explore autobiographical memories (long-lasting memories about the self) and episodic memories (memories about discrete episodes or events) within dream content. We adapted earlier episodic memory study paradigms and reinvestigated the incorporation of episodic memory sources into dreams, operationalizing episodic memory as featuring autonoetic consciousness, which is the feeling of truly re-experiencing or reliving a past event. Participants (n = 32) recorded daily diaries and dream diaries, and reported on wake-dream relations for 2 weeks. Using a new scale, dreams were rated for their episodic richness, which categorized memory sources of dreams as being truly episodic (featuring autonoetic consciousness), autobiographical (containing segregated features of experiences that pertained to waking life) or otherwise. Only one dream (0.5%) was found to contain an episodic memory. However, the majority of dreams (>80%) were found to contain low to moderate incorporations of autobiographical memory features. These findings demonstrate the inactivity of intact episodic memories, and emphasize the activity of autobiographical memory and processing within dreams. Taken together, this suggests that memories for personal experiences are experienced fragmentarily and selectively during dreaming, perhaps in order to assimilate these memories into the autobiographical memory schema. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke
Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD ( N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD.
Gonçalves, Ana Margarida Silva
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia Studies on autobiographical memories have shown the presence of three main components: childhood amnesia, recency effect and reminiscence bump (Rubin, 1986). Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories elicited by positive stimuli are associated with highly, specific and generally pleasant episodes (Krumhansl & Zupnick, 2013). Music has an important and highly emotional and social role in individual’s lives. The p...
Huntjens, Rafaele JC; Verschuere, Bruno; McNally, Richard J
Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive of dissociative amnesia. The aim of the current study was to objectively assess transfer of autobiographical information between identities in a larger sample of DID patients. Methods: Using a c...
Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H
INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories
Slofstra, Christien; Eisma, Maarten C; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H; Nauta, Maaike H
INTRODUCTION: Ruminative (abstract verbal) processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories
Popov, M.; Fedorovsky, O.; Stankevich, S.; Filipovich, V.; Khyzhniak, A.; Piestova, I.; Lubskyi, M.; Svideniuk, M.
The approach to implementing the remote sensing technologies and geospatial modelling for smart city support is presented. The hierarchical structure and basic components of the smart city information support subsystem are considered. Some of the already available useful practical developments are described. These include city land use planning, urban vegetation analysis, thermal condition forecasting, geohazard detection, flooding risk assessment. Remote sensing data fusion approach for comprehensive geospatial analysis is discussed. Long-term city development forecasting by Forrester - Graham system dynamics model is provided over Kiev urban area.
Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, including attention, memory, and executive functioning attributable to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with accompanying focal frontal and temporal damage. Although the memory deficit of TBI has been well characterized with laboratory tests, comparatively little research has examined retrograde autobiographical memory (AM) at the chronic phase of TBI, with no prior studies of unselected patients drawn directly from hospital admissions for trauma. Moreover, little is known about the effects of TBI on canonical episodic and non-episodic (e.g., semantic) AM processes. In the present study, we assessed the effects of chronic-phase TBI on AM in patients with focal and DAI spanning the range of TBI severity. Patients and socioeconomic- and age-matched controls were administered the Autobiographical Interview (AI) (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002) a widely used method for dissociating episodic and semantic elements of AM, along with tests of neuropsychological and functional outcome. Measures of episodic and non-episodic AM were compared with regional brain volumes derived from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Severe TBI (but not mild or moderate TBI) was associated with reduced recall of episodic autobiographical details and increased recall of non-episodic details relative to healthy comparison participants. There were no significant associations between AM performance and neuropsychological or functional outcome measures. Within the full TBI sample, autobiographical episodic memory was associated with reduced volume distributed across temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions considered to be part of the brain's AM network. These results suggest that TBI-related distributed volume loss affects episodic autobiographical recollection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The case of autobiographical photo-texts is to be analyzed, first of all, as an autobiographical writing that feels the need to express by other means; secondly, as a specific rhetoric practice that chooses the image, next to the word, as a further persuasive force; finally, as a very special case of icono-texts, which uses some variety of the connection between the verbal and the visual. It is not only a matter of analyzing how it works the cooperation between photographs and autobiographical writing, that is, through which connectors – frames, white space, overlays and captions –, but also of understanding what are the functions of the photographs in relation to literature. This is in order to understand what truth is affirmed in the examples chosen: Franca Valeri, Grégoire Bouillier, Roland Barthes, Winfried G. Sebald, Lalla Romano, Jovanotti, Edward Said, Azar Nafisi, Vladimir Nabokov, André Breton, Hannah Höch, Annie Ernaux. Do photographs expose, confirm, add or resist the truth expressed by the literary side? And if narrative expresses the truth and the resistance to the truth of the author himself, what does the photo resist to, while showing?
In his article, Chris Burt focuses on the relationship between time and autobiographical memory. The question Burt puts forward is whether temporal markers in reports on autobiographic memories reflect specific temporal information or result from rather complex cognitive processing of time-relevant knowledge. The aspect of time is inherent to the…
El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios
Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer���s disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. In our model (AMAD: Autobiographical Memory in Alzheimer���s Disease), we present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highli...
Full Text Available IntroductionRuminative (abstract verbal processing during recall of aversive autobiographical memories may serve to dampen their short-term affective impact. Experimental studies indeed demonstrate that verbal processing of non-autobiographical material and positive autobiographical memories evokes weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing. In the current study, we hypothesized that abstract verbal or concrete verbal processing of an aversive autobiographical memory would result in weaker affective responses than imagery-based processing.MethodsThe affective impact of abstract verbal versus concrete verbal versus imagery-based processing during recall of an aversive autobiographical memory was investigated in a non-clinical sample (n = 99 using both an observational and an experimental design. Observationally, it was examined whether spontaneous use of processing modes (both state and trait measures was associated with impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall on negative and positive affect. Experimentally, the causal relation between processing modes and affective impact was investigated by manipulating the processing mode during retrieval of the same aversive autobiographical memory.ResultsMain findings were that higher levels of trait (but not state measures of both ruminative and imagery-based processing and depressive symptomatology were positively correlated with higher levels of negative affective impact in the observational part of the study. In the experimental part, no main effect of processing modes on affective impact of autobiographical memories was found. However, a significant moderating effect of depressive symptomatology was found. Only for individuals with low levels of depressive symptomatology, concrete verbal (but not abstract verbal processing of the aversive autobiographical memory did result in weaker affective responses, compared to imagery-based processing.DiscussionThese results cast doubt
This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
The purpose of the present study was to examine the connection between motivation and autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories recalled in response to dieting related versus neutral cue words were compared between a dieting and non-dieting group. Memories recalled in response...... to dieting related cue words by the dieting group were more self defining, scored higher on the Centrality of Event Scale and contained more body and weight related elements. No differences between the two groups were found on memories recalled in response to the neutral cue words. The dieting group scored...... higher on Beck's depression scale and had more recall errors in terms of overgeneral memories than the non-dieting group. The results can be seen to support the concept of current concerns (Klinger, 1978) and the theory of the working self (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000)....
Caroline L Horton
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography. They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualising those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of autobiographical memory to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of autobiographical memory during sleep.
Fraser, Louisa M; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Ebmeier, Klaus P
In the last 20 years, an increasing number of articles have been published about effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory. Here, we review autobiographical memory studies in particular because there have been conflicting reports about the extent and persistence of ECT effects and the period before treatment from which memories are most likely to be affected. Five psychological and medical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge) were searched from 1980 to 2007, yielding 15 studies of ECT and autobiographical memory. Evidence suggests that autobiographical memory impairment does occur as a result of ECT. Objective measures found memory loss to be relatively short term (6 months post-ECT). Electroconvulsive therapy predominantly affects memory of prior personal events that are near the treatment (within 6 months). Autobiographical memory loss is reduced by using brief pulse ECT rather than sine wave-unilateral positioning of electrodes rather than bilateral-and by titrating electrical current relative to the patient's own seizure threshold. Further research is required to determine memory loss associated with ECT, controlling for the direct effects of the depressive state.
García-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen
We studied retrieval-induced forgetting for past or future autobiographical experiences. In the study phase, participants were given cues to remember past autobiographical experiences or to think about experiences that may occur in the future. In both conditions, half of the experiences were positive and half negative. In the retrieval-practice phase, for past and future experiences, participants retrieved either half of the positive or negative experiences using cued recall, or capitals of the world (control groups). Retrieval practice produced recall facilitation and enhanced memory for the practised positive and negative past and future experiences. While retrieval practice on positive experiences did not impair the recall of other positive experiences, we found inhibition for negative past and future experiences when participants practised negative experiences. Furthermore, retrieval practice on positive future experiences inhibited negative future experiences. These positivity biases for autobiographical memory may have practical implications for treatment of emotional disorders.
Palombo, Daniela J; Bacopulos, Agnes; Amaral, Robert S C; Olsen, Rosanna K; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, Adam K; Levine, Brian
Striking individual differences exist in the human capacity to recollect past events, yet, little is known about the neural correlates of such individual differences. Studies investigating hippocampal volume in relation to individual differences in laboratory measures of episodic memory in young adults suggest that whole hippocampal volume is unrelated (or even negatively associated) with episodic memory. However, anatomical and functional specialization across hippocampal subregions suggests that individual differences in episodic memory may be linked to particular hippocampal subregions, as opposed to whole hippocampal volume. Given that the DG/CA 2/3 circuitry is thought to be especially critical for supporting episodic memory in humans, we predicted that the volume of this region would be associated with individual variability in episodic memory. This prediction was supported using high-resolution MRI of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real-world (autobiographical) episodic memory. In addition to the association with DG/CA 2/3 , we further observed a relationship between episodic autobiographical memory and subiculum volume, whereas no association was observed with CA 1 or with whole hippocampal volume. These findings provide insight into the possible neural substrates that mediate individual differences in real-world episodic remembering in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Willander, Johan; Larsson, Maria
This study addressed age distributions and experiential qualities of autobiographical memories evoked by different sensory cues. Ninety-three older adults were presented with one of three cue types (word, picture, or odor) and were asked to relate any autobiographical event for the given cue. The main aims were to explore whether (1) the age distribution of olfactory-evoked memories differs from memories cued by words and pictures and (2) the experiential qualities of the evoked memories vary over the different cues. The results showed that autobiographical memories triggered by olfactory information were older than memories associated with verbal and visual information. Specifically, most odor-cued memories were located to the first decade of life (memories associated with verbal and visual cues peaked in early adulthood (11-20 years). Also, odor-evoked memories were associated with stronger feelings of being brought back in time and had been thought of less often than memories evoked by verbal and visual information. This pattern of findings suggests that odor-evoked memories may be different from other memory experiences.
Dennis, Ashley A; Astell, Arlene; Dritschel, Barbara
Williams et al. (2006) found that increased imageability of cue words during an autobiographical memory task increased specificity of autobiographical memory (ABM) and improved subsequent social problem-solving (SPS). This study explored whether imagery during SPS improved SPS skill, perceived SPS ability, and the specificity of ABMs retrieved in the process of SPS in dysphoric students. Additionally, this study hypothesised that both memory specificity and perceived SPS ability would positively correlate with SPS skill. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric students solved hypothetical social problems on a modified version of the Means-End Problem-Solving task with a verbal or an imagery focus. Participants also completed a questionnaire about ABMs retrieved during SPS and rated their perceived effectiveness of their solutions. Contrary to Williams et al. (2006), the imagery focus did not improve SPS skill or influence perceived effectiveness. Additionally, in contrast to the hypothesis, the imagery group retrieved more overgeneral memories. Finally, ABM specificity did not correlate with SPS skill. However, dysphoric participants perceived specific memories to be significantly less helpful to SPS whereas non-dysphoric participants perceived specific memories to be helpful potentially supporting work on overgeneral ABM and functional avoidance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jony Oktavian Jony Oktavian Haryanto
Full Text Available Children are a unique and also potential market. They are unique because they usually do not spend their own money but they may have high purchasing power back-up. They are potential because from the number of kids and the amount they spend, they are big and promising. Markets for kids consist of three markets: (1 primary market that targets the children itself, (2 influence market that emphasizes the influence that the children exert on family purchases, and (3 future market that considers the future market for the children. Based on the high potential market for the children, the author identifies the impacts of intention to consume for children on influence power (an effort pursued by kids in order to frequently and successfully influence parents or people surrounding them, impulsive buying (kids’ tendencies to buy spontaneously, immediately, and without any deep consideration, and autobiographical memory (a memory of previous experience that will be stored as a long-term memory. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify the antecedents of autobiographical memory for children. The results show that the intention to consume positively influences the impulsive buying as well as the autobiographical memory. For managerial implications, marketers need to put an emphasis on stimulating the intention to consume in order to create a positive autobiographical memory.
The paper at hand investigates forms and interpretations of author personae in autobiographical videogames. While, previously, autobiographical modes of expression have only been discussed in a few game-based artworks (Poremba 2007), the availability of free, easy-to-use tools like Twine and Ren’Py
Full Text Available Abstract Background The variation of determinants of mental health with remoteness has rarely been directly examined. The current research aims to examine whether the association of psychosocial factors with psychological distress outcomes varies with increasing remoteness. Methods Participants were persons aged 55 and over from two community cohorts sampling from across rural and urban New South Wales (N = 4219; mean age = 69.00 years; 46.1% male. Measures of social support from these studies were calibrated to facilitate comparison across the sample. Remoteness was assessed using a continuous measure, the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia. The association between demographic characteristics, social support, remoteness, and their interactions with remoteness in the prediction of high psychological distress (cut-off > 21 on the Kessler 10 were examined using logistic regression. Results Not being in a married or defacto relationship (OR 0.69; 99% CI 0.51-0.94, lower education (OR 0.52; 99% CI 0.38-0.71 and decreased social support (OR 0.36; 99% CI 0.31-0.42 significantly predicted psychological distress. There was a significant interaction of age and remoteness (OR 0.84; 99% CI 0.67-1.00, indicating that as remoteness increases, older persons are less likely to be highly distressed, as well as a significant interaction of social support and remoteness (OR 1.22; 99% CI 1.04-1.44, indicating that as remoteness decreases, persons with low levels of social support are more likely to be highly distressed. Conclusions Remoteness may moderate the influence of social support and age on psychological distress outcomes.
Irish, Muireann; Cunningham, Conal J; Walsh, J Bernard; Coakley, Davis; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Coen, Robert F
The enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall in mild Alzheimer's disease individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score >17/30) and healthy elderly matched individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score 25-30) was investigated. Using a repeated-measures design, each participant was seen on two occasions: once in music condition (Vivaldi's 'Spring' movement from 'The Four Seasons') and once in silence condition, with order counterbalanced. Considerable improvement was found for Alzheimer individuals' recall on the Autobiographical Memory Interview in the music condition, with an interaction for condition by group (p music condition (p music on autobiographical memory recall.
Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle
Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…
El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie Charlotte; Gallouj, Karim; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Antoine, Pascal
Research suggests that odors may serve as a potent cue for autobiographical retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigated whether odor-evoked autobiographical memory is an involuntary process that shares similarities with music-evoked autobiographical memory. Participants with mild AD and controls were asked to retrieve 2 personal memories after odor exposure, after music exposure, and in an odor-and music-free condition. AD participants showed better specificity, emotional experience, mental time travel, and retrieval time after odor and music exposure than in the control condition. Similar beneficial effects of odor and music exposure were observed for autobiographical characteristics (i.e., specificity, emotional experience, and mental time travel), except for retrieval time which was more improved after odor than after music exposure. Interestingly, regression analyses suggested executive involvement in memories evoked in the control condition but not in those evoked after music or odor exposure. These findings suggest the involuntary nature of odor-evoked autobiographical memory in AD. They also suggest that olfactory cuing could serve as a useful and ecologically valid tool to stimulate autobiographical memory, at least in the mild stage of the disease. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.
Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew
Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.
Full Text Available Phenomenal qualities of recollection and reflexive properties of freely recalled momentous personal events were investigated in 2 experiments. Brazilian undergraduates recalled and rated specific autobiographical episodes through the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire. In Experiment 1, momentous events were compared to childhood and adolescence scenes. Experiment 2 used an eventcuing paradigm to form 3 pairs of cuing and respective cued events: momentous, earliest recollection, and an event from the subject's birthday last year. No significant differences were found within clusters, but all variables differed between momentous and earliest clusters, whereas only vivid event variables (importance, emotion, rehearsal, unusualness, and consequences distinguished momentous events from last birthday. Momentous events were characterized in terms of reflexively attributed vivid memory properties, rather than of phenomenal qualities of recollection. Results are discussed in their implications for the relationship between phenomenal qualities of recollection and judgments of autobiographical events and patterns of association in event clusters.
Full Text Available Autobiographical memories (AMs are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym - Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.
Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita
The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An attempt is currently being made to widely introduce industrial robots to Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Since the enterprises usually employ too small number of robot units to afford specialized departments for robot maintenance, they must be provided with inexpensive and immediate support remotely. This paper evaluates whether the support can be provided by means of Cognitive Info-communication – communication in which human cognitive capabilities are extended irrespectively of geographical distances. The evaluations are given with an aid of experimental system that consists of local and remote rooms, which are physically separated – a six-degree-of-freedom NACHI SH133-03 industrial robot is situated in the local room, while the operator, who supervises the robot by means of audio-visual Cognitive Human-Machine Interface, is situated in the remote room. The results of simple experiments show that Cognitive Info-communication is not only efficient mean to provide the support remotely, but is probably also a powerful tool to enhance interaction with any data-rich environment that require good conceptual understanding of system's state and careful attention management. Furthermore, the paper discusses data presentation and reduction methods for data-rich environments, as well as introduces the concepts of Naturally Acquired Data and Cognitive Human-Machine Interfaces.
Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles
We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…
Kelly, Michael P
Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.
Uzer, Tugba; Brown, Norman R
It has long been argued that personal memories are usually generated in an effortful search process in word-cueing studies. However, recent research (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012) shows that direct retrieval of autobiographical memories, in response to word cues, is common. This invites the question of whether direct retrieval phenomenon is generalizable beyond the standard laboratory paradigm. Here we investigated prevalence of direct retrieval of autobiographical memories cued by specific and individuated cues versus generic cues. In Experiment 1, participants retrieved memories in response to cues from their own life (e.g., the names of friends) and generic words (e.g., chair). In Experiment 2, participants provided their personal cues two or three months prior to coming to the lab (min: 75days; max: 100days). In each experiment, RT was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that personal cues elicited a high rate of direct retrieval. Personal cues were more likely to elicit direct retrieval than generic word cues, and as a consequence, participants responded faster, on average, to the former than to the latter. These results challenge the constructive view of autobiographical memory and suggest that autobiographical memories consist of pre-stored event representations, which are largely governed by associative mechanisms. These demonstrations offer theoretically interesting questions such as why are we not overwhelmed with directly retrieved memories cued by everyday familiar surroundings? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Professionals in the workplace are rarely asked to write autobiographical essays. Such essays, however, are an excellent tool for helping students explore their growth as professionals. This article explores the use of such essays in a technical writing class.
de Bruijn, Maaike J; Bender, Michael
Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust's sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories. Results showed that participants indeed reported richer memories when presented with childhood-related odours than childhood-related images or childhood-unrelated odours or images. An exploratory analysis of memory content with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count did not reveal differences in affective content. The findings of this study support the notion that odours are particularly potent in eliciting rich memories and open up numerous avenues for further exploration.
Aizpurua, Alaitz; Koutstaal, Wilma
The intricately interwoven role of detailed autobiographical memory in our daily lives and in our imaginative envisioning of the future is increasingly recognized. But how is the detail-rich nature of autobiographical memory best assessed and, in particular, how can possible aging-related differences in autobiographical memory specificity be most effectively evaluated? This study examined whether a modified interview, involving fewer and time-matched events for older and younger adults, yielded age-related outcomes similar to those that have been previously reported. As in earlier studies, modest age-related changes in the specificity of autobiographical recall were observed, yet the largest most robust effect for both age groups was the substantial proportion of specific details retrieved. Both age groups rated recent memories as significantly less important and as less emotional than more temporally distant events. Our findings counter conceptions of older adults' autobiographical memories as invariably less episodically rich than those of younger adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rathbone, Clare J; Holmes, Emily A; Murphy, Susannah E; Ellis, Judi A
Higher levels of well-being are associated with longer life expectancies and better physical health. Previous studies suggest that processes involving the self and autobiographical memory are related to well-being, yet these relationships are poorly understood. The present study tested 32 older and 32 younger adults using scales measuring well-being and the affective valence of two types of autobiographical memory: episodic autobiographical memories and semantic self-images. Results showed that valence of semantic self-images, but not episodic autobiographical memories, was highly correlated with well-being, particularly in older adults. In contrast, well-being in older adults was unrelated to performance across a range of standardised memory tasks. These results highlight the role of semantic self-images in well-being, and have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for well-being in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marshall, M. T.
Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of
Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the num...
Stone, Charles B; Luminet, Olivier; Hirst, William
People build their sense of self, in part, through their memories of their personal past. What is striking about these personal memories is that, in many instances, they are inaccurate, yet confidently held. Most researchers assume that confidence ratings are based, in large part, on the memory's mnemonic features. That is, the more vivid or detailed the memory, the higher the confidence people have in its accuracy. However, we explore a heretofore underappreciated source on which confidence ratings may be based: the accessibility of memories as a result of selective retrieval. To explore this possibility, we use Anderson, Bjork, and Bjork's retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) paradigm with emotional (positive and negative) autobiographical memories. We found the standard RIF effect for memory recall across emotional valence. That is, selective retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories induced forgetting of related, but not retrieved emotional autobiographical memories compared to the baseline. More interestingly, we found that the confidence ratings for positive memories mirrored the RIF pattern: decreased confidence for related, unpracticed autobiographical memories relative to the baseline. For negative memories, we found the opposite pattern: increased confidence for both practiced autobiographical memories and related, unpracticed autobiographical memories. We discuss these results in terms of accessibility, the diverging mnemonic consequences of selectively retrieving positive and negative autobiographical memories and personal identity. © 2013.
Gibson, Joe; Nicholas, Jude
This article highlights a theoretical and practical framework for integrating the neuropsychological concept of autobiographical memory with the experiential learning that takes place in the outdoors. Autobiographical memories, our recollections of specific, personal events, are constructed through a personal narrative process; the way we choose…
Pile, Victoria; Robinson, Sally; Roberts, Elystan; Topor, Marta; Hedderly, Tammy; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression. Thirty young people with TS/CTD (14 females; age: x̅ = 11.31; SD = 1.66; 87% White British) and twenty-six (12 females; age: x̅ = 11.23; SD = 2.43; 77% White British) control participants completed the study. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Task, which asks participants to respond with a specific memory to cue words, and a questionnaire measure of depressive symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, IQ and depressive symptomatology. Young people with TS/CTD had less specific autobiographical memories than their peers (p < 0.001, r = 0.49). Across both groups, increased memory specificity for positive cue words was associated with reduced depressive symptomatology (p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.51). Our findings indicate that autobiographical memory in young people with TS is characterised by a lack of specificity and, as with neurotypical peers, reduced memory specificity for positive words is associated with depressive symptoms. Autobiographical memory specificity could be an important factor in understanding mood symptoms that characterise young people with TS/CTD and may be an important cognitive target to reduce the development of depression in young people with TS/CTD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grilli, Matthew D
Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.
Antalikova, Radka; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild
often rehearsed, family memories that were old and rarely rehearsed, and school memories that were in between on both variables. This supports theories of friendship as the primary social context for adolescent development. Moreover, content analysis found friend memories to mention others more often......Relatedness is a complex issue and it has been argued that developmental perspectives should complement cross-cultural comparisons. We noticed that cross-cultural studies of autobiographical memories tend to focus on early childhood and thus family, leaving the role of friends and school less...... explored. Thus, we asked adolescent school-goers who still lived with their parents for a meaningful memory from each of the settings family, school, and friendship. In both samples analyzed so far (Norwegians, N=22, and Slovaks, N=40) participants chose friend memories that were recent and reportedly...
Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.
Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.
Feurer, Cope; Woody, Mary L; Tsypes, Aliona; Burkhouse, Katie L; Champagne, Katelynn; Gibb, Brandon E
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) has been established as a risk factor for depression in both youth and adults, but questions remain as to how OGM develops. Although theorists have proposed that the experience of stressful life events may contribute to the development of OGM, no studies have examined the impact of negative life events on prospective changes in OGM. The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literature. Participants included 251 mothers and their biological children (aged 8-14 years old at the initial assessment). Using a multi-wave prospective design with assessments every 6 months for 2 years, we found that episodic life stress predicted prospective decreases in youths' autobiographical memory specificity to positive, but not negative, cues. This study supports theories proposing that negative life events may contribute to the development of OGM, but suggest that, in youth, the impact of life stress on OGM may be specific to positive rather than negative memories.
Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A
Remembering previous experiences from one's personal past is a principal component of psychological well-being, personality, sense of self, decision making, and planning for the future. In the current study the ability to search for autobiographical information in memory was examined by having college students recall their Facebook friends. Individual differences in working memory capacity manifested itself in the search of autobiographical memory by way of the total number of friends remembered, the number of clusters of friends, size of clusters, and the speed with which participants could output their friends' names. Although working memory capacity was related to the ability to search autobiographical memory, participants did not differ in the manner in which they approached the search and used contextual cues to help query their memories. These results corroborate recent theorising, which suggests that working memory is a necessary component of self-generating contextual cues to strategically search memory for autobiographical information.
Rubin, David C.; Talarico, Jennifer M.
The intensity and valence of 30 emotion terms, 30 events typical of those emotions, and 30 autobiographical memories cued by those emotions were each rated by different groups of 40 undergraduates. A vector model gave a consistently better account of the data than a circumplex model, both overall and in the absence of high intensity, neutral valence stimuli. The Positive Activation - Negative Activation (PANA) model could be tested at high levels of activation, where it is identical to the vector model. The results replicated when ratings of arousal were used instead of ratings of intensity for the events and autobiographical memories. A reanalysis of word norms gave further support for the vector and PANA models by demonstrating that neutral valence, high arousal ratings resulted from the averaging of individual positive and negative valence ratings. Thus, compared to a circumplex model, vector and PANA models provided overall better fits. PMID:19691001
Kleim, Birgit; Wallott, Franziska; Ehlers, Anke
This study tested the hypothesis that trauma memories are disjointed from other autobiographical material in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Assault survivors with (n = 25) and without PTSD (n = 49) completed an autobiographical memory retrieval task during script-driven imagery of (a) the assault and (b) an unrelated negative event. When listening to a taped imagery script of the worst moment of their assault, survivors with PTSD took longer to retrieve unrelated non-traumatic autobiographical information than those without PTSD, but not when listening to a taped script of the worst moment of another negative life event. The groups also did not differ in general retrieval latencies, neither at baseline nor after the imagery tasks. The findings are in line with suggestions that traumatic memories are less integrated with other autobiographical information in trauma survivors with PTSD than in those without PTSD. PMID:21241538
Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian
During autobiographical memory retrieval, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) relate together multiple event elements, including object (within-item relations) and context (item-context relations) information, to create a cohesive memory. There is consistent support for a functional specialization within the MTL according to these relational processes, much of which comes from recognition memory experiments. In this study, we compared brain activation patterns associated with retrieving within-item relations (i.e., associating conceptual and sensory-perceptual object features) and item-context relations (i.e., spatial relations among objects) with respect to naturalistic autobiographical retrieval. We developed a novel paradigm that cued participants to retrieve information about past autobiographical events, non-episodic within-item relations, and non-episodic item-context relations with the perceptuomotor aspects of retrieval equated across these conditions. We used multivariate analysis techniques to extract common and distinct patterns of activity among these conditions within the MTL and across the whole brain, both in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of activity. The anterior MTL (perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating within-item relations later in retrieval whereas the posterior MTL (posterior parahippocampal cortex and posterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating item-context relations across the retrieval phase. These findings provide novel evidence for functional specialization within the MTL with respect to naturalistic memory retrieval. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Huntjens, R.J.C.; Wessel, I.; Hermans, D.; Minnen, A. van
A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a
Huntjens, Rafaële J. C.; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes
A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a
Barry, Nicole C; Tomes, Jennifer L
To date, research focusing on long-term memory functioning post concussion is limited. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of concussion on long-term episodic autobiographical memory, once acute postconcussive symptoms have abated. Individuals with and without a history of concussion were asked to recall autobiographical memories from different life periods. The details, self-reported vividness, ease of recall, and completeness of these memories were assessed. Results indicated that although both control and previously concussed participants were equally able to recall autobiographical memories from all life periods, the transcribed memories of previously concussed participants were less detailed, were less complex, and revealed less active involvement in recollection. Specifically, memories of control participants contained more words and a higher proportion of pronouns, personal pronouns, cognitive process words, perceptual process words, and past-tense words. Deficits were found regardless of the frequency or recency of concussion. Concussion information, limitations, and implications of the current findings are discussed.
Rasmussen, Anne S; Johannessen, Kim B; Berntsen, Dorthe
Cognitive psychologists have often equaled retrieval of personal events with voluntary recall from autobiographical memory, but more recent research shows that autobiographical memories often come to mind involuntarily-that is, with no retrieval effort. Voluntary memories have been studied in numerous laboratory experiments in response to word-prompts, whereas involuntary memories primarily have been examined in an everyday living context, using a structured diary procedure. However, it remains unclear how voluntary memories sampled in the laboratory map onto self-prompted voluntary memories in daily life. Here, we used a structured diary procedure to compare different types of voluntary autobiographical memories to their involuntary counterparts. The results replicated previous findings with regard to differences between word-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories, whereas there were fewer differences between self-prompted voluntary and involuntary memories. The findings raise the question as to what is the best way of sampling voluntary memories and the best comparison for involuntary memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ritchie, Timothy D; Batteson, Tamzin J; Bohn, Annette; Crawford, Matthew T; Ferguson, Georgie V; Schrauf, Robert W; Vogl, Rodney J; Walker, W Richard
The fading affect bias (FAB) refers to the negative affect associated with autobiographical events fading faster than the positive affect associated with such events, a reliable and valid valence effect established by researchers in the USA. The present study examined the idea that the FAB is a ubiquitous emotion regulating phenomenon in autobiographical memory that is present in people from a variety of cultures. We tested for evidence of the FAB by sampling more than 2400 autobiographical event descriptions from 562 participants in 10 cultures around the world. Using variations on a common method, each sample evidenced a FAB: positive affect faded slower than negative affect did. Results suggest that in tandem with local norms and customs, the FAB may foster recovery from negative life events and promote the retention of the positive emotions, within and outside of the USA. We discuss these findings in the context of Keltner and Haidt's levels of analysis theory of emotion and culture.
Full Text Available Investigated the relationship between phenomenal qualities of autobiographical memories and narrative structure of written reports of them. In Experiment 1, 30 undergraduates provided 2 reports, the most momentous event of their lives (MPE and their earliest childhood recollection (ECR. Reports were coded for 2 variables: narrative coherence (NC, and event specificity (SP. No significant relationship was found between NC and SP, nor between SP and type of event. Experiment 2 asked 40 undergraduates to report MPEs and correlated NC and subjective ratings of events from the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ: vividness of imagery, recollection, importance, consequences, and rehearsal. A significant correlation between importance rating and the orientation index points out to the flashbulb aspect of the memories. Significant correlation between volume report and recollection indicates an interaction between higher indices of recollection and individual's predisposition to report the event in written form. Results did not corroborate a hypothesis of identity between autobiographical memory representation and expression.
Brown, Adam D; Addis, Donna Rose; Romano, Tracy A; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A; Hirst, William; Schacter, Daniel L
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to retrieve autobiographical memories with less episodic specificity, referred to as overgeneralised autobiographical memory. In line with evidence that autobiographical memory overlaps with one's capacity to imagine the future, recent work has also shown that individuals with PTSD also imagine themselves in the future with less episodic specificity. To date most studies quantify episodic specificity by the presence of a distinct event. However, this method does not distinguish between the numbers of internal (episodic) and external (semantic) details, which can provide additional insights into remembering the past and imagining the future. This study employed the Autobiographical Interview (AI) coding scheme to the autobiographical memory and imagined future event narratives generated by combat veterans with and without PTSD. Responses were coded for the number of internal and external details. Compared to combat veterans without PTSD, those with PTSD generated more external than internal details when recalling past or imagining future events, and fewer internal details were associated with greater symptom severity. The potential mechanisms underlying these bidirectional deficits and clinical implications are discussed.
Boelen, Paul A.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van Deursen, Denise S.; van den Hout, Marcel A.
This study examined the specificity and content of autobiographical memories among bereaved individuals. Self-report measures of bereavement-related distress and a standard and trait version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were administered to 109 bereaved people. We examined associations
Elizeu Clementino de Souza
Full Text Available This work offers reflections on the (autobiographical research and formation narratives in the educational field, highlighting the way we have been using them to construct research networks and for - mation practices by systematizing questions about the comprehen - sive-interpretative analysis of the narratives, taking as reference theoretical-methodological questions in the field of (auto biogra - phical research. The text is developed from two central ideas which on one hand aims to dialogue about the (autobiographical research domains configuration in the Brazilian contemporary context and, on the other hand, presents questions on sense policies and nar - ratives interpretation in the field of (autobiographical studies. We seek to present the experience from a project centered on written narratives made by teachers on their education process about the affective-sexual diversity and homophobia in everyday school life.
Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue
We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Austin, Adrienne; Costabile, Kristi
Autobiographical memories are particularly adaptive because they function not only to preserve the past, but also to direct our future thoughts and behaviours. Two studies were conducted to examine how communal and agentic themes of positive autobiographical memories differentially predicted the route from autobiographical memories to optimism for the future. Across two studies, results revealed that the degree to which participants focused on communal themes in their autobiographical memories predicted their experience of nostalgia. In turn, the experience of nostalgia increased participants' levels of self-esteem and in turn, optimism for the future. By contrast, the degree to which participants focused on agentic themes in their memories predicted self-esteem and optimism, operating outside the experience of nostalgia. These effects remained even after controlling for self-focused attention. Together, these studies provide greater understanding of the interrelations among autobiographical memory, self-concept, and time, and demonstrate how agency and communion operate to influence perceptions of one's future when thinking about the past.
Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.
In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…
Urbanowitsch, Nadja; Gorenc, Lina; Herold, Christina J.; Schröder, Johannes
Autobiographical memory (ABM) comprises memories of one’s own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these...
Nadja eUrbanowitsch; Lina eGorenc; Christina J. Herold; Johannes eSchröder; Johannes eSchröder
Autobiographical memory (ABM) comprises memories of one’s own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these...
Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole
The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…
Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online
Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.
The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358
Alea, Nicole; Wang, Qi
This special issue of Memory brings together research from around the globe, from Japanese, Chinese and East Indian cultures, to American and European societies, to the Caribbean, to Turkey and to Australia and New Zealand, which examines how and why people, from childhood to old age, remember the personal past in daily life. This journey highlights the important role of the cultural context in shaping the functional usages of autobiographical memory. We illuminate six major contributions of cross-cultural research to a broader and deeper understanding of the functions of autobiographical memory, and call attention to the filed that memory research must "go global."
Maurex, Liselotte; Lekander, Mats; Nilsonne, Asa; Andersson, Eva E; Asberg, Marie; Ohman, Arne
The primary aim of this study was to compare the retrieval of autobiographical memory and the social problem-solving performance of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of suicide attempts, with and without concurrent diagnoses of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to that of controls. Additionally, the relationships between autobiographical memory, social problem-solving skills, and various clinical characteristics were examined in the BPD group. Individuals with BPD who had made at least two suicide attempts were compared to controls with regard to specificity of autobiographical memory and social problem-solving skills. Autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving skills were further studied in the BPD group by comparing depressed participants to non-depressed participants; and autobiographical memory specificity was also studied by comparing participants with and without PTSD. A total of 47 women with a diagnosis of BPD and 30 controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, assessing memory specificity, and the means-end problem solving-procedure, measuring social problem-solving skills. The prevalence of suicidal/self-injurious behaviour, and the exposure to violence, was also assessed in the BPD group. Compared to controls, participants with BPD showed reduced specificity of autobiographical memory, irrespective of either concurrent depression, previous depression, or concurrent PTSD. The depressed BPD group displayed poor problem-solving skills. Further, an association between unspecific memory and poor problem-solving was displayed in the BPD group. Our results confirmed that reduced specificity of autobiographical memory is an important characteristic of BPD individuals with a history of suicide attempt, independent of depression, or PTSD. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory was further related to poor social problem-solving capacity in the BPD group.
Gebauer, Jochen E; Haddock, Geoffrey; Broemer, Philip; von Hecker, Ulrich
Why do some autobiographical events feel as if they happened yesterday, whereas others feel like ancient history? Such temporal distance perceptions have surprisingly little to do with actual calendar time distance. Instead, psychologists have found that people typically perceive positive autobiographical events as overly recent, while perceiving negative events as overly distant. The origins of this temporal distance bias have been sought in self-enhancement strivings and mood congruence between autobiographical events and chronic mood. As such, past research exclusively focused on the evaluative features of autobiographical events, while neglecting semantic features. To close this gap, we introduce a semantic congruence model. Capitalizing on the Big Two self-perception dimensions, Study 1 showed that high semantic congruence between recalled autobiographical events and trait self-perceptions render the recalled events subjectively recent. Specifically, interpersonally warm (competent) individuals perceived autobiographical events reflecting warmth (competence) as relatively recent, but warm (competent) individuals did not perceive events reflecting competence (warmth) as relatively recent. Study 2 found that conscious perceptions of congruence mediate these effects. Studies 3 and 4 showed that neither mood congruence nor self-enhancement account for these results. Study 5 extended the results from the Big Two to the Big Five self-perception dimensions, while affirming the independence of the semantic congruence model from evaluative influences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Woltin, Karl-Andrew; Corneille, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y
This research investigates whether metacognitive experiences accompanying the retrieval of autobiographical memories influence judgments about others. Based on social projection research, we tested the hypothesis that ease-of-retrieval, affecting how the self is perceived, affects first impressions. In line with this prediction, Experiment 1 showed that participants asked to recall a few personal instances of assertive behavior (easy retrieval) judged an unknown person to be more assertive than participants recalling many instances (difficult retrieval). Experiment 2, targeting creativity, provided evidence for the retrieval-ease mechanism: The effect disappeared when ease-of-retrieval was discredited as informational source in a misattribution paradigm. Finally, Experiments 3 and 4 replicated this pattern for the same personality traits and demonstrated two boundary conditions: Participants' ease of autobiographical recalls affected judgments of in- but not outgroup members (Experiment 3), and judgments of unknown others were affected after autobiographical recall but not after recalling behaviors of someone else (Experiment 4).
Harris, Celia B; O'Connor, Akira R; Sutton, John
Theories of autobiographical memory emphasise effortful, generative search processes in memory retrieval. However recent research suggests that memories are often retrieved directly, without effortful search. We investigated whether direct and generative retrieval differed in the characteristics of memories recalled, or only in terms of retrieval latency. Participants recalled autobiographical memories in response to cue words. For each memory, they reported whether it was retrieved directly or generatively, rated its visuo-spatial perspective, and judged its accompanying recollective experience. Our results indicated that direct retrieval was commonly reported and was faster than generative retrieval, replicating recent findings. The characteristics of directly retrieved memories differed from generatively retrieved memories: directly retrieved memories had higher field perspective ratings and lower observer perspective ratings. However, retrieval mode did not influence recollective experience. We discuss our findings in terms of cue generation and content construction, and the implication for reconstructive models of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis
The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing autobiographical memory (TEMPau task), which is specially designed to measure these specific aspects, based on the sense of re-experiencing events from across the entire lifespan. Based on our findings of cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies, new insights into episodic autobiographical memories are presented, focusing on the effects of age of the subjects interacting with time interval in healthy subjects and lesioned patients. The multifaceted and complex nature of episodic memory is emphasized and it is suggested that mental time travel through subjective time, which allows individuals to re-experience specific past events through a feeling of self-awareness, is the last feature of autobiographical memory to become fully operational in development and the first feature to go in aging and most amnesias. Our findings highlight the critical role of frontotemporal areas in constructive autobiographical memory processes, and especially hippocampus, in re-experiencing episodic details from the recent or more distant past.
Basaglia-Pappas, S; Laterza, M; Borg, C; Richard-Mornas, A; Favre, E; Thomas-Antérion, C
In mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deficit in episodic memory, particularly autobiographical memory, is clearly established. Several recent studies have also shown impaired semantic memory from the onset of the disease. Musical memory capacities may be especially preserved and listening to music might encourage autobiographical recall. The aim of this study was to explore recall of popular songs in AD. We tested 12 patients with mild AD and 12 control subjects. We created a tool made up of old French popular songs: POP 10. This tool is a questionnaire composed of several subtests: melodic free recall, chorus free recall, melodic recognition, chorus recognition, semantic knowledge, autobiographical recall about the song, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter. We used non-parametric tests, the Mann-Whitney test (M-W), the Friedman test, and the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. Results of AD patients were rather similar to those of control participants for melodic memory. Concerning chorus memory (except recognition), semantic knowledge, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter, results of AD patients were significantly weaker than those of control participants. The most important result concerned autobiographical recall about the song: we found no impairment-related differences between the two groups. Our findings demonstrate that popular songs can be excellent stimuli for reminiscence, such as the ability to produce an autobiographical memory related to a song. Thus, we confirm that musical semantic knowledge associated with a song may be relatively preserved in the early stages of AD. This leads to new possibilities for cognitive stimulation.
Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E
Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.
Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.
Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.
Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816
Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina
Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.
Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina
Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases. PMID:26566236
Muir, Kate; Madill, Anna; Brown, Charity
The capacity to perceive internal bodily states is linked to emotional awareness and effective emotional regulation. We explore individual differences in emotional awareness in relation to the fading affect bias (FAB), which refers to the greater dwindling of unpleasant compared to pleasant emotions in autobiographical memory. We consider interoceptive awareness and alexithymia in relation to the FAB, and private event rehearsal as a mediating process. With increasing interoceptive awareness, there was an enhanced FAB, but with increasing alexithymia, there was a decreased FAB. Further, the effects of interoceptive awareness were partially mediated by private rehearsal of pleasant events. We provide novel evidence that capacity for emotional awareness and thus effective processing is an important factor predictive of the FAB. Moreover, our results imply an important role for maintaining positive affect in the FAB. Our findings offer new insights into the effects of interoception and alexithymia on autobiographical memory, and support concepts of the FAB emerging as a result of adaptive emotional regulation processes.
Ros, Laura; Latorre, José M.; Aguilar, M. José; Ricarte, Jorge J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J.
Difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories is known as overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). OGM has been related with clinical psychopathology (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, etc.). People presenting an OGM style usually recall more repetitive summary-type memories, so-called categoric memories, (e.g., "each time I…
Palombo, Daniela J; Alain, Claude; Söderlund, Hedvig; Khuu, Wayne; Levine, Brian
Recollection of previously experienced events is a key element of human memory that entails recovery of spatial, perceptual, and mental state details. While deficits in this capacity in association with brain disease have serious functional consequences, little is known about individual differences in autobiographical memory (AM) in healthy individuals. Recently, healthy adults with highly superior autobiographical capacities have been identified (e.g., LePort, A.K., Mattfeld, A.T., Dickinson-Anson, H., Fallon, J.H., Stark, C.E., Kruggel, F., McGaugh, J.L., 2012. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 98(1), 78-92. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.05.002). Here we report data from three healthy, high functioning adults with the reverse pattern: lifelong severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) with otherwise preserved cognitive function. Their self-reported selective inability to vividly recollect personally experienced events from a first-person perspective was corroborated by absence of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers associated with naturalistic and laboratory episodic recollection, as well as by behavioral evidence of impaired episodic retrieval, particularly for visual information. Yet learning and memory were otherwise intact, as long as these tasks could be accomplished by non-episodic processes. Thus these individuals function normally in day-to-day life, even though their past is experienced in the absence of recollection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal
This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Newton, Marcia Anne
This paper is part of a larger project on Catholic writer Antonia White’s series of autobiographical novels, Frost in May, The Lost Traveller, and The Sugar House, in which readers are presented with a Freudian Oedipal drama that reaches a dramatic climax in the last autobiographical novel in the series, Beyond the Glass, where the main protagonist spirals into psychosis. A central question addressed is whether or not White’s autobiographical fiction is an unconscious projection of sexual trauma from her own history. Psychoanalytically speaking, the answer depends upon whether one subscribes to Freudian or Ferenczian perspectives. The paper also addresses the question of whether White’s accounts of psychosis in her autobiographical fiction are real and meaningful descriptions of lived traumatic experiences. Jacques Lacan asserts that it is impossible to authenticate narratives of psychosis and for readers to draw any meaningful value from them because they lack a coherent transfer of metaphorical language from the unconscious to the conscious in the pursuit of truth of a lived experience. He uses Judge Daniel Paul Schreber’s Memoirs of My Nervous Illness to support his case, a text in which Schreber confesses to only being able to communicate his experiences in similes and metaphors; therefore, he claims his experiences cannot be understood. I argue that Lacan does not give due credit to Schreber’s attempts to grapple with spiritual and sexual preservation in the throes of delusion through the agency of his alter egos. These alter egos are the other “self,” a deluded self that offers, paradoxically, truth to emotional experience of a man’s ego in crisis. Schreber shares these pursuits with White’s alter egos in her autobiographical fiction, “The House of Clouds” and Beyond the Glass. In an analysis of White’s texts as recollections of her personal history, I highlight how White’s experiences shape her testimony in its raw portrayal of an
Steven G. Ackleson
Full Text Available An autonomous surface vehicle instrumented with optical and acoustical sensors was deployed in Kane'ohe Bay, HI, U.S.A., to provide high-resolution, in situ observations of coral reef reflectance with minimal human presence. The data represented a wide range in bottom type, water depth, and illumination and supported more thorough investigations of remote sensing methods for identifying and mapping shallow reef features. The in situ data were used to compute spectral bottom reflectance and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs,λ, as a function of water depth and benthic features. The signals were used to distinguish between live coral and uncolonized sediment within the depth range of the measurements (2.5–5 m. In situRrs, λ were found to compare well with remotely sensed measurements from an imaging spectrometer, the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS, deployed on an aircraft at high altitude. Cloud cover and in situ sensor orientation were found to have minimal impact on in situRrs, λ, suggesting that valid reflectance data may be collected using autonomous surveys even when atmospheric conditions are not favorable for remote sensing operations. The use of reflectance in the red and near infrared portions of the spectrum, expressed as the red edge height, REHλ, was investigated for detecting live aquatic vegetative biomass, including coral symbionts and turf algae. The REHλ signal from live coral was detected in Kane'ohe Bay to a depth of approximately 4 m with in situ measurements. A remote sensing algorithm based on the REHλ signal was defined and applied to AVIRIS imagery of the entire bay and was found to reveal areas of shallow, dense coral and algal cover. The peak wavelength of REHλ decreased with increasing water depth, indicating that a more complete examination of the red edge signal may potentially yield a remote sensing approach to simultaneously estimate vegetative biomass and bathymetry in shallow water.
Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji
We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…
Mozzillo, Rocco [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Di Gironimo, Giuseppei, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Mäkinen, Harri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Miccichè, Gioacchino [ENEA – CR Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Määttä, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)
Highlights: • The present work focused on a new approach to the design of DEMO Divertor Cassette Remote Handling Equipment. • The work provides an alternative approach to the design based on the concept of a simply supported beam. • The approach proposed focuses a Divertor Cassette mover that performs the maintenance of the three cassettes at each port. • First rough dimensioning of the main components has been provided and demonstrating the feasibility of the design solutions. • The main idea of the work consisted on a design capable to use knowledge already adopted in industrial contexts. - Abstract: The present work focused on the development of a new approach to the concept design of DEMO Divertor Cassette (DC) Remote Handling Equipment (RHE). The approach is based on three main assumptions: the DC remote handling activities and the equipment shall be simplified as much as possible; technologies well known and consolidated in the industrial context can be adopted also in the nuclear fusion field; the design of the RHE should be based on a simply supported beam approach instead of cantilever approach. In detail, during the maintenance activities the barycentre of the DC is centred with respect to DC supports. This solution could simplify the design of RHE with a consequent reduction of the design and development costs. Moreover also the DC remote handling tasks shall be simplified in order to better manage the DC maintenance processes. For this reason the DC assembly and disassembly process has been simplified dividing the main sequences in basic movements. For each movement a dedicated tool has been conceived.
Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, Dahua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying
Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a "positivity effect" in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used the independent component analysis (ICA) method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC) and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults' autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.
Full Text Available Normal aging has been shown to modulate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and emotion processing. Moreover, previous researches have suggested that aging produces a positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Although a few imaging studies have investigated the neural mechanism of the positivity effect, the neural substrates underlying the positivity effect in emotional autobiographical memory is unclear. To understand the age-related neural changes in emotional autobiographical memory that underlie the positivity effect, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study used the independent component analysis (ICA method to compare brain networks in younger and older adults as they retrieved positive and negative autobiographical events. Compared to their younger counterparts, older adults reported relatively higher positive feelings when retrieving emotional autobiographical events. Imaging data indicated an age-related reversal within the ventromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (VMPFC/ACC and the left amygdala of the brain networks that were engaged in the retrieval of autobiographical events with different valence. The retrieval of negative events compared to positive events induced stronger activity in the VMPFC/ACC and weaker activity in the amygdala for the older adults, whereas the younger adults showed a reversed pattern. Moreover, activity in the VMPFC/ACC within the task-related networks showed a negative correlation with the emotional valence intensity. These results may suggest that the positivity effect in older adults’ autobiographical memories is potentially due to age-related changes in controlled emotional processing implemented by the VMPFC/ACC-amygdala circuit.
LePort, Aurora K.R.; Stark, Shauna M.; McGaugh, James L.; Stark, Craig E.L.
Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterized as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one’s lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects’ memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material. PMID:26982996
Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Williams, J Mark G
Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration of the antidepress...... of reboxetine on emotional memory extends to recall of personally experienced events. Such effects may be relevant to the cognitive improvements found with recovery from depression and with the mechanism of action of contemporary antidepressant drugs.......Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration...... in the processing of positive versus negative memories was reduced following reboxetine compared with placebo in the left frontal lobe (extending into the insula) and the right superior temporal gyrus. This was paired with increased memory speed in volunteers given reboxetine versus placebo. The effect...
LePort, Aurora K R; Stark, Shauna M; McGaugh, James L; Stark, Craig E L
Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterised as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one's lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects' memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material.
Full Text Available This study examined the role of aging in the recall and recognition of autobiographical memories. Young and older adults submitted personal events during a period of 3 months to an Internet diary. After this period, they performed a cued-recall test based on what, who, and where retrieval cues. Three months later, participants completed a recognition test in which the descriptions of half the entries were altered. The results indicated no age differences on the cued-recall task, but several age differences on the recognition task. Older adults were more susceptible to accept altered entries as authentic, particularly when these changes had been subtle. However, despite their lower performance, older adults were more confident with the accuracy of their decisions. The results suggest that different mechanisms underlie the recall and recognition of autobiographical memories, and that only tasks that subtly tap into source monitoring abilities are affected by cognitive aging processes.
Saito, K.; Kunieda, E.; Narita, Y.; Kimura, H.; Hirai, M.; Deloar, H. M.; Kaneko, K.; Ozaki, M.; Fujisaki, T.; Myojoyama, A.; Saitoh, H.
The dose calculation system IMAGINE is being developed keeping in mind remotely supporting external radiation therapy using photon beams. The system is expected to provide an accurate picture of the dose distribution in a patient body, using a Monte Carlo calculation that employs precise models of the patient body and irradiation head. The dose calculation will be performed utilising super-parallel computing at the dose calculation centre, which is equipped with the ITBL computer, and the calculated results will be transferred through a network. The system is intended to support the quality assurance of current, widely carried out radiotherapy and, further, to promote the prevalence of advanced radiotherapy. Prototypes of the modules constituting the system have already been constructed and used to obtain basic data that are necessary in order to decide on the concrete design of the system. The final system will be completed in 2007. (authors)
Willander, Johan; Sikstr?m, Sverker; Karlsson, Kristina
Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality). However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities) are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, o...
Makris, L; Kamilatos, I; Kopsacheilis, E V; Strintzis, M G
The present paper describes methods for the design of both synchronous and asynchronous computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) procedures suitable for the medical application area and specifically for the purpose of medical teleconsultation and remote diagnosis support. The experimental implementation of a CSCW system built upon a PC/Windows platform is detailed as an example of a low-cost system suitable for adoption in a wide range of medical teleconsultation applications.
Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that, with time, an initially labile memory is transformed into a permanent one via a process of consolidation. Yet, recent evidence indicates that memories can return to a fragile state again when reactivated, requiring a period of reconsolidation. In the study described here, we found that participants who memorized a story immediately after they had recalled neutral and emotional experiences from their past were impaired in their memory for the neutral (but not for the emotional experiences one week later. The effect of learning the story depended critically on the preceding reactivation of the autobiographical memories since learning without reactivation had no effect. These results suggest that new learning impedes the reconsolidation of neutral autobiographical memories.
Spinhoven, Philip; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Wekking, Elizabeth M.; Williams, J. Mark G.
The authors investigated autobiographical memory specificity in subjects who formerly had depression. In 122 euthymic patients with at least two previous major depressive episodes, memory specificity was significantly impaired compared to matched control participants but not related to residual
Ros, Laura; Romero, Dulce; Ricarte, Jorge J; Serrano, Juan P; Nieto, Marta; Latorre, Jose M
The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most widely used measure of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The AMT appears to have good psychometric properties, but more research is needed on the influence and applicability of individual cue words in different languages and populations. To date, no studies have evaluated its usefulness as a measure of OMG in Spanish or older populations. This work aims to analyze the applicability of the AMT in young and older Spanish samples. We administered a Spanish version of the AMT to samples of young (N = 520) and older adults (N = 155). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), item response theory-based analysis (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF). Results confirm the one-factor structure for the AMT. IRT analysis suggests that both groups find the AMT easy given that they generally perform well, and that it is more precise in individuals who score low on memory specificity. DIF analysis finds three items differ in their functioning depending on age group. This differential functioning of these items affects the overall AMT scores and, thus, they should be excluded from the AMT in studies comparing young and older samples. We discuss the possible implications of the samples and cue words used.
Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…
This autobiographical account provides a historical map of landmarks in the author's personal and professional life that led him to his present understanding of public anthropology as public pedagogy and vice versa. He indicates that his experiences led him to study sociocultural anthropology to investigate learning from experience, a foundational…
Handels, H; Busch, C; Encarnação, J; Hahn, C; Kühn, V; Miehe, J; Pöppl, S I; Rinast, E; Rossmanith, C; Seibert, F; Will, A
The software system KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen) is a multimedia telemedicine system for exchange, cooperative diagnostics, and remote analysis of digital medical image data. It provides components for visualisation, processing, and synchronised audio-visual discussion of medical images. Techniques of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) synchronise user interactions during a teleconference. Visibility of both local and remote cursor on the conference workstations facilitates telepointing and reinforces the conference partner's telepresence. Audio communication during teleconferences is supported by an integrated audio component. Furthermore, brain tissue segmentation with artificial neural networks can be performed on an external supercomputer as a remote image analysis procedure. KAMEDIN is designed as a low cost CSCW tool for ISDN based telecommunication. However it can be used on any TCP/IP supporting network. In a field test, KAMEDIN was installed in 15 clinics and medical departments to validate the systems' usability. The telemedicine system KAMEDIN has been developed, tested, and evaluated within a research project sponsored by German Telekom.
Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.
Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime period, general event, and event-specific). Sixteen young adults participated in a neuroimaging study in which they retrieved autobiographical memo...
Bosmans, Guy; Dujardin, Adinda; Raes, Filip; Braet, Caroline
Although autobiographical memory specificity is an important developmental feature fostering adaptation throughout life, little is known about factors related to interindividual differences in autobiographical memory specificity. The current study investigated associations with early adolescents' communication with mother about their experiences…
Van Daele, Tom; Griffith, James W; Van den Bergh, Omer; Hermans, Dirk
This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of symptoms of depression and anxiety in a community sample, after 5, 6, 12 and 18 months. Participants (N=156) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) at baseline and were subsequently reassessed using the DASS-21 at four time points over a period of 18 months. Using latent growth curve modelling, we found that OGM was associated with a linear increase in depression. We were unable to detect changes over time in anxiety. OGM may be an important marker to identify people at risk for depression in the future, but more research is needed with anxiety.
Walentynowicz, Marta; Raes, Filip; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer
Patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) have persistent distressing somatic symptoms that are associated with excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is related to a range of emotional disorders and is considered a vulnerability factor for an unfavorable course of pathology. The present study investigated whether the specificity of health-related autobiographical memories is reduced in patients with SSD with medically unexplained dyspnea complaints, compared with healthy controls. Female patients with SSD (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 24) completed a health-related Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Ruminative Response Scale, and rumination scales concerning bodily reactions. Depressive symptoms and rumination were assessed because both variables previously showed associations with rAMS. Patients with SSD recalled fewer specific (F(1,52) = 13.63, p = .001) and more categoric (F(1,52) = 7.62, p = .008) autobiographical memories to health-related cue words than healthy controls. Patients also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and rumination (all t > 3.00, p < .01). Importantly, the differences in memory specificity were independent of depressive symptoms and trait rumination. The present study extends findings on rAMS to a previously unstudied sample of patients with SSD. Importantly, the presence of rAMS could not be explained by increased levels of depressive symptoms and rumination. We submit that rAMS in this group reflects how health-related episodes and associated symptoms are encoded in memory.
Pingree, B. [Northern Power Systems, Barre, VT (United States)
This PowerPoint presentation discussed the methods used by Northern Power Systems to install and support wind-diesel applications in remote locations in Alaska. Over 90 wind turbines have been installed in the state over the last 5 years. Drivers behind the increase in wind turbine installations include the recent energy crisis as well as the introduction of several financial incentives for renewable energy. The correct equipment is needed to overcome the technical challenges associated with wind-diesel systems in remote cold temperature areas. Multiple projects are synchronized within regions, and remote energy management software is used. Centralized power production is promoted where possible, and technicians are trained locally. The wind-diesel market has become successful in Alaska as a result of leadership, a streamline grant and permitting process, and a program that supports First Nations empowerment. Photographs of various Northern Power Systems projects in Alaska were included. tabs., figs.
Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka
Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace (2005) showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the present study, we used a modified experimental paradigm, originally used by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (2008), to study IAMs under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Participants completed a monotonous vigilance task twice and reported the occurrence of any spontaneous thoughts that were later classed as IAMs or other thoughts. Priming was manipulated by having experimental participants reminiscing about high school period between the two vigilance tasks and control participants playing simple games. Results showed that participants in the experimental group reported IAMs relating to high school period more frequently during the second vigilance task than those in the control group. In the experimental group, the number of high school memories was marginally higher in the second vigilance task compared to the first vigilance task with the medium effect size, but this within subjects effect was not significant in the control group. Finally, priming also enhanced the retrieval of more remote IAMs in the experimental group compared to the control group. These results suggest that priming may play a significant role in the activation and recall of IAMs and open up interesting avenues for future research.
Willoughby, Karen A.; Desrocher, Mary; Levine, Brian; Rovet, Joanne F.
Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. Using the newly developed Children’s Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM both improved between 8 and 16 years of age; however, age-related changes were larger for episodic AM th...
Haddad, Anneke D M; Williams, J Mark G; McTavish, Sarah F B; Harmer, Catherine J
Depressed patients perform poorly on tests of autobiographical memory specificity (AMS); this may have negative consequences for other important cognitive abilities, delays recovery from mood episodes, and, in recovered patients, may mediate vulnerability to future episodes. Although the cognitive mechanisms underlying AMS deficits are beginning to be understood, the neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Serotonin is implicated in both depression and long-term memory; therefore, temporary lowering of brain serotonin function via acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) offers a means of studying the role of serotonin in autobiographical memory specificity. In this study, 24 previously depressed women underwent low-dose ATD or sham depletion and completed tests of initial and delayed memory, recollection- and familiarity-based recognition, and AMS. ATD did not differentially affect state mood. Compared with sham depletion, ATD impaired immediate recall on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Although ATD did not differentially impair recollection- and familiarity-based recognition, it did slow recognition of positive words. ATD also reduced autobiographical memory specificity in response to negative cue words. The results confirm previous findings that low-dose ATD can reinstate depression-congruent biases in cognition without causing depressive mood in vulnerable populations. The ATD-induced reduction in memory specificity suggests that serotonergic dysfunction may mediate depressive deficits in autobiographical memory; the interaction of cognitive and neurobiological vulnerability mechanisms is discussed.
Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P.
Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the overreliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N = 55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23240988
Compère, Laurie; Rari, Eirini; Gallarda, Thierry; Assens, Adèle; Nys, Marion; Coussinoux, Sandrine; Machefaux, Sébastien; Piolino, Pascale
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in AM are better explained by gender identity than by sex, extending this assumption to both episodic and semantic forms of AM and future thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rohde, Kristina B; Caspar, Franz; Koenig, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Stein, Maria
The automatic, involuntary reactivation of disturbing emotional memories, for example, of interpersonal pain, causes psychological discomfort and is central to many psychopathologies. This study aimed at elucidating the automatic brain processes underlying emotional autobiographical memories by investigating the neurophysiological dynamics within the first second after memory reactivation. Pictures of different individualized familiar faces served as cues for different specific emotional autobiographical memories, for example, for memories of interpersonal pain and grievances or for memories of appreciation in interpersonal relationships. Nineteen subjects participated in a passive face-viewing task while multichannel electroencephalogram was recorded. Analyses of event-related potentials demonstrated that emotional memories elicited an early posterior negativity and a stronger late positive potential, which tended to be particularly enhanced for painful memories. Source estimations attributed this stronger activation to networks including the posterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. The findings suggest that the reactivation of emotional autobiographical memories involves privileged automatic attention at perceptual processing stages, and an enhanced recruitment of neural network activity at a postperceptual stage sensitive to emotional-motivational processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn
Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.
Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole
Theory suggests that autobiographical remembering serves several functions. This research builds on previous empirical efforts (Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005) with the aim of constructing a brief, valid measure of three functions of autobiographical memory. Participants (N=306) completed 28 theoretically derived items concerning the frequency with which they use autobiographical memory to serve a variety of functions. To examine convergent and discriminant validity, participants rated their tendency to think about and talk about the past, and measures of future time orientation, self-concept clarity, and trait personality. Confirmatory factor analysis of the function items resulted in a respecified model with 15 items in three factors. The newly developed Thinking about Life Experiences scale (TALE) shows good internal consistency as well as convergent validity for three subscales: Self-Continuity, Social-Bonding, and Directing-Behaviour. Analyses demonstrate factorial equivalence across age and gender groups. Potential use and limitations of the TALE are discussed.
Jørgensen, Carsten René; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bech, Morten; Kjølbye, Morten; Bennedsen, Birgit E; Ramsgaard, Stine B
Disturbed identity is one of the defining characteristics of Borderline Personality Disorder manifested in a broad spectrum of dysfunctions related to the self, including disturbances in meaning-generating self-narratives. Autobiographical memories are memories of personal events that provide crucial building-blocks in our construction of a life-story, self-concept, and a meaning-generating narrative identity. The cultural life script represents culturally shared expectations as to the order and timing of life events in a prototypical life course within a given culture. It is used to organize one's autobiographical memories. Here, 17 BPD-patients, 14 OCD-patients, and 23 non-clinical controls generated three important autobiographical memories and their conceptions of the cultural life script. BPD-patients reported substantially more negative memories, fewer of their memories were of prototypical life script events, their memory narratives were less coherent and more disoriented, and the overall typicality of their life scripts was lower as compared with the other two groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guilherme R. Rodrigues
Full Text Available Episodic memory enables the storage of personal events with specific temporal and spatial details, and their retrieval through a sensory experience, usually visual, which is called autonoetic consciousness. While, in Brazil, several scales for the evaluation of anterograde episodic memory have been validated, there is not yet an instrument to assess the episodic autobiographical memory. The aim of this study is thus to make a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Episodic Autobiographic Memory Interview (EAMI for Brazilian Portuguese. Altogether, 11 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and 10 healthy controls (CTs were evaluated. EAMI scores for AD patients were lower than those of CTs, and these scores also correlated positively with the Remember-Know coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a good inter-rater reliability. The Portuguese version of EAMI showed a good reliability and validity, which suggests that it is a useful tool for evaluation of autobiographical memory in Brazilian patients.
Sheldon, Signy; Chu, Sonja
Autobiographical memory research has investigated how cueing distinct aspects of a past event can trigger different recollective experiences. This research has stimulated theories about how autobiographical knowledge is accessed and organized. Here, we test the idea that thematic information organizes multiple autobiographical events whereas spatial information organizes individual past episodes by investigating how retrieval guided by these two forms of information differs. We used a novel autobiographical fluency task in which participants accessed multiple memory exemplars to event theme and spatial (location) cues followed by a narrative description task in which they described the memories generated to these cues. Participants recalled significantly more memory exemplars to event theme than to spatial cues; however, spatial cues prompted faster access to past memories. Results from the narrative description task revealed that memories retrieved via event theme cues compared to spatial cues had a higher number of overall details, but those recalled to the spatial cues were recollected with a greater concentration on episodic details than those retrieved via event theme cues. These results provide evidence that thematic information organizes and integrates multiple memories whereas spatial information prompts the retrieval of specific episodic content from a past event.
Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.
Background A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive
Huntjens, R.J.C.; Verschuere, B.; McNally, R.J.
Background: A major symptom of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) is dissociative amnesia, the inability to recall important personal information. Only two case studies have directly addressed autobiographical memory in DID. Both provided evidence suggestive
Mitchell, Andrew E P
In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
Two studies examined the connection between motivation for weight loss and autobiographical memory by comparing characteristics of autobiographical memories between dieters and non-dieters. Study 1 involved 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters, and Study 2 involved 18 obese dieters and 18 normal weight non-dieters. Memories recalled in response to dieting-related cue words were rated as more central to the person's identity and life story and contained more body- or weight-related elements for the dieters than the non-dieters. No differences between dieters and non-dieters were found on memories recalled in response to neutral cue words. The findings are discussed in relation to the notions of the working self (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000) and current concerns (Klinger, 1978).
Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe
Two studies examined the connection between motivation for weight loss and autobiographical memory by comparing characteristics of autobiographical memories between dieters and non-dieters. Study 1 involved 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters, and Study 2 involved 18 obese dieters...... and 18 normal weight non-dieters. Memories recalled in response to dieting-related cue words were rated as more central to the person's identity and life story and contained more body- or weight-related elements for the dieters than the non-dieters. No differences between dieters and non-dieters were...... found on memories recalled in response to neutral cue words. The findings are discussed in relation to the notions of the working self (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000) and current concerns (Klinger, 1978)....
Hans J. Markowitsch
Full Text Available What distinguishes the recall of real-life experiences from that of self-created, fictitious emotionally laden information? Both kinds of information belong to the episodic memory system. Autobiographic memories constitute that part of the episodic memory system that is composed of significant life episodes, primarily of the distant past. Functional imaging was used to study the neural networks engaged in retrieving autobiographic and fictitious information of closely similar content. The principally activated brain regions overlapped considerably and constituted temporal and inferior prefrontal regions plus the cerebellum. Selective activations of the right amygdala and the right ventral prefrontal cortex (at the level of the uncinate fascicle interconnnecting prefrontal and temporopolar areas were found when subtracting fictitious from autobiographic retrieval. Furthermore, distinct foci in the left temporal lobe were engaged. These data demonstrate that autobiographic memory retrieval uses (at least in non-brain damaged individuals a network of right hemispheric ventral prefrontal and temporopolar regions and left hemispheric lateral temporal regions. It is concluded that it is the experiential character, its special emotional infiltration and its arousal which distinguishes memory of real-life from that of fictitious episodes. Consequently, our results point to the engagement of a bi-hemispheric network in which the right temporo-prefrontal hemisphere is likely to be responsible for the affective/arousal side of information retrieval and the left-hemispheric temporal gyrus for its engram-like representation. Portions of the neural activation found during retrieval might, however, reflect re-encoding processes as well.
Nathan P. Kettle
Full Text Available Boundary organizations serve multiple roles in linking science and decision making, including brokering knowledge, supporting local- and cross-level networks, facilitating the co-production of knowledge, and negotiating conflict. Yet they face several challenges in providing services for an ever-increasing number of actors and institutions interested in climate information and adaptation. This study evaluates how the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP innovated its boundary spanning role to improve outcomes by partnering with other boundary organizations through its ongoing climate webinar series. We utilize the concept of boundary chains to investigate outcomes associated with different extended network connections. Our evaluation is based on the analysis three datasets, including interviews (2013 and two web-based questionnaires (2010 and 2013–2015. Findings from the evaluation reveal several ways that remote engagement via the ACCAP webinar series facilitates learning, decision application, and cross-level network building, and overcomes barriers associated with large geographic distances between communities. In an organic evolution and innovation of the climate webinar series, ACCAP partnered with other boundary organizations to establish satellite hub sites to facilitate in-person gatherings at remote locations, thereby increasing the number and diversity of participants served and supporting local networking within organizations, agencies, and communities. Leveraging complementary resources through the satellite hub sites provided mutual benefits for ACCAP and partnering boundary organizations. These findings advance our understanding of the value of remote engagement in supporting boundary spanning processes and how boundary organizations innovate their roles to build capacity and increase the usability of climate information.
Delaune, X.; Piteau, Ph.; Borsoi, L.; Antunes, J.; Debut, V.
Predictive computation of the nonlinear dynamical responses of gap-supported tubes subjected to flow excitation has been the subject of very active research. Nevertheless, experimental results are still very important, for validation of the theoretical predictions as well as for asserting the integrity of field components. Because carefully instrumented test tubes and tube-supports are seldom possible, due to space limitations and to the severe environment conditions, there is a need for robust techniques capable of extracting, from the actual vibratory response data, information that is relevant for asserting the components integrity. The dynamical contact/impact (vibro-impact) forces are of paramount significance, as are the tube/support gaps. Following our previous studies in this area using wave-propagation techniques (De Araujo, Antunes, and Piteau, 1998, 'Remote Identification of Impact Forces on Loosely Supported Tubes: Part 1-Basic Theory and Experiments', J. Sound Vib., 215, pp. 1015-1041; Antunes, Paulino, and Piteau, 1998, 'Remote Identification of Impact Forces on Loosely Supported Tubes: Part 2-Complex Vibro-Impact Motions', J. Sound Vib., 215, pp. 1043-1064; Paulino, Antunes, and Izquierdo, 1999, 'Remote Identification of Impact Forces on Loosely Supported Tubes: Analysis of Multi-Supported Systems', ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 121, pp. 61-70), we apply modal methods in the present paper for extracting such information. The dynamical support forces, as well as the vibratory responses at the support locations, are identified from one or several vibratory response measurements at remote transducers, from which the support gaps can be inferred. As for most inverse problems, the identification results may prove quite sensitive to noise and modeling errors. Therefore, topics discussed in the paper include regularization techniques to mitigate the effects of non-measured noise perturbations. In particular, a method is proposed to improve the
Dent, T.H.; Sumpman, W.C.; Wilhelm, J.J.
The remote docking apparatus comprises a support plate with locking devices mounted thereon. The locking devices are capable of being inserted into tubular members for suspending the support plate therefrom. A vertical member is attached to the support plate with an attachment mechanism attached to the vertical member. A remote access manipulator is capable of being attached to the attachment mechanism so that the vertical member can position the remote access manipulator so that the remote access manipulator can be initially attached to the tubular members in a well defined manner
Potheegadoo, Jevita; Berna, Fabrice; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine; Danion, Jean-Marie
There is growing interest in clinical research regarding the visual perspective adopted during memory retrieval, because it reflects individuals' self-attitude towards their memories of past personal events. Several autobiographical memory deficits, including low specificity of personal memories, have been identified in schizophrenia, but visual perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval has not yet been investigated in patients. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the visual perspective with which patients visualize themselves when recalling autobiographical memories and to assess the specificity of their memories which is a major determinant of visual perspective. Thirty patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched controls recalled personal events from 4 life periods. After each recall, they were asked to report their visual perspective (Field or Observer) associated with the event. The specificity of their memories was assessed by independent raters. Our results showed that patients reported significantly fewer Field perspectives than comparison participants. Patients' memories, whether recalled with Field or Observer perspectives, were less specific and less detailed. Our results indicate that patients with schizophrenia adopt Field perspectives less frequently than comparison participants, and that this may contribute to a weakened sense of the individual of being an actor of his past events, and hence to a reduced sense of self. They suggest that this may be related to low specificity of memories and that all the important aspects involved in re-experiencing autobiographical events are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Dean, Graham M
Two experiments used a dual task methodology to investigate the role of visual imagery and executive resources in the retrieval of specific autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, dynamic visual noise led to a reduction in the number of specific memories retrieved in response to both high and low imageability cues, but did not affect retrieval times. In Experiment 2, irrelevant pictures reduced the number of specific memories but only in response to low imageability cues. Irrelevant pictures also increased response times to both high and low imageability cues. The findings are in line with previous work suggesting that disrupting executive resources may impair generative, but not direct, retrieval of autobiographical memories. In contrast, visual distractor tasks appear to impair access to specific autobiographical memories via both the direct and generative retrieval routes, thereby highlighting the potential role of visual imagery in both pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory and social cognition share common properties and both are affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. So far, most of the scant research in ASD has concerned adults, systematically reporting impairment of the episodic component. The only study to be conducted with children concluded that they have poorer personal semantic knowledge than typical developing children. The present study explores the development of both components of autobiographical memory in an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome, based on three examinations in 2007, 2008 and 2010. On each occasion, he underwent a general neuropsychological assessment including theory of mind tasks, and a specially-designed autobiographical memory task allowing us to test both the semantic and the episodic components for three lifetime periods (current year, previous year and earlier years. We observed difficulties in strategic retrieval and theory of mind, with a significant improvement between the second and third examinations. Regarding autobiographical memory, different patterns of performance were noted in all three examinations: 1 relative preservation of current-year personal knowledge, but impairment for the previous and earlier years, and 2 impairment of episodic memory for the current and previous year, but performances similar to those of controls for the earlier years. The first pattern can be explained by abnormal forgetting and by the semanticization mechanism, which needs verbal communication and social interaction to be efficient. The second pattern suggests that the development of episodic memory only reached the stage of event memory. This term refers to memory for personal events lacking in details or spatiotemporal specificity, and is usually observed in children younger than 5. We conclude that the abnormal functioning of social cognition in ASD, encompassing social and personal points of view, has an impact on both components of
Eadie, Leila; Mulhern, John; Regan, Luke; Mort, Alasdair; Shannon, Helen; Macaden, Ashish; Wilson, Philip
Introduction Our aim is to expedite prehospital assessment of remote and rural patients using remotely-supported ultrasound and satellite/cellular communications. In this paradigm, paramedics are remotely-supported ultrasound operators, guided by hospital-based specialists, to record images before receiving diagnostic advice. Technology can support users in areas with little access to medical imaging and suboptimal communications coverage by connecting to multiple cellular networks and/or satellites to stream live ultrasound and audio-video. Methods An ambulance-based demonstrator system captured standard trauma and novel transcranial ultrasound scans from 10 healthy volunteers at 16 locations across the Scottish Highlands. Volunteers underwent brief scanning training before receiving expert guidance via the communications link. Ultrasound images were streamed with an audio/video feed to reviewers for interpretation. Two sessions were transmitted via satellite and 21 used cellular networks. Reviewers rated image and communication quality, and their utility for diagnosis. Transmission latency and bandwidth were recorded, and effects of scanner and reviewer experience were assessed. Results Appropriate views were provided in 94% of the simulated trauma scans. The mean upload rate was 835/150 kbps and mean latency was 114/2072 ms for cellular and satellite networks, respectively. Scanning experience had a significant impact on time to achieve a diagnostic image, and review of offline scans required significantly less time than live-streamed scans. Discussion This prehospital ultrasound system could facilitate early diagnosis and streamlining of treatment pathways for remote emergency patients, being particularly applicable in rural areas worldwide with poor communications infrastructure and extensive transport times.
Petit, Maxime; Fischer, Tobias; Demiris, Yiannis
Robot systems that interact with humans over extended periods of time will benefit from storing and recalling large amounts of accumulated sensorimotor and interaction data. We provide a principled framework for the cumulative organisation of streaming autobiographical data so that data can be continuously processed and augmented as the processing and reasoning abilities of the agent develop and further interactions with humans take place. As an example, we show how a kinematic structure lear...
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (ABM comprises memories of one’s own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer Disease (AD or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these studies ABM was assessed by using the same instrument – i.e. the Erweitertes Autobiographisches Gedächtnis Inventar (E-AGI – thus allowing a direct comparison between diagnostic groups. Episodic ABM, especially the richness of details was impaired already in MCI and in beginning AD. Semantic memories were spared until moderate stages, indicating a dissociation between both memory systems. A recency effect was detectable in cognitively unimpaired subjects and vanished in patients with AD. A similar pattern of deficits was found in patients with chronic schizophrenia but not in patients with major depression. These autobiographical memory deficits were not accounted for by gender, or education level and did not apply for the physiological ageing process in otherwise healthy elderly. In conclusion, ABM deficits are frequently found in AD and chronic schizophrenia and primarily involve episodic rather than semantic memories. This dissociation corresponds to the multiple trace theory which hypothesized that these memory functions refer to distinct neuronal systems. The semi-structured interview E-AGI used to discern ABM changes provided a sufficient reliability measures, moreover potential effects of a number of important confounders could be falsified so far. These findings underline the relevance of ABM-assessments in clinical practice.
Kong, Tianzhu; He, Yini; Auerbach, Randy P; McWhinnie, Chad M; Xiao, Jing
In this study, we examined the mediator effects of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) on the relationship between rumination and depression in 323 Chinese university students. 323 undergraduates completed the questionnaires measuring OGM (Autobiographical Memory Test), rumination (Ruminative Response Scale) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Results using structural equation modeling showed that OGM partially-mediated the relationship between rumination and depression (χ 2 = 88.61, p OGM on the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms were significant. The results indicated that rumination and depression were partially mediated by OGM.
Mortensen, Linda; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen
An important issue in theories of bilingual autobiographical memory is whether linguistically encoded memories are represented in language-specific stores or in a common language-independent store. Previous research has found that autobiographical memory retrieval is facilitated when the language of the cue is the same as the language of encoding, consistent with language-specific memory stores. The present study examined whether this language congruency effect is influenced by cue imageability. Danish-English bilinguals retrieved autobiographical memories in response to Danish and English high- or low-imageability cues. Retrieval latencies were shorter to Danish than English cues and shorter to high- than low-imageability cues. Importantly, the cue language effect was stronger for low-than high-imageability cues. To examine the relationship between cue language and the language of internal retrieval, participants identified the language in which the memories were internally retrieved. More memories were retrieved when the cue language was the same as the internal language than when the cue was in the other language, and more memories were identified as being internally retrieved in Danish than English, regardless of the cue language. These results provide further evidence for language congruency effects in bilingual memory and suggest that this effect is influenced by cue imageability.
Antonio L. Manzanero
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the phenomenological qualities of self-reported negative and positive memories. The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, and a total of 134 autobiographical memories about negative and positive events were analyzed using a version of the Phenomenological Questionnaire for Autobiographical Memory (Manzanero & López, 2007. Participants were university students, 80 percent were women and 20 percent were men. Results showed that negative memories are more confused, more complex, and decay more over time than positive ones. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on sensory information, spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, recall perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and how much participants recovered and talked about the event. High Dimensional Visualization (HDV graph revealed that there were individual differences between negative and positive memories but no consistent differences across participants.
Cheng, Zenghu; She, Yugui
The present research aims to explore whether recalling and writing about autobiographical memory from different perspectives (first-person perspective vs. third-person perspective) could affect cognitive function. The participants first performed a working memory task to evaluate their working memory capacity as a baseline and then were instructed to recall (Study 1) or write about (Study 2) personal events (failures vs. successes) from the first-person perspective or the third-person perspective. Finally, they performed the working memory task again. The results suggested that autobiographical memory and perspective influence working memory interactively. When recalling a success, the participants who recalled from the third-person perspective performed better than those who recalled from the first-person perspective on the working memory capacity task; when recalling a failure, the opposite was true.
Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Eggen, J.H.
Autobiographical memory (AM) is the "memory for the events in one’s life" . Often it is assumed that in order to remember all those events, you just need to record everything and when you replay these recordings you will remember those events. You can compare this with a library metaphor that has
Lemesle, B; Planton, M; Pagès, B; Pariente, J
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a type of epilepsy that often has a negative impact on patients' memory. Despite the importance of patients' complaints in this regard, the difficulties described by these patients are often not easy to demonstrate through a standard neuropsychological assessment. Accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory disorders are the two main memory impairments reported in the literature in patients with TLE. However, the methods used by different authors to evaluate long-term memory and autobiographical memory are heterogeneous. This heterogeneity can lead to differences in the observed results as well as how they are interpreted. Yet, despite the methodological differences, objectification of such memory deficits appears to be both specific and robust within this patient population. Analysis of the literature shows that accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory disorders share the same clinical characteristics. This leads to the assumption that they are, in fact, only one entity and that their evaluation may be done through a single procedure. Our proposal is to place this evaluation within the context of memory consolidation disorders. With such a perspective, evaluation of accelerated forgetting in autobiographical memory should consist of identifying a disorder in the formation and/or recovery of new memory traces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Greenberg, Daniel L; Ogar, Jennifer M; Viskontas, Indre V; Gorno Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce; Knowlton, Barbara J
Individuals with semantic dementia (SD) have impaired autobiographical memory (AM), but the extent of the impairment has been controversial. According to one report (Westmacott, Leach, Freedman, & Moscovitch, 2001), patient performance was better when visual cues were used instead of verbal cues; however, the visual cues used in that study (family photographs) provided more retrieval support than do the word cues that are typically used in AM studies. In the present study, we sought to disentangle the effects of retrieval support and cue modality. We cued AMs of 5 patients with SD and 5 controls with words, simple pictures, and odors. Memories were elicited from childhood, early adulthood, and recent adulthood; they were scored for level of detail and episodic specificity. The patients were impaired across all time periods and stimulus modalities. Within the patient group, words and pictures were equally effective as cues (Friedman test; χ² = 0.25, p = .61), whereas odors were less effective than both words and pictures (for words vs. odors, χ² = 7.83, p = .005; for pictures vs. odors, χ² = 6.18, p = .01). There was no evidence of a temporal gradient in either group (for patients with SD, χ² = 0.24, p = .89; for controls, χ² < 2.07, p = .35). Once the effect of retrieval support is equated across stimulus modalities, there is no evidence for an advantage of visual cues over verbal cues. The greater impairment for olfactory cues presumably reflects degeneration of anterior temporal regions that support olfactory memory. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.
Ford, Jaclyn H; Rubin, David C; Giovanello, Kelly S
Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a function of age. In an event-related functional neuroimaging study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories associated with age-specific popular musical clips. Participants rated song familiarity, as well as the temporal specificity and emotional valence of each memory. Song familiarity was associated with increased dmPFC activity and ratings of temporal specificity and positivity across participants. In addition, behavioral and neuroimaging findings suggest age differences in familiarity-related effects in which familiarity was more associated with enhancement of memory detail in young adults and affective positivity in older adults. These findings highlight important age-related shifts in how individuals retrieve autobiographical events and how personally-relevant musical cues may be used to facilitate memory retrieval.
Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M; Martin, Cody
Involuntary memory chains are spontaneous recollections of the past that occur in a sequence. Much like semantic memory priming, this memory phenomenon has provided some insights into the nature of associations in autobiographical memory. The event-cueing procedure (a laboratory-based memory sequencing task) has also provided some insights into the nature of autobiographical memory organisation. However, while both of these memory-sequencing phenomena have exhibited the same types of memory associations (conceptual associations and general-event or temporal associations), both have also produced discrepant results with respect to the relative proportions of such associations. This study investigated the possibility that the results from event cueing are artefacts of various memory production responses. Using a number of different approaches we demonstrated that these memory production responses cause overestimates of general-event association. We conclude that for this reason, the data from involuntary memory chains provide a better picture of the organisation of autobiographical memory.
Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinue; Shao, Zhifang
to recall seven autobiographical memories of important personal life story events. In addition, participants indicated how often they think or talk about the reported events. The three common important life events recalled by participants from all four cultures were having children, getting married......, and attending college. Results showed cross-cultural differences in the rehearsal (think/talk) ratings for positive events, but not for negative events.......Individuals often think and talk about autobiographical memories of important life events from their personal past. Do these life events and how often often participants rehearse them differ across cultures? In this study, researchers asked participants from Mexico, Greenland, China, and Denmark...
Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinue; Shao, Zhifang
Individuals often think and talk about autobiographical memories of important life events from their personal past. Do these life events and how often often participants rehearse them differ across cultures? In this study, researchers asked participants from Mexico, Greenland, China, and Denmark...... to recall seven autobiographical memories of important personal life story events. In addition, participants indicated how often they think or talk about the reported events. The three common important life events recalled by participants from all four cultures were having children, getting married......, and attending college. Results showed cross-cultural differences in the rehearsal (think/talk) ratings for positive events, but not for negative events....
Willoughby, Karen A; Desrocher, Mary; Levine, Brian; Rovet, Joanne F
Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. Using the newly developed Children's Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM both improved between 8 and 16 years of age; however, age-related changes were larger for episodic AM than for semantic AM. In addition, females were found to recall more episodic AM details, but not more semantic AM details, than males. Importantly, this sex difference in episodic AM recall was attenuated under conditions of high retrieval support (i.e., the use of probing questions). The ability to clearly visualize past events at the time of recollection was related to children's episodic AM recall performance, particularly the retrieval of perceptual details. Finally, similar age and sex effects were found between episodic AM and everyday memory ability (e.g., memory for everyday activities). More specifically, older participants and females exhibited better episodic AM and everyday memory performance than younger participants and males. Overall, the present study provides important new insight into both episodic and semantic AM performance, as well as the relation between episodic AM and everyday memory, during late childhood and adolescence.
Willoughby, Karen A.; Desrocher, Mary; Levine, Brian; Rovet, Joanne F.
Few studies have examined both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory (AM) performance during late childhood and early adolescence. Using the newly developed Children’s Autobiographical Interview (CAI), the present study examined the effects of age and sex on episodic and semantic AM and everyday memory in 182 children and adolescents. Results indicated that episodic and semantic AM both improved between 8 and 16 years of age; however, age-related changes were larger for episodic AM than for semantic AM. In addition, females were found to recall more episodic AM details, but not more semantic AM details, than males. Importantly, this sex difference in episodic AM recall was attenuated under conditions of high retrieval support (i.e., the use of probing questions). The ability to clearly visualize past events at the time of recollection was related to children’s episodic AM recall performance, particularly the retrieval of perceptual details. Finally, similar age and sex effects were found between episodic AM and everyday memory ability (e.g., memory for everyday activities). More specifically, older participants and females exhibited better episodic AM and everyday memory performance than younger participants and males. Overall, the present study provides important new insight into both episodic and semantic AM performance, as well as the relation between episodic AM and everyday memory, during late childhood and adolescence. PMID:22403560
Inagaki, Kanji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Hatanaka, Takahiro; Sakuma, Akira; Fukumoto, Akira; Ikeda, Jun
Safety Support System (SSS) is a computerized operator support system for nuclear power plants, which is now under development. The concept of SSS covers 1) earlier detection of failure symptom and prediction of its influence to the plant operation, 2) improved transparency and robustness of plant control systems, 3) advanced human-machine interface and communication. The authors have been working on the third concept and proposed a remote mobile communication system called Plant Communication System (PCS). PCS aims to realize convenient communication between main control room and other areas such as plant local areas and site offices, using Personal Handyphone System (PHS) and wireless LAN (Local Area Network). PCS can transmit not only data but also graphic displays and dynamic video displays between the main control room and plant local areas. MPEG4 (Moving Picture Experts Group 4) technology is utilized in video data compression and decompression. The authors have developed the special multiplexing unit that connects PHS Cell Stations (CSs) and exiting coaxial cables. Voice recognition and announcement capability is also realized in the system, which enables verbal retrieval of information in the computer systems in the main control room from local areas. (author)
Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes
A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.
Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Woody, Mary L.; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E.
The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11–18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. PMID:27498000
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena; Welzer, Harald
Autobiographical memories of older adults show fewer episodic and more non-episodic elements than those of younger adults. This semantization effect is attributed to a loss of episodic memory ability. However the alternative explanation by an increasing proclivity to search for meaning has not been ruled out to date. To test whether a decrease in episodicity and an increase in meaning-making in autobiographical narratives are related across the lifespan, we used different instructions, one focussing on specific episodes, the other on embedding events in life, in two lifespan samples. A continuous decrease of episodic quality of memory (memory specificity, narrative quality) was confirmed. An increase of search for meaning (interpretation, life story integration) was confirmed only up to middle adulthood. This non-inverse development of episodicity and searching for meaning in older age speaks for an autonomous semantization effect that is not merely due to an increase in interpretative preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although trauma and memory have been a focus of cultural studies for more than twenty years now, few scholarly works focus on medium-specific representations of trauma and even fewer comment on the tendency of trauma representations to be autobiographical in the 21st Century. The present paper is part of a larger project that seeks to tackle precisely these issues. Here, I look at the representation of trauma in a relatively recent autobiographical video game, namely Vince Caballero’s Father and I (2012. I argue that the use of trauma as a trope adds a further narrative demand to video games, making it even more difficult to negotiate the specificities of the medium. At the same time, however, it functions as a stock story that enhances the narrative dimensions of the game under discussion.
Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.
The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...
Maguire, Eleanor A.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; Kopelman, Michael D.
Whilst patients with semantic dementia (SD) are known to suffer from semantic memory and language impairments, there is less agreement about whether memory for personal everyday experiences, autobiographical memory, is compromised. In healthy individuals, functional MRI (fMRI) has helped to delineate a consistent and distributed brain network…
Jobson, Laura; Miskon, Nazleen; Dalgleish, Tim; Hitchcock, Caitlin; Hill, Emma; Golden, Ann-Marie; Zulkefly, Nor Sheereen; Mukhtar, Firdaus
Distortions in autobiographical memory have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Those with MDD demonstrate a 'depressogenic' autobiographical life structure. Research has not examined how culture influences this process. We investigated whether Malay individuals (members of an interdependent culture) with MDD demonstrated a 'depressogenic' autobiographical life structure similar to that of British individuals (members of an independent culture) with MDD. A 2 (Culture; Malay, British) × 2 (Mood; depressed, control) cross-sectional design using a card sort task and self-report measures was used. Malay individuals with MDD or no history of MDD completed the life-structure card-sorting task, which provided a novel method for investigating organizational structure of the life narrative. These data were compared to previously collected data in which British individuals with MDD or without MDD had completed the same task within the same experimental protocol. Pan-culturally those with MDD had greater negativity (i.e., used more negative attributes), negative redundancy (i.e., used the same negative attributes repeatedly across life chapters) and negative emodiversity (i.e., had greater variety and relative abundance of negative attributes), and reduced positive redundancy (i.e., used the same positive attributes repeatedly across chapters) in their structuring relative to controls. While the British MDD group had greater compartmentalization (i.e., the negative and positive attributes were clustered separately across different chapters) than British controls, the Malay MDD group had lower levels of compartmentalization than Malay controls. The findings suggest culture may shape aspects of the autobiographical life structure in MDD. The majority of the literature investigating depression pertains to individuals from European Western cultures, despite recognition that depression ranks as one of the most debilitating diseases worldwide. This raises
Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip
Background and objectives: Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS), experiencing intrusive memories, and rumination appear to be risk factors for depression and depressive relapse. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a weak resistance to proactive interference (PI)
Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C.; Giovanello, Kelly S.
Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e. not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults’ specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy aging, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults’ memories may include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being. PMID:23915176
Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C; Giovanello, Kelly S
Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e., not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults' specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy ageing, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults' memories might include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being.
Ridout, Nathan; Dritschel, Barbara; Matthews, Keith; O'Carroll, Ronan
Depressed individuals have been consistently shown to exhibit problems in accessing specific memories of events from their past and instead tend to retrieve categorical summaries of events. The majority of studies examining autobiographical memory changes associated with psychopathology have tended to use word cues, but only one study to date has used images (with PTSD patients). to determine if using images to cue autobiographical memories would reduce the memory specificity deficit exhibited by patients with depression in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-five clinically depressed patients and twenty-five healthy controls were assessed on two versions of the autobiographical memory test; cued with emotional words and images. Depressed patients retrieved significantly fewer specific memories, and a greater number of categorical, than did the controls. Controls retrieved a greater proportion of specific memories to images compared to words, whereas depressed patients retrieved a similar proportion of specific memories to both images and words. no information about the presence and severity of past trauma was collected. results suggest that the overgeneral memory style in depression generalises from verbal to pictorial cues. This is important because retrieval to images may provide a more ecologically valid test of everyday memory experiences than word-cued retrieval.. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.
Ford, Jaclyn H.; Rubin, David C.; Giovanello, Kelly S.
Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a fun...
Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in A...
Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina
Within the memory literature, a robust finding is of childhood amnesia: a relative paucity among adults for autobiographical or personal memories from the first 3 to 4 years of life, and from the first 7 years, a smaller number of memories than would be expected based on normal forgetting. Childhood amnesia is observed in spite of strong evidence that during the period eventually obscured by the amnesia, children construct and preserve autobiographical memories. Why early memories seemingly are lost to recollection is an unanswered question. In the present research, we examined the issue by using the cue word technique to chart the distributions of autobiographical memories in samples of children ages 7 to 11 years and samples of young and middle-aged adults. Among adults, the distributions were best fit by the power function, whereas among children, the exponential function provided a better fit to the distributions of memories. The findings suggest that a major source of childhood amnesia is a constant rate of forgetting in childhood, seemingly resulting from failed consolidation, the outcome of which is a smaller pool of memories available for later retrieval.
Yanes, Paula K; Roberts, John E; Carlos, Erica L
Considerable previous research has shown that retrieval of overgeneral autobiographical memories (OGM) is elevated among individuals suffering from various emotional disorders and those with a history of trauma. Although previous theories suggest that OGM serves the function of regulating acute negative affect, it is also possible that OGM results from difficulties in keeping the instruction set for the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) in working memory, or what has been coined "secondary goal neglect" (Dalgleish, 2004). The present study tested whether OGM is associated with poor memory for the task's instruction set, and whether an instruction set reminder would improve memory specificity over repeated trials. Multilevel modelling data-analytic techniques demonstrated a significant relationship between poor recall of instruction set and probability of retrieving OGMs. Providing an instruction set reminder for the AMT relative to a control task's instruction set improved memory specificity immediately afterward.
Glynn, Ruth; Salmon, Karen; Low, Jason
This experiment investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) would be found in children's self-generated autobiographical memory recall. An adapted version of the RIF paradigm for adults' autobiographical memories was administered to 8- and 9-year-old children (N = 65). We hypothesized that RIF would be found in terms of both number of memories recalled and amount of memory detail reported. The relationship between memory detail at the retrieval practice phase and RIF magnitude was also investigated. Consistent with hypotheses, RIF was found for both the number of memories recalled and the amount of memory detail reported. In addition, memory detail at retrieval practice was associated with increased RIF magnitude. Findings extend the current literature in three ways. First, they indicate that selective discussion of autobiographical events with children can cause forgetting of similar non-discussed events. Second, even when these non-discussed events are recalled, they contain sparser memory detail. Finally, when events are selectively discussed in greater detail, forgetting of similar non-discussed events occurs to a greater extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda
Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…
Audrey L. Mayer
Full Text Available The use of remote sensing for environmental policy development is now quite common and well-documented, as images from remote sensing platforms are often used to focus attention on emerging environmental issues and spur debate on potential policy solutions. However, its use in policy implementation and evaluation has not been examined in much detail. Here we examine the use of remote sensing to support the implementation and enforcement of policies regarding the conservation of forests and wetlands in the USA. Specifically, we focus on the “Roadless Rule” and “Travel Management Rules” as enforced by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service on national forests, and the “No Net Loss” policy and Clean Water Act for wetlands on public and private lands, as enforced by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Army Corps of Engineers. We discuss several national and regional examples of how remote sensing for forest and wetland conservation has been effectively integrated with policy decisions, along with barriers to further integration. Some of these barriers are financial and technical (such as the lack of data at scales appropriate to policy enforcement, while others are political.
Johnsson, Genevieve; Kerslake, Rachel; Crook, Sarah; Cribb, Corinne
Objectives It is known that there are difficulties in recruiting and retaining practitioners in rural and remote communities and that access to support and professional development can be key in breaking this cycle. Technology provides a possible solution not only for increasing access to these opportunities, but also in building community capacity to support children with autism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the current learning and support needs within rural and remote professionals prior to setting up a model of support. Methods An online survey was used to gather information from service providers in rural and remote communities on their demographics, current skills and confidence in working with clients on the autism spectrum, current supervision and professional development, identified learning and support needs, and the availability and uptake of technology for accessing professional development. Results Respondents reported below average levels of perceived confidence and skills when working with children with autism, most notably children with challenging behaviour. Half the respondents do not currently attend supervision sessions, with only 15% receiving regular supervision (fortnightly or more often), and 66% of respondents had travelled more than 3h to access professional development workshops. The majority of participants had access to technology and over half had already used this for online training. Conclusion Overall, service providers in rural and remote areas are generally not currently meeting their needs in terms of frequency of supervision and professional development. The present needs analysis identifies key areas for learning, the ideal frequency of support and the acceptability of using technology to deliver this support. This information will guide future researchers in the development of an evidence-based model that will be accessible and meaningful to its participants. What is known about the topic? It is known that
Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A; Jackson, Mike; Chadwick, Paul
Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions. It may limit access to autobiographical information that could be helpful in re-appraising distressing experiences, including voices. We investigated the possible links between OGM and distressing voices in psychosis by comparing three groups: (1) clinical voice-hearers (N = 39), (2) non-clinical voice-hearers (N = 35) and (3) controls without voices (N = 77) on a standard version of the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers also completed a newly adapted version of the task, designed to assess voices-related memories (vAMT). As hypothesised, the clinical group displayed an OGM bias by retrieving fewer specific autobiographical memories on the AMT compared with both the non-clinical and control groups, who did not differ from each other. The clinical group also showed an OGM bias in recall of voice-related memories on the vAMT, compared with the non-clinical group. Clinical voice-hearers display an OGM bias when compared with non-clinical voice-hearers on both general and voices-specific recall tasks. These findings have implications for the refinement and targeting of psychological interventions for psychosis.
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and…
Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R
As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.
Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe
The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rasmussen, Katrine Willemoes; Berntsen, Dorthe
Converging evidence suggests that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking share a common neurocognitive basis. Although previous research has shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can impair the ability to remember the personal past, episodic future thinking has not previously been...... asked to report a series of events that had happened to them in the past and a series of events that might happen to them in the future. Transcriptions were scored according to a reliable system for categorizing internal (episodic) and external (semantic) information. For each event described......, participants also completed two modified Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire items to assess self-reported phenomenal qualities associated with remembering and imagining. In addition, TBI patients underwent neuropsychological assessment. Results revealed that TBI patients recalled/imagined proportionally...
Buckley, Rachel F; Saling, Michael M; Irish, Muireann; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Maruff, Paul; Macaulay, S Lance; Martins, Ralph N; Szoeke, Cassandra; Masters, Colin L; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rembach, Alan; Savage, Greg; Ellis, Kathryn A
Autobiographical memory (ABM), personal semantic memory (PSM), and autonoetic consciousness are affected in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but their relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers are unclear. Forty-five participants (healthy controls (HC) = 31, MCI = 14) completed the Episodic ABM Interview and a battery of memory tests. Thirty-one (HC = 22, MCI = 9) underwent β-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fourteen participants (HC = 9, MCI = 5) underwent one imaging modality. Unlike PSM, ABM differentiated between diagnostic categories but did not relate to AD biomarkers. Personal semantic memory was related to neocortical β-amyloid burden after adjusting for age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4. Autonoetic consciousness was not associated with AD biomarkers, and was not impaired in MCI. Autobiographical memory was impaired in MCI participants but was not related to neocortical amyloid burden, suggesting that personal memory systems are impacted by differing disease mechanisms, rather than being uniformly underpinned by β-amyloid. Episodic and semantic ABM impairment represent an important AD prodrome.
Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances
Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…
Andrés Felipe Ardila Rodríguez
Full Text Available The training strategies developed for the social support program bring deficits in accessibility to the chronic ill patients (EC and the CASSA-UDEC’s caretaker (CASSA-UDEC: Centre for Social Health Care at Universidad de Cundinamarca they do not have time to commute, hindering their legal relationship established by the contract. For this reason, a remote care platform (PTD was developed to support users at CASSA-UDEC improving aspects related to coverage, cost, quality, access and appropriation of information from caregivers and chronic ill patients. The design was based on gerontological constructs identifying features such as modularity, object size, usability, ergonomics, and some others, providing a friendly platform for the user with dynamic, modular and high usability content. The Platform provides a space for interaction and aid, which works as a dynamic entity in the job done by CASSA-UDEC giving support in the development of activities, expanding its coverage, access; all thanks to the benefits offered in a virtual mode.
Schaefer, Alexandre; Philippot, Pierre
The present study investigates the emotional determinants of the phenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories. A total of 84 participants completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ, Johnson, Foley, Suengas, & Raye, 1988) after retrieving and orally describing a negative, a positive, and a neutral autobiographical memory. In addition, self-report and physiological measures of emotional state at retrieval were recorded. Results suggest that recall of perceptual, sensory, and semantic elements is better for emotional memories than for neutral ones. This difference is not significant for contextual and temporal aspects, suggesting that emotional memories are more vivid but no more specific than are neutral ones. In addition, positive memories yielded higher MCQ ratings than did negative memories for sensory, temporal, and contextual aspects. Finally, correlations suggest a positive relation between emotional state at retrieval and level of phenomenal detail of retrieved memories. Results are interpreted in terms of multilevel models of emotion and of Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's (2000) model.
Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke; Engelhard, Iris M.; Peeters, Louis L.; Dalgleish, Tim
Prior research has shown that reduced autobiographical memory specificity predicts an increase in post-traumatic stress severity in traumatised individuals. Studies have also demonstrated that reduced memory specificity predicts later symptoms of depression after pregnancy-related life stress. So
Antonio M. Cardoso
Full Text Available Remote experiments for academic purposes can only achieve their educational goals if an appropriate framework is able to provide a basic set of features, namely remote laboratory management, collaborative learning tools and content management and delivery. This paper presents a framework developed to support remote experiments in a design for test class offered to final year students at the Electrical and Computer Engineering degree at the University of Porto. The proposed solution combines a test language command interpreter and various virtual instruments (VIs, with a demonstration board that comprises a boundary-scan IEEE 1149.1 / 1149.4 test infrastructure. The experiments are presented as embedded learning objects, with no distinction from other e-learning contents (e.g. lessons, lecture notes, etc..
Semkovska, Maria; Noone, Martha; Carton, Mary; McLoughlin, Declan M
Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nourkova V. V.
Full Text Available Identifying patterns of influence deliberate lie on deferred confidence of reliability of autobiographical memories is current problem for legal psychology. We reviewed the variability of autobiographical memories in the context of legal practice. In addition, we conducted the experimental field study of the dynamics of subjective assessments of the reliability of memories. It was found that truthful confirmation and false refutation of reliable last episodes, as well as after a truthful refutation and false confirmation of unreliable last episodes lead to regular changes in the subjective assessment of the reliability. The mnemonic "renunciation effect" is that a false refutation of a reliable episode leads to its forgetting and a truthful refutation of an unreliable episode leads to its erroneous inclusion in autobiographical memory.
McLean, Kate C.; Mansfield, Cade D.
Autobiographical reasoning has been found to be a critical process in identity development; however, the authors suggest that existing research shows that such reasoning may not always be critical to another important outcome: well-being. The authors describe characteristics of people such as personality and age, contexts such as conversations,…
Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Duplantie, Julie; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Landry, Réjean
Telehealth, as other information and communication technologies (ICTs) introduced to support the delivery of health care services, is considered as a means to answer many of the imperatives currently challenging health care systems. In Canada, many telehealth projects are taking place, mostly targeting rural, remote or isolated populations. So far, various telehealth applications have been implemented and have shown promising outcomes. However, telehealth utilisation remains limited in many settings, despite increased availability of technology and telecommunication infrastructure. A qualitative field study was conducted in four remote regions of Quebec (Canada) to explore perceptions of physicians and managers regarding the impact of telehealth on clinical practice and the organisation of health care services, as well as the conditions for improving telehealth implementation. A total of 54 respondents were interviewed either individually or in small groups. Content analysis of interviews was performed and identified several effects of telehealth on remote medical practice as well as key conditions to ensure the success of telehealth implementation. According to physicians and managers, telehealth benefits include better access to specialised services in remote regions, improved continuity of care, and increased availability of information. Telehealth also improves physicians' practice by facilitating continuing medical education, contacts with peers, and access to a second opinion. At the hospital and health region levels, telehealth has the potential to support the development of regional reference centres, favour retention of local expertise, and save costs. Conditions for successful implementation of telehealth networks include the participation of clinicians in decision-making, the availability of dedicated human and material resources, and a planned diffusion strategy. Interviews with physicians and managers also highlighted the importance of considering
Full Text Available Abstract Background Telehealth, as other information and communication technologies (ICTs introduced to support the delivery of health care services, is considered as a means to answer many of the imperatives currently challenging health care systems. In Canada, many telehealth projects are taking place, mostly targeting rural, remote or isolated populations. So far, various telehealth applications have been implemented and have shown promising outcomes. However, telehealth utilisation remains limited in many settings, despite increased availability of technology and telecommunication infrastructure. Methods A qualitative field study was conducted in four remote regions of Quebec (Canada to explore perceptions of physicians and managers regarding the impact of telehealth on clinical practice and the organisation of health care services, as well as the conditions for improving telehealth implementation. A total of 54 respondents were interviewed either individually or in small groups. Content analysis of interviews was performed and identified several effects of telehealth on remote medical practice as well as key conditions to ensure the success of telehealth implementation. Results According to physicians and managers, telehealth benefits include better access to specialised services in remote regions, improved continuity of care, and increased availability of information. Telehealth also improves physicians' practice by facilitating continuing medical education, contacts with peers, and access to a second opinion. At the hospital and health region levels, telehealth has the potential to support the development of regional reference centres, favour retention of local expertise, and save costs. Conditions for successful implementation of telehealth networks include the participation of clinicians in decision-making, the availability of dedicated human and material resources, and a planned diffusion strategy. Interviews with physicians and
Wingenfeld, Katja; Driessen, Martin; Schlosser, Nicole; Terfehr, Kirsten; Carvalho Fernando, Silvia; Wolf, Oliver Tobias
In healthy participants, cortisol administration has been found to impair autobiographic memory retrieval. We recently reported that administration of 10 mg of hydrocortisone had enhancing effects on autobiographical memory retrieval, i.e. more specific memory retrieval, in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while in healthy controls the impairing effects were replicated. We here report a re-analysis of these data with respect to cue-word valence and retrieval time. In a placebo-controlled cross-over study, 43 patients with PTSD and 43 age- and sex-matched healthy controls received either placebo or hydrocortisone orally before the autobiographical memory test was performed. We found that the effects of cortisol on memory retrieval depended on cue-word valence and group (significant interaction effects of drug by group and drug by valence by group). The enhancing effect of cortisol on memory retrieval in PTSD seemed to be relatively independent of cue-word valence, while in the control group the impairing effects of cortisol were only seen in response to neutral cue-words. The second result of the study was that in patients as well as in controls, cortisol administration led to faster memory retrieval compared to placebo. This was seen in response to positive and (to lesser extend) to neutral cue-words, but not in response to negative cue-words. Our findings illustrate that the opposing effects of cortisol on autobiographical memory retrieval in PTSD patients and controls are further modulated by the emotionality of the cue-words.
Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (ρs) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (ρs=.34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ρs=.31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). Implications for the conceptualisation of OGM are discussed.
Kirk, Marie; Berntsen, Dorthe
Older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have difficulties accessing autobiographical memories. However, this deficit tends to spare memories dated to earlier parts of their lives, and may partially reflect retrieval deficits rather than complete memory loss. Introducing a novel paradigm, the present study examines whether autobiographical memory recall can be improved in AD by manipulating the sensory richness, concreteness and cultural dating of the memory cues. Specifically, we examine whether concrete everyday objects historically dated to the participants' youth (e.g., a skipping rope), relative to verbal cues (i.e., the verbal signifiers for the objects) facilitate access to autobiographical memories. The study includes 49 AD patients, and 50 healthy, older matched control participants, all tested on word versus object-cued recall. Both groups recalled significantly more memories, when cued by objects relative to words, but the advantage was significantly larger in the AD group. In both groups, memory descriptions were longer and significantly more episodic in nature in response to object-cued recall. Together these findings suggest that the multimodal nature of the object cues (i.e. vision, olfaction, audition, somatic sensation) along with specific cue characteristics, such as time reference, texture, shape, may constrain the retrieval search, potentially minimizing executive function demands, and hence strategic processing requirements, thus easing access to autobiographical memories in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN, also support autobiographical memory (AM retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity. Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a two-hour, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, how does this person’s story make you feel? We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (semantic AMs or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (episodic AMs. We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.
Talarowska, Monika; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael; Gałecki, Piotr
Autobiographical memory (AM) is a ubiquitous human experience that belongs to long-term declarative memory. It plays interpersonal and intrapsychic functions. The main aim of this study is to present results of contemporary research on AM in recurrent depressive disorders. The available research literature suggests that AM dysfunctions are a precursor and risk factor for recurrent depressive disorders and that they also appear to be a consequence of depressive symptoms in a bidirectional and interacting manner. These data suggest that AM might be a viable therapeutic target for cognitive remediation strategies, given the impact of cognition on diverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna
Episodic and semantic autobiographical memories were examined in a group of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a control group matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated a personal episodic memory deficit in the ASD group in the absence of a personal semantic memory deficit, suggesting a deficit dissociation between these…
Quas, Jodi A.; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Goodman, Gail S.; Ghetti, Simona; Edelstein, Robin S.; Redlich, Allison
We examined adults' long-term autobiographical memory for a dramatic life event-participating as a child victim in a criminal prosecution because of alleged sexual abuse. The study is unique in several ways, including that we had extensive documentation concerning the sexual abuse allegations, the children's involvement in their legal case, and…
In this paper, I highlight four distinct but interconnected areas of my life history that I refer to as "autobiographic poetic waves." These waves are layered with the complex underpinning of racial, linguistic, gendered, classed, and professional identity politics that continue to not only liberate but also subjugate me at times. These…
Gualtieri, J. Anthony; Cromp, R. F.
The Support Vector Machine provides a new way to design classification algorithms which learn from examples (supervised learning) and generalize when applied to new data. We demonstrate its success on a difficult classification problem from hyperspectral remote sensing, where we obtain performances of 96%, and 87% correct for a 4 class problem, and a 16 class problem respectively. These results are somewhat better than other recent results on the same data. A key feature of this classifier is its ability to use high-dimensional data without the usual recourse to a feature selection step to reduce the dimensionality of the data. For this application, this is important, as hyperspectral data consists of several hundred contiguous spectral channels for each exemplar. We provide an introduction to this new approach, and demonstrate its application to classification of an agriculture scene.
Philippi, Nathalie; Botzung, Anne; Noblet, Vincent; Rousseau, François; Després, Olivier; Cretin, Benjamin; Kremer, Stéphane; Blanc, Frédéric; Manning, Liliann
We studied the influence of emotions on autobiographical memory (AbM) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), characteristically triggering atrophy in the hippocampus and the amygdala, two crucial structures sustaining memory and emotional processing. Our first aim was to analyze the influence of emotion on AbM in AD patients, on both the proportion and the specificity of emotional memories. Additionally, we sought to determine the relationship of emotional AbM to amygdalar-hippocampal volumes. Eighteen prodromal to mild AD patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls were included. We obtained 30 autobiographical memories per participant using the modified Crovitz test (MCT). Analyses were performed on global scores, rates and specificity scores of the emotional vs. neutral categories of memories. Amygdalar-hippocampal volumes were extracted from 3D T1-weighted MRI scans and tested for correlations with behavioral data. Overall, AD patients displayed a deficit in emotional AbMs as they elicited less emotional memories than the controls, however, the specificity of those memories was preserved. The deficit likely implied retrieval or storage as it was extended in time and without reminiscence bump effect. Global scores and rates of emotional memories, but not the specificity scores, were correlated to right amygdalar and hippocampal volumes, indicating that atrophy in these structures has a central role in the deficit observed. Conversely, emotional memories were more specific than neutral memories in both groups, reflecting an enhancement effect of emotion that could be supported by other brain regions that are spared during the early stages of the disease.
Kyung, Yoonhee; Yanes-Lukin, Paula; Roberts, John E
Research on autobiographical memory has focused on whether memories are coded as specific (i.e., describe a single event that happened at a particular time and place). Although some theory and research suggests that the amount of detail in autobiographical memories reflects a similar underlying construct as memory specificity, past research has not investigated whether these variables converge. Therefore, the present study compared the proportion of specific memories and the amount of detail embedded in memory responses to cue words. Results demonstrated that memory detail and proportion of specific memories were not correlated with each other and showed different patterns of association with other conceptually relevant variables. When responses to neutral cue words were examined in multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the proportion of specific memories uniquely predicted less depressive symptoms, low emotional avoidance, lower emotion reactivity, better executive control and lower rumination, whereas the amount of memory detail uniquely predicted the presence of depression diagnosis, as well as greater depressive symptoms, subjective stress, emotion reactivity and rumination. Findings suggest that the ability to retrieve specific memories and the tendency to retrieve detailed personal memories reflect different constructs that have different implications in the development of emotional distress.
Siedlecki, Karen L
Visual perspective in autobiographical memories was examined in terms of reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance in a sample of 99 individuals. Autobiographical memories may be recalled from two visual perspectives--a field perspective in which individuals experience the memory through their own eyes, or an observer perspective in which individuals experience the memory from the viewpoint of an observer in which they can see themselves. Participants recalled nine word-cued memories that differed in emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) and rated their memories on 18 scales. Results indicate that visual perspective was the most reliable memory characteristic overall and is consistently related to emotional intensity at the time of recall and amount of emotion experienced during the memory. Visual perspective is unrelated to memory for words, stories, abstract line drawings or faces.
Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is an important cognitive phenomenon in depression, but questions remain regarding the underlying mechanisms. The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007) proposes three mechanisms that may contribute to OGM, but little work has examined the possible additive and/or interactive effects among them. We examined two mechanisms of CaR-FA-X: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control. We analysed data from undergraduates (N=109) scoring high or low on rumination who were presented with cues of high and low self-relevance on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Executive control was operationalised as performance on both the Stroop Colour-Word Task and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Hierarchical generalised linear modelling was used to predict whether participants would generate a specific memory on a trial of the AMT. Higher COWAT scores, lower rumination, and greater cue self-relevance predicted a higher probability of a specific memory. There was also a rumination×cue self-relevance interaction: Higher (vs lower) rumination was associated with a lower probability of a specific memory primarily for low self-relevant cues. We found no evidence of interactions between these mechanisms. Findings are interpreted with respect to current autobiographical memory models. Future directions for OGM mechanism research are discussed. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
St-Laurent, Marie; Abdi, Hervé; Burianová, Hana; Grady, Cheryl L
We used fMRI to assess the neural correlates of autobiographical, semantic, and episodic memory retrieval in healthy young and older adults. Participants were tested with an event-related paradigm in which retrieval demand was the only factor varying between trials. A spatio-temporal partial least square analysis was conducted to identify the main patterns of activity characterizing the groups across conditions. We identified brain regions activated by all three memory conditions relative to a control condition. This pattern was expressed equally in both age groups and replicated previous findings obtained in a separate group of younger adults. We also identified regions whose activity differentiated among the different memory conditions. These patterns of differentiation were expressed less strongly in the older adults than in the young adults, a finding that was further confirmed by a barycentric discriminant analysis. This analysis showed an age-related dedifferentiation in autobiographical and episodic memory tasks but not in the semantic memory task or the control condition. These findings suggest that the activation of a common memory retrieval network is maintained with age, whereas the specific aspects of brain activity that differ with memory content are more vulnerable and less selectively engaged in older adults. Our results provide a potential neural mechanism for the well-known age differences in episodic/autobiographical memory, and preserved semantic memory, observed when older adults are compared with younger adults.
Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives
Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.
Dunlop, William L; Tracy, Jessica L
The narration of drinking experiences plays a central role in many alcohol rehabilitation programmes, yet few researchers have considered whether alcoholics' stories about such experiences relate to their psychological adjustment. Here we examine the extent to which drinking stories of abstinent alcoholics reflect autobiographical reasoning processes denoting self-change and self-stability, and whether these processes are associated with adjustment. Participants who revealed a positive self-change in their narratives about drinking demonstrated higher levels of self-esteem, authentic pride, and mental health compared to those who did not. In contrast, those who implied a sense of self-stability in their narratives demonstrated higher levels of hubristic pride and aggression, and poorer mental health. These results suggest that narrating positive self-change in the wake of substance abuse may underlie psychological adjustment, whereas establishing self-stability in these experiences may impede adjustment. More broadly, these findings underscore the importance of recognising the multi-dimensional nature of autobiographical reasoning.
Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil
The present research investigated the effects of personal handedness and saccadic eye movements on the specificity of past autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking. Handedness and saccadic eye movements have been hypothesised to share a common functional basis in that both influence cognition through hemispheric interaction. The technique used to elicit autobiographical memory and episodic future thought involved a cued sentence completion procedure that allowed for the production of memories spanning the highly specific to the very general. Experiment 1 found that mixed-handed (vs. right handed) individuals generated more specific past autobiographical memories, but equivalent numbers of specific future predictions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that following 30s of bilateral (horizontal) saccades, more specific cognitions about both the past and future were generated. These findings extend previous research by showing that more distinct and episodic-like information pertaining to the self can be elicited by either mixed-handedness or eye movements. The results are discussed in relation to hemispheric interaction and top-down influences in the control of memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K
Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for
Full Text Available The autobiographical IAT (aIAT is an implicit behavioral instrument that can detect autobiographical memories encoded in an individual’s mind by measuring how quickly this person can categorize and associate sentences related to a specific event with the logical dimensions true and false. Faster categorization when an event (e.g., I went to Paris is associated with the dimension true than false indicates that that specific event is encoded as true in the individual’s mind. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of the aIAT, used as a memory-detection technique (i.e., to identify which of two events is true. To this end, we recorded ERPs while participants performed an aIAT assessing which of two playing cards they had previously selected. We found an increased N200 and a decreased LPC (or P300 at the fronto-central sites when participants associated the selected playing card with the dimension false than true. Notably, both components have been previously and consistently reported in studies investigating deception. These results suggest that associating a true autobiographical event with the concept of false may involve the same cognitive processes associated with deception.
Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke; Geraerts, Elke; Merckelbach, Harald; Dalgleish, Tim
Traumatized samples have relative difficulty in generating specific autobiographical memories on a cue word task, compared to nonexposed controls. Simultaneously, trauma is associated with highly specific intrusive trauma memories in day-to-day life. Possibly, day-to-day intrusions and memories
Rajkumar, Anto P; Petit, Cheryl P; Rachana, Arun; Deinde, Funmi; Shyamsundar, G; Thangadurai, P; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S
Cognitive deficits, self-reported or found following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and their correlates are diverse. Despite the characteristics of people receiving ECT in Asia differ widely from the west, pertinent research from Asia remains sparse. We investigated the correlates of self-reported, mini-mental status examination (MMSE) defined, and autobiographical memory deficits in a cohort that received ECT in a south Indian tertiary-care setting. 76 consecutive consenting people were recruited within seven days of completing their ECT course. Memory was assessed by a subjective Likert scale, MMSE, and an autobiographical memory scale (AMS). Psychopathology was assessed by brief psychiatric rating scale, and serum cortisol levels were estimated by chemi-luminescence immunoassays. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from the participants, and their medical records. The correlates were analysed using generalised linear models after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders. Self-reported, MMSE-defined, and autobiographical memory deficits were present in 27.6% (95%CI 17.6-37.7%), 42.1% (95%CI 31.0-53.2%), and 36.8% (95%CI 26.0-47.7%) of participants, respectively. Agreement between the memory deficits was poor. Age, less education, duration of illness, hypothyroidism, and past history of another ECT course were significantly associated with MMSE-defined deficits. Age, anaemia, past ECT course, and pre-ECT blood pressure were significantly associated with autobiographical memory deficits, while residual psychopathology and cortisol levels were significantly associated with self-reported memory deficits. Self-reported, MMSE-defined, and autobiographical memory deficits are common at the completion of ECT course, and their correlates differ. All service users receiving ECT need periodic cognitive assessments evaluating multiple cognitive domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.
In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…
R.M. Dekker (Rudolf)
textabstractDutch historian Jacques Presser used the term “egodocuments” to describe a range of autobiographical materials, including diaries, memoirs, and wills— the stuff we have been calling “life writing”—to signal its distance from earlier notions of what constituted autobiography.
Urbanization, a major driver of global change, profoundly impacts our physical and social world, for example, altering carbon cycling and climate. Understanding these consequences for better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably requires accurate information on urban extent and its spatial distributions. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the nighttime light remote sensing data, extended this method to the global domain by developing a computational method (parameterization) to estimate the key parameters in the cluster-based method, and built a consistent 20-year global urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization (e.g. 2000 in Fig. 1). Supported by urban maps derived from nightlights remote sensing data and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework to project future urban expansion by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model. With the models calibrated and validated using historical data, we explored urban growth at the grid level (1-km) over the next two decades under a number of socio-economic scenarios. The derived spatiotemporal information of historical and potential future urbanization will be of great value with practical implications for developing adaptation and risk management measures for urban infrastructure, transportation, energy, and water systems when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change, and high impact weather events.
Full Text Available We studied the influence of emotions on autobiographical memory (AbM in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, characteristically triggering atrophy in the hippocampus and the amygdala, two crucial structures sustaining memory and emotional processing. Our first aim was to analyze the influence of emotion on AbM in AD patients, on both the proportion and the specificity of emotional memories. Additionally, we sought to determine the relationship of emotional AbM to amygdalar-hippocampal volumes. Eighteen prodromal to mild AD patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls were included. We obtained 30 autobiographical memories per participant using the modified Crovitz test (MCT. Analyses were performed on global scores, rates and specificity scores of the emotional vs. neutral categories of memories. Amygdalar-hippocampal volumes were extracted from 3D T1-weighted MRI scans and tested for correlations with behavioral data. Overall, AD patients displayed a deficit in emotional AbMs as they elicited less emotional memories than the controls, however, the specificity of those memories was preserved. The deficit likely implied retrieval or storage as it was extended in time and without reminiscence bump effect. Global scores and rates of emotional memories, but not the specificity scores, were correlated to right amygdalar and hippocampal volumes, indicating that atrophy in these structures has a central role in the deficit observed. Conversely, emotional memories were more specific than neutral memories in both groups, reflecting an enhancement effect of emotion that could be supported by other brain regions that are spared during the early stages of the disease.
This article draws on case studies undertaken in postgraduate research at AUT University, Auckland. It seeks to address a number of issues related to heuristic inquiries employed by graphic design students who use autobiographical approaches when developing research-based theses. For this type of thesis, heuristics as a system of inquiry may…
The focus of this article is on education for vocational excellence (the combination of virtue and good judgment or phronesis/practical wisdom) through an examination of episodes from the auto/biographical study of master craftsman Wolfgang B. Vocational excellence is an issue sometimes discussed with regard to teacher training for schools and…
Daselaar, S.M.; Rice, H.J; Greenberg, D.L.; Cabeza, R.; LaBar, K.S.; Rudin, D.C.
We sought to map the time course of autobiographical memory retrieval, including brain regions that mediate phenomenological experiences of reliving and emotional intensity. Participants recalled personal memories to auditory word cues during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging
Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Karlsson, Kristina
Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality). However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities) are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, olfactory, auditory, or multimodal. The results showed that the peak of the distributions depends on the modality of the retrieval cue. The results indicated that multimodal retrieval seemed to be driven by visual and auditory information to a larger extent and to a lesser extent by olfactory information. Finally, no differences were observed in the number of retrieved memories or experiential ratings across the four cue-conditions.
Full Text Available Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality. However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, olfactory, auditory, and multimodal. The results showed that the peak of the distributions depend on the modality of the retrieval cue. The results indicated that multimodal retrieval seemed to be driven by visual and auditory information to a larger extent and to a lesser extent by olfactory information. Finally, no differences were observed in the number of retrieved memories or experiential ratings across the four cue-conditions.
Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meister, Franziska; Frodl, Thomas; Beraldi, Anna; Padberg, Frank; Engel, Rolf R; Reiser, Maximilian; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Meindl, Thomas
Autobiographical memory relies on complex interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions and a sense of self-continuity over the course of one's life. This paper reports a study based upon the case of the patient NN who suffered from a complete loss of autobiographical memory and awareness of identity subsequent to a dissociative fugue. Neuropsychological, behavioral, and functional neuroimaging tests converged on the conclusion that NN suffered from a selective retrograde amnesia following an episode of dissociative fugue, during which he had lost explicit knowledge and vivid memory of his personal past. NN's loss of self-related memories was mirrored in neurobiological changes after the fugue whereas his semantic memory remained intact. Although NN still claimed to suffer from a stable loss of autobiographical, self-relevant memories 1 year after the fugue state, a proportionate improvement in underlying fronto-temporal neuronal networks was evident at this point in time. In spite of this improvement in neuronal activation, his anterograde visual memory had been decreased. It is posited that our data provide evidence for the important role of visual processing in autobiographical memory as well as for the efficiency of protective control mechanisms that constitute functional retrograde amnesia.
Jerzy J. Karylowski
Full Text Available Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective. Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait’s self-descriptiveness (yes vs. no responses nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits. Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.
Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej
Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective). Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable) self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait's self-descriptiveness ( yes vs. no responses) nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits). Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.
Zebian, Samar; Brown, Norman R
The Living in History (LiH) effect is a litmus test for the degree to which historical events reorganise autobiographical memory. The LiH effect was studied in two Lebanese samples: a Beiruti sample that lived in the epicentre of the 15-year Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) and another group from the Bi'qa region who lived in an area that was indirectly exposed for most of the civil war but experienced one short-term period of war during the Israeli invasion. Using the two-phase word-cueing task to elicit dated autobiographical memories, we observed a significantly stronger LiH effect in the Beirut sample but also a significant yet weaker LiH effect in the Bi'qa sample. In addition to the main finding we offer evidence that the LiH effect waxes and wanes with the level of conflict in an area and that reported personal experiences of war exposure predict the strength of the LiH effect. Our findings suggest that collective transitional events which produce a marked change in the fabric of daily living engender historically defined autobiographical periods which give structure and organisation to how individuals remember their past.
Stanley, Matthew L; Henne, Paul; Iyengar, Vijeth; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; De Brigard, Felipe
People maintain a positive identity in at least two ways: They evaluate themselves more favorably than other people, and they judge themselves to be better now than they were in the past. Both strategies rely on autobiographical memories. The authors investigate the role of autobiographical memories of lying and emotional harm in maintaining a positive identity. For memories of lying to or emotionally harming others, participants judge their own actions as less morally wrong and less negative than those in which other people lied to or emotionally harmed them. Furthermore, people judge those actions that happened further in the past to be more morally wrong than those that happened more recently. Finally, for periods of the past when they believed that they were very different people than they are now, participants judge their actions to be more morally wrong and more negative than those actions from periods of their pasts when they believed that they were very similar to who they are now. The authors discuss these findings in relation to theories about the function of autobiographical memory and moral cognition in constructing and perceiving the self over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Karen A. Willoughby
Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.
Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H.; Holmes, Emily A.; Bockting, C. L. H.
BACKGROUND: Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis
de Bruijn, M.J.; Bender, M.
Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust’s sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on
Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E
The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip
Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS), experiencing intrusive memories, and rumination appear to be risk factors for depression and depressive relapse. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a weak resistance to proactive interference (PI) might underlie this trio of cognitive risk factors. Resistance to PI refers to being able to ignore cognitive distracters that were previously relevant but became irrelevant for current task goals. Students (N = 65) and depressed patients (N = 37) completed tasks measuring resistance to PI and AMS, and completed questionnaires on intrusive memories and rumination. In both samples, weaker resistance to PI was associated with rAMS. There was no evidence for a relationship between resistance to PI and intrusive memories or rumination. As we did not assess other measures of executive functioning, we cannot conclude whether the observed relationship between rumination and PI is due to unique qualities of PI. Difficulties to deliberately recall specific, rather than general or categoric autobiographical memories appear to be related to more general problems with the inhibition of interference of mental distracters. The results are in line with the executive control account of rAMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Misaki, Masaya; Yuan, Han; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy
Patients with depression show blunted amygdala hemodynamic activity to positive stimuli, including autobiographical memories. The authors examined the therapeutic efficacy of real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training aimed at increasing the amygdala's hemodynamic response to positive memories in patients with depression. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, unmedicated adults with depression (N=36) were randomly assigned to receive two sessions of rtfMRI-nf either from the amygdala (N=19) or from a parietal control region not involved in emotional processing (N=17). Clinical scores and autobiographical memory performance were assessed at baseline and 1 week after the final rtfMRI-nf session. The primary outcome measure was change in score on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the main analytic approach consisted of a linear mixed-model analysis. In participants in the experimental group, the hemodynamic response in the amygdala increased relative to their own baseline and to the control group. Twelve participants in the amygdala rtfMRI-nf group, compared with only two in the control group, had a >50% decrease in MADRS score. Six participants in the experimental group, compared with one in the control group, met conventional criteria for remission at study end, resulting in a number needed to treat of 4. In participants receiving amygdala rtfMRI-nf, the percent of positive specific memories recalled increased relative to baseline and to the control group. rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdala hemodynamic response to positive memories significantly decreased depressive symptoms and increased the percent of specific memories recalled on an autobiographical memory test. These data support a role of the amygdala in recovery from depression.
Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle
Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations.
Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle
Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents’ strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations. PMID:25312278
Choi, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Soo Jeong; Yang, Kyung Boo; Bae, Chang Hyun
In this research, the 3D graphic environment was developed for remote operation, and included the visual support module. The real operation environment was built by employing a experiment robot, and also the identical virtual model was developed. The well-designed virtual models can be used to retrieve the necessary conditions for developing the devices and processes. The integration of 3D virtual models, the experimental operation environment, and the visual support module was used for evaluating the operation efficiency and accuracy by applying different methods such as only monitor image and with visual support module
Choi, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Soo Jeong; Yang, Kyung Boo [Cheju Nat. Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Chang Hyun [Pusan Nat. Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
In this research, the 3D graphic environment was developed for remote operation, and included the visual support module. The real operation environment was built by employing a experiment robot, and also the identical virtual model was developed. The well-designed virtual models can be used to retrieve the necessary conditions for developing the devices and processes. The integration of 3D virtual models, the experimental operation environment, and the visual support module was used for evaluating the operation efficiency and accuracy by applying different methods such as only monitor image and with visual support module.
Rubin, D C; Groth, E; Goldsmith, D J
In Experiment 1, subjects were presented with either the odors or the names of 15 common objects. In Experiment 2, subjects were presented with either the odors, photographs, or names of 16 common objects. All subjects were asked to describe an autobiographical memory evoked by each cue, to date each memory, and to rate each memory on vividness, pleasantness, and the number of times that the memory had been thought of and talked about prior to the experiment. Compared with memories evoked by photographs or names, memories evoked by odors were reported to be thought of and talked about less often prior to the experiment and were more likely to be reported as never having been thought of or talked about prior to the experiment. No other effects were consistently found, though there was a suggestion that odors might evoke more pleasant and emotional memories than other types of cues. The relation of these results to the folklore concerning olfactory cuing is discussed.
Jones, Lara L; Norville, Gregory A; Wright, A Michelle
Across two studies, we investigated the influence of narcissism and self-esteem along with gender on phenomenological ratings across the four subscales of the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; impact, recollection, rehearsal, and belief). Memory cues varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and agency (agentic vs. communal). In Study 2, we used different memory cues reflecting these four Valence by Agency conditions and additionally investigated retrieval times for the autobiographical memories (AMs). Results were consistent with the agency model of narcissism [Campbell, W. K., Brunell, A. B., & Finkel, E. J. (2006). Narcissism, interpersonal self-regulation, and romantic relationships: An agency model approach. In E. J. Finkel & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Self and relationships: Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. New York, NY: Guilford], which characterises narcissists as being more concerned with agentic (self-focused) rather than communal (other-focused) positive self-relevant information. Narcissism predicted greater phenomenology across the four subscales for the positive-agentic memories (Study 1: clever; Study 2: attractive, talented) as well as faster memory retrieval times. Narcissism also predicted greater recollection and faster retrieval times for the negative-communal AMs (Study 1: rude; Study 2: annoying, dishonest). In contrast, self-esteem predicted greater phenomenology and faster retrieval times for the positive-communal AMs (Study 1: cooperative; Study 2: romantic, sympathetic). In both studies, results of LIWC analyses further differentiated between narcissism and self-esteem in the content (word usage) of the AMs.
Full Text Available The UniSchooLabs project aims at creating an infrastructure supporting web access to remote/virtual labs and associated educational resources to engage learners with hands-on and minds-on activities in science, technology and math in schools. The UniSchooLabs tool-kit supports the teacher in selecting a remote or virtual lab and developing a lab activity based on an inquiry model template. While working with the toolkit the teacher has access to three main features: a a catalogue of available online laboratories; b an archive of activities created by other users; c a tool for creating new activities or reusing existing ones.
Two separate studies examined the prevalence and quality of silent (infrequently recalled), socially silent (i.e., recalled but not shared), and disclosed autobiographical memories. In Study 1 young and older men and women remembered positive events. Positive memories were more likely to be disclosed than to be kept socially silent or completely silent. However, socially silent and disclosed memories did not differ in memory quality: the memories were equally vivid, significant, and emotional. Silent memories were less qualitatively rich. This pattern of results was generally replicated in Study 2 with a lifespan sample for both positive and negative memories, and with additional qualitative variables. The exception was that negative memories were kept silent more often. Age differences were minimal. Women disclosed their autobiographical memories more, but men told a greater variety of people. Results are discussed in terms of the functions that memory telling and silences might serve for individuals.
St-Laurent, Marie; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; McAndrews, Mary Pat
Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy from hippocampal origin and patients with unilateral surgical excision of an epileptic focus located in the medial temporal lobe were compared to healthy controls on a version of the Autobiographical Interview (AI) adapted to assess memory for event-specific and generic personal episodes. For both…
Jones, Karen; Sambrook, Sally; Henley, Andrew; Norbury, Heather
This paper explores the lived experience of leadership learning and development in a single case study of an entrepreneur participating in a major leadership development programme for owner-managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Based on autobiographical research, it provides a rich contextual account of the nature and underlying…
Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B
and at times contradicted each other. The present experiment was designed to match the two primary approaches to studying episodic memory in an unparalleled manner. Results suggest a clear separation of systems supporting memory as it is typically tested in the laboratory and memory as assessed under autobiographical retrieval conditions. These data provide neurobiological evidence that episodic memory is not a single construct, challenging the degree to which different experimental traditions are studying the same construct. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372764-12$15.00/0.
Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W.; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip
According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null
Liu, Xianhua; Liu, Yanling; Li, Li; Hu, Yiqiu; Wu, Siwei; Yao, Shuqiao
Overgenerality and delay of the retrieval of autobiographical memory (AM) are well documented in a range of clinical conditions, particularly in patients with emotional disorder. The present study extended the investigation to chronic pain, attempting to identify whether the retrieval of AM in patients with chronic pain tends to be overgeneral or delayed. With an observational cross-sectional design, we evaluated the AM both in patients with chronic pain and healthy controls by Autobiographical Memory Test. Pain conditions were assessed using the pain diagnostic protocol, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), and the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ). Emotion was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Subjects included 176 outpatients with chronic pain lasting for at least 6 months and 170 healthy controls. 1) Compared with the healthy group, the chronic pain group had more overgeneral memories (OGMs) (F = 29.061, P OGM were significant (P OGM scores could be predicted by the BDI score (9.7%), pain chronicity (4.3%), PSEQ score (7.1%), and Affective Index (of SF-MPQ) score (2.7%). 3) In the chronic pain group, the stepwise multiple regression models for variables predicting latency were significant (P < 0.05). Specifically, the variance in latency could be predicted by age (3.1%), pain chronicity (2.7%), pain duration (4.3%), and PSEQ score (2.0%). The retrieval of AM in patients with chronic pain tends to be overgeneral and delayed, and the retrieval style of AM may be contributed to negative emotions and chronic pain conditions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pernot-Marino, Elodie; Danion, Jean-Marie; Hedelin, Guy
Conscious recollection for autobiographical memory is the subjective experience of reliving a personal event mentally. Its frequency is strongly influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of the event. We addressed the issue of whether conscious recollection for autobiographical memories is also influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of retrieval. We used lorazepam, a benzodiazepine, as a pharmacological tool to modulate this emotional experience. Autobiographical memories were recorded in eight healthy volunteers using a diary study methodology. Each day, four entries were made by each subject: two true events, one altered event and one false event. For each event, the subjects were asked to rate emotional variables at encoding and at retrieval. Two months later, there were two sessions of recognition tests during which the subjects received orally an acute administration of either lorazepam (0.038 mg/kg) or placebo using a cross-over design. Subjective states of awareness were assessed using the Remember/Know/Guess procedure. Compared to placebo, lorazepam increased levels of conscious recollection, as assessed by Remember responses, for both true and false memories and induced an overestimation of the personal significance and emotional intensity of past events. Structural equation modelling showed that this overestimation was causal in the increased frequency of conscious recollection. Our results provide experimental evidence that the frequency of conscious recollection for both true and false autobiographical memories is influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of retrieval.
Grace, Lydia; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J
Autobiographical memory (AM) is believed to serve self, social and directive functions; however, little is known regarding how this triad of functions operates in depression. Using the Thinking About Life Experiences questionnaire [Bluck, S., & Alea, N. (2011). Crafting the TALE: Construction of a measure to assess the functions of autobiographical remembering. Memory, 19, 470-486.; Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C. (2005). A TALE of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, 23, 91-117.], two studies explored the relationship between depressive symptomology and the self-reported frequency and usefulness of AMs for self, social and directive purposes. Study 1 revealed that thinking more frequently but talking less frequently about past life events was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Recalling past events more frequently to maintain self-continuity was also significantly associated with higher depressive symptomology. However, results from Study 2 indicated that higher levels of depression were also significantly associated with less-frequent useful recollections of past life events for self-continuity purposes. Taken together, the findings suggest atypical utilisations of AM to serve self-continuity functions in depression and can be interpreted within the wider context of ruminative thought processes.
Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that the degree to which individuals focus on themselves vs. social relations in their memories varies markedly across cultures. Do the differences result from differing cultural self-views (i.e., an autonomous vs. a relational sense of self), as often suggested in the literature? Experimental evidence…
Corboy, Denise; McLaren, Suzanne; Jenkins, Megan; McDonald, John
The objective is to investigate the influence of characteristics related to place of residence (self-reliance and stoicism) on men's intentions to use a telephone support service following radical prostatectomy. A community sample of 447 prostate cancer patients (31% response), recruited via Medicare Australia, completed a survey to assess levels of self-reliance and stoicism, and beliefs about addressing emotional distress through using telephone support services. Results indicated that the model was a partially mediated model. Geographic remoteness was directly related to intention, and indirectly related through stoicism and subjective norms. Men from rural and remote areas in Australia might face particular challenges in seeking support following treatment for prostate cancer. These challenges appear to relate to the influence of stoic attitudes and normative expectations, than to issues of access and availability. Addressing stoic attitudes in the clinical setting, through normalising emotional reactions to cancer diagnosis and treatment, and the act of help-seeking for emotional support, may be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
D. Sandy Staples
Full Text Available A two phase research study was done to investigate remote work and remote management issues. In Phase 1, focus groups were carried out with remote managers and remote employees to identify key issues. The most common key issues dealt with communications, information technology, leadership and coaching, teamwork, building trust, and performance management. In the second phase, a questionnaire was used to test hypotheses developed from phase 1. The findings supported that higher trust leads to higher job satisfaction and lower job stress, and that more communication between the manager and the remote employee develops higher levels of employee organizational commitment.
Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael
Remote sensing data can be effectively used as a mean to build geological knowledge for poorly mapped terrains. Spectral remote sensing data from space- and air-borne sensors have been widely used to geological mapping, especially in areas of high outcrop density in arid regions. However, spectral remote sensing information by itself cannot be efficiently used for a comprehensive lithological classification of an area due to (1) diagnostic spectral response of a rock within an image pixel is conditioned by several factors including the atmospheric effects, spectral and spatial resolution of the image, sub-pixel level heterogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock, presence of soil and vegetation cover; (2) only surface information and is therefore highly sensitive to the noise due to weathering, soil cover, and vegetation. Consequently, for efficient lithological classification, spectral remote sensing data needs to be supplemented with other remote sensing datasets that provide geomorphological and subsurface geological information, such as digital topographic model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data. Each of the datasets contain significant information about geology that, in conjunction, can potentially be used for automated lithological classification using supervised machine learning algorithms. In this study, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based supervised learning method, was applied to automated lithological classification of a study area in northwestern India using remote sensing data, namely, ASTER, DEM and aeromagnetic data. Several digital image processing techniques were used to produce derivative datasets that contained enhanced information relevant to lithological discrimination. A series of SVMs (trained using k-folder cross-validation with grid search) were tested using various combinations of input datasets selected from among 50 datasets including the original 14 ASTER bands and 36 derivative datasets (including 14
Murre, J.M.J.; Kristo, G.; Janssen, S.M.J.
A large number of studies have recently shown effects of sleep on memory consolidation. In this study the effects of the sleep quality and sleep length on the retention of autobiographical memories are examined, using an Internet-based diary technique (Kristo, Janssen, & Murre, 2009). Each of over
Despite the contributions of feminist theory and practice to improve workplace conditions in various sectors of business and industry, academic workplaces largely remain structured around a traditionally hierarchical, male workplace model and culture, which can inhibit women's career advancement. Using autobiographical narrative, I draw upon my…
Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…
Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Nonaka, Saori
Autobiographical memories can be recalled from either a field (first-person) or an observer (third-person) perspective. Previous studies have reported that field-to-observer perspective change reduced the emotional intensity of recalled events. In the present study, we examined whether this effect has a long duration by employing follow-up measurements. The participants were asked to recall the same events repeatedly across three sessions (S1, S2, and S3): S2 was conducted about three days after S1, and S3 was conducted about four weeks after S2. The results showed a reduction in the emotional intensity of the recalled events when the perspective was changed from field to observer at S2. More importantly, this reduction in emotional intensity persisted until S3. These effects were not observed under observer-to-field perspective change at S2. These results suggest that observer perspective taking can cause plastic change in the autobiographical memory system.
Full Text Available Imagery rescripting (ImRs is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content.In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples, both Conceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing meaning-relevant content-and Perceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing perceptual features-were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added-changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory's unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated.In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB.Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical samples.
Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H; Holmes, Emily A; Bockting, Claudi L H
Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content. In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples), both Conceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing meaning-relevant content-and Perceptual-ImRs-focusing on changing perceptual features-were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB) was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added-changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory's unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated. In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB. Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical samples.
Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.; Kamps, Oscar
Moon-Mars analogue missions using a mock-up lander that is part of the ESA/ILEWG ExoGeoLab project were conducted during Eifel field campaigns in 2009, 2015 and 2016 (Foing et al., 2010). In the last EuroMoonMars2016 campaign the lander was used to conduct reconnaissance experiments and in situ geological scientific analysis of samples, with a payload that mainly consisted of a telescope and a UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer. The aim of the campaign was to exhibit possibilities for the ExoGeoLab lander to perform remotely controlled experiments and test its applicability in the field by simulating the interaction with astronauts. The Eifel region in Germany where the experiments with the ExoGeoLab lander were conducted is a Moon-Mars analogue due to its geological setting and volcanic rock composition. The research conducted by analysis equipment on the lander could function in support of Moon-Mars sample return missions, by providing preliminary insight into characteristics of the analyzed samples. The set-up of the prototype lander was that of a telescope with camera and solar power equipment deployed on the top, the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer together with computers and a sample webcam were situated in the middle compartment and to the side a sample analysis test bench was attached, attainable by astronauts from outside the lander. An alternative light source that illuminated the samples in case of insufficient daylight was placed on top of the lander and functioned on solar power. The telescope, teleoperated from a nearby stationed pressurized transport vehicle that functioned as a base control center, attained an overview of the sampling area and assisted the astronauts in their initial scouting pursuits. Locations of suitable sampling sites based on these obtained images were communicated to the astronauts, before being acquired during a simulated EVA. Sampled rocks and soils were remotely analyzed by the base control center, while the astronauts
Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis
The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing "autobiographical" memory (TEMPau task),…
Full Text Available Jens BROCKMEIER's new book proposes a very provocative aim for memory studies: "[T]o radically re-think our very idea of memory and challenge the notions of remembering and forgetting that we have taken for granted" (p.vii. The main target for the author's critique is the archival model of memory. In order to support his approach, the author provides empirical evidence from the neurosciences, social sciences, and humanities. "Beyond the Archive" represents an innovative contribution to the field of memory studies. It brings together disparate disciplinary fields in a novel and sophisticated fashion with a clear goal in mind: to propose a new model for the analysis of autobiographical remembering. BROCKMEIER's book is a true exercise of multidisciplinary research in action, which is much needed in the current climate of psychological and neuroscientific reductionism in the sciences of memory. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160338
Keskin, İ.; Akbaba, N.; Tosun, M.; Tüfekçi, M. K.; Bulut, D.; Avcı, F.; Gökçe, O.
The accelerated developments in information technology in recent years, increased the amount of usage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in disaster management considerably and the access from mobile and web-based platforms to continuous, accurate and sufficient data needed for decision-making became easier accordingly. The Disaster Management and Decision Support System (AYDES) has been developed with the purpose of managing the disaster and emergency manageme...
Lieberoth, Andreas; Hansen, Frank Allan
We all have a few distinctive memories from school – fond or horrid, close or distant, from class or from recess. But because our minds tend to conserve space and only register new and unusual information, most days and lessons just dissolve into a blur. Therefore, autobiographical memories are u...... graders science in the great outdoors. Using theories of how episodic and semantic memory formats interact, we ask if the memorability of the game, also have an influence on how players retain the kind of fact-based information that our schools are so fond of testing.......We all have a few distinctive memories from school – fond or horrid, close or distant, from class or from recess. But because our minds tend to conserve space and only register new and unusual information, most days and lessons just dissolve into a blur. Therefore, autobiographical memories...... are usually a poor indication of what anyone has learned in school. Here, we attempt to conceptualize the interplay between dramatic experience and conceptual learning in terms of memory processes. We present a scary Mobile Urban Drama (Hansen et al. 2008, 2011), “The Chosen Ones”, designed to teach 7-9th...
Narrative psychology is founded on the premise that substantial insight can be gained into individuals' self-understanding and behaviour by studying the content of their autobiographical memories. This article contributes to this field of inquiry by suggesting that our understanding of adolescents' exclusion from mainstream education can be enhanced by examining their recollections of school using a narrative dialogical approach. In a research project the autobiographical memories of fifteen female and twenty male students, aged 15-16 years, who had been excluded from secondary schools in London, England were collected and analysed. The aim was to examine how in their narrated depictions of the past, the adolescents explained and justified their position and behaviour at different times in their lives at school. The findings highlight how adolescents perceive themselves to have become positioned by the voices of significant others, schools as institutions and themselves at earlier or later stages in their lives. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beike, Denise R; Cole, Holly E; Merrick, Carmen R
Sharing memories in conversations with close others is posited to be part of the social function of autobiographical memory. The present research focused on the sharing of a particular type of memory: Specific memories about one-time co-experienced events, which we termed Specific We memories. Two studies with 595 total participants examined the factors that lead to and/or are influenced by the sharing of Specific We memories. In Study 1, participants reported on their most recent conversation. Specific We memories were reportedly discussed most often in conversations with others who were close and with whom the participant had frequent communication. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned either to increase or to simply record the frequency of communication with a close other (parent). Increases in the frequency of reported sharing of Specific We memories as well as closeness to the parent resulted. Mediation analyses of both studies revealed causal relationships among reported sharing of Specific We memories and closeness. We discuss the relevance of these results for understanding the social function of autobiographical memory.
Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.
Stewart, Tracy M; Hunter, Simon C; Rhodes, Sinéad M
The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), or capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and impaired executive control (X), is a model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). Two mechanisms of the model, rumination and executive control, were examined in isolation and in interaction in order to investigate OGM over time. Across two time points, six months apart, a total of 149 adolescents (13-16 years) completed the minimal-instruction autobiographical memory test, a measure of executive control with both emotional and nonemotional stimuli, and measures of brooding rumination and reflective pondering. The results showed that executive control for emotional information was negatively associated with OGM, but only when reflective pondering levels were high. Therefore, in the context of higher levels of reflective pondering, greater switch costs (i.e., lower executive control) when processing emotional information predicted a decrease in OGM over time.
Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda
Autobiographical memory impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been attributed to a failure in using the self as an effective memory organisational system. To explore this hypothesis, we compared self-defining and everyday memories in adults with and without ASD. Results demonstrated that both groups were able to distinguish between…
Supervision, support and mentoring interventions for health practitioners in rural and remote contexts: an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the literature to identify mechanisms for successful outcomes.
Moran, Anna M; Coyle, Julia; Pope, Rod; Boxall, Dianne; Nancarrow, Susan A; Young, Jennifer
To identify mechanisms for the successful implementation of support strategies for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This is an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the empirical literature that examines support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This review includes 43 papers that evaluated support strategies for the rural and remote health workforce. Interventions were predominantly training and education programmes with limited evaluations of supervision and mentoring interventions. The mechanisms associated with successful outcomes included: access to appropriate and adequate training, skills and knowledge for the support intervention; accessible and adequate resources; active involvement of stakeholders in programme design, implementation and evaluation; a needs analysis prior to the intervention; external support, organisation, facilitation and/or coordination of the programme; marketing of the programme; organisational commitment; appropriate mode of delivery; leadership; and regular feedback and evaluation of the programme. Through a synthesis of the literature, this research has identified a number of mechanisms that are associated with successful support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This research utilised a methodology developed for studying complex interventions in response to the perceived limitations of traditional systematic reviews. This synthesis of the evidence will provide decision-makers at all levels with a collection of mechanisms that can assist the development and implementation of support strategies for staff in rural and remote contexts.
Philippi, Nathalie; Rousseau, François; Noblet, Vincent; Botzung, Anne; Després, Olivier; Cretin, Benjamin; Kremer, Stéphane; Blanc, Frédéric; Manning, Liliann
We compared specific (i.e., associated with a unique time and space) and general (i.e., extended or repeated events) autobiographical memories (AbM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The comparison aims at investigating the relationship between these two components of AbM across the lifespan and the volume of cerebral regions of interest within the temporal lobe. We hypothesized that the ability to elicit specific memories would correlate with hippocampal volume, whereas evoking general memories would be related to lateral temporal lobe. AbM was assessed using the modified Crovitz test in 18 patients with early AD and 18 matched controls. The proportions of total memories-supposed to reflect the ability to produce general memories-and specific memories retrieved were compared between AD patients and controls. Correlations to MRI volumes of temporal cortex were tested. We found different temporal patterns for specific and general memories in AD patients, with (i) relatively spared general memories, according to a temporal gradient that preserved remote memories, predominantly associated with right lateral temporal cortex volume. (ii) Conversely, the retrieval of specific AbMs was impaired for all life periods and correlated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. Our results highlight a shift from an initially episodic to a semantic nature of AbMs during AD, where the abstracted form of memories remains.
Jamjoom, A A B; Gallo, P; Kandasamy, J; Phillips, J; Sokol, D
The right prefrontal lobe has not traditionally been considered eloquent brain. Resection of tumours within this region does not typically lead to permanent functional impairment. In this report, we highlight the case of a patient who developed autobiographical memory loss following an uncomplicated resection of a right prefrontal tumour. A previously fit and well 15-year old presented with a persistent right-sided headache. An MRI demonstrated an expanded right mid-frontal gyrus with changes consistent with a low-grade tumour. The patient underwent a right-sided craniotomy and resection of the lesion which was confirmed as a WHO grade II diffuse astrocytoma. Postoperatively, the patient reported profound retrograde amnesia for a range of memory components, in particular autobiographical memory and semantic memory. Postoperative imaging showed a good resection margin with no evidence of underlying brain injury. Over an 18-month period, the patient showed no improvement in autobiographical memory; however, significant relearning of semantic knowledge took place and her academic performance was found to be in line with expectations for her age. In this report, we discuss a case and review the literature on the role of the right prefrontal cortex in memory and caution on the perception of right prefrontal non-eloquence.
Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Bulbulia, Joseph
confidence and high accuracy. Two months later we found more inaccurate memories and higher confidence. Whereas cognitive theories of ritual have predicted flashbulb memories for highly arousing rituals, we found that memories were strongly suppressed immediately after the event and only later evolved......Abstract Anthropological theories have discussed the effects of participation in high-arousal rituals in the formation of autobiographical memory; however, precise measurements for such effects are lacking. In this study, we examined episodic recall among participants in a highly arousing fire......-walking ritual. To assess arousal, we used heart rate measurements. To assess the dynamics of episodic memories, we obtained reports immediately after the event and two months later. We evaluated memory accuracy from video footage. Immediately after the event, participants’ reports revealed limited recall, low...
Supervisors supporting queer individuals engaged in postgraduate research in Visual Arts face a number of issues. Beyond concerns with balancing the autobiographical and the scholarly, a supervisor may also encounter questions relating to safety, identity, tokenism, exoticisation and the pressure candidates feel to develop work that has…
Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Manoli, Constantinos; Xenofontos, Nikoletta; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pedaste, Margus; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, Ellen T.; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria
The aim of this review is to identify specific types of guidance for supporting student use of online labs, that is, virtual and remote labs, in an inquiry context. To do so, we reviewed the literature on providing guidance within computer supported inquiry learning (CoSIL) environments in science
Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.
Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…
Wilson, F C L; Gregory, J D
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a well-researched phenomenon in working age adults with depression. However, the relevance and importance of OGM in older adult depression is not well established. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing literature on OGM and depressive symptoms in older adults under the framework of the Capture and Rumination, Functional Avoidance and Impaired Executive Control (CaR-FA-X) model. Literature searches were conducted using PsychINFO, PubMed and Web of Knowledge. Eighteen articles were reviewed. OGM is elevated in healthy older adults compared to adults of working age, and further elevated in older adults with depression. Evidence supports the role of impaired executive function as a mechanism for OGM in older adults with depression, but no studies measured other components of the CaR-FA-X model (i.e. functional avoidance and rumination). OGM is prevalent in older adults and more so for those with depression; however, there is no clear understanding of the underpinning mechanisms. It is recommended that future research looks at the role of functional avoidance and rumination, and at the use of memory specificity interventions being developed in the working age adult literature.
Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine
We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia. The commonality among nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking resides in their shared positive associations with all memory functions: individuals who evinced a stronger propensity towards past-oriented thought (as manifested in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking) reported greater overall recruitment of memories in the service of present functioning. The uniqueness of nostalgia resides in its comparatively strong positive associations with Intimacy Maintenance, Teach/Inform, and Self-Regard and weak association with Bitterness Revival. In all, nostalgia possesses a more positive functional signature than do rumination and counterfactual thinking.
Crane, Catherine; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Mark, J; Williams, G
Previously depressed and never-depressed individuals identified personal characteristics (self-guides) defining their ideal, ought, and feared selves. One week later they completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). For each participant the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content was determined to produce an index of AMT cue self-relevance. Individuals who had never been depressed showed no significant relationship between cue self-relevance and specificity. In contrast, in previously depressed participants there was a highly significant negative correlation between cue self-relevance and specificity--the greater the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content, the fewer specific memories participants recalled. It is suggested that in individuals with a history of depression, cues reflecting self-guide content are more likely to prompt a shift to processing of information within the long-term self (Conway, Singer, & Tagini, 2004), increasing the likelihood that self-related semantic information will be provided in response to cues on the autobiographical memory test.
Fumero, Ascensión; Santamaría, Carlos; Johnson-Laird, P N
Certain problems are ambiguous and allow deductive or inductive conclusions, for example, If you follow this diet then you lose weight. Ann did not lose weight. Why not? Conscientious individuals who are less open to experience should focus on possibilities consistent with the premises, and make a deduction: Ann did not follow this diet. But, those who are open to experience and not conscientious should go beyond these possibilities, and make an induction, for example, Ann gave up exercising. In an experiment, a group who recalled autobiographical episodes in which they were conscientious and not open to experience made more deductions than a group who recalled episodes in which they had the opposite characteristics. A control group made about equal proportions of deductions and inductions. These results were predicted by the theory that reasoners envisage possibilities, and can focus on those possibilities consistent with the premises or on possibilities outside the premises.
Full Text Available We describe a 47-year-old man who referred to the Emergency Department for sudden global amnesia and left mild motor impairment in the setting of increased arterial blood pressure. The acute episode resolved within 24 hours. Despite general recovery and the apparent transitory nature of the event, a persistent selective impairment in recollecting events from some specific topics of his personal life became apparent. Complete neuropsychological tests one week after the acute onset and 2 months later demonstrated a clear retrograde memory deficit contrasting with the preservation of anterograde memory and learning abilities. One year later, the autobiographic memory deficit was unmodified, except for what had been re-learnt. Brain MRI was normal while H20 brain PET scans demonstrated hypometabolism in the right globus pallidus and putamen after 2 weeks from onset, which was no longer present one year later. The absence of a clear pathomechanism underlying focal amnesia lead us to consider this case as an example of functional retrograde amnesia.
Supervision, support and mentoring interventions for health practitioners in rural and remote contexts: an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the literature to identify mechanisms for successful outcomes
Objective To identify mechanisms for the successful implementation of support strategies for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. Design This is an integrative review and thematic synthesis of the empirical literature that examines support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. Results This review includes 43 papers that evaluated support strategies for the rural and remote health workforce. Interventions were predominantly training and education programmes with limited evaluations of supervision and mentoring interventions. The mechanisms associated with successful outcomes included: access to appropriate and adequate training, skills and knowledge for the support intervention; accessible and adequate resources; active involvement of stakeholders in programme design, implementation and evaluation; a needs analysis prior to the intervention; external support, organisation, facilitation and/or coordination of the programme; marketing of the programme; organisational commitment; appropriate mode of delivery; leadership; and regular feedback and evaluation of the programme. Conclusion Through a synthesis of the literature, this research has identified a number of mechanisms that are associated with successful support interventions for health-care practitioners in rural and remote contexts. This research utilised a methodology developed for studying complex interventions in response to the perceived limitations of traditional systematic reviews. This synthesis of the evidence will provide decision-makers at all levels with a collection of mechanisms that can assist the development and implementation of support strategies for staff in rural and remote contexts. PMID:24521004
Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.
Choy, S. H.; Jim, K. L.; Mak, C. L.; Leung, C. W.
This paper reports the development of a remote laboratory (RemoteLab) platform for practising technologyenhanced learning of optics. The development of RemoteLab enhances students' understanding of experimental methodologies and outcomes, and enable students to conduct experiments everywhere at all times. While the initial goal of the system was for physics major undergradutes, the sytem was also made available for senior secondary school students. To gauge the impact of the RemoteLab, we evaluated two groups of students, which included 109 physics 1st-year undergraduates and 11 students from a local secondary school. After the experiments, evaluation including questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted to collect data on students' perceptions on RemoteLab and implementation issues related to the platform. The surveys focused on four main topics, including user interface, experiment setup, booking system and learning process. The survey results indicated that most of the participants' views towards RemoteLab was positive.
Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip
According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.
Maylor, Elizabeth A; Carter, Sarah M; Hallett, Emma L
The authors investigated whether olfactory cues can facilitate memory retrieval and whether they retain their effectiveness in old age. In Phase 1, 57 young and 57 old adults (mean ages of 21 and 84 years, respectively) were asked to recall autobiographical memories associated with each of six cue words. In Phase 2, the same words were presented again with instructions to recall new memories; on this second occasion, half of the words were accompanied by their appropriate odors. Both age groups recalled more than twice as many memories in Phase 2 with the odor than without the odor, providing evidence for substantial olfactory cuing that is remarkably intact in old age.
Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo
Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.
Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Sharma, Minali; Sharma, Kanu Priya; Malhotra, Akanksha; Upadhyaya, Suneet K.; Margoob, Mushtaq A.; Maqbool, Dar; Jassal, Gopal D.
Background & objectives: A knowledge-based, logically-linked online telepsychiatric decision support system for diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders was developed and validated. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the application at remote sites when used by non-psychiatrists who underwent a brief training in its use through video-conferencing. Methods: The study was conducted at a nodal telepsychiatry centre, and three geographically remote peripheral centres. The diagnostic tool of application had a screening followed by detailed criteria-wise diagnostic modules for 18 psychiatric disorders. A total of 100 consecutive consenting adult outpatients attending remote telepsychiatry centres were included. To assess inter-rater reliability, patients were interviewed face to face by non-specialists at remote sites using the application (active interviewer) and simultaneously on online application via video-conferencing by a passive assessor at nodal centre. Another interviewer at the nodal centre rated the patient using Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for diagnostic validation. Results: Screening sub-module had high sensitivity (80-100%), low positive predictive values (PPV) (0.10-0.71) but high negative predictive value (NPV) (0.97-1) for most disorders. For the diagnostic sub-modules, Cohen's kappa was >0.4 for all disorders, with kappa of 0.7-1.0 for most disorders. PPV and NPV were high for most disorders. Inter-rater agreement analysis revealed kappa >0.6 for all disorders. Interpretation & conclusions: Diagnostic tool showed acceptable to good validity and reliability when used by non-specialists at remote sites. Our findings show that diagnostic tool of the telepsychiatry application has potential to empower non-psychiatrist doctors and paramedics to diagnose psychiatric disorders accurately and reliably in remote sites. PMID:29265020
Noreen, Saima; O'Connor, Akira R; MacLeod, Malcolm D
Research indicates that there are two possible mechanisms by which particular target memories can be intentionally forgotten. Direct suppression, which involves the suppression of the unwanted memory directly, and is dependent on a fronto-hippocampal modulatory process, and, memory substitution, which includes directing one's attention to an alternative memory in order to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind, and involves engaging the caudal prefrontal cortex (cPFC) and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) regions. Research to date, however, has investigated the neural basis of memory suppression of relatively simple information. The aim of the current study was to use fMRI to identify the neural mechanisms associated with the suppression of autobiographical memories. In the present study, 22 participants generated memories in response to a series of cue words. In a second session, participants learnt these cue-memory pairings, and were subsequently presented with a cue word and asked either to recall (think) or to suppress (no-think) the associated memory, or to think of an alternative memory in order to suppress the original memory (memory-substitution). Our findings demonstrated successful forgetting effects in the no-think and memory substitution conditions. Although we found no activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, there was reduced hippocampal activation during direct suppression. In the memory substitution condition, however, we failed to find increased activation in the cPFC and VLPFC regions. Our findings suggest that the suppression of autobiographical memories may rely on different neural mechanisms to those established for other types of material in memory.
Full Text Available Research indicates that there are two possible mechanisms by which particular target memories can be intentionally forgotten. Direct suppression, which involves the suppression of the unwanted memory directly, and is dependent on a fronto-hippocampal modulatory process, and, memory substitution, which includes directing one's attention to an alternative memory in order to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind, and involves engaging the caudal prefrontal cortex (cPFC and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC regions. Research to date, however, has investigated the neural basis of memory suppression of relatively simple information. The aim of the current study was to use fMRI to identify the neural mechanisms associated with the suppression of autobiographical memories. In the present study, 22 participants generated memories in response to a series of cue words. In a second session, participants learnt these cue-memory pairings, and were subsequently presented with a cue word and asked either to recall (think or to suppress (no-think the associated memory, or to think of an alternative memory in order to suppress the original memory (memory-substitution. Our findings demonstrated successful forgetting effects in the no-think and memory substitution conditions. Although we found no activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex there was reduced hippocampal activation during direct suppression. In the memory substitution condition, however, we failed to find increased activation in the cPFC and VLPFC regions. Our findings suggest that the suppression of autobiographical memories may rely on different neural mechanisms to those established for other types of material in memory.
Abla, G.; Schissel, D.P.; Penaflor, B.G.; Wallace, G.
This paper describes a remote control room built at DIII-D to support remote participation activities of DIII-D research staff. In order to create a persistent, efficient, and reliable remote participation environment for DIII-D scientists, a remote control room has been built in a 640-ft 2 dedicated area. The purpose of this room is to experiment and define a remote control room framework that can facilitate the remote participation needs of current and future fusion experiments such as ITER. A variety of hardware equipment has been installed and several remote participation and collaboration technologies have been deployed. Objectivity and practical consideration has been the key while designing the room and deploying the technologies. Although, the DIII-D remote control room is still a work in progress and new software tools are being implemented, it has been already useful for a number of international remote participation activities. For example, it has been used for remote support of the EAST Tokamak in China during the start up operation and proven effective for other collaborative experiment activities. The description of the remote control room design is given along with technologies deployed for remote collaboration needs. We will also discuss our recent experiences involving the DIII-D remote control room as well as future plans for improvements
The EPA is developing a multi-level approach that utilizes satellite and airborne remote sensing to locate and monitor genetically modified corn in the agricultural landscape and pest infestation. The current status of the EPA IRM monitoring program based on remote sensed imager...
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Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G
This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia
This article examines age differences from childhood through middle adolescence in the extent to which children include factual and interpretive information in constructing autobiographical memory narratives. Factual information is defined as observable or perceptible information available to all individuals who experience a given event, while interpretive information is defined as information that articulates the desires, emotions, beliefs, and thoughts of the participant and other individuals who experience an event. Developmental research suggests that the latter type of information should become particularly prevalent in later adolescence, while the former should be abundantly evident by age 8. Across 2 studies, we found evidence for strong increases in interpretive information during adolescence, but not before. These increases were evident across different types of events, and across different subtypes of interpretive content. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of autobiographical memory in childhood and adolescence. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available This essay analyses performance as an expression of the age of intimacy, an age we are currently living through, where self-representation takes on a multiplicity and heterogeneity of registers and strategies. In autobiographic performance the boundary between the public and the private becomes blurred, which is expressive of the transformation of contemporary subjectivity, a search of the experience of living, and an urge to publicise intimacy. It is based on everyday life, the smaller things, not the important issues but the occurrence of the usual as it happens day by day. Performance, or action art, is an art of the self which is framed within this context of revealing one’s intimacy; and this is what makes it akin to several forms of searching for identity and self-knowledge, in which artists put their own subjectivity up on the stage.
Imperatori, Claudio; Brunetti, Riccardo; Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo
The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of scalp EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity during the autobiographical memory test (AM-T) and during the retrieval of an autobiographical event (the high school final examination, Task 2). Seventeen healthy volunteers were enrolled (9 women and 8 men, mean age 23.4 ± 2.8 years, range 19-30). EEG was recorded at baseline and while performing the autobiographical memory (AM) tasks, by means of 19 surface electrodes and a nasopharyngeal electrode. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra and lagged EEG coherence were compared between EEG acquired during the memory tasks and baseline recording. The frequency bands considered were as follows: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta1 (13-17.5 Hz); beta2 (18-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-60 Hz). During AM-T, we observed a significant delta power increase in left frontal and midline cortices (T = 3.554; p < 0.05) and increased EEG connectivity in delta band in prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and for gamma bands in the left temporo-parietal regions (T = 4.154; p < 0.05). In Task 2, we measured an increased power in the gamma band located in the left posterior midline areas (T = 3.960; p < 0.05) and a significant increase in delta band connectivity in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and in the gamma band involving right temporo-parietal areas (T = 4.579; p < 0.05). These results indicate that AM retrieval engages in a complex network which is mediated by both low- (delta) and high-frequency (gamma) EEG bands.
Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.
One of the central challenges globalization and immigration present to education is how to construct school language policies, procedures, and curricula to support academic success of immigrant youth. This case-study compares and contrasts language experience narratives along Elena's developmental trajectory of becoming an urban science teacher. Elena reflects upon her early language experiences and her more recent experiences as a preservice science teacher in elementary dual language classrooms. The findings from Elena's early schooling experiences provide an analysis of the linkages between Elena's developing English proficiency, her Spanish proficiency, and her autobiographical reasoning. Elena's experiences as a preservice teacher in two elementary dual language classrooms indicates ways in which those experiences helped to reframe her views about the intersections between language learning and science learning. I propose the language experience narrative, as a subset of the life story, as a way to understand how preservice teachers reconstruct past language experiences, connect to the present, and anticipate future language practices.
Nagamatsu, Takashi; Kaieda, Yohei; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Otsuji, Tomoo; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu
A remote maintenance support system using optical see-through AR has been developed to keep safety and reliability in preparation for old experts' retirement. It enables plant workers to collaborate with a remote expert (supervisor) by using a wearable computer, an optical see-through AR (Augmented Reality) technology and eye-gaze information. The optical see-through AR enables a user to see the real world through a transparent display and it contributes to keeping safety of plant workers and acquiring detail information of machines. On the contrary, the registration between computer-generated objects and the real world is difficult, so we developed a method to correct the geometrical consistency for practical use of optical see-through AR. The developed method has two steps: (1) detection of the shift amount of HMD by the eye camera image and (2) adjustment of the display position on the HMD screen. This method made it possible to allow user's moving and physical shift of HMD, so it is capable of wide application to practical works
Bender, M.; Woike, B.A.; Burke, C.; Dow, E.A.A.
This online diary study investigated how motives interact with goal pursuit to predict daily autobiographical experiences. Participants (N = 141) completed measures of implicit and explicit achievement, provided daily memories and reports of their goal pursuit during a 3-week diary period. A
Semkovska, Maria; McLoughlin, Declan M
Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a decreased ability to recall specific AMs, and this difficulty may persist in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression. Despite these scientific facts, relatively few attempts have been made to accurately measure the specific effect of ECT on AM independent of both normal and mood-associated forgetting over time. This major gap in our knowledge prevents us at present from objectively quantifying the nature and extent of RAA associated with ECT. In turn, this hinders our identifying and implementing strategies for prevention or remediation of AM deficits. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date review and historical perspective of this major methodological conundrum for ECT research, highlight current issues in retrograde amnesia assessment following ECT, and propose directions for future studies. In conclusion, we suggest methods to reliably and specifically measure the extent and progression over time of ECT-associated RAA independently from persistent depressive symptoms' contribution and normal loss in AM consistency over time.
Sheridan, R.; Ondrik, M.; Kadner, S.; Resnik, W.; Chitumbo, K.; Corbell, B.
The Gemini System consists of a sophisticated, digital surveillance unit and a high performance review system. Due to the open architectural design of the Gemini System, it provides an excellent hardware and software platform to support remote monitoring. The present Gemini System provides the user with the following Remote Monitoring features, via a modem interface and powerful support software: state-of-health reporting, alarm reporting, and remote user interface. Future enhancements will contribute significantly to the Gemini''s ability to provide a broader spectrum of network interfaces and remote review
Conducted as an auto/biographical and narrative qualitative research study, this dissertation traces the researcher's winding journey in search of her teacher identities, whose cultural and discursive meanings are always changing. There are two subjects in this study--the researcher's colleague as her research participant and the researcher…
The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de
McGill, Brittany; Moulds, Michelle L
Evidence of a strong causal relationship between mental imagery and emotion has informed psychological conceptualisations of disordered positive mood states (i.e., mania). Holmes et al.'s cognitive model of bipolar disorder asserts a prominent role for intrusive and affect-laden positive imagery of the past and the future in the amplification and maintenance of positive mood and associated manic behaviours. The aims of the current study were two-fold: (1) to test aspects of this model in a non-clinical population sampled for hypomanic personality traits and (2) to examine the phenomenological characteristics of positive autobiographical memories and imagery of the future. Undergraduate students (N = 80) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires and rated their positive and negative memories and images of the future on a number of dimensions. We found significant positive correlations between hypomanic tendencies and the (1) everyday experience and use of mental imagery, (2) experience of intrusive mental imagery of future events, (3) emotional intensity and sensory detail of positive but not negative autobiographical memories. Results are discussed in the context of their theoretical and clinical implications, and directions for future research are considered.
Sanden, van der J.J.
This text describes an investigation into the potential of radar remote sensing for application to tropical forest management. The information content of various radar images is compared and assessed with regard to the information requirements of parties involved in tropical forest
Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.
The U.S. remains in grave danger of losing its global competitive edge in STEM. To find solutions to this problem, the Obama Administration proposed two new national initiatives: the Educate to Innovate Initiative and the $100 million government/private industry initiative to train 100,000 STEM teachers and graduate 1 million additional STEM students over the next decade. To assist in ameliorating the national STEM plight, the New York City College of Technology has designed its NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program in satellite and ground-based remote sensing to target underrepresented minority students. Since the inception of the program in 2008, a total of 45 undergraduate students of which 38 (84%) are considered underrepresented minorities in STEM have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. The program is comprised of the three primary components. The first component, Structured Learning Environments: Preparation and Mentorship, provides the REU Scholars with the skill sets necessary for proficiency in satellite and ground-based remote sensing research. The students are offered mini-courses in Geographic Information Systems, MATLAB, and Remote Sensing. They also participate in workshops on the Ethics of Research. Each REU student is a member of a team that consists of faculty mentors, post doctorate/graduate students, and high school students. The second component, Student Support and Safety Nets, provides undergraduates a learning environment that supports them in becoming successful researchers. Special networking and Brown Bag sessions, and an annual picnic with research scientists are organized so that REU Scholars are provided with opportunities to expand their professional community. Graduate school support is provided by offering free Graduate Record Examination preparation courses and workshops on the graduate school application process. Additionally, students are supported by college
Chacon, Hugo Alejandro
This qualitative study explores the journey of a Latino educator in becoming a bilingual high school science teacher and university professor. It focuses on discovering how the practice of teaching and learning is shaped through social, psychological, and cultural factors. Through the use of an autobiographical method known as currere, the researcher recounts personal and educational experiences that address important issues in education related to language, science, culture, and social class through the perspective of one doing the work. The study reviews the literature on autobiographical forms of research in the field of education and suggests how autobiography in education, an emerging genre, holds the promise for creating new meanings of the self while at the same time attempts to develop a theory of autobiography that acknowledges the importance of people of color and other marginalized groups. Data collected include 22 hours of audiotaped recordings, conversations, and educational artifacts including notes from innovative classroom projects, lesson plans, conference presentations, computer files, graduate coursework, classroom videotaping, university course evaluations, and department memos. Findings of this study revealed that: (a) the process of becoming a transformative educator involves critical self-reflection on one's cultural/ethnic identity and linguistic heritage; (b) the importance of self-reflection on one's teaching is a critical component in moving towards a more culturally and linguistically responsive curriculum; (c) the bilingual educator can achieve a greater understanding of the important role in the maintenance, implementation, and promotion of minority language education through a reflective practice; and (d) the development of the underrepresented voice in education and the awakening to one's personal and philosophical worldviews is as important as the preparation one receives in becoming a bilingual teacher.
Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong
This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…
小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏
Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...
Addis, Donna Rose; Knapp, Katie; Roberts, Reece P.; Schacter, Daniel L.
Models of autobiographical memory propose two routes to retrieval depending on cue specificity. When available cues are specific and personally-relevant, a memory can be directly accessed. However, when available cues are generic, one must engage a generative retrieval process to produce more specific cues to successfully access a relevant memory. The current study sought to characterize the neural bases of these retrieval processes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), partic...
Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.
A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings
Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R
Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Tricia Olea Santos
Full Text Available This study is a continuation of investigations of personal narratives of healthy older adults and those with aphasia. It focuses on autobiographical memories in testimonies of elderly WWII veterans with dementia, with particular emphasis on emotional events that occurred at the time of their memory peak. This study describes how declines in memory affect changes in language in narratives of memorable experiences at the time in old age when life review is typically experienced. Ten WWII veterans with dementia were selected from a larger study of healthy elderly veterans. Participants were between the ages of 86-91 years old, with the majority obtaining higher education. Based on the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia, participants demonstrated dementia of mild-to-moderate severity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit memorable war experiences. Modifications to the interview were made, such as the use of photos to set the topic and occasional closed-ended questions to facilitate responses. Information was recorded and analyzed in terms of the amount and specificity of linguistic information, overall coherence of narratives, and the evaluations of memorable war experiences. The participants were not able to produce complete narratives; they instead relayed short episodes of their war experiences. Difficulties with semantic and episodic memory were reflected in the reduced length of their stories. Anomia was inherent in these episodes, as evidenced by the absence of specific names, dates and places. Lack of specificity was exhibited in reduced details and the use of nonspecific referents, such as “thing,” “stuff,” “there.” Participants produced coherent short story episodes. Coherence in episodic structure was maintained by the ability to relate events in a temporal sequence. Repetition was a strategy that served essential functions of emphasizing a point and/or clarifying breakdowns in communication
Full Text Available This paper describes the use of machine learning methods to build a decision support system for predicting the distribution of coastal ocean algal blooms based on remote sensing data in Monterey Bay. This system can help scientists obtain prior information in a large ocean region and formulate strategies for deploying robots in the coastal ocean for more detailed in situ exploration. The difficulty is that there are insufficient in situ data to create a direct statistical machine learning model with satellite data inputs. To solve this problem, we built a Random Forest model using MODIS and MERIS satellite data and applied a threshold filter to balance the training inputs and labels. To build this model, several features of remote sensing satellites were tested to obtain the most suitable features for the system. After building the model, we compared our random forest model with previous trials based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM using satellite data from 221 days, and our approach performed significantly better. Finally, we used the latest in situ data from a September 2014 field experiment to validate our model.
This report describes further design issues concerning remote maintenance of torus vacuum pumping systems options for ITER. The key issues under investigation in this report are flask support systems for valve seal exchange operations for the compound cryopump scheme and remote maintenance of a proposed multiple turbomolecular pump (TMP) system, an alternative ITER torus exhaust pumping option. Previous studies have shown that the overhead support methods for seal exchange flask equipment could malfunction due to valve/flask misalignment. A floor-mounted support system is described in this report. This scheme provides a more rigid support system for seal exchange operations. An alternative torus pumping system, based on the use of multiple TMPs, is studied from a remote maintenance standpoint. In this concept, centre distance spacing for pump/valve assemblies is too restrictive for remote maintenance. Recommendations are made for adequate spacing of these assemblies based on commercially-available 0.8 m and 1.0 m diameter valves. Fewer pumps will fit in this arrangement, which implies a need for larger TMPs. Pumps of this size are not commercially available. Other concerns regarding the servicing and storage of remote handling equipment in cells are also identified. (9 figs.)
Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment…