WorldWideScience

Sample records for supported family planning

  1. Partner support for family planning and modern contraceptive use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Husband's/partner's support for family planning may influence a women's modern contraceptive use. Socio-demographic factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are known to play a role in contraceptive use. We conducted logistic regression analysis to investigate the relationship ...

  2. Family planning providers' perspectives on family planning service delivery in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.

  3. Partner Support for Family Planning and Modern Contraceptive Use in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Fraser, Ashley; Carvalho, Adelaide; Neves, Isilda; Nieto-Andrade, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Husband's/partner's support for family planning may influence a women's modern contraceptive use. Socio-demographic factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are known to play a role in contraceptive use. We conducted logistic regression analysis to investigate the relationship between perceived husband's/partner's approval and husband's/partner's encouragement of modern contraceptive use, adjusting for socio-demographic factors and recent couple communication about family planning. We also examined mediating roles potentially played by perceived contraceptive accessibility and contraceptive self-efficacy (using index created by principal component analysis). Perceived husband's/partner's approval was associated with triple the odds of women's modern contraceptive use and remained significantly associated with 1.6 times the odds, after controlling for contraceptive accessibility and contraceptive self-efficacy. Husband's/partner's encouragement, while initially significantly associated with contraceptive use, became non-significant after adjustments for socio-demographic factors and couple communication. Perceived husband's/partner's approval, separate from a woman's sense of self-efficacy and perceived accessibility of contraceptives, appears strongly and positively associated with current modern contraceptive use. Increased couple communication may help women identify their husband's/partner's approval. Difference between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. Interventions involving information education and communication campaigns geared to men and promoting male involvement in family planning could increase contraceptive prevalence.

  4. Attitudes toward family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, H

    1984-06-01

    Many of the 135 countries participating in the 1974 UN World Population Conference were far from accepting the basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education, and means to do so. Considerable progress has been made since then, and the number of developing countries that provide direct government support for family planning has increased to over 60%. Many have liberalized laws and regulations which restricted access to modern contraceptive methods, and a growing number provide family planning services within their health care programs. A few have recognized the practice of family planning as a constitutional right. In late 1983 at the Second African Population Conference, recognition of family as a human right was strongly contested by several governments, particularly those of West Africa. in developed countries most of the women at risk of unwanted pregnancy are using contraceptives. Of the major developing regions the highest use level is in Latin America, wherein most countries 1/3 to 1/2 of married women are users. Levels in Asian countries range from up to 10% in Afghanistan, Nepal, and Pakistan to up to 40% in the southeastern countries. China, a special case, now probably exceeds an overall use level of 2/3 of married women. Contraceptive use is lowest in Africa. There is room for improvement even among many of the successful family planning programs, as access to contraceptives usually is not sufficient to overcome limiting factors. To ensure the individual's free choice and strengthen the acceptability and practice of family planning, all available methods should be provided in service programs and inluded in information and education activities. Family planning programs should engage local community groups, including voluntary organizations, in all aspects of planning, management, and allocation of resources. At the government level a clear political commitment to family

  5. Hispanic Community College Students: Acculturation, Family Support, Perceived Educational Barriers, and Vocational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Jennifer Nepper; Braid, Barbara L.; Ross, Patricia A.; Tom, Matthew A.; Prinzo, Cara

    2010-01-01

    A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the associations between the role of acculturation, perception of educational barriers, need for family kin support, vocational planning, and expectations for attaining future vocational goals against the demographic variables (gender, age, being the oldest child, the first to attend…

  6. Egypt boosts family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-27

    A $4 million Agency for International Development (AID) agreement was signed in Cairo September 30 which will help the Egyptian government increase family planning services. The project is in response to a request for up to $17 million of AID funds for family planning programs during the next 3 years. The funds will pay for: contract advisors to provide short-term in-country training of physicians, architectural and engineering services to renovate a hospital for family planning and obstetrics/gynecology training, and a field training site for family planning service providers. Some Egyptians will receive training in specialized areas in the U.S. and other countries. More than $1.5 million of the $4 million will finance local costs of goods and services required. In addition, it is anticipated that U.S.-owned local currencies will be obligated for direct support of U.S. technical personnel. Over the 3-year life of the project the $17 million from AID plus $664,000 of U.S.-owned local currency will cover 44% of the total costs of selected Egyptian family planning activities. The Egyptian government will contribute at least $18.4 million and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development will contribute $4.3 million.

  7. Wujiang's service-oriented family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1995-08-01

    Wujiang City in south Jiangsu Province is a county-level city, well known for its economic development and effective family planning program. Family planning is practiced voluntarily by the people. The growth rate of the city's population has decreased to 5.47/1000; the proportion of planned births has increased to 98%; and the total fertility rate has declined to 1.5. There are 34 towns (and townships) and 883 administrative villages under the jurisdiction of the city. The living standard has improved significantly. The successful implementation of family planning is largely due to the quality services delivered to farmers, especially women of reproductive age. In an interview, Mme. Ji and Mme. Shen, chiefs of the Wujiang Family Planning Committee, describe the services they deliver. The information, education, and communication (IEC) program is focused on population schools (city, town, township, and village), which deliver information to middle school students, premarital youth, and women who are pregnant, lying-in, or menopausal. Pamphlets on marriage and reproductive health are published by the county population school. Family planning service centers, which deliver contraceptive and technical services, were established in every town and township in 1993. Ultrasound scans are available and have been used to diagnose diseases, including cancer. Over 3000 women have been helped. Misuse of fetal sex identification is banned. The Family Planning Committee and the technical service centers in the city provide counselling services on fewer, healthier births; maternal and child health care; reproductive health; and treatment of infertility. There are several kinds of insurance related to family planning; these include old age support for the parents of only-children, safety insurance for only-children, and old age insurance for newlyweds. The insurance premium is shared by the couple (100 yuan) and the township (400 yuan). Only-child couples, two-daughter families

  8. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  9. Examining the support needs of ageing family carers in developing future plans for a relative with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Laurence; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Ryan, Assumpta; McConkey, Roy

    2012-09-01

    Planning for the future care of adults with an intellectual disability after the main family carer ceases their care, continues to be a sensitive and difficult time posing challenges for service providers internationally. Limited research has been undertaken on this topic because until recently, people with intellectual disability usually pre-deceased their parents. This study examined ageing carers' preferences for future care and the support systems required to make such future plans. The study was conducted in one region of the United Kingdom with a high proportion of family carers. A mixed methods design was employed. In Stage 1, a structured questionnaire was used to collate information on the health, caregiving demands and future planning preferences of 112 parent and sibling carers; aged 60-94 years. In Stage 2, 19 in-depth semistructured interviews were undertaken with a sample of carers to explore a range of issues around future planning. Over half of the carers were lone carers, mainly female, with many reporting a wide range of health problems. A third of these carers reported that their caregiving resulted in high levels of anxiety. The main preference of the carers was for the person to remain in the family home, with either the family and/or paid staff to support them. A minority of parent carers preferred the person to move into the home of a sibling, although some favoured the person moving to a residential facility with other people with intellectual disabilities. The majority of carers did not want their relative to move into an older people's residential/nursing facility. In the qualitative data, four main themes were identified around future planning: unremitting apprehension, the extent of planning, obstacles encountered and solutions for future planning. Avoidance, lack of guidance and a lack of appropriate residential provision were cited as obstacles to making future plans compounded by the emotional upset experienced by carers in thinking

  10. Funding for international family planning attacked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, L

    1997-08-01

    US funding for foreign assistance has been jeopardized in recent years in the context of dwindling public support for foreign aid. To stymie the provision of international family planning program assistance and services overseas, Congressional opponents of family planning and abortion are offering amendments to foreign aid legislation at every possible opportunity. State Department reauthorization legislation is the current target of family planning opponents' efforts. Reauthorization is the process by which Congress indicates its ongoing support for a program, makes any necessary changes, and sets new funding ceilings. The global gag rule joined UNFPA funding cuts on the 1997 State Department reauthorization bill, H.R. 1757, which passed the House of Representatives in early June. If successfully appended to the State Department bill, the gag rule would prevent the US from funding any organization in a developing country which provides legal abortion services or communicates with its government on abortion-related policy, regardless of whether that organization used its own non-US funds. These restrictions and cuts to international family planning program assistance could adversely affect family planning programs, leading to less contraceptive use and higher rates of abortion, maternal morbidity, and maternal mortality. President Bill Clinton has promised to veto the bill if both houses of Congress accept the restrictions. These issues will probably arise on the annual appropriations legislation which funds US operations overseas.

  11. Donor funding for family planning: levels and trends between 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollman, Christopher; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Duclos, Diane; Bakare, Victoria; Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Borghi, Josephine

    2018-05-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 set targets for donor funding to support family planning programmes, and recent initiatives such as FP2020 have renewed focus on the need for adequate funding to rights-based family planning. Disbursements supporting family planning disaggregated by donor, recipient country and year are not available for recent years. We estimate international donor funding for family planning in 2003-13, the period covering the introduction of reproductive health targets to the Millennium Development Goals and up to the beginning of FP2020, and compare funding to unmet need for family planning in recipient countries. We used the dataset of donor disbursements to support reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health developed by the Countdown to 2015 based on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Creditor Reporting System. We assessed levels and trends in disbursements supporting family planning in the period 2003-13 and compared this to unmet need for family planning. Between 2003 and 2013, disbursements supporting family planning rose from under $400 m prior to 2008 to $886 m in 2013. More than two thirds of disbursements came from the USA. There was substantial year-on-year variation in disbursement value to some recipient countries. Disbursements have become more concentrated among recipient countries with higher national levels of unmet need for family planning. Annual disbursements of donor funding supporting family planning are far short of projected and estimated levels necessary to address unmet need for family planning. The reimposition of the US Global Gag Rule will precipitate an even greater shortfall if other donors and recipient countries do not find substantial alternative sources of funding.

  12. The Family Support Group (FSG) Leaders’ Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    family guide. Fort Hood, TX: Author. Granovsky , N. (1998). Family Support Group leader basic handbook (Operation READY). Alexandria, VA: U. S...Readiness and Financial Planning " (22.3 minutes). Granovsky , N. (1998). Family Support Group Leader Basic Handbook (Operation READY). Alexandria

  13. A Congressional view: access to family planning important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, N

    1998-09-01

    The US Congress has become reluctant to appropriate funds for family planning assistance in developing countries. In the Congress, international family planning has misguidedly and mistakenly become the battleground over abortion. It is unfortunate that the majority in the 104th and 105th Congress have undertaken a concerted attack on US support for international family planning by reducing needed funding and saddling the program with onerous restrictions. While the Congress debates international family planning funding, women, children, and families around the world are suffering the consequences of reduced and/or restricted access to family planning services. Cutting and/or restricting international family planning funds produces a devastating effect on the health and well-being of women and children in developing countries, and in the long term, the consequences will be overpopulation leading to poverty, malnutrition, urban crowding, environmental degradation, and the depletion of the world's resources.

  14. Implementing a short-term family support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, E; Cox, D; Hastings, S

    1991-05-01

    1. Although family involvement has been increasingly recognized as a vital component in the treatment and care of the mentally ill, little has been written about efforts to provide education and support to the families of patients hospitalized for short-term evaluation and treatment. 2. The family education and support group provided emotional support and critical information to increase family members' coping and problem solving abilities, and enabled them to return to a pre-crisis or higher level of functioning. 3. The family education and support group not only enhances the assessment and planning phases of the nursing process, but it also can serve as a useful intervention for strengthening the patient's major support system.

  15. Donor funding for family planning: levels and trends between 2003 and 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Grollman, C; Cavallaro, FL; Duclos, D; Bakare, V; Martínez Álvarez, M; Borghi, J

    2018-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 set targets for donor funding to support family planning programmes, and recent initiatives such as FP2020 have renewed focus on the need for adequate funding to rights-based family planning. Disbursements supporting family planning disaggregated by donor, recipient country and year are not available for recent years. We estimate international donor funding for family planning in 2003-13, the period covering the introduction o...

  16. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  17. Village family planning volunteers in Indonesia: their role in the family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Arsyad, Syahmida S; Hasmi, Eddy Nurul

    2006-05-01

    Family planning was once a sensitive issue in Indonesia, but today it is considered essential. This paper reports on a study in 1997-98 of the role of village family planning volunteers and the cadres who worked under them in West Java, Central Java and DI Yogyakarta, in implementing the national family planning programme in Indonesia. A total of 108 village family planning volunteers, 108 family planning cadres, 108 local leaders and 324 couples eligible for family planning from 36 villages in the three provinces were interviewed. The volunteers and cadres have made a significant contribution to the implementation of the family planning programme. They promote family planning, organise meetings, provide information, organise income-generation activities, give savings and credit assistance, collect and report data and deliver other family welfare services. Teachers, wives of government officials and others recognised by the community as better off in terms of education and living conditions were most often identified to become family planning volunteers. Because they are women and because they are the most distant arm of the programme, their work is taken for granted. As their activities are directed towards women, especially in women's traditional roles, the programme tends to entrench the existing gender gap in responsibility for family planning and family welfare.

  18. Family planning education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, M V

    1983-02-01

    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology

  19. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that

  20. An advance care plan decision support video before major surgery: a patient- and family-centred approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Sarina R; Crossnohere, Norah L; Patel, Manali I; Conca-Cheng, Alison; Bridges, John F P; Swoboda, Sandy M; Smith, Thomas J; Pawlik, Timothy M; Weiss, Matthew; Volandes, Angelo E; Schuster, Anne; Miller, Judith A; Pastorini, Carolyn; Roter, Debra L; Aslakson, Rebecca A

    2018-06-01

    Video-based advanc care planning (ACP) tools have been studied in varied medical contexts; however, none have been developed for patients undergoing major surgery. Using a patient- and family-centredness approach, our objective was to implement human-centred design (HCD) to develop an ACP decision support video for patients and their family members when preparing for major surgery. The study investigators partnered with surgical patients and their family members, surgeons and other health professionals to design an ACP decision support video using key HCD principles. Adapting Maguire's HCD stages from computer science to the surgical context, while also incorporating Elwyn et al 's specifications for patient-oriented decision support tool development, we used a six-stage HCD process to develop the video: (1) plan HCD process; (2) specify where video will be used; (3) specify user and organisational requirements; (4) produce and test prototypes; (5) carry out user-based assessment; (6) field test with end users. Over 450 stakeholders were engaged in the development process contributing to setting objectives, applying for funding, providing feedback on the storyboard and iterations of the decision tool video. Throughout the HCD process, stakeholders' opinions were compiled and conflicting approaches negotiated resulting in a tool that addressed stakeholders' concerns. Our patient- and family-centred approach using HCD facilitated discussion and the ability to elicit and balance sometimes competing viewpoints. The early engagement of users and stakeholders throughout the development process may help to ensure tools address the stated needs of these individuals. NCT02489799. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Comparison of attitudes related with family planning methods before and after effective family planning counseling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Esim Büyükbayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of family planning counseling on the changeover of the family planning method and to determine level of knowledge of participants on family planning methods and their attitude towards changeover of the method after counseling. Setting: Kartal education and reseach hospital obstetrics and gynecology clinic, department of family planning. Patients. 500 consecutive women applying to family planning department for any reason. Interventions: Effective family planning counseling service was given to each participant then a questioner containin 14 questions was applied with face to face technique. Main Outcome Measures: Attitude towards family planning counseling, comparison of the preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service and influential sociodemographic parameters on method choise were studied. Results: 45,2% of the participants were not taken family planning counseling service before. knowledge on family planning methods was sufficient in 25,2% of the participants, insufficient in 56,8% of the participants and 18% of the participants reported that they have no idea. 57,8% of the participants change mind about family planning counseling. 52,2% of the participants changeover perious method after counseling. 99,4% of the participants said that family planning counseling service should be given to every women. Preference of family planning method before and after family planning counseling service was statistically significantly different (p<0.01. Educational level, income and age were found to be influential sociodemographic factors for method preference. Conclusions: Effective family planning counseling service is found to have favorable effect on attitude and knowledge about family planning methods. Modern method usage increase as educational level and income of the participants increase.

  2. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  3. Family planning management for the migrant population in sending areas. Urban family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This brief article was adapted from a report by the Longchang County Government, Sichuan Province, China, at the National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programs. The Longchang County family planning program has shifted emphasis since 1990 toward management of out-migrant workers. Overpopulation in the family planning region resulted in each person having about one-sixth of an acre (0.6 mu) of land. There were about 200,000 surplus rural workers. 75,000 migrants left the region in 1995, of which 70,300 had signed birth control contracts and had received family planning certificates. Family planning township agencies in Longchang County increased their IEC and counseling services for migrants and their families. The Longchang County family planning program maintained family planning contacts in receiving areas in order to obtain pregnancy and birth information on the migrant population. During 1991-95 the number of unplanned births declined from 1394 to 71, and 97% of the births were planned.

  4. Prenatal family support, postnatal family support and postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ri-Hua; Yang, Jianzhou; Liao, Shunping; Xie, Haiyan; Walker, Mark; Wen, Shi Wu

    2010-08-01

    Inadequate social support is an important determinant of postpartum depression (PPD). Social support for pregnant women consists of supports from various sources and can be measured at different gestation periods. Differentiating the effects of social support from different sources and measured at different gestation periods may have important implications in the prevention of PPD. In the family centred Chinese culture, family support is likely to be one of the most important components in social support. The aim of this study was to assess the association of prenatal family support and postnatal family support with PPD. A prospective cohort study was conducted between February and September 2007 in Hunan, China. Family support was measured with social support rating scale at 30-32 weeks of gestation (prenatal support) and again at 2 weeks of postpartum visit (postnatal support). PPD was defined as Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score > or =13. A total of 534 pregnant women were included, and among them, 103 (19.3%) scored 13 or more on the EPDS. PPD was 19.4% in the lowest tertile versus 18.4% in the highest quartile (adjusted odds ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.60, 1.80) for prenatal support from all family members, and PPD was 39.8% in the lowest tertile versus 9.6% in the highest tertile (adjusted odds ratio: 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.3, 8.4) for postnatal support from all family members. Among family members, support from husband had the largest impact on the risk of developing PPD. Lack of postnatal family support, especially the support from husband, is an important risk factor of PPD.

  5. Video: useful tool for delivering family planning messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono, S K

    1985-10-01

    In 1969, the Government of Indonesia declared that the population explosion was a national problem. The National Family Planning Program was consequently launched to encourage adoption of the ideal of a small, happy and prosperous family norm. Micro-approach messages are composed of the following: physiology of menstruation; reproductive process; healthy pregnancy; rational family planning; rational application of contraceptives; infant and child care; nutrition improvement; increase in breastfeeding; increase in family income; education in family life; family health; and deferred marriage age. Macro-approach messages include: the population problem and its impact on socioeconomic aspects; efforts to cope with the population problem; and improvement of women's lot. In utilizing the media and communication channels, the program encourages the implementation of units and working units of IEC to produce IEC materials; utilizes all possible existing media and IEC channels; maintains the consistent linkage between the activity of mass media and the IEC activities in the field; and encourages the private sector to participate in the production of IEC media and materials. A media production center was set up and carries out the following activities: producing video cassettes for tv broadcasts of family planning drama, family planning news, and tv spots; producing duplicates of the video cassettes for distribution to provinces in support of the video network; producing teaching materials for family planning workers; and transfering family planning films into video cassettes. A video network was developed and includes video monitors in family planning service points such as hospitals, family planning clinics and public places like bus stations. In 1985, the program will be expanded by 50 mobile information units equipped with video monitors. Video has potentials to increase the productivity and effectiveness of the family planning program. The video production process is

  6. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product

  7. An ounce of prevention. Is family planning disappearing from the healthcare picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-04-01

    Despite family planning's enormous health and social benefits, US support for family planning is dwindling. Not only does family planning improve the health quality of life of children and their parents, it is also a cost-effective measure, saving an average of $4.40 in health and social services costs for each public dollar invested in the program. But over the past few years, political and financial neglect have brought the public family planning infrastructure near collapse. Combined federal and state spending on family planning amounts to less than 1% of public health care funds. In 1990, Medicaid represented the largest source of funds for family planning. But since Medicaid is tied to welfare eligibility, a woman must already have a child in order to qualify for Medicaid and its family planning benefits. Direct state funding for family planning services was the 2nd largest source. Several states, however, provided no funding whatsoever for family planning. The 3rd largest source was the Title X program, a federal program devoted exclusively to family planning. It provides services to some 4 million teens and low-income women nationwide. Over the past decade, Title X has received no significant increase in funding, and inflation has reduced its purchasing power by 2/3. As a result, Title X serves less women. Meanwhile, the number of unintended pregnancies continues to increase. The US already has the highest rate of unintended pregnancies in the developed world. This is partly a result of society's ambivalence towards sex, which makes it difficult to discuss -- much less promote -- family planning. Lack of support for family planning can also be traced to the vigorous efforts of the anti-birth control lobby, which has successfully defeated attempts to increase funding.

  8. Randomized comparison of two Internet-supported fertility-awareness-based methods of family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Richard J; Schneider, Mary; Raviele, Kathleen; Rodriguez, Dana; Pruszynski, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    The aim was to compare the efficacy and acceptability of two Internet-supported fertility-awareness-based methods of family planning. Six hundred and sixty-seven women and their male partners were randomized into either an electronic hormonal fertility monitor (EHFM) group or a cervical mucus monitoring (CMM) group. Both groups utilized a Web site with instructions, charts and support. Acceptability was assessed online at 1, 3 and 6 months. Pregnancy rates were determined by survival analysis. The EHFM participants (N=197) had a total pregnancy rate of 7 per 100 users over 12 months of use compared with 18.5 for the CMM group (N=164). The log rank survival test showed a significant difference (pincreased significantly over time (pusers had an increase in acceptability over time. Results are tempered by the high dropout rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemerding, B

    1992-01-01

    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  10. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Y; Breton, G

    2001-12-01

    Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.

  11. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  12. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  13. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  14. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  15. Institutional Formation of Family Planning in the District Sukabumi and the Bitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the implementation of family planning (KB in regional affairs. Nevertheless, this study focuses on the establishment of institutional care and family planning in the area set up. The purpose of this study is to get a complete picture of the role of family planning agencies that had stood alone in implementing family planning matters that have been handed over to the local government. By using the methods of descriptive and qualitative approach, this study found several things. First, there is impression of conflicts of interest (sectoral ego between Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA and National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN on forming a population and family planning (BKKBD institutions in province, county and city. Second, the two regions, Sukabumi County and Bitung City that have shaped BKKBD has focused attention in supporting the success of family planning programs. Third, the integration of family planning into the regional medium-term development plan, as did the City of Bitung and Sukabumi County, ensure the sustainability of the program and budgeted in the regional budget revenue and expenditure (APBD. Finally, this study concludes, coordination and synchronization policies on family planning should be done by the BKKBN and MoHA.

  16. Emotional and informational support for families during their child's illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajärvi, A; Haapamäki, M L; Paavilainen, E

    2006-09-01

    To describe and compare the support provided by nursing staff to families during their child's illness from the viewpoint of families and nurses. A survey method was used. Data were collected by questionnaires planned for families and staff separately. The study population consisted of families who visited paediatric outpatient clinics, families with hospitalized children (n = 344) and the paediatric nursing staff (n = 60). Almost half of the families had received adequate emotional and informational support from the nursing staff for their physical and psychological reactions. One-fifth of the families reported that they had not been supported at all during the child's hospitalization. According to families and nurses, the support was provided in the forms of discussion, listening and giving time. Families' and nurses' suggestions for development of support were related to the time resources of the staff, to the flow of information, to more client-centred attitudes, to being appreciated and listened to and to home care guidance. However, the pervasiveness of this problem in the international literature suggests that deeper consideration of possible underlying reasons for this phenomenon is called for.

  17. Thai midwives brought into family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    In Thailand "granny" midwives are being tested and trained to take part in modern family planning and public health programs. In Malaysia a survey of conditions relating to an increase in induced early termination or abortion of pregnancies is in progress. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports these projects as well as others in Asia. Local paramedical workers, like the "barefoot doctors" in China, are being trained. In Thailand a growth plan is attempting to reduce the annual rate of population increase from about 3.3% to 2.5%. Many granny midwives have been contacted. Several methods of incentive and training are being tried and will be evaluated. Eventually granny midwives in all of Thailand's 60,000 villages will be enlisted in the national planning program. Of Thailand's 6 million married women of reproductive age less than half use modern birth control methods. Abortion is illegal in Thailand which is a predominantly Buddhist country. The project in Malaysia is being carried out by the University of Malaysia and the Federation of Family Planning Associations. Abortion is also illegal in Islamic Malaysia, although there are illegal abortion clinics. Trends so far reported to IDRC indicate that 1) lower class women are more cooperative interviewees than others, 2) most couples use some method of birth control, 3) many wish to interrupt their pregnancies, 4) poorer families have more children than wealthier ones, 5) the Chinese and Indian people show a greater tendency to limit families than do the Malays, and 6) most couples want 3 or 4 children.

  18. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Espinoza, Henry; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Lacayo, Yann; Keith, Bonnie M; Vail, Janet G

    2011-05-01

    To assess private-sector stakeholders' and donors' perceptions of a total market approach (TMA) to family planning in Nicaragua in the context of decreased funding; to build evidence for potential strategies and mechanisms for TMA implementation (including public-private partnerships (PPPs)); and to identify information gaps and future priorities for related research and advocacy. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted in various locations in Nicaragua from March to April 2010. A total of 24 key private-sector stakeholders and donors were interviewed and their responses analyzed using two questionnaires and a stakeholder analysis tool (PolicyMakerTM software). All survey participants supported a TMA, and public-private collaboration, in family planning in Nicaragua. Based on the survey responses, opportunities for further developing PPPs for family planning include building on and expanding existing governmental frameworks, such as Nicaragua's current coordination mechanism for contraceptive security. Obstacles include the lack of ongoing government engagement with the commercial (for-profit) sector and confusion about regulations for its involvement in family planning. Strategies for strengthening existing PPPs include establishing a coordination mechanism specifically for the commercial sector and collecting and disseminating evidence supporting public-private collaboration in family planning. There was no formal or absolute opposition to a TMA or PPPs in family planning in Nicaragua among a group of diverse nongovernmental stakeholders and donors. This type of study can help identify strategies to mobilize existing and potential advocates in achieving articulated policy goals, including diversification of funding sources for family planning to achieve contraceptive security.

  19. Family planning: the unfinished agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

    2006-11-18

    Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena.

  20. Financing family planning services: is categorical legislation still needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarlane, D R; Meier, K J

    1991-01-01

    Federal and state funds have provided for family planning services in American since the 1960s. Since 1976, services have been funded principally through federal statutes Title X of the Public Health Service Act and Titles V, XIX, and XX of the Social Security Act as well as various state appropriations. While these statutes aim to ensure that women of lower socioeconomic status enjoy access to reproductive health care services, levels of public expenditure in this area vary widely among states. In 1987, public family planning expenditures/woman at risk ranged from $60.16 in Wisconsin to $9.41 in Florida. Within this range of expenditures, the relative importance of each funding source per state varies widely. States with the most robust Title XIX programs, Medicaid, however, have highest per woman family planning expenditures. Upon reviewing the complement of public funding sources and how they are spent at the state level, the authors argue that categorical legislation is still needed to protect access to contraceptive services in America. In particular, of funds from supporting statues, Medicaid is distributed most equitable across the country. These funds paid for 36% of all public outlays for family planning in 1987. Without categorical legislation, however, Medicaid is insufficient to maintain the national family planning effort; the 1987 contribution of $10.49/woman at risk of unwanted pregnancy was insufficient to provide minimum services. Title X requires grantees to follow regulations which ensure state uniformity of quality and service distribution; submission of annual 5-year plans to Congress on how family planning goals will be achieved; and also authorizes monies for training and research. Despite political attacks, family planning funding must remain separate from maternal and child health programs. Such independence will keep these services politically visible; allow use of the more extensive family planning delivery system; catalyze states to

  1. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.

  2. 42 CFR 441.20 - Family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used. ...

  3. The effect of administration family planning policy on maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabin, L S

    1983-09-01

    Several ideologies of the present Administration appear to converge as they impinge upon family planning--themes which are not restricted to reproductive health but which interact in ways particularly threatening to its achievements of the last decade. Most of these ideologies are clear, articulated objectives of the present government such as overall budget reduction and the return of budgetary control to the states. Others are responsive to the influence of the so called "moral mojority." Essentially, the federal government can affect family planning delivery through 4 different routes: through the allocation of funds; through specific legislation; and through regulation or organizational structure (areas in the hands of the executive branch alone). There have been recent and prime examples of all 4 routes, all directed at weakening the federal family planning program which has grown steadily stronger with bipartisan support in the last decades. Major sources of family planning support are reviewed in order to indicate the areas of change or of serious risk to the field. By retaining the categorical funding of Title 10 (half of the federal money in the family planning field has, for some years, come through Title 10 of the Public Health Service Act) in 1981, Congress reasserted the importance it places upon fertility regualtion against Administration pressure to block-grant. Despite an approximately 23% cut, this funding remains the single best hope for the field in these tight money times. In the language of the House Budget Committee report, Congress expressed its intention that an emphasis upon family planning be retained in the Maternal and Child Health block grant. It is no surprise that under the pressure of funding cuts that intention has not been honored. An upsurge in the use of Medicaid funding by family planning providers has increased the proportion of family planning funds from this source. In Title 20 of the Social Security Act (Social Services) it

  4. Family planning costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  5. Family planning as public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    The inclusion of constitutional provisions and laws regarding family planning and the creation of the Population Commission in the Philippines are examples of the growing recognition in many developing countries that proper and humane control of population growth is a key factor in economic progress. Similar provisions have recently appeared in Thailand, Mexico, and the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Awareness of the need for adequate public education to ensure the success of family planning programs has resulted in the formation of commissions for that purpose in Australia, Belgium, Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, and Sri Lanka. Voluntary sterilization is gradually gaining support. 3 South Asian nations (Pakistan, Singapore, and New Zealand) were among 12 to liberalize laws in 1974 and 1975. However, the prevailing opinion is that a massive public education program will have to be waged before acceptance becomes widespread in the region. Singapore's sterilization law can be used as a guideline for other nations in the area contemplating policy changes.

  6. Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF): the development of a mobile phone-based (mHealth) intervention to support post-abortion family planning (PAFP) in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Free, Caroline

    2016-01-05

    The objective of this paper is to outline the formative research process used to develop the MOTIF mobile phone-based (mHealth) intervention to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. The formative research process involved literature reviews, interviews and focus group discussions with clients, and consultation with clinicians and organisations implementing mHealth activities in Cambodia. This process led to the development of a conceptual framework and the intervention. Key findings from the formative research included identification of the main reasons for non-use of contraception and patterns of mobile phone use in Cambodia. We drew on components of existing interventions and behaviour change theory to develop a conceptual framework. A multi-faceted voice-based intervention was designed to address health concerns and other key determinants of contraception use. Formative research was essential in order to develop an appropriate mHealth intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia. Each component of the formative research contributed to the final intervention design.

  7. 45 CFR 1357.32 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 2, family preservation and family support services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property; data processing and computer services; accounting; budgeting; auditing. (3) Program costs are... (e.g., delivery of services, planning, consultation, coordination, training, quality assurance..., family preservation and family support services). 1357.32 Section 1357.32 Public Welfare Regulations...

  8. Peer support and peer-led family support for persons living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Kenneth; Halpern, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    Peer support and peer-led family psychoeducation represent two distinct and complementary recovery-oriented models to support individuals who live with schizophrenia and their families, respectively. The goals of these models focus on improving knowledge, coping, self-care, social support, and self-management strategies. These models represent important capacity-building strategies for people who live with the illness and the people who love them. This brief article is intended to provide the practicing clinician, person living with schizophrenia, and policy maker with a working knowledge of the current state of the literature in these two related fields. Practitioners should consider these resources and integrate them into their care. A person living with schizophrenia could use this review to advocate for appropriate resources and to identify career opportunities. Policy makers could benefit from an understanding of the literature to mitigate financial and cultural barriers to adopting these practices. The last 5 years have seen a dramatic expansion of the application of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to give evidence to match the experience of people in these programs. The field has seen Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) named as evidence-based practice by the National Registry of Evidence-Based Practices. A RCT was also conducted for another peer-developed and led program called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams & Goals through Education & Support. Family to Family, the largest peer-led family psychoeducation course, was also found to have significant impact after the study and also 6 months later in RCT. Family to Family has also been named as an evidence-based practice. The field of people who are living well with schizophrenia working as resources and supports to others living with the illness is an idea that is growing momentum. This momentum has been matched by the RCT evidence. Peer support as a professional role has an emerging literature

  9. Attitudes of physicians providing family planning services in Egypt about recommending intrauterine device for family planning clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mirette; Ahmed, Sabra; Ahmed, Boshra

    2017-12-01

    To assess the attitudes of physicians providing family planning services at the public sector in Egypt about recommending intrauterine device (IUD) for family planning clients, and to identify the factors that could affect their attitudes. A descriptive cross sectional study, in which all the physicians providing family planning services in Assiut Governorate were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires. The study participants were recruited at the family planning sector monthly meetings of the 13 health directorates of Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. 250 physicians accepted to participate in the study. Bivariate and Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the most important predictors of recommending IUD to family planning clients when appropriate. Less than 50% of physicians would recommend IUD for clients with proper eligibility criteria; women younger than 20 years old (49.2%), women with history of ectopic pregnancy (34%), history of pelvic inflammatory diseases (40%) or sexually transmitted diseases (18.4%) and nulliparous women (22.8%). Receiving family planning formal training within the year preceding data collection and working in urban areas were the significant predictors of recommending IUD insertion for appropriate clients. Physicians providing family planning services in Upper Egypt have negative attitudes about recommending IUD for family planning clients. Continuous education and in-service training about the updated medical eligibility criteria, especially for physicians working in rural areas may reduce the unfounded medical restrictions for IUD use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Family planning and health: the Narangwal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqee, R

    1983-06-01

    The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.

  11. Engaging Men in Family Planning: Perspectives From Married Men in Lomé, Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Tekou B; Weidert, Karen; Ouro Bitasse, Erakalaza; Mensah, Marthe Adjoko E; Emina, Jacques; Mensah, Sheila; Bongiovanni, Annette; Prata, Ndola

    2018-05-09

    Family planning programs have made vast progress in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade, but francophone West Africa is still lagging behind. More emphasis on male engagement might result in better outcomes, especially in countries with strong patriarchal societies. Few studies in francophone West Africa have examined attitudes of male involvement in family planning from the perspective of men themselves, yet this evidence is necessary for development of successful family planning projects that include men. This qualitative study, conducted in 2016, explored attitudes of 72 married men ages 18-54 through 6 focus groups in the capital of Togo, Lomé. Participants included professional workers as well as skilled and unskilled workers. Results indicate that men have specific views on family planning based on their knowledge and understanding of how and why women might use contraception. While some men did have reservations, both founded and not, there was an overwhelmingly positive response to discussing family planning and being engaged with related decisions and services. Four key findings from the analyses of focus group responses were: (1) socioeconomic motivations drive men's interest in family planning; (2) men strongly disapprove of unilateral decisions by women to use family planning; (3) misconceptions surrounding modern methods can hinder support for family planning; and (4) limited method choice for men, insufficient venues to receive services, and few messages that target men create barriers for male engagement in family planning. Future attempts to engage men in family planning programs should pay specific attention to men's concerns, misconceptions, and their roles in family decision making. Interventions should educate men on the socioeconomic and health benefits of family planning while explaining the possible side effects and dispelling myths. To help build trust and facilitate open communication, family planning programs that

  12. Supportive families versus support from families: The decision to have a child in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Schaffnit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Support from families can reduce costs of reproduction and may therefore be associated with higher fertility for men and women. Family supportiveness, however, varies both between families - some families are more supportive than others - and within families over time - as the needs of recipients and the abilities of support givers change. Distinguishing the effects of time-invariant between-family supportiveness and time-varying within-family supportiveness on fertility can help contribute to an understanding of how family support influences fertility. Objective: We distinguish 'between' and 'within' families for several types of support shared between parents and adult children and test whether between- and within-family variation in support associates with birth timings. Methods: We use seven years of annually collected LISS panel data from the Netherlands on 2,288 reproductive-aged men and women to investigate the timing of first and subsequent births. Results: We find between-family support is more often associated with fertility than is within-family support, particularly for first births and for women. Emotional support is generally associated with earlier first births for both men and women, while results for financial and reciprocal emotional support are mixed. There is some indication that the latter kind of support positively predicts births for men and negatively for women. Conclusions: Our results suggest that feeling supported may be more important than actual support in reproductive decision-making in this high-income setting. Contribution: We apply a method novel to human demography to address both a conceptual and methodological issue in studies of families and fertility.

  13. Family planning in contermporary reproductive health and rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key strategies to promote family planning include domestication of provisions of international conventions on family planning into state laws, and ensuring their implementation; development of community friendly family planning services; establishment of effective family planning commodities logistics management system; ...

  14. 42 CFR 59.5 - What requirements must be met by a family planning project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must: (1... (iii) Promote continued participation in the project by persons to whom family planning services may be... services purchased for project participants will be authorized by the project director or his designee on...

  15. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  16. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neily Zakiyah

    Full Text Available A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research.A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed, Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER, EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS statement.From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors.Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary

  17. Incentives to promote family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Some psychological problems in family planning work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J

    1983-11-29

    Psychology has significance in family planning work, because it may promote the scientific nature of family planning work and thus increase its effectiveness. Since people have some common aspects in their psychological process, family planning workers should master some common rules of the people's psychological process in order to understand psychological trends and possible behavior. Through this method, family planning workers may find how to adjust to problems they may encounter in their daily work, such as the worries about a single child being too lonely, spoiled, and hard to handle for the parents, the traditional belief that more children represent good fortune, and more male children may provide security for one's old age. Traditionally, the Chinese people believed that only male children can carry on the family line and that more children will provide a larger labor force, which is beneficial to a family's financial situation. In family planning work, all such incorrect ways of thinking should be corrected and revised. Studies of children's psychology should also be developed so that children may develop a healthy mentality. All these are crucial to the success of family planning work and the promotion of population quality.

  19. Policy guidelines for collective bargaining and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, O D; Parulan, D

    1973-01-01

    The benfits of establishing family planning through collective bargaining to both labor and management are discussed. Until workers can be convinced that their children will receive health care, education and employment, and that they will be economically secure in old age, it is difficult to convince them of the many benefits of child spacing and small family size. In 1953, it was calculated by management in a Japanese steel factory that about 70% of all acidents could be attributable to difficulties in the private lives of employees. In order to ease problems in the home, collective agreements were initiated by management in the Nippon Express Company to provide family planning services. Labor agreed as long as the workers were to share in the economic awards which came from participation. Costs of implementing the family planning programs were fully offset by the decrease in expenditure on family allowances, confinement, nursing, and so on. In India some ten estates began a program in which a certain amount of money is paid into an account for every month that a woman does not become pregnant. If the woman becomes pregnant, she forfeits a substantial amount of the fund. This money comes directly from the funds which would normally have to be set aside to provide for maternity and child support programs. Certain guidelines are presented in the paper to outline the areas of responsibility of labor and management in the provision of family planning services. Among the many possibilities mentioned is the idea that both labor and management could look into the conceivability of plowing back a portion of whatever savings are accrued by management into a pension scheme to compensate workers for the loss of labor caused by having fewer children than were previously anticipated.

  20. Study findings on evaluation of integrated family planning programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 the United Nations's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific launched a comparative study on integrated family planning programs in a number of countries in the region. In November 1979 the study directors from the participating countries meet in Bangkok to discuss the current status of the studies in their countries. The Korean and Malaysian studies were completed, the Bangladesh study was in the data collecting phase, and the Pakistani research design phase was completed. The meeting participants focused their attention on the findings and policy implications of the 2 completed studies and also discussed a number of theorectical and methodological issues which grew out of their research experience. The Malaysian study indicated that group structure, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of worker-client contact were the most significant variables determining program effectiveness. In the Korean Study, leadership, financial resources, and the frequency and quality of contact between agencies were the key variables in determining program effectiveness. In the Malaysian study there was a positive correlation between maternal and child health service performance measures and family planning service performance measures. This finding supported the contention that these 2 types of service provision are not in conflict with each other but instead serve to reinforce each other. Policy implications of the Korean study were 1) family planning should be an integral part of all community activities; 2) family planning workers should be adequately supported by financial and supply allocations; and 3) adequate record keeping and information exchange procedures should be incorporated in the programs.

  1. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  2. Family-Directed Transition Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    This guide to family-directed transition planning is intended to help parents and students with disabilities take leading roles in the process of transition from school to post-school activities. First, a letter to families examines the challenge of change and the transition process. Section 2 examines regulations that affect transition planning,…

  3. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  4. Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D T

    1995-01-01

    This overview of the US birth control movement reflects on the emergence of family planning policy due to the efforts of Margaret Sanger, feminists, and the civil rights movement, the eugenics motive to limit "deviant" populations, and the population control movement, which aims to solve social and economic problems through fertility control. Population control moved through three stages: from the cause of "voluntary motherhood" to advance suffrage and women's political and social status, to the concept of "birth control" promoted by socialist feminists to help empower women and the working class, to, from 1920 on, a liberal movement for civil rights and population control. Physicians such as Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson legitimized the movement in the formation of the Committee on Maternal Health in 1925, but the movement remained divided until 1939, when Sanger's group merged with the American Birth Control League, the predecessor of the present Planned Parenthood Federation of America. A key legal decision in 1939 in the United States v. One Package amended the Comstock Act and allowed for the distribution of birth control devices by mail to physicians. Sanger, after a brief retirement, formed the International Planned Parenthood Federation and supported research into the pill. Eugenicists through the Committee on Maternal Health supported Christopher Tietze and others developing the pill. Final constitutional access to contraception based on the right to privacy was granted in Griswold v. Connecticut. The ruling in Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972 extended this right to unmarried persons. The right to privacy was further extended in the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 on legal abortion. The argument for improving the quality of the population remained from the formation of the Population Reference Bureau in 1929 through the 1960s. Under the leadership of Rockefeller, population control was defined as justified on a scientific and humanitarian basis. US government support

  5. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  6. Africa: the new family planning frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat

    2002-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the twentieth century, fertility transition was under way in Southern Africa and a few countries elsewhere. Successful regional family planning in the twenty-first century will depend upon stronger political leadership, the development of family planning programs that meet the needs of all segments of society and not only currently married women, assistance to the market, and a recognition of the central importance of hormonal methods, especially injectables. Problems include stagnation in economic growth and in child mortality decline, as well as the persistence of the AIDS epidemic.

  7. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  8. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-01-01

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013–14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014–2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  9. Family Planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Encouraging Momentum, Formidable Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwete, Dieudonné; Binanga, Arsene; Mukaba, Thibaut; Nemuandjare, Théophile; Mbadu, Muanda Fidele; Kyungu, Marie-Thérèse; Sutton, Perri; Bertrand, Jane T

    2018-03-21

    Momentum for family planning in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is evident in multiple ways: strong political will, increasing donor support, a growing number of implementing organizations, innovative family planning programming, and a cohesive family planning stakeholder group. Between 2013 and 2017, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) in the capital city of Kinshasa increased from 18.5% to 26.7% among married women, but as of 2013-14, it was only 7.8% at the national level. The National Multisectoral Strategic Plan for Family Planning: 2014-2020 calls for achieving an mCPR of 19.0% by 2020, an ambitious goal in light of formidable challenges to family planning in the DRC. Of the 16,465 health facilities reporting to the national health information system in 2017, only 40% offer family planning services. Key challenges include uncertainty over the political situation, difficulties of ensuring access to family planning services in a vast country with a weak transportation infrastructure, funding shortfalls for procuring adequate quantities of contraceptives, weak contraceptive logistics and supply chain management, strong cultural norms that favor large families, and low capacity of the population to pay for contraceptive services. This article describes promising initiatives designed to address these barriers, consistent with the World Health Organization's framework for health systems strengthening. For example, the national family planning coordinating mechanism is being replicated at the provincial level to oversee the expansion of family planning service delivery. Promising initiatives are being implemented to improve the supply and quality of services and generate demand for family planning, including social marketing of subsidized contraceptives at both traditional and non-traditional channels and strengthening of services in military health facilities. To expand contraceptive access, family planning is being institutionalized in

  10. Studies in Family Planning, Number 38. Beyond Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, Bernard

    This paper, published by The Population Council, reviews 29 proposals dealing with population controls beyond the current efforts of national programs of voluntary family planning. The proposals are subsumed under eight descriptive categories which are: (1) Extensions of voluntary fertility control; (2) Establishment of involuntary fertility…

  11. Indonesia's family planning program works toward self-sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, C

    1989-07-01

    Started in 1970, the Indonesian Family Planning Program is doing very well. It is coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). Many new acceptors are being enrolled daily. Its aim is to reduce to 1971 fertility rate of 50% in 1990. Strategy factors are listed. The following paper, "BKKBN and the Expanding Role of Private Sector Family Planning Services and Commercial Contraceptive Sales in Indonesia," by Dr. Haryono Suyono is introduced. Another article, "A breakthrough in Family Planning Promotional Strategy," by Mr. Sumarsono is also introduced. This article deals with the marketing aspect of Indonesia's family planning program.

  12. Experience of domestic violence routine screening in Family Planning NSW clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tara; Botfield, Jessica R; Estoesta, Jane; Markham, Pippa; Robertson, Sarah; McGeechan, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study reviewed implementation of the Domestic Violence Routine Screening (DVRS) program at Family Planning NSW and outcomes of screening to determine the feasibility of routine screening in a family planning setting and the suitability of this program in the context of women's reproductive and sexual health. A retrospective review of medical records was undertaken of eligible women attending Family Planning NSW clinics between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and assess association between binary outcomes and client characteristics. Of 13440 eligible women, 5491 were screened (41%). Number of visits, clinic attended, age, employment status and disability were associated with completion of screening. In all, 220 women (4.0%) disclosed domestic violence. Factors associated with disclosure were clinic attended, age group, region of birth, employment status, education and disability. Women who disclosed domestic violence were more likely to have discussed issues related to sexually transmissible infections in their consultation. All women who disclosed were assessed for any safety concerns and offered a range of suitable referral options. Although routine screening may not be appropriate in all health settings, given associations between domestic violence and sexual and reproductive health, a DVRS program is considered appropriate in sexual and reproductive health clinics and appears to be feasible in a service such as Family Planning NSW. Consistent implementation of the program should continue at Family Planning NSW and be expanded to other family planning services in Australia to support identification and early intervention for women affected by domestic violence.

  13. Singing about family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large.

  14. Greater involvement of HIV-infected peer-mothers in provision of reproductive health services as "family planning champions" increases referrals and uptake of family planning among HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiope, Peter; Musingye, Ezra; Makumbi, Carolyne Onyango; Bagenda, Danstan; Homsy, Jaco; Nakitende, Mai; Mubiru, Mike; Mosha, Linda Barlow; Kagawa, Mike; Namukwaya, Zikulah; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2017-06-27

    In 2012, Makerere University Johns - Hopkins University, and Mulago National Referral Hospital, with support from the National Institute of Health (under Grant number: NOT AI-01-023) undertook operational research at Mulago National Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinics. The study employed Peer Family Planning Champions to offer health education, counselling, and triage aimed at increasing the identification, referral and family planning (FP) uptake among HIV positive mothers attending the clinic. The Peer Champion Intervention to improve FP uptake was introduced into Mulago Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinic, Kampala Uganda. During the intervention period, peers provided additional FP counselling and education; assisted in identification and referral of HIV Positive mothers in need of FP services; and accompanied referred mothers to FP clinics. We compiled and compared the average proportions of mothers in need that were referred and took up FP in the pre-intervention (3 months), intervention (6 months), and post-intervention(3 months) periods using interrupted time series with segmented regression models with an autoregressive term of one. Overall, during the intervention, the proportion of referred mothers in need of FP increased by 30.4 percentage points (P family planning can be a valuable addition to clinic staff in limited-resource settings. The study provides additional evidence on the utilization of peer mothers in HIV care, improves health services uptake including family planning which is a common practice in many donor supported programs. It also provides evidence that may be used to advocate for policy revisions in low-income countries to include peers as support staff especially in busy clinic settings with poor services uptake.

  15. Men Too--a retrospective view of the Family Planning Association's male responsibility campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellings, K

    1986-01-01

    England's Family Planning Association's (FPA) MEN TOO campaign evolved from the recognition that men seemed to receive less support and encouragement than women in their involvement in the emotional aspects of relationships, family planning, and child rearing. Created out of a concern for balancing the selective attention given to men and women, the longterm goal of the MEN TOO campaign was to support the growing number of men who are concerned about increasing their participation in emotional expression, family planning, child rearing and related areas and to explore ways of improving the information and education services that contribute to a better understanding of these issues. The shortterm project goals were to: raise the "unspoken issues" for public debate; encourage more communication and an improved quality in personal and sexual relationships; and raise the support for effective contraceptive use in sexual relationships. Prior to the publicity campaign a select bibliography, a document outlining the need for and general aims of the MEN TOO project, and a report indicating that family planning services needed to be more flexible and accommodating to men were prepared. A press conference officially launched the MEN TOO project. During the autumn of 1984 and the spring of 1985 public service announcements were transmitted on all 9 of the independent television stations participating in the scheme. The FPA's 1-day conference, "Men, Sex and Relationships" in March 1985, in London. 400 delegates, attended both professional and laypersons, about 1/3 of them men. To give the initial impetus to changing the general atmosphere within family planning clinics and to changing staff attitudes toward men, a letter was sent from the FPA's Secretary General to all District Medical Officers, with copies to Senior Family Planning Officers and to District Health Education Officers, describing the campaign and expressing the hope that more men would come forward to seek

  16. Women's experiences with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M

    1994-06-01

    India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family

  17. Rakhaine community embraces family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S M

    1994-01-01

    The Rakhaines are a small, tightly knit community of 15,000 people who occupy parts of the coastal and hilly districts of southern Bangladesh. It is a closed community with different ethnic origins and religion from other Bangladeshis. As such, they have been largely unreached by government health and family planning services. In response to the need to bring services to these people, contact was established between the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) and the Rakhaine in 1987 in the interest of improving family health and well-being among the Rakhaine people through the introduction of maternal and child health care and family planning. The Family Planning Services for the Rakhaine Community project of the FPAB began in Cox's Bazar and Harbang in late 1987, and spread gradually over the hilly terrain inhabited by the Rakhaine to now serve 2000 couples. Although family planning was the focal point, the project also incorporated schemes for income generation, maternal and child health care, and sanitation. At baseline, less than 25% of reproductive age couples were using contraception, but this proportion grew to 69% by 1993, higher than the national contraceptive prevalence rate of approximately 40%. Used by 41% of married women of reproductive age, the pill is the most preferred contraceptive method, followed by sterilization among 10% of women. The efforts of fieldworkers were crucial to program success. The author notes that current users have been using contraception on average for just over two years. Moreover, the level of tetanus toxoid immunization rose to 60% of pregnant women, while 75% of children are now immunized against major life-threatening diseases. Some costs are recovered, but not enough to finance the project.

  18. Family support in cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Kazilan, Fitrisehara

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises issues about the role of family members in providing support for breast cancer survivors. Data were collected from 400 breast cancer survivors in Peninsular Malaysia through a custom-designed questionnaire fielded at hospitals and support group meetings. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The analyses show that all family members could be supportive, especially in decision making and help with emotional issues. The spouse was the main support provider among the family members (others were children, parents, siblings and more distant relatives). The results also indicated that a significant percentage practiced collaborative decision-making. Breast cancer survivors needed their family members' support for information on survivorship strategies such as managing emotions, health, life style and dietary practice. The family members' supportive role may be linked to the Malaysian strong family relationship culture. For family members to contribute more adequately to cancer survivorship, it is suggested that appropriate educational intervention also be provided to them.

  19. Meeting the need: youth and family planning in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Sreenivas, Amita

    2013-07-01

    The need for a concerted effort to address the gaps in family planning services for youth in sub-Saharan Africa has been underreported and underexplored. Trends in fertility, childbearing, unmet need for family planning options and contraceptive prevalence (CP) among youth are described with data from six African countries with four consecutive Demographic and Health Surveys. Estimates of exposure to risk of pregnancy and number of new contraceptives users needed to maintain and double CP in 2015 are calculated using current CP and projected youth population size in six African countries. The youth population is expected to range from approximately 3 to 35 million in six African countries by 2015. Accounting for population growth and current estimates of sexual activity among youth, family planning services will need to absorb more than 800,000 and 11.3 million new contraceptive users total to maintain and double CP, respectively, in 2015 in those six African countries alone. Our findings support existing literature that calls for a reorientation of family planning policies and programs, especially improved access to modern contraceptive methods among African youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  1. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Treatment Of MSUD The MSUD Family Support Group has provided funds to Buck Institute for its ... of the membership of the MSUD Family Support Group, research for improved treatments and potential cure was ...

  2. Practical education in family planning: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creusa Ferreira da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify educational practices in family planning, facilitating factors, difficulties and resulting impacts. Method: This is an integrative literature review, using the three descriptors: "family planning", "health education" and "contraception"; In the databases of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS and Nursing Database (BDENF, were searched in January and February 2016. Results: Regarding the accomplishment of educational practices, most of the studies pointed out its accomplishment. The difficulties and facilitators aspects were related to the management of the health service, professional competence and users. Guarantee of family rights and autonomy were the impacts pointed out. Conclusion: The study showed that educational practices in family planning are tools to be encouraged as a guarantee and respect for sexual and reproductive rights. Descriptors: family planning; education in health; contraception.

  3. Home support workers perceptions of family members of their older clients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Byrne, Kerry; Tong, Catherine; Martin-Matthews, Anne

    2015-12-12

    Health care discourse is replete with references to building partnerships between formal and informal care systems of support, particularly in community and home based health care. Little work has been done to examine the relationship between home health care workers and family caregivers of older clients. The purpose of this study is to examine home support workers' (HSWs) perceptions of their interactions with their clients' family members. The goal of this research is to improve client care and better connect formal and informal care systems. A qualitative study, using in-depth interviews was conducted with 118 home support workers in British Columbia, Canada. Framework analysis was used and a number of strategies were employed to ensure rigor including: memo writing and analysis meetings. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and sent to a professional transcription agency. Nvivo 10 software was used to manage the data. Interactions between HSWs and family members are characterized in terms both of complementary labour (family members providing informational and instrumental support to HSWs), and disrupted labour (family members creating emotion work and additional instrumental work for HSWs). Two factors, the care plan and empathic awareness, further impact the relationship between HSWs and family caregivers. HSWs and family members work to support one another instrumentally and emotionally through interdependent interactions and empathic awareness. Organizational Care Plans that are too rigid or limited in their scope are key factors constraining interactions.

  4. Supporting Families to Support Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2018-01-01

    Collaboration between students' families and the school is an essential component to promoting student mental and behavioral health. Many schools structure their mental health services using a Multi-Tiered System of Supports that offers three different tiers of support from universal supports to personalized help for students with serious…

  5. [Paper on sterilization in the family planning programs of Colombia: a national debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, A; Roper, L

    1986-01-01

    During 1984, family planning became the object of heated public debate in Colombia. In particular, considerable controversy surrounded the practice of sterilization. In Colombia in 1980, 49% of married women were practicing family planning. The main protagonist has been Profamilia, an IPPF affliate, which runs clinics and advisory services throughout Colombia. Sterilization is performed quite extensively on men of at least 28 years and women of 25 with 3 living children. Further activities of Profamilia include community distribution and social marketing programs. Many of the health facilities used are those of the Ministry of Public Health. The Minister of Health responded to criticism levelled by the Catholic church and others by instituting an investigation into alleged practices of mass sterilization. Profamilia declared publicy that sterilization was performed only under certain conditions, after waiting periods, and under no circumstances with coersion. Various groups including medical associations publicy supported Profamilia. Although recognizing the need for families to be limited in size, religious and other commentators suggested that sterilization was often presented as a solution to family ills, and that it represented foreign involvement in Colombian social policy. The opposing opinions were that church-supported natural family planning was not an effective enough strategy. The ministry has resolved to invoke more stringent screening of women desiring sterilization to include natural family planning in its programs, and to deal with international organizations only on the ministry level. The number of sterilizations has diminished. The controversy helped to expose political weaknesses of Profamilia's programs (e.g. the use of monetary incentives; lack of supervision).

  6. Old and new ways: family planning in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarsh, L

    1989-04-01

    Kenya has the highest fertility rate in the world. The average woman has 8 children. Further, urban areas attract people from rural areas leaving fewer people to farm the finite land or raise cattle. Therefore a reduced need for children to partake in agricultural activities exists. Nevertheless many barriers to family planning continue in Kenya. Family planning services are scarce especially in rural areas. Husbands must agree to their wives undergoing voluntary sterilization by going to the clinic to sign a consent form. Children are highly valued. Succession of the generations is important. The higher a woman's fertility the more valuable she is to husband. The continuance of legal polygamy fosters competition among a man's wives to have many sons with the 1 having the most being his most prized wife. In spite of these obstacles, the president of Kenya promotes family planning through his speeches and requires the Ministry of Health (MOH) to provide family planning services at all government hospitals. Moreover, church hospitals also provide family planning services. Additionally, articles that cover teenage pregnancy and family planning programs appear in daily newspapers. The MOH and the National Council on Population and Development are organizing a network of government and nongovernment organizations that provide family planning services to the public. A sample of these organizations include the Family Planning Association of Kenya, an influential women's organization (Mandeleo ya Wanawake), and several church organizations. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception's regional office has promoted minilaparotomies under local anesthesia since 1986. They are now used in maternal and child health programs in government hospitals, mission hospitals, and in several family planning clinics.

  7. Aspects of family caregiving as addressed in planned discussions between nurses, patients with chronic diseases and family caregivers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, E I; Paans, W; Jaarsma, T; Keers, J C; van der Schans, C; Luttik, M Louise

    2017-01-01

    Caregiving by family members of elderly with chronic conditions is currently intensifying in the context of an aging population and health care reform in the Netherlands. It is essential that nurses have attention for supporting roles of family caregivers of older patients and address family caregiving aspects on behalf of the continuity of care. This study aims to explore what aspects of family caregiving were addressed during planned discussions between nurses, patients and family caregivers in the hospital. Qualitative descriptive research was conducted using non-participant observation and audio-recordings of planned discussions between nurses, older patients and their family caregivers as they took place in the hospital. Through purposive sampling eligible patients (≥ 65 years) with one or more chronic conditions were included. These patients were admitted to the hospital for diagnostics or due to consequences of their chronic illness. Retrospective chart review was done to obtain patient characteristics. Data were collected in November/December 2013 and April/May 2014 in four hospitals. Qualitative content analysis was performed using the inductive approach in order to gain insight into addressed aspects of family caregiving. A total of 62 patients (mean age (SD) 76 years (7.2), 52% male) were included in the study, resulting in 146 planned discussions (62 admission and discharge discussions and 22 family meetings). Three themes were identified regarding addressed aspects of family caregiving. Two themes referred to aspects addressing the patients' social network, and included 'social network structure' and 'social network support'. One theme referred to aspects addressing coordination of care issues involving family caregiving, referred to as 'coordination of care'. During discussions nurses mostly addressed practical information on the patients' social network structure. When specific family caregiving support was addressed, information was limited and

  8. Family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makama, Jerry Godfrey; Joshua, Istifanus Anekoson; Makama, Elizabeth Jerry

    There has been an increase in the incidence of disasters in many parts of the world. Similarly, Nigeria has witnessed a recent increase of man-made disaster events such as plane crash, fire incidents, flood, and building collapse, including bomb blast orchestrated by terrorists that often create emergency situations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study (May-July, 2013) of medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria. The structured questionnaire sought the socio-demographic features of the respondents, the availability of emergency gate(s) in the house, education of safety measures within and outside the house, well-known located shut-off devices for gases, electricity, and water in the house, and written document/policy in the event of disaster. Also, planned orientations/drills/sensitizations, whether there is contact information of family members and supporting agencies. Majority of the respondents were male 56 (80.0 percent) and fall within the age group of 46-50 years (20.0 percent). Only 8.6 percent admitted having an unwritten policy on emergency management in their houses. Similarly, only 8.6 percent do create time to teach their family members on emergency management. Only 27 (38.6 percent) had emergency supplies kits and among this group, water appears to be the most essential component that the respondents had paid attention to, leaving out special items. The communication plans of respondents to likely supportive services/agencies during disaster showed that majority had contact address or have affirmative plans for hospital and ambulance services than for radio and television stations. Family emergency plans and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria are extremely low. There is a gap between knowledge of what need to be done to enhance preparedness and internalizing preparedness recommendations in the study area.

  9. Women's attitudes towards receiving family planning services from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are age, level of education, knowledge about family planning benefits and districts. Conclusion: Women's perception towards family planning services delivered by CHWs in Western region in Kenya is quite low. To improve the demand and supply for family planning services in this region, there is need to invest a ...

  10. Closing the gap: the potential of Christian Health Associations in expanding access to family planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanEnk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the health impact of timing and spacing pregnancies, the Sustainable Development Goals call for increased access to family planning globally. While faith-based organizations in Africa provide a significant proportion of health services, family planning service delivery has been limited. This evaluation seeks to assess the effectiveness of implementing a systems approach in strengthening the capacity of Christian Health Associations to provide family planning and increase uptake in their communities.From January 2014 to September 2015, the capacity of three Christian Health Associations in East Africa—Caritas Rwanda, Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau, and Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau—was strengthened with the aims of improving access to women with unmet need and harmonizing faith-based service delivery contributions with their national family planning programs. The key components of this systems approach to family planning included training, supervision, commodity availability, family planning promotion, data collection, and creating a supportive environment. Community-based provision of family planning, including fertility awareness methods, was introduced across intervention sites for the first time. Five hundred forty-seven facility- and community-based providers were trained in family planning, and 393,964 people were reached with family planning information. Uptake of family planning grew substantially in Year 1 (12,691 and Year 2 (19,485 across all Christian Health Associations as compared to the baseline year (3,551. Cumulatively, 32,176 clients took up a method during the intervention, and 43 percent of clients received this service at the community level. According to a provider competency checklist, facility- and community-based providers were able to adequately counsel clients on new fertility awareness methods. Integration of Christian Health Associations into the national family planning strategy improved through

  11. Successful Proof of Concept of Family Planning and Immunization Integration in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in

  12. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  13. Performance of planning support systems: what is it, and how do we report on it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brömmelstroet, M.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Planning Support Systems (PSSs) are a family of computer based instruments specifically designed to support actors in their complex tasks in the field of planning. There is a gap between the high expectations that PSS developers have about the usefulness of their instruments and the instruments’

  14. [Psychosocial research and family planning services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina Fuentes, M; Vernon Carter, R

    1985-01-01

    the best ways of providing family planning education for physicians, nurses, students, promoters, husbands, or other population groups. The greatest effort appears to have focused on development of educational materials for illiterates. Evaluative research on messages transmitted in IEC campaigns has however been abundant since the start of the programs. Careful studies of IEC c ampaigns in 1980-81 indicated that they improved knowledge of basic aspects of family planning considerably but had little effect on values and beliefs associated with family planning. Data on new acceptors in Mexico have come primarily from institutional registration systems, special studies, and as a subproduct of demographic surveys. Careful studies done by private organizations have provided information needed to reformulate commercial distribution programs and design supporting IEC campagns for their users and agents. Evaluative service studies have focuses on identifying factors in differential continuation rates for different methods and programs. Research on service delivery in rural areas has helped identify the most productive type of community worker and has uncovered causes of dissatisfaction and high turnover among workers which impairs their performance.

  15. Capturing Complexities of Relationship-Level Family Planning Trajectories in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Hannah E

    2016-09-01

    In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  16. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  17. When Family-Supportive Supervision Matters: Relations between Multiple Sources of Support and Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Ziegert, Jonathan C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms by which family-supportive supervision is related to employee work-family balance. Based on a sample of 170 business professionals, we found that the positive relation between family-supportive supervision and balance was fully mediated by work interference with family (WIF) and partially mediated by family…

  18. Improving productivity levels: family planning services for factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmokusumo, H V

    1989-10-01

    In May 1984, the Minister of Manpower in Indonesia, the Chairman of the BKKBN, and representatives of the employers' and workers' organizations of Indonesia issued a joint decree pledging that they would work together to enhance the implementation of the family planning program among workers in the organized sector. 1 objective of the decree is to improve workers' productivity and the standard of living of workers and their families by implementing a family planning program. 1 baseline survey and a clinic-based survey in 5 provinces revealed that 90% of women workers are between 21-40, or are of reproductive age, and are sexually active. Only about 50% are practicing family planning; the other 50% are afraid to practice family planning due to potential side effects of various methods. This fear was most often caused by negative rumors spread by unsatisfied family planning clients. Placing materials for family planning promotion such as instructional posters and video programs advertising contraceptive services in the work setting may increase knowledge and help alleviate some of this fear. Other studies of family planning services show that employees prefer female medical doctors or midwives as service providers, employees are willing to pay for services (but can only afford a small fee), and family planning service points should be near employees' work sites.

  19. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium (http://srhr.org/postpartumfp) has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish. © 2016 World Health Organization. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Family Planning Policy Environment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Levers of Positive Change and Prospects for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaba, Thibaut; Binanga, Arsene; Fohl, Sarah; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-06-17

    Building on expressed support from the Prime Minister to the Ministries of Health and Planning, the country's new family planning commitment grew out of: (1) recognition of the impact of family planning on maternal mortality and economic development; (2) knowledge sharing of best practices from other African countries; (3) participatory development of a national strategic plan; (4) strong collaboration between stakeholders; (5) effective advocacy by champions including country and international experts; and (6) increased donor support. The question becomes: Will the favorable policy environment translate into effective local programming?

  1. Special Report: Banjul Islam Conference endorses family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    44 participants from 12 West African nations met in Banjul, the Gambia, from October 22-26, 1979 and unanimously agreed that family planning is in conformity with Islam. They called for greater involvement of local Muslim leaders in African countries to encourage family planning for the promotion of maternal and child health. The Conference was sponsored by IPPF Africa Region and attended by representatives of Muslim associations, health and family planning workers, teachers, government officials, and experts on Muslim law from Cameroon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Upper Volta, and Zaire. The Conference members acknowledged that while the Koran, the Sunna, and the concensus of most Islam scholars is that family planning is acceptable within marriage, most traditional religious leaders are ignorant of the fact. Muslim women should be encouraged to take an interest in family planning. Other recommendations were educating Muslims on nutrition, sanitation, and health; to collect views of African Muslim leaders and publicize them; and, to persuade Ministries of Education to include family relations and parenthood in school curricula.

  2. [Diversification is the financial alternative for family planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Villamil, R

    1991-12-01

    During the 1960s, when family planning services were institutionalized in Colombia by PROFAMILIA, abundant foreign assistance was readily available. Few questions were asked about the longterm funding of family planning programs or the need for financial self-sufficiency. The emphasis was on program development without great attention to costs. Beginning around the early 1980s, international donors began to place a higher priority and greater investment in the incipient family planning programs of less developed countries. At present a greater number and higher quality of services are being demanded from PROFAMILIA at the lowest possible cost. Efficiency has replaced efficacy as the overriding goal. PROFAMILIA, due to its excellent results, has lost priority in the eyes of international donors. It has therefore reoriented its financing strategies toward a short, medium, and long term plan to reduce its financial dependence on international donor agencies. Self-sufficiency could be increased through various means, including total government subsidy, charging fees for services and materials sufficient to cover program costs, establishing services and marketing programs aside from family planning programs for the specific purpose of obtaining funds to cover program deficits, or establishing accounting and operational controls to reduce costs through greater efficiency. But large government subsidies are unlikely in a time of budgetary constraints, and raising fees for family planning users would exclude a large number of low-income clients from the family planning program. Cost reduction and implementation of diversified programs should therefore be emphasized for the present. The diversified program should be related to family planning so that use can be made of idle resources. PROFAMILIA has emphasized surgical procedures and medical consultations to utilize clinic facilities more fully and to increase income without increasing fixed costs. In 1990, foreign

  3. Renewing focus on family planning service quality globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nancy L; Stuart, Gretchen S; Tang, Jennifer H; Chibwesha, Carla J; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the global unmet need for contraception is currently a priority for many governments, multi-lateral initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and donors. Evidence strongly suggests that the provision of quality family planning services can increase uptake, prevalence, and continuation of contraception. While an accepted framework to define the components of family planning service quality exists, translating this framework into assessment tools that are accessible, easily utilized, and valid for service providers has remained a challenge. We propose new approaches to improve the standardization and accessibility of family planning service quality assessment tools to simplify family planning service quality evaluation. With easier approaches to program evaluation, quality improvements can be performed more swiftly to help increase uptake and continuation of contraception to improve the health of women and their families.

  4. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.

  5. New awareness campaign increases appeal of family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles.

  6. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  7. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included “Family planning is against my religious beliefs” ...

  8. Some factors affecting acceptance of family planning in Manus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avue, B; Freeman, P

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.

  9. Providing general and preconception health care to low income women in family planning settings: perception of providers and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Janet M; Felix, Holly C; Bursac, Zoran; Stewart, M Kathryn; Foushee, H Russell; Klapow, Joshua

    2012-02-01

    This study examines both provider and client perceptions of the extent to which general health concerns are addressed in the context of publicly supported family planning care. A mail survey of family planning providers (n = 459) accepting Medicaid-covered clients in Arkansas and Alabama gathered data on reported actions and resource referral availability for ten categories of non-contraceptive health concerns. A telephone survey of recent family planning clients of these providers (n = 1991) gathered data on the presence of 16 health concerns and whether and how they were addressed by the family planning provider. Data were collected in 2006-2007. More than half (56%) of clients reported having one or more general health concerns. While 43% of those concerns had been discussed with the family planning providers, only 8% had been originally identified by these providers. Women with higher trust in physicians and usual sources of general health care were more likely to discuss their concerns. Of those concerns discussed, 39% were reportedly treated by the family planning provider. Similarly, over half of responding providers reported providing treatment for acute and chronic health conditions and counseling on health behaviors during family planning visits. Lack of familiarity with referral resources for uninsured clients was identified as a significant concern in the provision of care to these clients. Greater engagement by providers in identifying client health concerns and better integration of publicly supported family planning with other sources of health care for low income women could expand the existing potential for delivering preconception or general health care in these settings.

  10. Social psychological-pedagogical support of singleparent family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Kazhuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of the concept of "incomplete family", describes the typology of single-parent families, the necessity of special social psychological and pedagogical support for children from such families and their parents has been proved. The analysis of various concepts of ―support‖has been made. The idea of psychological and pedagogical support of modern incomplete families has been determined. Key words: incomplete family, types of single-parent families, support, social support, psychological and pedagogical support of single-parent families.

  11. Promotion of family planning services in practice leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M N; Gray, D J; Pearson, V; Phillips, D R; Owen, M

    1994-10-08

    Providing 75% of family planning services in the United Kingdom, general practitioners are required to produce leaflets which describe the contraceptive services they provide. The authors analyzed information about family planning provided to clients through practice leaflets. 88% of practice leaflets from the 198 practices in Devon were available from the Devon Family Health Services Authority for analysis. It was determined that the leaflets are not being best used to advertise the range and potential of family planning services. Although all practices in Devon offer contraceptive services, only 90% of leaflets mentioned that the services are available. Reference to postcoital contraception and information about services outside the practice for people who might not want to see their family doctor are also sorely lacking. A clear need exists to provide patients with more information. Finally, the authors found that group practices and those with female partners are most likely to give high priority to family planning issues in their leaflets.

  12. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-05-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible.

  13. Implenting family planning in a Ministry of Health: organizational barriers at the state and district levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R S; Ashraf, A

    1978-01-01

    1. Family planning occupied a subordinate position in the medical and health bureaucracy almost two decades after its introduction. Senior Ministry officials accorded low priority to formal program objectives, while the State Family Planning Officer, the highest state official concerned solely with the family planning program, suffered from a relatively subordinate position in the Directorate and a lack of authority and support. Within the medical profession, family planning was held in low esteem, and the medical and health bureaucracies did not have a mechanism for selecting personnel on the basis of interest and commitment. 2. Organizational adjustment to family planning in the Ministry of Health was a slow and painful process, absorbing the energy and attention of Ministry officials for almost a decade. The repeated reorganizations of the district setup revolving around the division of labor between medical, health, and family planning acitvities and between the rural and urban program, led to months of almost total inertia and detracted substantially from the supervisory capacity of the officials involved. 3. Decision making and guidance suffered from the quick turnover of the Secretary, the most powerful administrator in the Ministry. In Uttar Pradesh Secretaries stayed barely long enough to begin to understand the complex organizational setup of the program. 4. Multiple and often conflicting lines of authority characterized the relationships between the higher and lower echelons within the Ministry. This was accentuated when the District Family Planning Officer was placed under the administrative control of the District Magistrate. While intended to "energize" family planning through the association of the most prestigious and powerful district official with the program, this organizational arrangement resulted in conflicting instructions to the staffs of the primary health centers. 5. The organizational behavior of the Ministry of Health was shaped by the

  14. Techniques for overcoming community resistance to family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A

    1968-01-01

    Methods of overcoming resistance to publicly subsidized family planning programs are discussed. The main sources of opposition include groups that oppose family planning for moral reasons, and those who object to the spending of government funds to provide services and information. Such opposition can be weakened by indicating that family planning clinics fulf: 11 important medical needs. Presenting social justification for family planning can help to lower oppostion. In order to secure participation in the programs by low income groups it is essential to have community leaders involved in policy decisions and to use indigenous community paraprofessionals in the clinics. A coalition of representatives of the poor community and the health and welfare system, aided by the community organization, can lead to an effective family planning program.

  15. Advocacy for International Family Planning: What Terminology Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Martin, Raymond; Bormet, Mona

    Advocating for international family planning while avoiding miscommunications with politically and religiously conservative policy makers and the public requires care and clarity with language. We find that terms such as "international family planning" are well received when the meaning is clearly explained, such as "enabling couples to determine the number and timing of pregnancies, including the voluntary use of methods for preventing pregnancy - not including abortion - harmonious with their beliefs and values". Family planning also helps reduce abortions - a powerful message for conservative policy makers and the public. We concur with Dyer et al. (2016) that the messenger is important; we find that many of the most effective advocates are religious leaders and faith-based health providers from the Global South. They know and validate the importance of family planning for improving family health and reducing abortions in their communities. "Healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy" is positive language for policy makers, especially when describing the health impact for women and children. Universal access to contraceptive services is emerging as vital for family health and also to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (UN 2015). Language on international family planning will evolve, and clarity of meaning will be foundational for effective advocacy.

  16. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in ...

  17. FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Hanin; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We developed and tested the feasibility of a manualized psychosocial intervention, FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS), a home-based psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the intervention is to support families in adopting healthy strategies...... to cope with the psychological consequences of childhood cancer. The intervention is now being evaluated in a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS AND DESIGN: FAMOS is based on principles of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, and is delivered in six sessions at home...... satisfaction with the format, timing, and content of the intervention. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the FAMOS intervention is feasible in terms of recruitment, retention, and acceptability. The effects of the intervention on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, family functioning, and quality...

  18. Parent Perceptions of Family Social Supports in Families With Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kim A; Miller, Wendy R; Buelow, Janice M

    2016-12-01

    When a child is diagnosed with epilepsy, not only has the child's life been disrupted but also the family's sense of normalcy. Although there is considerable literature discussing family concerns and social support issues in families with chronically ill children, a major gap lies in the exploration of how the specifics of childhood epilepsy affect parents and family operations. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial care needs of parents of children with epilepsy. Utilizing the Family Systems Nursing theory as a framework, this correlation study examined the relationships among social and community support, family needs, family empowerment, and family quality of life in 29 primary caregivers of a child with epilepsy. These families felt highly supported; they had low needs and high perceptions of empowerment. There was a negative association between social supports and the total family needs survey scale and the subscales of financial support, help regarding explaining to others, and professional support. There was no association between family empowerment or quality of life with parental perceptions of social support. In general, as parental perceptions of family needs increased, perceptions of familial social supports decreased. Further research is recommended to investigate varying socioeconomic status effects in families with children with pediatric epilepsy.

  19. Parenting in Planned Lesbian Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Henny

    2004-01-01

    This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive

  20. Family planning and the controversial contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Saxena, F

    1995-01-01

    India was one of the first countries in the world to launch a national family planning program in an apparent effort to help women gain access to birth control measures and reduce population growth. Family planning acquired a different meaning and emphasis in the 1960s, however, when a clause in the US PL480 wheat import policy demanded that India speed its implementation of birth control measures if the country wanted food aid. Women in India were therefore expected to consume contraceptives with dangerous and unknown side effects in order to quality the country for food aid. Women rejected this stipulation. By the 1980s, it was acknowledged that family planning programs in India had failed to produce a decline in the birth rate and that no sign of change was on the horizon despite the investment of substantial funds to that end, the input of expert assistance, and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure in the country. Experts and policy makers blamed women for having misused the pill and sought alternative methods which would not require user compliance. Norplant and norethisterone enanthate (Net-en) were subsequently developed. Policymakers, experts, and the press have now been clamoring for the right to conduct Norplant trials despite reported side effects. The drug's ability to prevent pregnancy is more important for family planning experts. The author notes that the emphasis has been upon contraceptive methods for women instead of men because men were not expected to take responsibility for family planning. She also notes that feminists are opposed to Norplant and Net-en, and hopes that the government withdraws them from the market.

  1. "Guji, Guji, Angela]" Family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, W

    1997-08-01

    Demand for contraception and sterilization among women in Tibet is high. In 1966, when a family planning service team was sent to Namling County by the Maternal and Child Health Hospital (MCHH) of the Region, more than 500 women from six local townships arrived at the county MCHH seeking surgical sterilization. Since only one doctor was available to do ligation, most of the women were turned away; however, they would not leave until they were given a written appointment for a future date. In 1996, a 27-year-old Tibetan mother from Baxoi County, who had 5 children, traveled for 2 days, with 2 of her children, to a county town to be sterilized. A woman from Tingri County, who had 4 children, reached a county hospital only to be asked to return home; again, there were only one or two doctors available. She gave birth to a 5th child and returned to the hospital; again, the doctor was unavailable. Since then, she has delivered a 6th child. According to Bai Lang (secretary of the County Party committee), who spoke before the Regional Family Planning Committee, Namling County's nationally recognized poverty could have been alleviated if family planning had been implemented earlier. Family planning policy has been accepted well there.

  2. Aid for family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    A $5 million credit has been approved by the International Development Association, an affilate of the World Bank, to help finance a population project in Egypt. The project provides for the construction, equipping and furnishing of 22 general health centers, 12 polyclinics, 3 centers for training nursing teachers and 3 centers for in service training. 100 and 50 multipurpose vehicles will be provided to improve mobility of family planning services. Also included are a study on the maintenance of health facilities, 3 evaluation studies of family planning acceptors, an experimental home visiting program to inform and motivate people on family planning, and assistance in the production of health education material useful for family planning information and motivation. Simple demographic facts illustrate the seriousness of the population problem in Egypt. The current population of 35 million will be double by the year 2000 if the present 2.5% annual increase continues. This will put strains on a country whose population density quadrupled during the last century, and which stands to day at 950 persons per square kilometer of habitable land, a density rivalled by only 2 or 3 other countries in the world. The IDA credit will cover about 1/2 of the project's expense. The Egyptian government will finance the local costs. full text

  3. Quality of family planning services in Northwest Ethiopia | Fantahun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia is believed to be high (36%) while the already available services do not appear to be optimally used by potential clients. It is thus expected that an assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning ...

  4. Psychosocial correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan R; Weiss, Stephen M; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-01-01

    Patient-provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Participants were N=673 pregnant HIV-infected women who completed measures of family planning discussions and knowledge, depression, stigma, intimate partner violence, and male involvement. Participants were, on average, 28 ± 6 years old, and half of them had completed at least 10-11 years of education. Most women were unemployed and had a monthly income of less than ~US$76. Fewer than half of the women reported having family planning discussions with providers. Correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions included younger age, discussions about PMTCT of HIV, male involvement, and decreased stigma ( p family planning discussions through male involvement ( b = -0.010, bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [bCI] [-0.019, -0.005]). That is, depression decreased male involvement, and in turn, male involvement increased patient-provider family planning discussions. Therefore, by decreasing male involvement, depression indirectly decreased family planning discussions. Study findings point to the importance of family planning strategies that address depression and facilitate male involvement to enhance communication between patients and providers and optimize maternal and neonatal health outcomes. This study underscores the need for longitudinal assessment of men's impact on family planning discussions both pre- and postpartum. Increasing support for provision of mental

  5. Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Family Planning Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In logistics regression analysis family planning was significantly lower in the illiterate. Positive husband\\'s attitude had the strongest association (0R 9.3, 95% CI 4.6,18.7) with family planning, in addition to programs that create demand for smaller well-spread children, IEC and family planning services should target men and ...

  6. The feminist position on family planning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M V

    1984-04-01

    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  7. China's women leaders promote quality and equity in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth.

  8. Aligning Funding and Need for Family Planning: A Diagnostic Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y.; Kim, Sunja; Choi, Seemoon; Grépin, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With limited international resources for family planning, donors must decide how to allocate their funds to different countries. How can a donor for family planning decide whether countries are adequately prioritized for funding? This article proposes an ordinal ranking framework to identify under‐prioritized countries by rank‐ordering countries by their need for family planning and separately rank‐ordering them by their development assistance for family planning. Countries for which the rank of the need for family planning is lower than the rank of its funding are deemed under‐prioritized. We implement this diagnostic methodology to identify under‐prioritized countries that have a higher need but lower development assistance for family planning. This approach indicates whether a country is receiving less compared to other countries with similar levels of need. PMID:29044592

  9. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  10. China's first family planning publicity month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G

    1983-05-01

    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  11. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  12. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized.

  13. A comparison of the individualized education plan and the individualized family service plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, B

    1992-03-01

    The individualized education plan (IEP) and the individualized family service plan (IFSP) are mandated for children with special needs. Occupational therapists participate in the development of both the IEP and the IFSP. This paper summarizes the similarities and the differences in the mandated components. The components addressed are (a) information about the child's status, (b) information about the family, (c) outcomes for the child and family, (d) intervention services, (e) other services, (f) dates and duration of services, (g) selection of a case manager, and (h) transition plans.

  14. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  15. NASA's Astronant Family Support Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, Gary; Curtis, Kelly D.; Holland, Al W.; Sipes, Walter; VanderArk, Steve

    2014-01-01

    During the NASA-Mir program of the 1990s and due to the challenges inherent in the International Space Station training schedule and operations tempo, it was clear that a special focus on supporting families was a key to overall mission success for the ISS crewmembers pre-, in- and post-flight. To that end, in January 2001 the first Family Services Coordinator was hired by the Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA JSC and matrixed from Medical Operations into the Astronaut Office's organization. The initial roles and responsibilities were driven by critical needs, including facilitating family communication during training deployments, providing mission-specific and other relevant trainings for spouses, serving as liaison for families with NASA organizations such as Medical Operations, NASA management and the Astronaut Office, and providing assistance to ensure success of an Astronaut Spouses Group. The role of the Family Support Office (FSO) has modified as the ISS Program matured and the needs of families changed. The FSO is currently an integral part of the Astronaut Office's ISS Operations Branch. It still serves the critical function of providing information to families, as well as being the primary contact for US and international partner families with resources at JSC. Since crews launch and return on Russian vehicles, the FSO has the added responsibility for coordinating with Flight Crew Operations, the families, and their guests for Soyuz launches, landings, and Direct Return to Houston post-flight. This presentation will provide a summary of the family support services provided for astronauts, and how they have changed with the Program and families the FSO serves. Considerations for future FSO services will be discussed briefly as NASA proposes one year missions and beyond ISS missions. Learning Objective: 1) Obtain an understanding of the reasons a Family Support Office was important for NASA. 2) Become familiar with the services provided for

  16. A community-based, mixed-methods study of the attitudes and behaviors of men regarding modern family planning in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaba, Godwin; Ketare, Nathaniel; Tile, Wilfred

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and extent of involvement of men in family planning in Nigeria, and to evaluate spousal communication regarding family planning. A community-based, mixed-methods study enrolled participants in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria between January 11 and June 30, 2012. Quantitative surveys including semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from married men regarding their knowledge and attitudes to modern family planning. The qualitative components constituted focus group discussion sessions and in-depth interviews that included married men, married women, religious leaders, community leaders, and family-planning providers. Quantitative surveys were completed by 152 men; 99 (65.1%) reported that they would accompany their wives to family-planning clinics in the future, 116 (76.3%) reported approving of the use of modern contraception by their wives, and 132 (86.8%) reported wanting to know more about family planning. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the study indicated that husbands were the major decision makers regarding family size, choice of contraceptive, and pregnancy timing. In terms of fertility goals and family planning, men were the primary decision makers; consequently, obtaining their support and commitment to family planning is of crucial importance in Nigeria. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pakistan: family planning expands in non-governmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Pakistan has begun a program of integration of family planning activities with other voluntary welfare agencies. 1 of the more successful projects has been in cooperation with the Family Welfare Cooperative Society of Lahore. Volunteers have provided facilities to very low-income women to help supplement income. At 1st it was knitting, embroidery, and cloth manufacture, but over several years it developed into a complex of several buildings with a comprehensive vocational training center, a showroom, schools for the children of mothers in training, a secretarial school, and a hostel for homeless women there. There is a medical unit, a full-time doctor, and family planning services.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Family Planning amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alphabétisation, la haute connaissance et le taux d'approbation du planning familial, l'influence socio-culturelle des hommes sur leurs femmes demeure un obstacle majeur à l'utilisation du planning familial moderne dans cette région du Nigeria.

  19. Implementing Trauma-Informed Partner Violence Assessment in Family Planning Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Flessa, Sarah; Pillai, Ruchita V; Dick, Rebecca N; Quam, Jamie; Cheng, Diana; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Alexander, Kamila A; Holliday, Charvonne N; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) are associated with poor reproductive health. Little is known about how family planning clinics implement brief IPV/RC assessment interventions in practice. We describe the uptake and impact of a brief, trauma-informed, universal IPV/RC assessment and education intervention. Intervention implementation was evaluated via a mixed methods study among women ages 18 and up receiving care at one of two family planning clinics in greater Baltimore, MD. This mixed methods study entailed a quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest study with family planning clinic patients (baseline and exit survey n = 132; 3-month retention n = 68; retention rate = 52%), coupled with qualitative interviews with providers and patients (total n = 35). Two thirds (65%) of women reported receiving at least one element of the intervention on their exit survey immediately following the clinic-visit. Patients reported that clinic-based IPV assessment is helpful, irrespective of IPV history. Relative to those who reported neither, participants who received either intervention element reported greater perceived caring from providers, confidence in provider response to abusive relationships, and knowledge of IPV-related resources at follow-up. Providers and patients alike described the educational card as a valuable tool. Participants described trade-offs of paper versus in-person, electronic medical record-facilitated screening, and patient reluctance to disclose current situations of abuse. In real-world family planning clinic settings, a brief assessment and support intervention was successful in communicating provider caring and increasing knowledge of violence-related resources, endpoints previously deemed valuable by IPV survivors. Results emphasize the merit of universal education in IPV/RC clinical interventions over seeking IPV disclosure.

  20. Understanding How to Support Family Caregivers of Seniors with Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Lesley; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette; Parmar, Jasneet; Johnson, Melissa; Sacrey, Lori-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and challenges of supporting family caregivers of seniors with complex needs and to outline support strategies and research priorities aimed at supporting them. Design and Methods A CIHR-funded, two-day conference entitled “Supporting Family Caregivers of Seniors: Improving Care and Caregiver Outcomes” was held. An integrated knowledge translation approach guided this planning conference. Day 1 included presentations of research evidence, followed by participant engagement Qualitative data was collected regarding facilitators, barriers/gaps, and recommendations for the provision of caregiver supports. Day 2 focused on determination of research priorities. Results Identified facilitators to the provision of caregiver support included accessibility of health-care and community-based resources, availability of well-intended health-care providers, and recognition of caregivers by the system. Barriers/gaps related to challenges with communication, access to information, knowledge of what is needed, system navigation, access to financial resources, and current policies. Recommendations regarding caregiver services and research revolved around assisting caregivers to self-identify and seek support, formalizing caregiver supports, centralizing resources, making system navigation available, and preparing the next generation for caregiving. Implication A better understanding of the needs of family caregivers and ways to support them is critical to seniors’ health services redesign. PMID:28690707

  1. Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Methods: Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Results: Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36

  2. Cost-effectiveness of USAID's regional program for family planning in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Bail, Richard N; Merritt, C Gary

    2003-06-01

    Between 1994 and 1996, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) closed 23 country missions worldwide, of which eight were in West and Central Africa. To preserve United States support for family planning and reproductive health in four countries in that region, USAID created a subregional program through a consortium of US-based groups that hired mainly African managers and African organizations. This study assesses cost-effectiveness of the program through an interrupted time-series design spanning the 1990s and compares cost-effectiveness in four similar countries in which mission-based programs continued. Key indicators include costs, contraceptive prevalence rates, and imputed "women-years of protection." The study found that, taking into account all external financing for population and family planning, the USAID West Africa regional approach generated women-years of protection at one-third the cost of the mission-based programs. This regional approach delivered family planning assistance in West Africa cost-effectively, and the findings suggest that regional models may work well for many health and population services in small countries.

  3. Relational support in families with adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Lieshout, C.F.M. van

    2002-01-01

    To better understand what determines the support that family members perceive in dyadic family relationships, this study tested to what extent the perceiver, the partner, their specific relationship, and the family determine perceived support, and Whether these effects differ for horizontal (i.e.,

  4. Quality of Family Planning Services in Primary Health Centers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted ...

  5. Beneficial effect of nutritional supportive plan among under-nourished children in poor families in Iran with collaborating Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam; Araste, Razieh; Kamali, Behroo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition in the form of Protein – Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and micro nutrient deficiencies, is one of the most important health problems in developing countries, Iran included. The purpose of this study was to improve nutritional status among under-nourished children in poor families. Methods: A total of 50,000 children under 5 (girls and boys) in 30 provinces in Iran which suffered by moderate and severe malnutrition participated (<-2SD weight for age) in this program. Malnourished children belong to poor families were determined; weights and heights were measured and anthropometric indicators were determined based on WHO, 2007. Then, these malnourished children were introduced to Imam Khomeini Foundation. Khomeini Foundation as one of the biggest NGO in Iran which supports poor families since 1979. This study collaborated with Ministry of Welfare, Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini. They have started to receive monthly supportive food basket which could support their daily nutritional requirements. This basket included (meat, egg, cheese, legumes, milk, tuna fish, chicken, liquid oil). Along with food support community health workers were actively involved with counseling of mothers on the nutritional requirements of children. Nutritional support cut for whoever has been improved nutritional status. However, nutritional education still had continued. Results: The results of monitoring & evaluation (according to anthropometric indicators) of this plan have shown around more than 45% of children that received food basket had consistently improved nutritional status. Conclusion: Likewise other intervention nutrition programs in developing countries this project showed that inter sector collaboration have been the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. (author)

  6. Family planning and social position of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasna

    1993-04-01

    This presentation began with at least three biases: (i) Acceptance of a secular approach to the problem of artificially controlling human reproduction; (ii) acceptance of an absolute egalitarian position in matter of choices and applications of family planning methods; and (iii) acceptance of the view that a small family gives women more opportunities to flourish as humans. The conclusion of the presentation is: though in implementing family planning programmes much deviation from the egalitarian principle could be found, in reality the implementation itself does bring about some opportunities for women to enhance their position in society. Undoubtedly the malpractices in family planning programmes cause death and miseries to women. But, until better methods are invented for both male and female sexes to replace the harmful ones and the male members of the society feel equal responsibility in matters of controlling reproduction, women have now no other choice but to accept the lesser evil.

  7. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  8. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. Methods and Results: The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Conclusion: Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing

  9. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-06-27

    Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing, can successfully create demand for a broad range of family

  10. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  11. The Emergence of Family-specific Support Constructs: Cross-level Effects of Family-supportive Supervision and Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions on Individual Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel T; Matthews, Russell A; Walsh, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Implicit to the definitions of both family-supportive supervision (FSS) and family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) is the argument that these constructs may manifest at a higher (e.g. group or organizational) level. In line with these conceptualizations, grounded in tenants of conservation of resources theory, we argue that FSS and FSOP, as universal resources, are emergent constructs at the organizational level, which have cross-level effects on work-family conflict and turnover intentions. To test our theoretically derived hypotheses, a multilevel model was examined in which FSS and FSOP at the unit level predict individual work-to-family conflict, which in turn predicts turnover intentions. Our hypothesized model was generally supported. Collectively, our results point to FSOP serving as an explanatory mechanism of the effects that mutual perceptions of FSS have on individual experiences of work-to-family conflict and turnover intentions. Lagged (i.e. overtime) cross-level effects of the model were also confirmed in supplementary analyses. Our results extend our theoretical understanding of FSS and FSOP by demonstrating the utility of conceptualizing them as universal resources, opening up a variety of avenues for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A family planning clinic partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy of a family planning clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Study Design Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard-of-care. English-and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N=906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12 to 24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services, and reproductive coercion. Results Among women reporting past 3-month IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants from the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or unsafe regardless of IPV status (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.63). Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships. PMID:21310291

  13. Who counts as family? Family typologies, family support, and family undermining among young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Jorge H; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Córdova, David; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A

    2018-06-01

    Gay and bisexual men may form chosen families in addition to or in place of families of origin. However, the characteristics of these diverse families remain largely unexamined in the quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a family typology based on responses from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of young adult gay and bisexual men (YGBM) recruited from the Detroit Metropolitan Area (N=350; 18-29 years old). To explore the role of family, we then examined family social support and social undermining in relation to YGBM psychological distress within different family types. A series of multivariate regressions were used to examine associations between family social support and social undermining with depression and anxiety outcomes. The majority (88%) of YGBM included family of origin in their definitions of family and 63% indicated having chosen families. Associations between family social processes and psychological outcomes varied by type of family, suggesting that family composition shapes how perceptions of support and undermining relate to experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Chosen families play a prominent role in the lives of YGBM and should not be overlooked in family research. Findings also highlight the importance of examining co-occurring family social support and social stress processes to further address psychological distress symptoms among YGBM.

  14. Utilisation of family planning techniques among women: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...

  15. An approach to family planning for Indochinese refugee women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswell, N J

    1982-08-01

    Family planning services were introduced in Vietnam by the Americans about 20 years ago, but on a limited basis. Many of the Vietnamese refugee women have had no contact with such services. Abortion was illegal until 1975 in South Vietnam, but since the takeover, abortion clinics have been available as part of the public hospital system. Family planning was available in some of the refugee camps. Most of the Vietnam refugees fled their country by boat. Before their acceptance by Australia, the Vietnamese refugees have health checks by the Australian Commonwealth Health Department in the country of transit. Shortly after their arrival in Australia, health screening is done by the State Health Department. The majority of refugees are accommodated in migrant hostels for the 1st 3-12 months. Family planning is incorporated into Eastbridge Hostel's orientation program. During participation in some family planning discussion groups with the Indochinese refugees, it was observed that the women were particularly shy and hesitant to talk about sexual concerns in a large group or in mixed company. As personal matters are dealt with in the family, it is preferable to have a female as a discussion leader and interpreter. Visual aids such as a display of contraceptive devices, a model showing female anatomy and a family planning film for non-English speaking migrants are particularly useful. As a female doctor using a female interpreter the aim was to provide an accessible service for Indochinese women with family planning inquiries or gynecological problems. It is important that the interpreter is present in the consulting room. Nonverbal cues are most important and particular attention should be paid to establishing eye contact with the patient. Simple miming techniques or the use of diagrams may be helpful in reinforcing the work of the interpreter. When listening to the patient, it is useful to look and listen for nonverbal cues from them. Between February 1980 and May 1981

  16. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  17. WORKPLACE SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORK–FAMILY CONFLICT: A META-ANALYSIS CLARIFYING THE INFLUENCE OF GENERAL AND WORK–FAMILY-SPECIFIC SUPERVISOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; PICHLER, SHAUN; BODNER, TODD; HAMMER, LESLIE B.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work–family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work–family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work–family support, also known as family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP); and supervisor work–family support. Results show work–family-specific constructs of supervisor support and organization support are more strongly related to work–family conflict than general supervisor support and organization support, respectively. We then test a mediation model assessing the effects of all measures at once and show positive perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor indirectly relate to work–family conflict via organizational work–family support. These results demonstrate that work–family-specific support plays a central role in individuals’ work–family conflict experiences. PMID:21691415

  18. WORKPLACE SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT: A META-ANALYSIS CLARIFYING THE INFLUENCE OF GENERAL AND WORK-FAMILY-SPECIFIC SUPERVISOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Pichler, Shaun; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B

    2011-01-01

    This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work-family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work-family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work-family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work-family support, also known as family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP); and supervisor work-family support. Results show work-family-specific constructs of supervisor support and organization support are more strongly related to work-family conflict than general supervisor support and organization support, respectively. We then test a mediation model assessing the effects of all measures at once and show positive perceptions of general and work-family-specific supervisor indirectly relate to work-family conflict via organizational work-family support. These results demonstrate that work-family-specific support plays a central role in individuals' work-family conflict experiences.

  19. Evaluating the impact a proposed family planning model would have on maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Ahmad Masoud; Wade, Benjamin; Riley, William

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential impact a proposed family planning model would have on reducing maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has a high total fertility rate, high infant mortality rate, and high maternal mortality rate. Afghanistan also has tremendous socio-cultural barriers to and misconceptions about family planning services. We applied predictive statistical models to a proposed family planning model for Afghanistan to better understand the impact increased family planning can have on Afghanistan's maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate. We further developed a sensitivity analysis that illustrates the number of maternal and infant deaths that can be averted over 5 years according to different increases in contraceptive prevalence rates. Incrementally increasing contraceptive prevalence rates in Afghanistan from 10% to 60% over the course of 5 years could prevent 11,653 maternal deaths and 317,084 infant deaths, a total of 328,737 maternal and infant deaths averted. Achieving goals in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in Afghanistan requires a culturally relevant approach to family planning that will be supported by the population. The family planning model for Afghanistan presents such a solution and holds the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Family planning use: prevalence, pattern and predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...

  1. Status of women and family planning: the Indian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1989-06-01

    This article examines the extent to which the status of women is related to awareness, knowledge, and practice of family planning in India. It uses both macro-level data for the states of India and date from household surveys and field studies to assess the extent of interaction between the women's status indicators and family planning indicators. Results show a definite statistical relationship between women's status and women's ability to control fertility. The strongest relationship to adoption of family planning is the educational attainment of women, followed by age at marriage, and women's work participation, particularly in nonagricultural activities. Evidence from various surveys on the effects of crucial variables on reproductive behavior include 1) a marked reduction in fertility with increases in the educational level; 2) lower fertility for working women, and especially for non-manual workers; 3) a reduction in fertility with increases in age at marriage; and 4) a higher percentage of couples practicing family planning who have 2 or more surviving children, particularly if they have boys. A 1972 survey of 3 Indian states showed that 1) husbands impose a variety of restrictions on wives, with rural husbands placing more restrictions than urban husbands; 2) women's role in decision making in household affairs is positively correlated with the degree of awareness and knowledge of contraceptives as well as adoption of family planning; and 3) interspousal communication was significantly related to the practice of family planning in both rural and urban areas. In conclusion, to help encourage adoption of family planning and reduce fertility, India should 1) emphasize education for women, 2) enforce the legal minimum age at marriage, 3) promote employment opportunities for women, 4) improve women's role in decision making, and 5) encourage interspousal communication in family affairs.

  2. Effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia nursing homes: A paired cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Kevin; Carter, Gillian; Cardwell, Chris; Clarke, Mike; Hudson, Peter; Froggatt, Katherine; McLaughlin, Dorry; Passmore, Peter; Kernohan, W George

    2018-03-01

    In dementia care, a large number of treatment decisions are made by family carers on behalf of their family member who lacks decisional capacity; advance care planning can support such carers in the decision-making of care goals. However, given the relative importance of advance care planning in dementia care, the prevalence of advance care planning in dementia care is poor. To evaluate the effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia care homes. Paired cluster randomized controlled trial. The intervention comprised a trained facilitator, family education, family meetings, documentation of advance care planning decisions and intervention orientation for general practitioners and nursing home staff. A total of 24 nursing homes with a dementia nursing category located in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Family carers of nursing home residents classified as having dementia and judged as not having decisional capacity to participate in advance care planning discussions. The primary outcome was family carer uncertainty in decision-making about the care of the resident (Decisional Conflict Scale). There was evidence of a reduction in total Decisional Conflict Scale score in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (-10.5, 95% confidence interval: -16.4 to -4.7; p planning was effective in reducing family carer uncertainty in decision-making concerning the care of their family member and improving perceptions of quality of care in nursing homes. Given the global significance of dementia, the implications for clinicians and policy makers include them recognizing the importance of family carer education and improving communication between family carers and formal care providers.

  3. Financial Therapy and Planning for Families with Special Needs Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Lauderdale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of having a plan that includes a special needs trust among families that have disabled minor children. Descriptive analyses indicate that the top two reasons families provide for not having a plan are the inability to save and no perceived need. Among families that do indicate having a plan, most do not include a special needs trust. Multivariate analyses reveal that professional involvement (financial, legal, and mental health professionals is a key factor to increasing the likelihood of having a plan with a special needs trust. Families that have met with a financial advisor are 23 times more likely, and families who are encouraged to create a plan by a mental health professional are almost three times more likely, to have a plan that includes a special needs trust. Results from this study suggest that financial therapists are uniquely positioned to educate and ensure that appropriate plans are in place to provide for the future of children with special needs.

  4. Islamic logics, reproductive rationalities: family planning in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Islamic doctrine and jurisprudence by family planning organizations in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan. It examines how particular interpretations of Islam are promoted in order to encourage fertility reductions, and the ways Muslim clerics, women and their families react to this process. The paper first discusses how Pakistan's demographic crisis, as the world's sixth most populous nation, has been widely blamed on under-funding for reproductive health services and wavering political commitment to family planning. Critics have called for innovative policy and programming to counter 'excessive reproduction' by also addressing socio-cultural and religious barriers to contraceptive uptake. Drawing on two years of ethnographic research, the paper examines how family planning organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan respond to this shift by employing moderate interpretations of Islam that qualify contraceptive use as a 'rational' reproductive strategy and larger families as 'irrational'. However, the use of Islamic rhetoric to enhance women's health-seeking agency and enable fertility reductions is challenged by conservative Sunni ulema (clergy), who seek to reassert collective control over women's bodies and fertility by deploying Islamic doctrine that honors frequent childbearing. Sunnis' minority status and the losses incurred by regional Shia-Sunni conflicts have further strengthened clerics' pronatalist campaigns. The paper then analyses how Sunni women navigate the multiple reproductive rationalities espoused by 'Islamized' family planning and conservative ulema. Although Islamized family planning legitimizes contraceptive use and facilitates many women's stated desire for smaller families, it frequently positions women against the interests of family, community and conservative Islam.

  5. Barriers to Use of Family Planning Methods Among Heterosexual Mexican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, María Luisa Flores; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Soto, Norma Elva Sáenz; Tovar, Marlene; Dávila, Sandra Paloma Esparza

    2017-05-01

    Family planning has become increasingly important as a fundamental component of sexual health and as such is offered via public health systems worldwide. Identification of barriers to use of family planning methods among heterosexual couples living in Mexico is indicated to facilitate access to family planning methods. Barriers to family planning methods were assessed among Mexican heterosexual, sexually active males and females of reproductive age, using a modified Spanish version of the Barriers to the Use of Family Planning Methods scale (Cronbach's alpha = .89, subscales ranging from .53 to .87). Participants were recruited via convenience sampling in ambulatory care clinics within a metropolitan area in Central Mexico. Participants included 52 heterosexual couples aged 18-35 years (N = 104). Sociodemographic comparisons by gender identified older age and higher education, income, and numbers of sexual partners among men than women. More men (50%) than women (25%) were currently using family planning methods; however, 80% overall indicated intentions for its use. Overall, male condoms were used and intended for use most often by men than women. Significant gender-specific differences were found, with men (71.15%) reporting no family planning barriers, whereas women (55.66%) reported barriers including low socioeconomic status, medical concerns, and stigma. The modified Spanish translation demonstrated usefulness for measuring barriers to family planning methods use in Mexico among heterosexual males and females of reproductive age. Barriers identified by Mexican women in this study may be addressed to reduce potential barriers to family planning among Mexican populations.

  6. Men in Bangladesh play a role in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, S B

    1992-08-01

    More and more men are convincing their wives to use family planning in Bangladesh. In this conservative, Moslem country, women are not allowed to leave the homes so husbands must go to buy methods especially rural areas. 70% of women who use oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, or condoms report that their husbands obtain these method for them. many couples are poor peasants. Contraceptive prevalence is not 23.2%. Female sterilization and OCs are the 2 most popular methods (9% each) followed by condoms (2%), IUD (1.7%), and vasectomy (1.5%). The total fertility rate is 4.8 which is higher than the goal of 3.5 Bangladesh hoped to reach by 1995. In 1975, 30% of women believed fate determines family size but now only 8% think that. Attitude changes about family size have occurred despite illiteracy and poverty. Traditional religious beliefs are still prevalent in rural areas making it difficult for wives to speak to their husbands about family planning. Husband-wife communication is more open among urban, middle class couples. The long lasting hormonal implant, Norplant, holds promise as a means for Bangladesh to reach its goal. About 4500 women now have Norplant and government and nongovernment clinics plan to insert it into around 20,000 more women. A study of 2586 potential acceptors of Norplant at family clinics in Bangladesh 3 other developing countries shows that counseling diminishes the anxiety women and their husbands experience about Norplant and its side effects. A study in Bangladesh reveals higher continuation rates of Norplant for women whose husbands underwent counseling than for those whose husbands did not undergo counseling. Family planning advertisements on the radio, TV, and in newspapers have convinced couples to use family planning, but the advertisements tend to not explaining how to use family planning. Men are key to the changes in attitude about family planning in Bangladesh.

  7. Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.

  8. Compulsion in family planning: the fundamental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1979-03-01

    Focus is on some of the basic issues and considerations involved in the question of compulsion in family planning, which in terms of current contraceptive technology, only means compulsory sterilization. Pressures have been increasing to implement more stringent measures to control population growth in most of the developing countries throughout the world. During the Emergency in India (1975-1977) the government at that time, along with some individuals and groups, deemed it necessary to adopt the drastic measure of compulsory sterilization. The six sections of the discussion deal with the following: 1) compulsory family planning as rational or ethical choice basic issues; 2) neo-Malthusian thesis on compulsion - fallacies, dangers and inadequacies; 3) ethical and philosophical problems - premise of irresponsible procreation; 4) individual rights versus societal interests; 5) elitism in social policy and cost benefit considerations; and 6) international consensus against compulsion. All forums, under the auspices of the United Nations, of which India is a member, have rejected coercion and reiterated repeatedly that every individual has a basic human right to decide how many children to have and at what intervals. The most recent forum to endorse the human right to family size was the World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974. The 14 conditions spelled out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activity for effecting a free and responsible choice in family size may form a sound basis for a comprehensive policy concerning family planning in India. The coercive measures adopted during the Emergency are responsible for a backlash in India and retarding the progress of the family planning movement.

  9. India's misconceived family plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  10. Defining Motivational Intensity of Need for Family Planning in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Unmet need, contraceptive use, intention to use family planning. Résumé ... not using family planning because of health concerns or ..... insurance plans cover contraception as an employee right and/or as a means of reducing.

  11. CFSC (Community and Family Study Center) study finds birth rates falling everywhere - family planning (family planning) is a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The findings of the Community and Family Study Center study, based on estimated crude birthrates and total fertility rates for 1968 and 1975, indicate that there has been a significant reduction in fertility levels of both developed and developing countries. Despite regional variations, the estimates show an average proportional decline of 8.5% in total fertility rates between 1968 and 1975. Of the 148 nations studied, 113 were in developing regions and 35 in the developed regions. Information on important social and economic development factors, such as life expectancy, literacy, percent of labor force in agriculture, per capita income, and family planning program strength were gathered for each country. Analyses of these data are reported in "The Public Interest" (to be published) "Population Reference Bulletin," October 1978, and a paper presented at the 1978 Population Association of America Meetings in Atlanta, Georgia. The recent change in fertility affected 81% of the world's population, primarily the peoples of Asia, Latin America, and North America. The total fertility rate in the world in 1968 was 4635 and declined to 4068 in 1975. More substantial declines occurred in Asia and Latin America, where the number of fewer births 1000 women would bear under a given fertility schedule declined by 845 births and 617 births, respectively. As more research is conducted to investigate the underlying causes of this decline, it is likely to confirm the important role that family planning programs have had in developing nations. Although major improvements in the socioeconomic well-being of the developing areas continue as an essential goal, the need to maintain the organized provision of family planning services should not be understated.

  12. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...

  13. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male Sterilization ... 0.5 % Diaphragm 12 % How to make your method most effective After procedure, little or nothing to ...

  14. Spousal Support and Work--Family Balance in Launching a Family Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…

  15. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene

    2016-12-23

    The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (family planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and drug shops in both countries indicate the need for additional support from family planning programs to leverage this important access point. Drug shops and pharmacies offer an important

  16. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  17. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.

  18. Family support group in psychosocial rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuchamy, L.; Mathew, Baijumon K.; Mathew, Sheeba; Udayakumar, G.S.; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Ramprasad, Dharitri

    2005-01-01

    Background: Support groups for families of persons with mental illness are emerging as significant components in psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. Aim: To ascertain the expectations of family members who attend family support group meetings and to find out the efficacy of such programmes. Methods: The data were collected from support group members using a semi-structured interview schedule. The study sample (n=20) was drawn from family members who attended the support group meetings regularly for a minimum period of 6 months. Data analysis was done using percentile. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that members attending the support group meetings expected to get more information about the illness, develop skills to cope with problems at home and learn skills to deal with the ill person. An important finding of the study was that the members developed a ‘feeling of togetherness’ as a result of being a member of a group with common aims. Conclusion: Participation in a support group meeting positively affects key variables in the participant's adaptation to mental illness in a relative. PMID:20814460

  19. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitug, W

    1986-01-01

    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  20. The Relationship Between Perceived Family Support and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: What is the Moderating Role of Coping Strategies and Gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Emma; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the moderating role of gender and coping strategies in the relationship between perceived family support, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Data were used from the My World Survey Second Level (MWS-SL), a national survey of mental health among 6062 young people aged 12-19 years. Conditional process analyses indicated that planned coping moderated the relationship between perceived family support and depressive symptoms for those engaging in low-moderate levels but not high levels of planned coping, and this moderating role was stronger for females than males. Avoidance coping was a moderator for those engaging in moderate-high but not low levels of avoidance coping, and gender also moderated this relationship. Support-focused coping only moderated the perceived family support/depressive symptoms relationship for females. Findings suggest that the strength of the relationship between perceived family support and depressive symptoms depends on level of engagement with a particular coping strategy, and this engagement is a consistently stronger moderator for females.

  1. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  2. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.

  3. Psychosocial correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez VJ

    2017-04-01

    increased patient–provider family planning discussions. Therefore, by decreasing male involvement, depression indirectly decreased family planning discussions. Study findings point to the importance of family planning strategies that address depression and facilitate male involvement to enhance communication between patients and providers and optimize maternal and neonatal health outcomes. This study underscores the need for longitudinal assessment of men’s impact on family planning discussions both pre- and postpartum. Increasing support for provision of mental health services during pregnancy is merited to ensure the health of pregnant women living with HIV and their infants. Keywords: family planning, women, HIV, South Africa, pregnancy, contraception

  4. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Maryland Family Support Services Consortium. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James F.; Markowitz, Ricka Keeney

    The Maryland Family Support Services Consortium is a 3-year demonstration project which developed unique family support models at five sites serving the needs of families with a developmentally disabled child (ages birth to 21). Caseworkers provided direct intensive services to 224 families over the 3-year period, including counseling, liaison and…

  6. Families as Partners: Supporting Family Resiliency through Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Rebecca; Hansen, Sarah Grace; Squires, Jane; Machalicek, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Child development occurs within the context of the child's family, neighborhood, and community environment. Early childhood providers support positive outcomes, not only for the children with whom they directly work with but also for their families. Families of children with developmental delays often experience unique challenges. A family…

  7. Family Planning and Deforestation: Evidence from the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Despite an abundant body of literature exploring the relationship between population growth and forest cover change, comparatively little research has explored the forest cover impacts of family planning use, which is a key determinant of the rate of population growth in many developing country contexts. Using data from a farm-level panel survey in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon, this paper addresses whether family planning use impacts forest cover change. Longitudinal model results show that after controlling for household life cycle and land use variables, family planning use did not have an independent effect on deforestation, reforestation, or net forest loss between 1990 and 2008. Forest cover change patterns appear indicative of farm life cycle effects. However, family planning use is associated with reduced subsequent fertility among households, suggesting that the relationship between population growth from births and forest cover change may be limited in this setting.

  8. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  9. Are men well served by family planning programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill

    2017-01-23

    Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of programming shows that men and boys are not particularly well served by programs. Most programs operate from the perspective that women are contraceptive users and that men should support their partners, with insufficient attention to reaching men as contraceptive users in their own right. The notion that family planning is women's business only is outdated. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating men's desire for information and services, as well as men's positive response to existing programming to warrant further programming for men as FP users. The key considerations focus on getting information and services where men and boys need it; addressing gender norms that affect men's attitudes and use while respecting women's autonomy; reaching adolescent boys; including men as users in policies and guidelines; scaling up successful programming; filling gaps with implementation research and monitoring & evaluation; and creating more contraceptive options for men.

  10. The meaning and experience of bereavement support: A qualitative interview study of bereaved family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Emma; Kenny, Katherine; Broom, Alex; MacArtney, John; Good, Phillip

    2017-06-21

    Experiences of bereavement can be stressful and are frequently complicated by emotional, familial, and financial issues. Some-though not all-caregivers may benefit from bereavement support. While considered standard within palliative care services in Australia, bereavement support is not widely utilized by family caregivers. There is little research focused on the forms of bereavement support desired or required by family caregivers, how such care is viewed, and/or how bereavement support is experienced. This study examined the experiences of bereaved family caregivers and their impressions of and interactions with bereavement support. This paper reports on one aspect of a broader study designed to explore a range of experiences of patients and caregivers to and through palliative care. Focusing on experiences of bereavement, it draws on qualitative semistructured interviews with 15 family caregivers of palliative care patients within a specialist palliative care unit of an Australian metropolitan hospital. The interviews for this stage of the study were initiated 3-9 months after an initial interview with a family caregiver, during which time the palliative patient had died, and they covered family caregivers' experiences of bereavement and bereavement support. Interviews were digitally audiotaped and transcribed in full. A thematic analysis was conducted utilizing the framework approach wherein interview transcripts were reviewed, key themes identified, and explanations developed. The research identified four prevalent themes: (1) sociocultural constructions of bereavement support as for the incapable or socially isolated; (2) perceptions of bereavement support services as narrow in scope; (3) the "personal" character of bereavement and subsequent incompatibility with formalized support, and (4) issues around the timing and style of approaches to being offered support. Systematic pre-bereavement planning and careful communication about the services offered by

  11. Group versus individual family planning counseling in Ghana: a randomized, noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Creanga, Andreea A; Danso, Kwabena A; Adanu, Richard M K; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-08-01

    Group, rather than individual, family planning counseling has the potential to increase family planning knowledge and use through more efficient use of limited human resources. A randomized, noninferiority study design was utilized to identify whether group family planning counseling is as effective as individual family planning counseling in Ghana. Female gynecology patients were enrolled from two teaching hospitals in Ghana in June and July 2008. Patients were randomized to receive either group or individual family planning counseling. The primary outcome in this study was change in modern contraceptive method knowledge. Changes in family planning use intention before and after the intervention and intended method type were also explored. Comparisons between the two study arms suggest that randomization was successful. The difference in change in modern contraceptive methods known from baseline to follow-up between the two study arms (group-individual), adjusted for study site, was -0.21, (95% confidence interval: -0.53 to 0.12) suggesting no difference between the two arms. Group family planning counseling was as effective as individual family planning counseling in increasing modern contraceptive knowledge among female gynecology patients in Ghana. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Advance Care Planning in Proxy Decision Making Among Individuals With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jung; De Larwelle, Jessica A; Valuch, Katharine O'Connell; Kesler, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Health care proxies make important end-of-life decisions for individuals with dementia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the role of advance care planning in proxy decision making for 141 individuals with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other types of dementia. Proxies who did not know the preferences of individuals with dementia for life support treatments reported greater understanding of their values. Proxies of individuals with dementia who did not want life support treatments anticipated receiving less support and were more uncertain in decision making. The greater knowledge proxies had about dementia trajectory, family support, and trust of physicians, the more informed, clearer, and less uncertain they were in decision making. In addition to advance care planning, multiple factors influence proxy decision making, which should be considered in developing interventions and future research to support informed decision making for individuals with dementia and their families. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Provision of Family Planning Services in Tanzania: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...

  14. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P D

    1984-01-01

    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife.

  15. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Male Involvement ... However, fertility and family planning research and .... design, employing both quantitative and qualitative research .... Table 2: Types of family planning methods known to male residents ...

  16. Family Planning and Family Vision in Mothers after Diagnosis of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with…

  17. Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among pregnant women at Grace Specialist Hospital. ... Background: Unwanted pregnancy is a common event in our environment and many of them will end in an unsafe abortion. ... Education and religion did not significantly affect the use of a family planning method.

  19. The Impact of Desired Family Size Upon Family Planning Practices in Rural East Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosena, Patricia Wimberley

    1971-01-01

    Results indicated that women whose desired family size is equal to or less than their actual family size have significantly greater frequencies practicing family planning than women whose desired size exceeds their actual size. (Author)

  20. Men's knowledge and spousal communication about modern family planning methods in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Adugnaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Morankar, Sudhakar; Berhane, Alemayehu; Deribe, Kebede

    2011-12-01

    This study attempted to determine knowledge, approval and communication about family planning methods among married men in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of 738 married males in Amhara Region. All 738 (100%) of the respondents had heard of family planning. About 558 (75.6%) mentioned the importance of using contraceptives for birth spacing and 457 (61.9%) to limit birth. Four hundred and forty-five (60.3%) of participants had ever discussed family planning with their wives. Thirty-three (33.0%) of the respondents reported that they were the sole decision makers in their families. About 597 (80.9%) approved the use of contraceptives. However, some participants did not discuss and approve family planning with their partner. This recalled an intensive effort has been taken by the concerned body to reach the country's targeted family planning coverage by involving men in reproductive health endeavor to enhance the discussion and agreement about family planning usage.

  1. Women's experiences after Planned Parenthood's exclusion from a family planning program in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943

  3. Utilization and determinants of modern family planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    planning increases with women's education, and creating a conductive environment for ... Key words: Family planning, Modern methods, Utilization, Reproductive age, Partner discussion .... Traditional methods consist of periodic abstinence,.

  4. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country.

  5. DOES FAMILY SOCIAL SUPPORT AFFECT STARTUP BUSINESS ACTIVITIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaily F.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.

  6. Understanding of advance care planning by family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND FAMILY PLANNING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRATA, NDOLA; FRASER, ASHLEY; HUCHKO, MEGAN J.; GIPSON, JESSICA D.; WITHERS, MELLISSA; LEWIS, SHAYNA; CIARALDI, ERICA J.; UPADHYAY, USHMA D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary This paper reviews the literature examining the relationship between women’s empowerment and contraceptive use, unmet need for contraception and related family planning topics in developing countries. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Popline and Web of Science search engines in May 2013 to examine literature published between January 1990 and December 2012. Among the 46 articles included in the review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 24). Household decision-making (n = 21) and mobility (n = 17) were the most commonly examined domains of women’s empowerment. Findings show that the relationship between empowerment and family planning is complex, with mixed positive and null associations. Consistently positive associations between empowerment and family planning outcomes were found for most family planning outcomes but those investigations represented fewer than two-fifths of the analyses. Current use of contraception was the most commonly studied family planning outcome, examined in more than half the analyses, but reviewed articles showed inconsistent findings. This review provides the first critical synthesis of the literature and assesses existing evidence between women’s empowerment and family planning use. PMID:28069078

  8. Blood pressure (BP) control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care clinic in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwaseun S; Malomo, Sunday O; Sogunle, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherence to therapeutic plans has been reported among hypertensive patients. Researchers have also shown that adherence to therapeutic plans improves if motivation in the form of social support is provided. There is a dearth of local studies that explore the influence of family support on treatment outcomes of hypertensive patients. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care setting in Western Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting 360 hypertensive respondents between April and July 2013. Data were collected through a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized tool, Perceived Social Support Family Scale, which measured the respondents' level of perceived family support. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 was used to analyze data. The majority of the respondents were middle-aged (61.1%) and female (59.4%). Blood pressure (BP) was controlled in 46.4% of the respondents. Most of the respondents (79.4%) had "strong" perceived family support. Strong perceived family support (odds ratio [OR] 4.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.569-8.887) and female gender (OR 1.838, 95% CI = 1.177-2.869) were independent predictors of controlled BP. The proportion of hypertensive patients with optimal BP control is low in this practice setting. The positive association between BP control and perceived family support emphasizes the need for physicians to reflect on the available family support when managing hypertensive patients.

  9. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  10. A review of family health's latest evaluation of the demographic impact of the Louisiana Family Planning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, J O; Atkins, E H; Mary, C C

    1974-03-01

    The report, "Recent Trends in Louisiana Fertility," released in January 1973 is reviewed. This report was distinguished from other Louisiana Family Planning Program evaluations of demographic impact by several features: 1) Louisiana crude birth rates are compared with those of the United States and Mississippi; 2) differences in age-specific nonwhite fertility rates in Louisiana between 1965 and 1971 are compared with corresponding differences in Mississippi; and 3) the concepts of "parity components of age-specific rates" and "excess births" are introduced into the discussion of Louisiana fertility trends. According to the reviewers, no scientific or even psudoscientific analysis of the Louisiana Family Planning Program has ever been published or made available by the Family Health Foundation to any state agency. They contend that the so-called evaluations of the demographic impact of the Louisiana Family Planning Program are textbook examples of customized statistics. It is suggested that the family planning program services may contribute to increased natality and that the family planning program workers are more highly motivated to retain their jobs than to bring down the brith rate. The reviewers are not convinced that the statisticians on the Family Health Foundation are responsible for all of the narrative that accompanies their charts and tables.

  11. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.

  12. Family planning providers' role in offering PrEP to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki

    2018-03-09

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a radically different HIV prevention option for women. Not only is PrEP the first discrete, woman-controlled method that is taken in advance of exposure, but it is both safe and highly effective, offering over 90% protection if taken daily. While multiple modalities of PrEP are in development ranging from vaginal rings to injectables and implants, only PrEP with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine is currently FDA-approved. Family planning clinics provide key access points for many women to learn about and obtain PrEP. By incorporating PrEP services into family planning care, family planning providers have the opportunity to meet women's expectations, ensure women are aware of and offered comprehensive HIV prevention options, and reverse emerging disparities in PrEP access. Despite real and perceived barriers to integrating PrEP into family planning care, providing PrEP services, ranging from education to onsite provision, is not only possible but an important component of providing high-quality sexual and reproductive healthcare to women. Lessons learned from early adopters will help guide those in family planning settings initiating or enhancing PrEP services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits, and problem-focused coping: implications for work-family conflict and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Laurent M; Allen, Tammy D

    2006-04-01

    Employees (n = 230) from multiple organizations and industries were involved in a study assessing how work-family conflict avoidance methods stemming from the family domain (emotional sustenance and instrumental assistance from the family), the work domain (family-supportive supervision, use of telework and flextime), and the individual (use of problem-focused coping) independently relate to different dimensions of work-family conflict and to employees' affective and physical well-being. Results suggest that support from one's family and one's supervisor and the use of problem-focused coping seem most promising in terms of avoiding work-family conflict and/or decreased well-being. Benefits associated with the use of flextime, however, are relatively less evident, and using telework may potentially increase the extent to which family time demands interfere with work responsibilities. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Xie, Z

    1994-02-01

    commented that even a stupid son is better than a daughter. Many with only daughters have not tried for a son because the fine was too expensive. Support in old age was a reason for desiring sons. There were positive opinions expressed about family planning. Economic gains for women were considered important in raising women's status.

  16. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  17. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  18. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Vall-Llosera, Laura; Saez, Marc

    2012-07-20

    In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users' sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70

  19. Accessibility of long-term family planning methods: a comparison study between Output Based Approach (OBA) clients verses non-OBA clients in the voucher supported facilities in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyugi, Boniface; Kioko, Urbanus; Kaboro, Stephen Mbugua; Gikonyo, Shadrack; Okumu, Clarice; Ogola-Munene, Sarah; Kalsi, Shaminder; Thiani, Simon; Korir, Julius; Odundo, Paul; Baltazaar, Billy; Ranji, Moses; Muraguri, Nicholas; Nzioka, Charles

    2017-03-27

    The study seeks to evaluate the difference in access of long-term family planning (LTFP) methods among the output based approach (OBA) and non-OBA clients within the OBA facility. The study utilises a quasi experimental design. A two tailed unpaired t-test with unequal variance is used to test for the significance variation in the mean access. The difference in difference (DiD) estimates of program effect on long term family planning methods is done to estimate the causal effect by exploiting the group level difference on two or more dimensions. The study also uses a linear regression model to evaluate the predictors of choice of long-term family planning methods. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. All the methods (Bilateral tubal ligation-BTL, Vasectomy, intrauterine contraceptive device -IUCD, Implants, and Total or combined long-term family planning methods -LTFP) showed a statistical significant difference in the mean utilization between OBA versus non-OBA clients. The difference in difference estimates reveal that the difference in access between OBA and non OBA clients can significantly be attributed to the implementation of the OBA program for intrauterine contraceptive device (p = 0.002), Implants (p = 0.004), and total or combined long-term family planning methods (p = 0.001). The county of residence is a significant determinant of access to all long-term family planning methods except vasectomy and the year of registration is a significant determinant of access especially for implants and total or combined long-term family planning methods. The management level and facility type does not play a role in determining the type of long-term family planning method preferred; however, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as management level influences the choice of all methods (Bilateral tubal ligation, intrauterine contraceptive device, Implants, and combined methods) except vasectomy. The adjusted R 2 value, representing the percentage of

  20. Advancing Family Planning Research in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD USA. Afr J Reprod ... contraceptive information and knowledge, gender roles, and ... The single- gender focus ... the advantages of service linkages between family planning ...

  1. Awareness and Utilization of Family Planning Methods among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency Virus (HIV) infection influence the design and background Family planning is an important preventive measure against maternal and child morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at determining the awareness and utilization of family ...

  2. WORKPLACE SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORK–FAMILY CONFLICT: A META-ANALYSIS CLARIFYING THE INFLUENCE OF GENERAL AND WORK–FAMILY-SPECIFIC SUPERVISOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; PICHLER, SHAUN; BODNER, TODD; HAMMER, LESLIE B.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work–family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work–family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work–family support, also k...

  3. Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Towards Family Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Towards Family Planning Among Selected ... Among reasons for low uptake is religious belief on procreation. ... leaders as a change agent by the stakeholders to increase the uptake and use of family ...

  4. Family planning and married fulfillment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, C

    1989-01-01

    Large numbers of children typified the Catholic family until the 60s when there was a general societal change towards smaller families. This change, which even affected Catholics, is thought to derive from 3 sources. The population explosion and its complimentary disadvantages, a change towards more egocentric values, and an increase in the importance of material values. The Western world is aging fast and fertility rates are falling to the point that an overall effect of population reduction is occurring. Children have become only an optional, instead of necessary as in previous generations, part of most couples' lifestyles in West. Careers, social status, gadgets, vacations, ease, and comfort are now commonly seen as more self- fulfilling than children. The Catholic church believes that the only reasons for family planning are natural methods used out of necessity. Vatican II clearly states that the purpose of marriage is the raising of children. It has become the opinion of many that marriage and children are only accidentally connected and that the 2 are not bound inseparably. It is the authors contention that this dualistic view of marriage and children is false. The author feels that through a marriage people can draw each other out of themselves and towards their children. Sacrificing oneself for one's children is the natural end to marriage. The author admits that family planning has been a great good to the world for the couples that need it to survive, but that couples that can have children should do so.

  5. Theory of planned behaviour and the family business

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiken, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour is a theory originating from psychology. Over time, the theory has been applied to a variety of research areas. In business administration, the theory is used to gain insight into the ethical behaviour of managers, the adoption of new products and entrepreneurship. The family business context is a specific context, in which the family has a strong influence on the strategic decisions of the business. Current application of the theory of planned behaviour in fam...

  6. Blood pressure (BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care clinic in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun S Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nonadherence to therapeutic plans has been reported among hypertensive patients. Researchers have also shown that adherence to therapeutic plans improves if motivation in the form of social support is provided. There is a dearth of local studies that explore the influence of family support on treatment outcomes of hypertensive patients. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care setting in Western Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Subjects and Methods: Systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting 360 hypertensive respondents between April and July 2013. Data were collected through a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized tool, Perceived Social Support Family Scale, which measured the respondents′ level of perceived family support. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze data. Results: The majority of the respondents were middle-aged (61.1% and female (59.4%. Blood pressure (BP was controlled in 46.4% of the respondents. Most of the respondents (79.4% had "strong" perceived family support. Strong perceived family support (odds ratio [OR] 4.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.569-8.887 and female gender (OR 1.838, 95% CI = 1.177-2.869 were independent predictors of controlled BP. Conclusions: The proportion of hypertensive patients with optimal BP control is low in this practice setting. The positive association between BP control and perceived family support emphasizes the need for physicians to reflect on the available family support when managing hypertensive patients.

  7. [Family and career planning in young physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Klaghofer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates in what way physicians integrate their desire to have children into their career planning. Within the framework of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development of young physicians, beginning in 2001, 534 participants (285 women, 249 men) were assessed in January 2007, in terms of having children, planning to have children, the career aspired to and the work-family balance used or planned. Among the study participants, 19% (54) of the women and 24% (59) of the men have children. Of the others 88% plan to start a family in the future. Female physicians with children are less advanced in their careers than women without children; for male physicians no such difference can be observed. Of the female physicians with children or the desire for children 42% aspire to work in a practice, 28% to a clinical and only 4% to an academic career. Of the male physicians with children or the desire for children one third aspire to work in a practice, one third to a clinical and 14% to an academic career. The preferred model of work repartition of female physicians with children is father full time/mother part time or both parents part time; the preferred model of male physicians is father full time/mother part time or not working. Children are an important factor in the career and life planning of physicians, female physicians paying more attention to an even work-family balance than male physicians. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Family planning and fertility decline: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabah, L

    1977-01-01

    Family planning and development policy concerns are not incompatible. The emphasis on development policies at the 1974 World Population Conference at Bucharest did not mean that world governments had lost interest in the population and family planning issue. Although worldwide attitudes toward family planning have become more and more favorable, this has not yet meant great impact on world demographic trends. The "inertia factor," i.e., the effects of high birthrates in the previous generation, will camouflage declining birthrates for some time to come. The trend of fertility reduction which was perceptible only among small populations a few years ago is also becoming manifest in larger Third World countries. Mortality rate declines have slowed down but there is no rising mortality due to starvation in any country. At present, food demand exceeds availability for 80% of the Third World population. It is predicted that the food deficit will increase 70% by the year 2000.

  9. Supporting Family Awareness with the Whereabouts Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, Abigail; Taylor, Alex S.; Kaye, Joseph ‘Jofish'; Brown, Barry; Izadi, Shahram

    We report the results of a field trial of a situated awareness device for families called the “Whereabouts Clock”. The Clock displays the location of family members using cellphone data as one of four privacy-preserving, deliberately coarse-grained categories ( HOME, WORK, SCHOOL or ELSEWHERE). The results show that awareness of others through the Clock supports not only family communication and coordination but also more emotive aspects of family life such as reassurance, connectedness, identity and social touch. We discuss how the term “awareness” means many things in practice and highlight the importance of designing not just for family activities, but in order to support the emotional, social and even moral aspects of family life.

  10. Thinking Ahead: Improving Support for People with Learning Disabilities and Their Families to Plan for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…

  11. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -10 children. This means they did not know what impact large families will have on the poverty stricken households. There is some ignorance about NFP methods. They are more used to artificial harmful methods of Family Planning. Therefore ...

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among Igbo women of south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Joe-Ikechebelu, N N; Obiajulu, F N

    2005-11-01

    A total of 200 Nigerian women visiting Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital's antenatal clinic were interviewed about their knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning. About 90% were literate. Their knowledge (80%) and approval (87%) of family planning was high, but the practice of modern family planning was low (25%) with most women involved in Billings/safe period (56%). The common methods used were Billings/safe period, condom, withdrawal and the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). A total of 81.5% of the respondents are still willing to give birth while 77% agreed that their last pregnancy was planned. A total of 58.5% of respondents were educated about family planning in the antenatal clinic. The most common source of family planning information was mass media, closely followed by health workers, while the most common single reason for non-practice of family planning was rejection by the husband. We therefore conclude that despite the high education/literacy with the attendant and high knowledge and approval rate of family planning in this part of Nigeria, the practice of family planning is still low, especially due to partner objection. Policy makers should therefore increase male involvement in family planning programmes and pursue a more aggressive public awareness campaign.

  13. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets.

  14. Return on investment: a fuller assessment of the benefits and cost savings of the US publicly funded family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2014-12-01

    Policy Points: The US publicly supported family planning effort serves millions of women and men each year, and this analysis provides new estimates of its positive impact on a wide range of health outcomes and its net savings to the government. The public investment in family planning programs and providers not only helps women and couples avoid unintended pregnancy and abortion, but also helps many thousands avoid cervical cancer, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, infertility, and preterm and low birth weight births. This investment resulted in net government savings of $13.6 billion in 2010, or $7.09 for every public dollar spent. Each year the United States' publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99

  15. [The family planning program in Rwanda: assessment of ten years (1981-1991) and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyakazi, A

    1990-12-01

    Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning

  16. Cabinet decision creating a family planning section in the Ministry of Manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    As of April 1, 1989 the Indonesian Ministry of Manpower will contain a family planning section within its regular structure. It will be part of a newly created Sub-directorate for Workers Welfare, which also contains sections for health facilities/services and for nutrition and other welfare services. The family planning section is to be staffed by 8 full-time officials who are responsible for population, family welfare, and family planning programs in the Ministry of Manpower.

  17. Source of information on family planning among married men in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population in Nigeria is turning into an issue that needs public alertness. Informing men on family planning services and contraceptives is extremely necessary. For this will promote more favorable attitudes and increase their involvement. This study aimed at investigating the source of family planning information for married ...

  18. Family Planning in the Context of Latin America's Universal Health Coverage Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate

    2017-09-27

    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts. Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method

  19. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall...

  20. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  1. The Melbourne Family Support Program: evidence-based strategies that prepare family caregivers for supporting palliative care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Aranda, Sanchia

    2014-01-01

    Background A key component of palliative care is support for family caregivers. Although some family caregivers identify positive aspects, the impact is typically burdensome; they are prone to physical and psychological morbidity, financial disadvantage and social isolation. Outcomes of systematic reviews have highlighted the importance of investment in family caregiver intervention research. Purpose To provide an overview of the development, evaluation and outcomes arising from of a programme of research (The Melbourne Family Support Program (FSP)), which focused on reducing the psychosocial burden of family caregivers. Methods Developmental work involved a systematic literature review; focus groups with family caregivers and health professionals; and identification of a conceptual framework. Following a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT), a programme of psychoeducational intervention studies was developed and tested; one via RCT, the others via prepost test. Results Four psychoeducational interventions, incorporating one-to-one and group format delivery, conducted in both the home and inpatient hospital/hospice were evaluated. Statistically significant outcomes included improvements in family caregivers’ preparedness, competence, positive emotions, more favourable levels of psychological wellbeing and a reduction in unmet needs. Internationally endorsed guidelines for the psychosocial support of family caregivers were produced and several resources were constructed. Fifteen publications in international peer-reviewed journals have arisen from this programme. Conclusions The interventions and resources from the Melbourne FSP provide several evidenced-based and clinically relevant approaches that focus on reducing the psychosocial burden of the caregiving role. In several instances, however, more rigorous methodological testing is advocated. PMID:24644195

  2. Meeting Postpartum Women’s Family Planning Needs Through Integrated Family Planning and Immunization Services: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulli, Lisa S; Eichleay, Marga; Rademacher, Kate; Sortijas, Steve; Nsengiyumva, Théophile

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating family planning service components into infant immunization services to increase modern contraceptive method use among postpartum women. Methods The study was a separate sample, parallel, cluster-randomized controlled trial. Fourteen randomly selected primary health facilities were equally allocated to intervention (integrated family planning and immunization services at the same time and location) and control groups (standard immunization services only). At baseline (May–June 2010), we interviewed postpartum women attending immunization services for their infant aged 6 to 12 months using a structured questionnaire. A separate sample of postpartum women was interviewed 16 months later after implementation of the experimental health service intervention. We used linear mixed regression models to test the study hypothesis that postpartum women attending immunization services for their infants aged 6–12 months in the intervention facilities will be more likely to use a modern contraceptive method than postpartum women attending immunization services for their infants aged 6–12 months in control group facilities. Results We interviewed and analyzed data for 825 women from the intervention group and 829 women from the control group. Results showed the intervention had a statistically significant, positive effect on modern contraceptive method use among intervention group participants compared with control group participants (regression coefficient, 0.15; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.26). Although we conducted a 1-sided significance test, this effect was also significant at the 2-sided test with alpha = .05. Among those women who did not initiate a contraceptive method, awaiting the return of menses was the most common reason cited for non-use of a method. Women in both study groups overwhelmingly supported the concept of integrating family planning

  3. [On family planning policy in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-01-01

    Brazil's population could vary from a minimum of 164.5 million to a maximum of 183.5 million at the turn of the century. The increase in population is due essentially to a decline in mortality, since natality has remained steady, averaging 6.2 children/woman. During the 1st 4 years of the 1980s, a 19% drop in natality was registered, with the greatest reduction occurring in the East-Central (25%) region, testimony to an increased presence of highly effective contraceptive means. 65% of all married women between the ages of 15 and 44 use contraceptives, placing Brazil among the most developed countries (U.S.A., 68%). The main contraceptive method used is sterilization, preferred even by very young women, median age 29, as evidenced by a study in Sao Paulo. The choice of contraceptives, however, is limited. During the military dictatorship family planning was put in the hands of private organizations (BEMFAM since 1965, CEPAIMC since 1975) and recent policies have emphasized a hands-off attitude leaving birth control decisions to the family nucleus. The economic crisis, at the end of the 1970s, modified this position. In order to avoid that, only the wealthy classes have access to family planning means, the government increasingly plays an active role in providing information and assistance. A not-for-profit institution, ABEPF (Brazilian Association for Family Planning Entities), the largest of its kind in Latin America, organizes and promotes private initiative programs. Acting as a true syndicate, each clinic affiliated with the association receives training of professionals and equipment for installation of laboratories and consulting rooms. Various women's rights movements have been active and succeeded in influencing political parties.

  4. [Some reflections on the introduction of family planning into businesses in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngambi Kunga

    1990-01-01

    Cameroon has announced that it favors family planning as a means of improving family welfare. In the local context, family planning would refer to spacing and to a lesser extent limiting births, as well as combatting infertility. This work argues that, at a time of deep economic and financial crisis for Cameroon and of growing need and demand for family planning services, the introduction of employment-based family planning services could reinforce the family planning activities of the government and private agencies. The work broadly outlines national family planning policy, identifies weaknesses of proposed family planning strategies, and points out the advantages of employment-based services. Cameroon's infant mortality rate of 90/1000 live births and maternal mortality of 420/100,000 are partly related to its very high fertility rate, closely spaced births, and early pregnancy. The national family planning program goal is to promote health and wellbeing by preventing early and unwanted pregnancies and illnesses in high-risk groups. A decline in unwanted births would be achieved through voluntary use of contraception. The main strategy would be an ambitious IEC program to inform the population of the advantages of family planning using mass media, print materials, and interpersonal communication. The general objectives of the IEC program would be to reduce maternal mortality to 300/100,000 and infant mortality from 90 to 70/1000 and increase contraceptive prevalence from 3 to 20% by 1994. Family planning services and commercial distribution centers would be created, taking advantage of existing health facilities wherever possible as well as community based systems of service delivery for the population not yet served by the traditional distribution system. Experience with the IEC strategy in other countries demonstrates that there is a great disproportion between the population touched by IEC and contraceptive prevalence. The strategy would probably be more

  5. Family emergency preparedness plans in severe tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan; Luo, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes, with warnings usually issued just minutes before their touchdowns, pose great threats to properties and people's physical and mental health. Few studies have empirically investigated the association of family emergency preparedness planning and observed protective behaviors in the context of tornadoes. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors for the action of taking shelter at the time of tornadoes. Specifically, this study investigated whether having a family emergency preparedness plan was associated with higher likelihood of taking shelter upon receiving tornado warnings. This study also examined the effects of socioeconomic status and functional limitations on taking such actions. A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO. Each city experienced considerable damages, injuries, and casualties after severe tornadoes (EF-4 and EF-5) in 2011. The working sample included 892 respondents. Analysis was conducted in early 2013. Logistic regression identified emergency preparedness planning as the only shared factor that increased the likelihood of taking shelter in both cities and the only significant factor in Joplin. In Tuscaloosa, being female and white also increased the likelihood of taking shelter. Disability was not found to have an effect. This study provided empirical evidence on the importance of having a family emergency preparedness plan in mitigating the risk of tornadoes. The findings could be applied to other rapid-onset disasters. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  6. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn ES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. Keywords: intervention, parent, mental and behavioral health

  7. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants

  8. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  9. Supporting Families: A Nurturing Teacher Education Strategy in Nauru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terence; Serow, Penelope; Taylor, Neil; Angell, Emily; Tarrant, Jodana; Burnett, Greg; Smardon, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    There has been little recent documentation concerning Pacific family support for family members locally involved in university study in their Pacific home country and how such responses affect both parties. Some studies dealing with family support for student family members, including Pacific families residing in the USA, have been published. A…

  10. Family planning and contraceptive practices among parturients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Family size predetermination and birthing according to schedule is a strong determinant of family stability as it allows proper resource allocation and management. Aims: To determine the family planning practices among parturients and determine the factors that can influence the uptake of contraceptives in the ...

  11. DETERMINANTS OF UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING IN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.

  12. Sources of population and family planning assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    research, training and service delivery. Loan assistance is provided by the World Bank for combined health, nutrition, and population projects as well as poupulation education. Although international population assistance from donor governments and private organizations increased from about $165 million in 1971 to about $445 million in 1980, the increase in constant value was only about 10% after inflation. About 2/3 of international assistance goes to family planning services and contraceptives; other activities receiving support are basic data collection, research, and IEC. Greatly increased expenditures will be needed if population stability is to be achieved.

  13. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Family demands, social support and caregiver burden in Taiwanese family caregivers living with mental illness: the role of family caregiver gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess gender effects on family demands, social support and caregiver burden as well as to examine contributing factors of caregiver burden in caring for family members with mental illness. Providing continued care and support for people with mental illness is demanding and challenging. Findings of earlier caregiving studies on the role of caregiver gender in response to caregiver burden and caregiving-related factors have been inconsistent. Little research has been undertaken to examine gender effect on family demands, social support and caregiver burden in Taiwanese family caregivers of individuals with mental illness. Cross-sectional, descriptive correlation design. Data from 43 families, including at least one male and female family caregiver in each family, were analysed using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis and mixed linear modelling. Demographic data, Perceived Stress Scale, Perceived Social Support and Caregiver Burden Scale-Brief were used to collect data. Female family caregivers perceived less social support and experienced higher degrees of caregiver burden compared with male family caregivers. In contrast, no significant gender effect was associated with family demands. Family caregivers with greater family demands and less social support experienced higher degrees of caregiver burden. The results reinforced those of previously published studies that caregiver burden is highly prevalent among female family caregivers. Caregiver gender appears to be highly valuable for explaining family demands, social support and caregiver burden. Health care professionals should continue to collaborate with family caregivers to assess potential gender effects on available support and design gender-specific interventions to alleviate caregiver burden. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Factors Determining Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Africa: A Systematic Review of Mixed Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Streak Gomersall, Judith; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Laurence, Caroline O

    2016-01-01

    Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health in Africa, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of contraceptive uptake. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on factors determining the quality of care in family planning services in Africa. Quantitative and qualitative studies undertaken in Africa, published in English, in grey and commercial literature, between 1990 and 2015 were considered. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using standardized tools. Findings from the quantitative studies were summarized using narrative and tables. Client satisfaction was used to assess the quality of care in family planning services in the quantitative component of the review. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the qualitative study findings. From 4334 records, 11 studies (eight quantitative, three qualitative) met the review eligibility criteria. The review found that quality of care was influenced by client, provider and facility factors, and structural and process aspects of the facilities. Client's waiting time, provider competency, provision/prescription of injectable methods, maintaining privacy and confidentiality were the most commonly identified process factors. The quality of stock inventory was the most commonly identified structural factor. The quality of care was also positively associated with privately-owned facilities. The qualitative synthesis revealed additional factors including access related factors such as 'pre-requisites to be fulfilled by the clients and cost of services, provider workload, and providers' behaviour. There is limited evidence on factors determining quality of care in family planning services in Africa that shows quality of care is influenced by multiple factors. The evidence suggests that lowering access barriers and avoiding unnecessary pre-requisites for taking contraceptive

  16. Factors Determining Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Africa: A Systematic Review of Mixed Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizachew Assefa Tessema

    Full Text Available Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health in Africa, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of contraceptive uptake. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on factors determining the quality of care in family planning services in Africa.Quantitative and qualitative studies undertaken in Africa, published in English, in grey and commercial literature, between 1990 and 2015 were considered. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using standardized tools. Findings from the quantitative studies were summarized using narrative and tables. Client satisfaction was used to assess the quality of care in family planning services in the quantitative component of the review. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the qualitative study findings.From 4334 records, 11 studies (eight quantitative, three qualitative met the review eligibility criteria. The review found that quality of care was influenced by client, provider and facility factors, and structural and process aspects of the facilities. Client's waiting time, provider competency, provision/prescription of injectable methods, maintaining privacy and confidentiality were the most commonly identified process factors. The quality of stock inventory was the most commonly identified structural factor. The quality of care was also positively associated with privately-owned facilities. The qualitative synthesis revealed additional factors including access related factors such as 'pre-requisites to be fulfilled by the clients and cost of services, provider workload, and providers' behaviour.There is limited evidence on factors determining quality of care in family planning services in Africa that shows quality of care is influenced by multiple factors. The evidence suggests that lowering access barriers and avoiding unnecessary pre-requisites for taking

  17. The Melbourne Family Support Program: evidence-based strategies that prepare family caregivers for supporting palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Aranda, Sanchia

    2014-09-01

    A key component of palliative care is support for family caregivers. Although some family caregivers identify positive aspects, the impact is typically burdensome; they are prone to physical and psychological morbidity, financial disadvantage and social isolation. Outcomes of systematic reviews have highlighted the importance of investment in family caregiver intervention research. To provide an overview of the development, evaluation and outcomes arising from of a programme of research (The Melbourne Family Support Program (FSP)), which focused on reducing the psychosocial burden of family caregivers. Developmental work involved a systematic literature review; focus groups with family caregivers and health professionals; and identification of a conceptual framework. Following a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT), a programme of psychoeducational intervention studies was developed and tested; one via RCT, the others via prepost test. Four psychoeducational interventions, incorporating one-to-one and group format delivery, conducted in both the home and inpatient hospital/hospice were evaluated. Statistically significant outcomes included improvements in family caregivers' preparedness, competence, positive emotions, more favourable levels of psychological wellbeing and a reduction in unmet needs. Internationally endorsed guidelines for the psychosocial support of family caregivers were produced and several resources were constructed. Fifteen publications in international peer-reviewed journals have arisen from this programme. The interventions and resources from the Melbourne FSP provide several evidenced-based and clinically relevant approaches that focus on reducing the psychosocial burden of the caregiving role. In several instances, however, more rigorous methodological testing is advocated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The predictive factors for perceived social support among cancer patients and caregiver burden of their family caregivers in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oven Ustaalioglu, Basak; Acar, Ezgi; Caliskan, Mecit

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify the predictive factors for the perceived family social support among cancer patients and caregiver burden of their family caregivers. Participants were 302 cancer patients and their family caregivers. Family social support scale was used for cancer patients, burden interview was used for family caregivers.All subjects also completed Beck depression invantery. The related socio-demographical factors with perceived social support (PSS) and caregiver burden were evaluated by correlation analysis. To find independent factors predicting caregiver burden and PSS, logistic regression analysis were conducted. Depression scores was higher among patients than their family caregivers (12.5 vs. 8). PSS was lower in depressed patients (p Family caregiver burden were also higher in depressive groups (p family caregiver role was negatively correlated (p caregiver burden. Presence of depression was the independent predictor for both, lower PSS for patients and higher burden for caregivers. The results of this study is noteworthy because it may help for planning any supportive care program not only for patients but together with their caregiver at the same time during chemotherapy period in Turkish population.

  19. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Carolette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  20. Geriatric Family Support and Diabetic Type-2 Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Heidari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As the most part of geriatric (65 years and older diabetic care is given at home, family support has an important role in their blood sugar level control care. This study aimed to assess the relationship between family support and blood sugar level control in such elderly suffering type-2 diabetes. Methods & Materials: Via descriptive-correlative study, one hundred fifty geriatric patients with type-2 diabetes, who referred to Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Iran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Samplings based on nonrandomized and convenience. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic data glucose-labeled hemoglobin (HbA1C and received-perceived family support by applying the standard questionnaire of "Diabetes Social Support-Family Version" format. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 by using Chi-square and Pierson Tests. Results: Results showed a significant relationship between family support and glycemic control (r=-0.56, P<0.0001. Also there were significant relationships between family support, gender and marital status (P<0.0001. There were also significant relationships between glycemic control and marital status (P=0.02, financial status (P=0.04 and educational level (P=0.05. Conclusion: Findings of this research added further evidence about the impact of family support on the health of older adults with diabetes. These findings suggest using family centered nursing interventions and collaboration of family members in care of the elderly with type-2 diabetes.

  1. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barbeito Roibal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.

  2. Clarifying Work-Family Intervention Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention…

  3. Women’s experiences after Planned Parenthood’s exclusion from a family planning program in Texas☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C. Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. Study Design We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006–2010 (NSFG). Results (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Conclusions Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Implications Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. PMID:26680757

  4. The Impact of Reproductive Health Legislation on Family Planning Clinic Services in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristine; Aiken, Abigail R. A.; Stevenson, Amanda; Hubert, Celia; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of legislation in Texas that dramatically cut and restricted participation in the state’s family planning program in 2011 using surveys and interviews with leaders at organizations that received family planning funding. Overall, 25% of family planning clinics in Texas closed. In 2011, 71% of organizations widely offered long-acting reversible contraception; in 2012–2013, only 46% did so. Organizations served 54% fewer clients than they had in the previous period. Specialized family planning providers, which were the targets of the legislation, experienced the largest reductions in services, but other agencies were also adversely affected. The Texas experience provides valuable insight into the potential effects that legislation proposed in other states may have on low-income women’s access to family planning services. PMID:25790404

  5. The family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk of families expecting a baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A meta-analysis of work-family conflict and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kimberly A; Dumani, Soner; Allen, Tammy D; Shockley, Kristen M

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between social support and work-family conflict is well-established, but the notion that different forms, sources, and types of social support as well as contextual factors can alter this relationship has been relatively neglected. To address this limitation, the current study provides the most comprehensive and in-depth examination of the relationship between social support and work-family conflict to date. We conduct a meta-analysis based on 1021 effect sizes and 46 countries to dissect the social support and work-family conflict relationship. Using social support theory as a theoretical framework, we challenge the assumption that social support measures are interchangeable by comparing work/family support relationships with work-family conflict across different support forms (behavior, perceptions), sources (e.g., supervisor, coworker, spouse), types (instrumental, emotional), and national contexts (cultural values, economic factors). National context hypotheses use a strong inferences paradigm in which utility and value congruence theoretical perspectives are pitted against one another. Significant results concerning support source are in line with social support theory, indicating that broad sources of support are more strongly related to work-family conflict than are specific sources of support. In line with utility perspective from social support theory, culture and economic national context significantly moderate some of the relationships between work/family support and work interference with family, indicating that social support is most beneficial in contexts in which it is needed or perceived as useful. The results suggest that organizational support may be the most important source of support overall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Client Satisfaction And Decision Making Amongst Females Visiting Family Planning Clinics In Hyderabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Arbia; Hamid, Saima; Kumar, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Family Planning is the basic right of the human being. It involves decision regarding the number of children and desired space between children by the couple themselves. Quality services involving multiple dimensions build the confidence of the clients and lack of quality is one of the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning. Objectives of the current study were to determine the client satisfaction, decision-making process and various influences on clients in adopting family planning methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Family Planning Centre of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad in 2016. Quality of the family planning services and satisfaction with the services were assessed through responses obtained from women selected purposively and visiting family planning centre through exit interviews with structured pretested and reliable questionnaire after taking the written consent. Access to Family Planning Centre was not an issue in 92% cases but only 31% respondents were appropriately greeted, 77% faced blank expression and 13% received sufficient privacy. Health problems and socioeconomic conditions were inquired by 41% and18% providers respectively, while motivating force for service use was mother in law in most 35% cases. Health workers were successful in clarifying misinformation (86%) and explaining side effects (71%) but only 21% respondents were satisfied with services. Respondents are influenced by family and health care providers while making decision and type of influence was considered positive by 83% respondents. Training and monitoring system be strengthened at family planning centres to improve quality of services while important influencing relations be focused for family planning education to improve utilization of services.

  8. Socio-economic development of Dongguan County promoted by family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F

    1986-10-01

    Because of its geographical position and its population of over 1.19 million, Dongguan County in Guangdong Province, China occupies an important position in the family planning program of the whole province, and country. In the 1st 10 days of July 1985, the Family Planning Commission of Guangdong Province conducted a survey of Dongguan County. The results show 6 remarkable changes: 1) both rural and urban people are more and more likely to practice family planning on their own accord. (The total fertility rate dropped from 5.9 in the early years of the People's Republic to 2.05 in 1982); 2) women, released from heavy household chores, have become a vital new force for the development of industrial production (The gross industrial output value of the town industry increased by 87.57% from 1987 to 1984.); 3) the living standard of both rural and urban people improved along with more flourishing industrial and agricultural production; 4) educational work and population quality have improved; 5) moral culture has progressed (Family planning is commonly practiced.); and 6) social development has occurred, such as purification of tap water, and the building of cultural, sport, and recreational facilities. The County Family Planning commission achieved its successes by political mobilization policies, scientific birth control, and good services. Their main approaches include 1) associating political mobilization with the local reality; 2) popularizing knowledge of birth control science and life science through special schools, training courses, lectures, and research; 3) rewarding 1-child families with material benefits; and 4) improving living conditions of widowed and childless old people to alleviate worries of sonless households.

  9. Family planning policy in the United States: the converging politics of abortion and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Scott, James G

    2016-05-01

    Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has reemerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two thirds. Yet, despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and - at least for Democrats - the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the US-Mexico border. Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. Recent shifts in family-planning policy restrict women's access to contraception and abortion, yet little research has examined why such shifts are occurring. This paper analyzes factors

  10. Facilitating State-Wide Collaboration around Family Planning Care in the Context of Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Gavin, Loretta; Witt, Jacki; Moskosky, Susan

    Family planning providers have an important role to play in the response to the public health challenge posed by Zika. In the United States, there are high rates of unintended pregnancy, especially in states most at risk for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus. This paper describes efforts by eight of these states (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) to build capacity for quality family planning care in the context of Zika. Drawing on resources developed by the Office of Population Affairs, including a toolkit for family planning care in the context of Zika, agencies and stakeholders involved in the family planning delivery system in Southern states at risk for mosquito-borne transmission met over several months in the summer of 2016 to coordinate efforts to respond to the risk of Zika in their jurisdictions. Through proactive communication and collaboration, states took steps to integrate Zika-related family planning care, including screening for Zika risk and providing appropriate, client-centered counseling. Challenges faced by the states included not having family planning included as a component of their state's Zika response effort, limited funding for family planning activities, and the need for robust communication networks between multiple state and federal agencies. The efforts described in this paper can help other states to integrate family planning into their Zika response. This is relevant to all states; even when mosquito-borne transmission is not occurring or expected, all states experience travel-related and sexually transmitted Zika infections. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  11. [Journalism and family planning in Guinea-Bissau. Putting the accent on birth spacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C

    1989-05-01

    A conference on awareness in the mass media of the problems of family planning was held in March 1989 at Bissau by the Guinean Association for Education and Promotion of Family Health (AGEPSF). Representatives of radio, a daily newspaper, and the national press agency discussed the objectives of AGEPSF and the benefits of family planning with specialists in different sectors of national life. The secretary general of AGEPSF affirmed the interest of the government in creating a health organization to coordinate national policy in family planning and to diffuse information on family planning. The family planning objective of the AGEPSF is not limitation of births but rather spacing to promote maternal and child health. AGEPSF is a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and maintains relations with similar organizations throughout the world. According to the director of the national maternity hospital, family planning is a sensitive topic but it has become accepted in numerous countries as marriage in rural areas and abortions in urban areas are widespread practices in Africa with potentially grave consequences. The general director of the National Institute for Studies and Research placed the theme of family planning in the context of Guinea-Bissau by citing the low level of education, the almost insignificant number of literate women, and the lack of health services in rural areas as the principal causes of increasing infant mortality in the country. African countries should create favorable conditions, elevate the level of living of their populations, and develop concrete health actions to reduce infant and maternal mortality.

  12. Chinese Families of Children with Severe Disabilities: Family Needs and Available Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study gathered quantitative and qualitative data about 368 families in the People's Republic of China who had children with severe disabilities to better understand (a) the perceived needs that families have, (b) the supports available to them, (c) any differences in perceived needs and support between mothers and fathers, and (d)…

  13. DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  14. 42 CFR 59.3 - Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity in...

  15. Hillary Clinton takes up defense of U.S. aid for family planning overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S A

    1996-12-20

    In November 1996 during her address to the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas in La Paz, Colombia, and in her weekly newspaper column, US first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton pledged her own and the Clinton administration's complete support for reversing the severe reduction in funds for the international family planning program imposed by the 104th Congress. This revelation reflected the administration's preparation for a strong and vocal defense of the international family planning program, which will be facing its greatest political test in February 1997. Bolivia has the highest maternal mortality rate in South America, and half the deaths are due to illegal, unsafe abortions. Mrs. Clinton presented a $2.25 million USAID award to a $5 million Pan American Health Organization program that aims to reduce maternal mortality. In her December 3, 1996, column, she used family planning campaigns in Bolivia as an illustration of sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategies for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing the abortion rate. Such programs educate people about the benefits of birth spacing, breast feeding, good nutrition, prenatal and postpartum visits, and safe deliveries. Mrs. Clinton has also visited other poor countries to learn about the special needs and conditions of women's lives. UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright has recently been nominated to be the first female Secretary of State. Many people see her commitment to improving the status of women through development efforts and her recognition of the close relationship between development and diplomacy as encouraging. The concern and commitment of these two powerful women could prove valuable in the upcoming test for international family planning aid. Congress must vote on a resolution to approve Clinton's report that the reduced funding is having a negative impact no later than February 28. If both the House and the Senate pass the

  16. Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671

  17. Family planning use and associated factors among pastoralist community of afar region, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Lemma, Hailemariam; Abrha, Kidan; Adama, Yohannes; Fisseha, Girmatsion; Yebyo, Henock; Gebeye, Ejigu; Negash, Kassahun; Yousuf, Jemal; Fantu, Tigist; Gebregzabher, Tesfay; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha

    2016-07-18

    Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with a total fertility rate (TFR) of 4.8 children per a woman and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 29 %. The overall prevalence of modern family planning in a pastoralist community, like Afar region, is low (9.1 %). This study aimed to assess family planning utilization and associated factors among married women of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10-28, 2013 among 602 women. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Descriptive and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were done to isolate independent predictors on utilization of family planning using SPSS 20. The overall prevalence of family planning utilization in Afar region was 8.5 % (6.2-10.7). Majority of the women (92.2 %) had used injectable. The most common reasons mentioned in the non-use of family planning methods were religion-related (85.3 %), desire to have more children (75.3 %), and husband's objection (70.1 %). Women who had a positive attitude towards family planning utilization (AOR = 4.7, 95 % CI: 2.1, 10.3), owning radio (AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.02, 4.18), and literate (AOR = 4.4, 95 % CI: 1.80, 11.08) were more likely to use family planning methods as compared to their counterparts. The increase of monthly income was also associated with the likelihood of family planning methods utilization. The odds of using family planning methods were higher among those with monthly income of $27-$55.5 (AOR = 2. 0, 95 % CI: 1.9, 4.7) and > $55 (AOR = 4. 6, 95 % CI: 1.23-17.19) as compared to women with the lowest category of monthly income ($27 and less). The low coverage of family planning in the region could be due to the influence of husband, religious and clan leader. Attitude of women towards family planning methods, possession of radio, monthly income, and educational status could influence family

  18. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors. full text

  19. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rodney

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  20. Family Planning Policy in the United States: The Converging Politics of Abortion and Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R.A.; Scott, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has re-emerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two-thirds. Yet despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. Study Design We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. Results We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and—at least for Democrats—the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the U.S.-Mexico border. Conclusions Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. PMID:26794846

  1. State administration and financing of family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, D

    1972-04-01

    A 1971 survey by the Center for Family Planning Program Development consisted of a questionnaire mailed to health and welfare directors in 50 states and 5 federal jurisdictions concerning their family planning policies and administrative practices. 52 agencies responded; Guam, Mississippi, and Louisiana did not. The major funding for state health agencies was allocated by HEW and by maternal and child health (MCH) formula grants under Title 5 of the Social Security Act. 11 states made additional expenditures of $1.7 million for a variety of purposes. 21 states required local welfare departments to purchase services under the Medicaid program established by Title 19 of the Social Security Act. Administration was assigned to specific organizations within the state health agencies. 31 states reported a total of 128 full-time professional personnel, with 90 assigned at state headquarters level. In general, on a state-by-state basis, the full-time staff does not correspond to the size of the appropriations. Survey findings were useful measures of resource commitments to family planning services by state health and welfare agencies and provided data on future levels of resource requirements.

  2. Perceptions about family planning and contraceptive practice in a marital dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewha; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyun Mi; Jang, Younkyoung; Shin, Hyejeong; Kim, Myeong Seon

    2014-04-01

    To examine couple interactions to predict wives' contraceptive use as well as that of their husbands in rural Ethiopia. Previous studies stated that men's power and their preferences regarding family planning have a significant role in the adoption of contraception, as well as women's general reproductive health. Spousal communication on reproductive matters helped couples to be aware of each other's perspectives and enhanced the usage of family planning through shared decision-making. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to analyse the Actor and Partner effects within the marital dyad. The study sample included 389 married couples who were recruited from households in seven enumeration areas randomly selected from Hetosa Woreda in Ethiopia. We used a face-to-face interview survey. Data were collected between 22 October and 21 November 2010 and analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, Pearson's correlation and the Actor-Partner interdependence model. There were significant differences in perceptions about family planning, contraceptive knowledge and contraceptive use between wives and husbands. Wives' perceptions about family planning affected theirs as well as that of their husbands' knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. However, husbands' perceptions about family planning did not affect their knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, but did influence their wives'. The application of couple data enhanced our understanding of the complex interactions between wives and husbands, which may lead to novel dyadic-based interventions to improve family planning practice. Couples must be educated and informed not only about the adoption of contraception, but also about reproductive rights and responsibilities through changes in educational and motivational strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low-income women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L

    2007-03-01

    In Mexico, family planning advice has been incorporated into the clinical guidelines for prenatal care. However, the relationship between women's receipt of family planning advice during prenatal care and subsequent contraceptive use has not been evaluated. Data were collected in 2003 and 2004 in 17 Mexican states from 2,238 urban low-income women postpartum. Participating women reported on prenatal services received and contraceptive use. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models evaluated whether receiving family planning advice during prenatal care predicted current contraceptive use, after quality of care in the community, service utilization, delivery characteristics, household socioeconomic characteristics, and maternal and infant characteristics were controlled for. Overall, 47% of women used a modern contraceptive method. Women who received family planning advice during prenatal care were more likely to use a contraceptive than were those who did not receive such advice (odds ratio, 2.2). Women who received family planning advice had a higher probability of using condoms (relative risk ratio, 2.3) and IUDs (5.2), and of undergoing sterilization (1.4), than of using no method. Integrating family planning advice into prenatal care may be an important strategy for reaching women when their demand for contraception is high.

  4. Planning Ahead or Living a Day at a Time? A Family History of AD and Retirement Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D; Smith, Ken R; Mayer, Robert N

    2016-09-01

    We assess whether a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the odds that healthy family members' engage in retirement planning activities. This is a cross-sectional study utilizing individual-level data from the Utah Population Database that have been linked to Medicare records and to responses from a retirement planning survey. Engagement in 3 retirement planning activities was estimated as a function of the number of parents and grandparents diagnosed with AD along with a set of fundamental socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Adults who had a parent with AD were 86% more likely to have seen a professional financial advisor and 40% less likely to plan to retire before age 65. Caregiving costs and/or knowledge of the familial risk of developing AD may provide adult children with a forewarning of their own future financial needs that, in turn, motivates them to engage in retirement planning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafai, M

    1994-09-01

    In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family

  6. Reproductive goals and family planning attitudes in Pakistan: a couple-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N

    1998-01-01

    This paper examined reproductive goals and family planning attitudes at the couple level in Pakistan. Data were based on the responses of the 1260 matched couples in the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The questions integrated in the interview were on desired fertility, family size ideas, son preference, and family planning attitude. Findings of the analysis showed that about 60% of the couples have given similar responses (agreeing either positively or negatively) to several fertility-related questions, whereas the remaining 40% differ in their attitudes. This divergence may partly be of the environmental factors such as spouse rural background, lack of education, and minimal communication between spouses. This implies that a couple's joint approval, discussion of family planning, and husband's desire for no more children have the strongest effect on promoting contraceptive use. Thus, it is concluded that the role of couple agreement is important in promoting the use of family planning, and men should be made equal targets of such programs in Pakistan.

  7. Family Support and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    In order to distinguish typologies of university students based on family support received in the form of tangible and intangible resources, their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life as well as subjective happiness, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347...... in the place of residence during the period of studies, socioeconomic level, need to work while studying, frequency and time available for having lunch in the place of residence, and body mass index. The family support students receive as tangible or economic resources is positively related to life...

  8. Planning for transit-supportive development : a practitioner's guide. Section 4 : corridor planning and transit-supportive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...

  9. Planning for transit-supportive development : a practitioner's guide. Section 5 : local planning and transit-supportive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...

  10. Planning for transit-supportive development : a practitioner's guide. Section 2 : general transit-supportive development planning topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...

  11. Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Halpenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

  12. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2011; 15(3): 121 ... women recognized at least one family planning method, half of all recent or ... use of Primolut N tablets, addressing real and perceived side effects of family ... planning programs, research and policy. ... Utah to improve the quality of life in communities.

  13. Effect of Family Wealth and Attitudes toward Unmet Need for Family Planning Among Fertile Couples in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati Azis; Muhammad Syafar; Andi Zulkifli; Arifin Seweng

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems generated by unmet need for family planning is the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, that could impact on abortion. Unmet need for family planning affected by various factors, both from within and from outside the woman. This study aimed to analyze the influence of socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards family planning unmet need in women of childbearing age couple in Makassar, South Sulawesi. This study is analytic observational research. Cro...

  14. source of information on family planning among married men in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    This is a questionnaire base study targeting 350 married men in Ekpoma. Participation was by choice and the ... KEYWORDS: Family planning, Information source, Married men, Contraceptive, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Organized family ... 1988 population policy played a key role in raising demand and supply for family ...

  15. Assessment of quality of care in family planning services in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Providing quality of care in family planning services is an important task for care providers so as to increase service utilization and coverage; however, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. Objective: To assess quality of care in family planning services in Jimma Zone, southwest ...

  16. Family functioning and perceived support from nurses during cancer treatment among Danish and Australian patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieperink, Karin B; Coyne, Elisabeth; Creedy, Debra K; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare family functioning and perceptions of support from nurses among Danish and Australian adult oncology patients and family members. Family can have a strong influence on the health of individuals, providing support during a health crisis such as cancer. However, family functioning and supportive care from nurses may vary across cultures and settings. A descriptive, cross-sectional comparative design with patients and family members from Denmark and Australia. Participants were asked to fill in translated versions of the Iceland-Expressive Family Functioning Questionnaire (ICE-EFFQ) and Iceland-Expressive Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ). In total, 232 participants were recruited. The Danish cohort consisted of 56 patients and 54 family members. The Australian cohort consisted of 83 patients and 39 family members. Mean age was 59 years. No significant differences were found between Danish and Australian families. However, compared to patients, family members reported significantly lower overall family functioning, expressive emotions and communication, as well as less emotional support from nurses. Family functioning was comparable between Denmark and Australia. Family members reported less emotional support than patients. Nurses need to consider the patient and the family as a unit with complex needs that require monitoring and attention during oncology treatment. Families supporting a member with cancer have significant and often unmet needs. Assessment, information-sharing and health education need to include the family. Supportive care information may be shared between Denmark and Australia and inspires the development of common guidelines for optimal family nursing practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A cost-benefit analysis of the Mexican Social Security Administration's family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortman, D L; Halvas, J; Rabago, A

    1986-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of the family planning program of the Mexican Social Security System (IMSS) was undertaken to test the hypothesis that IMSS's family planning services yield a net savings to IMSS by reducing the load on its maternal and infant care service. The cost data are believed to be of exceptionally high quality because they were empirically ascertained by a retrospective and prospective survey of unit time and personnel costs per specified detailed type of service in 37 IMSS hospitals and 16 clinics in 13 of Mexico's 32 states. Based on the average cost per case, the analysis disclosed that for every peso (constant 1983 currency) that IMSS spent on family planning services to its urban population during 1972-1984 inclusive, the agency saved nine pesos. The article concludes by raising the speculative question as to the proportion of the births averted by the IMSS family planning program that would have been averted in the absence of IMSS's family planning services.

  18. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoufilippou J; Koinis A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Goog...

  19. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montana Livia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  20. The role of social support, family identification, and family constraints in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzman, Samantha; Sani, Fabio; Munro, Alastair J

    2017-09-01

    We compared social support with other potential psychosocial predictors of posttraumatic stress after cancer. These included family identification, or a sense of belonging to and commonality with family members, and family constraints, or the extent to which family members are closed, judgmental, or unreceptive in conversations about cancer. We also tested the hypothesis that family constraints mediate the relationship between family identification and cancer-related posttraumatic stress. We used a cross-sectional design. Surveys were collected from 205 colorectal cancer survivors in Tayside, Scotland. Both family identification and family constraints were stronger independent predictors of posttraumatic stress than social support. In multivariate analyses, social support was not a significant independent predictor of posttraumatic stress. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of family identification on posttraumatic stress through family constraints. Numerous studies demonstrate a link between social support and posttraumatic stress. However, experiences within the family may be more important in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer. Furthermore, a sense of belonging to and commonality with the family may reduce the extent to which cancer survivors experience constraints on conversations about cancer; this may, in turn, reduce posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M F

    1977-01-01

    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  2. The Situation Analysis Study of the family planning program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Ndhlovu, L; Gachara, M M; Fisher, A A

    1991-01-01

    A new, relatively "quick and clean" operations research approach called a "situation analysis" was developed for examining the strengths and weaknesses of the family planning program of Kenya. Field research teams visited a stratified random sample of 99 of the Ministry of Health's approximately 775 service delivery points. Observation techniques and interviewing were used to collect information on program components and on the quality of care provided to new family planning clients during the observation day. As late as 1986, the Kenya program was rated "weak" and "poor" in the international literature. The Kenya Situation Analysis Study found a functioning, integrated maternal and child health/family planning program serving large numbers of clients, with an emphasis on oral contraceptives and Depo-Provera (and an underemphasis on permanent methods). Although a number of program problems were revealed by the study, overall, in terms of performance, a rating of "moderate" is suggested as more appropriate for Kenya's national family planning program today. In terms of the quality of care, a "moderate to moderate-high" rating is suggested.

  3. Jiang Shuqin: a devoted family planning worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1997-04-01

    This article describes the family planning activities of a barefoot doctor, Jiang Shuqin, who has delivered family planning and other medical services to poor local farmers in China over the past 20 years. The once backward township of Kulongshan in Fengning Manchu Nationality Autonomous County, Chengde City, Hebei Province in North China, where she works, has advanced. Her efforts were recognized at the 1997 National Conference on Family Planning Work. Her first success was in treating a poor woman's sick child, which resulted in such gratitude that her initial reluctance to accept contraception was overcome and she agreed to terminate her pregnancy. Another case involved an elder sister who became pregnant for her infertile sister; when the latter was diagnosed and treated for gynecological disease and subsequently conceived herself, the older sister was convinced to abort her pregnancy. One woman was counseled to delay a pregnancy until treatment for tuberculosis was completed and was happy to avoid birth defects and enjoyed having a healthy baby 3 years later. Ms. Shuqin was known to quickly respond to a home delivery and difficult labor and even saved a baby whose supply of oxygen was limited during a difficult labor. She even performed an operation to stop massive hemorrhaging from a retained placenta while in her 8th month of pregnancy and being barely able to stand on her swollen and painful legs; she completed the operation on her knees. She wrote a paper to county officials on rice production on reclaimed paddy fields that benefitted hundreds of farmers. Her practice expanded to include treatment of animals. Her family complains about her absences, but everyone in the township appreciates her services. The township is proud to be one with no unplanned births.

  4. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.

  5. Determinants of the unmet need for family planning among women of Jaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaat Vohra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 100 million women in less developed countries or about 17% of all married women would prefer to avoid pregnancy, but are not using any form of family planning. Despite the government′s many efforts, the unmet need for family planning in India is still 12.8%. The present study is aimed to assess prevalence of the unmet need for family planning, its determinants, and the reasons for the unmet need for family planning. Materials and Methods: A sample size of 500 was divided equally among the rural and urban areas. A simple random technique was used to select the first household for the survey. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to record the information. Data was entered on Microsoft Access and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 11.5 for Windows Vista. The chi square test was used for finding the association and trends. Results: In the present study, 35% of the population had an unmet need, of which 58.28% belonged to rural area, while 41.71% belonged to the urban area. The significant determinants associated with the unmet need for family planning were religion, type of family, husband′s education and occupation, socioeconomic class, women′s age, women′s education and occupation, exposure to mass media, and healthcare facility where services were provided. Overall, lack of motivation and obstacles were the major reasons for the unmet need. Conclusion: Improved access to family planning services, better education, improved standard of living, and higher exposure to mass media can significantly decrease the unmet need of family planning.

  6. Knowledge and practice of family planning among antenatal care attendees at Nnewi, south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwegbe, A O; Ugboaja, J O; Monago, E N

    2010-12-01

    Entrenching an effective family planning program has being a major challenge in Sub Saharan Africa. Determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among the women is very necessary in order to achieve success. The aim of this study iS to determine the knowledge, and practice of family planning among antenatal women in Nnewi, South East, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study of 356 women attending antenatal clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria was carried out over a 5-month period. With the aid of pre-tested interviewer-administered semi structured questionnaires, information on biosocial characteristics, knowledge of, and practice of family planning as well as sources of information on family planning were obtained from the respondents. Data was analysis was done with Epi info statistical package, version 3.5.2 (2008) Three hundred and forty (95.5%) of the respondents knew about family planning out of which 260 (76.5%) had ever used a modern method. The male condom (256; 75.3%) and the natural method (Billings method) (150; 44.1%) were the commonly known methods. Also the commonest used methods were the male condom (144; 55.4%) and Billings method (96; 36.9%). Birth spacing (248; 72.9%) and limiting births (138, 40.6%) were mainly identified as the benefits of family planning and only 6 (1.7%) of the respondents identified family planning as being important in the reduction of maternal mortality. The major sources of information on family planning were health workers (224; 65.9%) and the radio (126; 37.1%). The knowledge and practice of family planning has improved among our women. However, the methods commonly used are those associated with high failure rates. Family panning program managers should recognize this limitation. There is need for public sensitization on the correct use of the Billings method and the male condom. Ultimately, our women should be encouraged to accept the more reliable methods

  7. Family support and family-centered care in the neonatal intensive care unit: origins, advances, impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Judith S; Cooper, Liza G; Blaine, Arianna I; Franck, Linda S; Howse, Jennifer L; Berns, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) has been increasingly emphasized as an important and necessary element of neonatal intensive care. FCC is conceptualized as a philosophy with a set of guiding principles, as well as a cohort of programs, services, and practices that many hospitals have embraced. Several factors drive the pressing need for family-centered care and support of families of infants in NICUs, including the increase in the number of infants in NICUs; growth in diversity of the population and their concurrent needs; identification of parental and familial stress and lack of parenting confidence; and gaps in support for families, as identified by parents and NICU staff. We explore the origins of and advances in FCC in the NICU and identify various delivery methods and aspects of FCC and family support in the NICU. We examine the research and available evidence supporting FCC in the NICU and offer recommendations for increased dissemination and for future study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  9. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  10. Characteristics of Consumers of Family Planning Services in Eastern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sushma Dahal; Raj Kumar Subedi

    2013-01-01

    Family planning services in Nepal are provided by government and non-government health facilities. A descriptive cross sectional study was done by secondary data review of eight months from Institutional clinic, District Health Office (DHO) Ilam district. Use of different family planning methods through government health facility was studied in relation to different variables like age, sex, ethnicity, and, number of children. Around 53% of the female users of spacing method and around 47% of ...

  11. Strengthening Government Leadership in Family Planning Programming in Senegal: From Proof of Concept to Proof of Implementation in 2 Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichatou, Barry; Seck, Cheikh; Baal Anne, Thierno Souleymane; Deguenovo, Gabrielle Clémentine; Ntabona, Alexis; Simmons, Ruth

    2016-12-23

    Given Senegal's limited resources, the country receives substantial support from externally funded partner organizations to provide family planning and maternal and child health services. These organizations often take a strong and sometimes independent role in implementing interventions with their own structures and personnel, thereby bypassing the government district health system. This article presents findings from the Initiative Sénégalaise de Santé Urbaine (ISSU) (Senegal Urban Health Initiative) that assessed in 2 districts, Diamniadio and Rufisque, the extent to which it was feasible to create stronger government ownership and leadership in implementing a simplified package of family planning interventions from among those previously tested in other districts. The simplified package consisted of both supply- and demand-side interventions, introduced in October 2014 and concluding at the end of 2015. The interventions included ensuring adequate human resources and contraceptive supplies, contraceptive technology updates for providers, special free family planning service days to bring services closer to where people live, family planning integration into other routine services, household visits for family planning education, religious sermons to clarify Islam's position on family planning, and radio broadcasts. District leadership in Diamniadio and Rufisque were actively involved in guiding and implementing interventions, and they also contributed some of their own resources to the project. However, reliance on external funding continued because district budgets were extremely limited. Monitoring data on the number of contraceptive methods provided by district facilities supported by a sister project, the Informed Push Model project, indicate overall improvement in contraceptive provision during the intervention period. In Diamniadio, contraceptive provision increased by 43% between the 6-month period prior to the ISSU interventions (November 2013 through

  12. Work and Family: Satisfaction, Stress, and Spousal Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Miller, Dianne L.; Campbell, N. Jo; Morrison, Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    Married veterinarians were surveyed about work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for their career. Female veterinarians reported greater effect of martial/family stress on career and less perceived support than did their male counterparts. Areas of greatest work dissatisfaction for both genders were…

  13. Who benefits from family support? Work schedule and family differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kristen S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated the benefits of family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) for reducing stress, increasing satisfaction, and increasing worker commitment; however, less research has studied health outcomes or possible differences in the effects of FSOP based on worker characteristics. The present study examined relationships between FSOP and health outcomes, as well as how those relationships may depend on work schedule and family differences. Using a sample of 330 acute care nurses, the findings indicated that FSOP predicted several health and well-being outcomes obtained 9 months later. Further, the relationships between FSOP and the outcome variables depended on some work schedule and family differences. In terms of family differences, FSOP was most strongly related to life satisfaction for those who cared for dependent adults. The relationship between FSOP and health outcomes of depression, musculoskeletal pain, and physical health symptoms were generally significant for workers with dependent children, but not significant for workers with no children. Regarding schedule differences, the relationship between FSOP and life satisfaction was significant for those on nonstandard (evening/night) shifts but not significant for standard day shift workers; however, there were no differences in FSOP relationships by number of hours worked per week. The findings demonstrate that FSOP may benefit some employees more than others. Such differences need to be incorporated into both future work-family theory development and into efforts to document the effectiveness of family-supportive policies, programs, and practices. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married women in Dangila town administration, Awi Zone, Amhara regional state; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Ewnetu; Abeje, Gedefaw; Ejigu, Tadese

    2015-05-13

    Unmet need for family planning is a major problem of developing countries. Evidences about unmet need for family planning and associated factors are not enough in Dangila town. Therefore, this study was done to assess the magnitude and determinants of unmet need for family planning among currently married women in Dangila town. Community based cross sectional study design was used to collect data from a total of 551 currently married women from February to March 2014. Data were collected using pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire after written consent was obtained from respondents. Collected data were edited, coded, and entered to SPSS version 16.0. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to identify determinants of unmet need for family planning. This study revealed that 17.4 % of married women had unmet need for family planning. In this study, women who were housewife/farmers were about 7 [OR = 6.81 (1.91-24.29)] times more likely to have unmet need compared to employed women. Women who were not counseled about family planning by health workers [OR = 6.76 (3.17-14.42)], women whose partner had non-supportive attitude for family planning use [OR = 3.34 (1.26-8.90)] and rural women [OR = 17.65 (4.35-71.67)] were also more likely to have unmet need for family planning. About 33 %, 32 %, 23.5 % and 11.8 % of women mentioned less perceived risk of pregnancy due to breast feeding, fear of side effects, partner opposition and religious prohibition respectively as reasons for not using contraceptives at the time of interview. The level of unmet need for family planning in the study area is still high compared to the target set (10 %) in the national family planning guide plan of Ethiopia to be achieved by the end of 2015. Therefore, it is important to strengthen counseling and partner involvement in Dangila town to reduce unmet need for family planning.

  15. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  16. Awareness and determinants of family planning practice in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekle, A T; McCabe, C

    2006-12-01

    The continuing growth of the world population has become an urgent global problem. Ethiopia, like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is experiencing rapid population growth. Currently, the country's population is growing at a rate of 3%, one of the highest rates in the world and if it continues unabated, the population will have doubled in 23 years, preventing any gain in the national development effort. To determine the level and determinants of family planning awareness and practice in one Ethiopian town. A quantitative study using a descriptive survey design was conducted in Jimma University Hospital. The findings revealed that the knowledge and practice of modern contraception methods was low. Most women's contraceptive knowledge and practice was influenced by socio-cultural norms such as male/husband dominance and opposition to contraception, and low social status of women. A lack of formal education for women was identified as a key factor in preventing change in the patterns of contraceptive knowledge and use by women in this part of Ethiopia. The support and encouragement for women and men to enter and complete formal education is essential in bringing about a cultural and social change in attitude towards the economic and social value of family planning. This study and others suggest that education can address the imbalance in decision making about contraception and the role of women in society generally.

  17. Using behavior change communication to lead a comprehensive family planning program: the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Susan; Cobb, Lisa; Babalola, Stella; Odeku, Mojisola; Kusemiju, Bola

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI), a 6-year comprehensive family planning program (2009–2015) in 4 cities, intentionally applies communication theories to all program elements, not just the demand generation ones, relying mainly on a theory called ideation—the concept that contraceptive use is influenced by people's beliefs, ideas, and feelings and that changing these ideational factors can change people's behavior. Program Description: The project used multiple communication channels to foster dialogue about family planning, increase social approval for it, and improve accurate knowledge about contraceptives. Mobile service delivery was started in the third year to improve access to clinical methods in slums. Methods: Data from representative baseline (2010–11) and midterm (2012) surveys of women of reproductive age in the project cities were analyzed. We also used propensity score matching to create a statistically equivalent control group of women not exposed to project activities, and we examined service delivery data from NURHI-supported clinics (January 2011–May 2013) to determine the contribution of mobile services to total family planning services. Results: Three years into the initiative, analysis of longitudinal data shows that use of modern contraceptives has increased in each city, varying from 2.3 to 15.5 percentage points, and that the observed increases were predicted by exposure to NURHI activities. Of note is that modern method use increased substantially among the poorest wealth quintiles in project cities, on average, by 8.4 percentage points. The more project activities women were exposed to, the greater their contraceptive use. For example, among women not using a modern method at baseline, contraceptive prevalence among those with no exposure by midterm was 19.1% vs. 43.4% among those with high exposure. Project exposure had a positive dose-response relationship with ideation, as did

  18. "Before the war we had it all": Family planning among couples in a post-conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicole; Alvarez, Carmen; Makambo, Maphie Tosha; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Glass, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    There is little evidence about family planning knowledge, attitudes, and use among couples in post-conflict Democratic Republic of the Congo. We used qualitative descriptions to analyze data from 75 participants. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was common among participants. They were aware of family planning methods; however, IPV and fears of side effects were barriers to use. Although participants were concerned about the cost of large families, had positive attitudes toward family planning, and intended to use it, actual use was uncommon. The need for family planning was acute because of war-related poverty. Couples negotiated, but men had strong influence over family planning decisions. Couples saw health workers as a valuable resource. Interventions in this setting should include a couple-based approach that addresses IPV as well as family planning content.

  19. The Global Roadmap to Universal Access to Family Planning: From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    It brought forward faith leaders, clinicians, researchers, program ... without immunization; how can we think about women's health without family ... learned. Three themes framed much of the dialogue: • Family Planning and the MDGs: Rights-.

  20. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  1. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita

    2005-09-01

    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  2. Do mobile family planning clinics facilitate vasectomy use in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmadas, Sabu S; Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Leone, Tiziana; Dahal, Govinda P

    2014-06-01

    Nepal has a distinct topography that makes reproductive health and family planning services difficult to access, particularly in remote mountain and hill regions where over a quarter of modern contraceptive users rely exclusively on vasectomy. A three-level random intercept logistic regression analysis was applied on data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the extent of influence of mobile family planning clinics on the odds of a male or a female sterilization, adjusting for relevant characteristics including ecological differences and random effects. The analyses included a sample of 2014 sterilization users, considering responses from currently married women of reproductive ages. The odds of a male sterilization were significantly higher in a mobile clinic than those in a government hospital (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.25). The effects remained unaltered and statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and clustering effects. Random effects were highly significant, which suggest the extent of heterogeneity in vasectomy use at the community and district levels. The odds of vasectomy use in mobile clinics were significantly higher among couples residing in hill and mountain regions and among those with three or more sons or those with only daughters. Mobile clinics significantly increase the uptake of vasectomy in hard-to-reach areas of Nepal. Reproductive health interventions should consider mobile clinics as an effective strategy to improve access to male-based modern methods and enhance gender equity in family planning. Family planning interventions in hard-to-reach communities could consider mobile clinic as an effective strategy to promote male-based modern methods. Improving access to vasectomy could substantially reduce unmet need for family planning in countries experiencing rapid fertility transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family

  4. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  5. Supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennich, Birgitte B; Røder, Michael E; Overgaard, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    changes and diabetes self-management. The purpose of this integrative review was to summarise and assess published studies on the intra-family perspective of supportive and non-supportive interactions in families with a type 2 diabetes patient. METHODS: Included in the review were published qualitative......BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and its management affect the patient and the close family potentially causing either psychological distress or increased sense of responsibility and collaboration in these families. Interactions between patient and family play an important role in maintaining lifestyle...... of reference lists. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis were undertaken on all included studies. RESULTS: We identified five eligible research papers. Employing content analysis three categories describing interactions were refined: Impact of practical action, impact of emotional involvement...

  6. Family planning and the labor sector: soft-sell approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teston, R C

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Cesar T. San Pedro, the director of the company clinic at Dole Philippines plantation in South Cotabato in Region 11, has been pressing the management to initiate a comprehensive family planning programs for their 10,000 workers. Pedro wants the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) to enforce its population program. The situation at Dole is one that requires an arbiter. Since 1977, there has not been a Population/Family Planning Officer (PFPO) for the area, and it is not possible to monitor closely if the qualified firms are following the labor code and providing family planning services to their employees. Susan B. Dedel, executive director of the PFPO, has reported that the office has sought to endear its program to the private sector by showing that family planning is also profitable for the firm. This "soft-sell" approach has been the hallmark of the MOLE-PFPO since it began in 1975 as a joint project of the Commission on Population (POPCOM), United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and International Labor Organization (ILO). Some critics have argued that this liberal style of implementation is short-selling the program. They point out that the Labor Code of 1973 enforces all establishments with at least 200 employees to have a free in-plant family planning program which includes clinic care, paid motivators, and volunteer population workers. The critics seem, at 1st glance, to have the statistics on their side. In its 5 years of operation, the PFPO has convinced only 137,000 workers to accept family planning. This is quite low, since of the 1.2 million employed by the covered firms, 800,000 are eligible for the MOLE program. Much of the weakness of the implementation is said to be due to the slow activation of the Labor-Management Coordinating Committees (LMCC). The critics maintain that because of the liberal enforcement of Department Order No. 9, the recalcitrant firms see no reason to comply. Dedel claims that the program is on the

  7. Opportunities, challenges and systems requirements for developing post-abortion family planning services: Perceptions of service stakeholders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther; Zhang, Weihong; Hu, Lina; Wu, Shangchun; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Post-abortion family planning (PAFP) has been proposed as a key strategy to decrease unintended pregnancy and repeat induced abortions. However, the accessibility and quality of PAFP services remain a challenge in many countries including China where more than 10 million unintended pregnancies occur each year. Most of these unwanted pregnancies end in repeated induced abortions. This paper aims to explore service providers’ perceptions of the current situation regarding family planning and abortion service needs, provision, utilization, and the feasibility and acceptability of high quality PAFP in the future. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, were used with family planning policy makers, health managers, and service providers. Three provinces—Zhejiang, Hubei and Yunnan—were purposively selected, representing high, medium and relatively undeveloped areas of China. A total of fifty-three in-depth interviews and ten focus-group discussions were conducted and analysed thematically. Increased numbers of abortions among young, unmarried women were perceived as a major reason for high numbers of abortions. Participants attributed this to increasing socio-cultural acceptability of premarital sex, and simultaneously, lack of understanding or awareness of contraception among young people. The majority of service stakeholders acknowledged that free family planning services were neither targeted at, nor accessible to unmarried people. The extent of PAFP provision is variable and limited. However, service providers expressed willingness and enthusiasm towards providing PAFP services in the future. Three main considerations were expressed regarding the feasibility of developing and implementing PAFP services: policy support, human resources, and financial resources. The study indicated that key service stakeholders show demand for and perceive considerable opportunities to develop PAFP in China. However, changes are needed to

  8. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H

    1989-03-01

    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  9. The strategies, experiences and future challenges of the information component in the Indonesian Family Planning Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1988-12-01

    In 1957, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Federation was established. In 1970, the National Family Planning Board (BKKBN) was created. The current contraceptive prevalence rate is 45-50%. The family planning program began with a health-oriented approach. To promote acceptance, religious leaders were asked to provide legitimacy to the program. Through their efforts, it became possible to include all the means and medication used for family planning services within the program. In developing an IEC strategy to encourage couples to accept family planning, 3 main factors were studied: 1) the types of innovations that were to be introduced, 2) the characteristics of the Indonesian community, and 3) the need for an IEC strategy to convey the programs messages the community and make the community itself the agent of the innovation being introduced. The elements of the strategy were introduced stage by stage to avoid unnecessary debate. Another strategic step was the introduction of family planning using a community approach. A 3rd strategic step was a shift from couples as family planning acceptors to the introduction of the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. The 1st stage, expansion of program coverage, 1) promoted the need for and desirability of family planning to make the small and happy family the norm and 2) supplied contraceptives and information about contraceptives throughout Indonesia. The 2nd stage, the program maintenance approach, included 1) an increase in the frequency of visits to villages by mobile family planning teams, 2) the integration of family planning activities with other health-related activities, and 3) giving people a wider choice of methods and helping them to choose the most suitable method for them. The 3rd stage made family planning a community activity, integrated within the economic and social fabric of community life. The general strategy of the IEC program is to make the various target groups full family planning

  10. Overcoming Family Planning Challenges in Africa: Toward Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Overcoming Family Planning Challenges in Africa: Toward Meeting. Unmet Need ... The challenges posed are greater in ... Gaps in meeting women's needs persist especially ..... WHO. Everybody's business: Strengthening health systems to.

  11. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Therese; Austin, Judy; Anfinson, Katherine; Amsalu, Ribka; Casey, Sara E; Fadulalmula, Shihab Ibrahim; Langston, Anne; Lee-Jones, Louise; Meyers, Janet; Mubiru, Frederick Kintu; Schlecht, Jennifer; Sharer, Melissa; Yetter, Mary

    2011-07-13

    Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family planning in Africa.

  12. The pediatrician's role in supporting adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Veronnie F; Schulte, Elaine E

    2012-10-01

    Each year, more children join families through adoption. Pediatricians have an important role in assisting adoptive families in the various challenges they may face with respect to adoption. The acceptance of the differences between families formed through birth and those formed through adoption is essential in promoting positive emotional growth within the family. It is important for pediatricians to be aware of the adoptive parents' need to be supported in their communication with their adopted children.

  13. Vector-model-supported approach in prostate plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Eva Sau Fan; Wu, Vincent Wing Cheung; Harris, Benjamin; Lehman, Margot; Pryor, David; Chan, Lawrence Wing Chi

    2017-01-01

    Lengthy time consumed in traditional manual plan optimization can limit the use of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy/volumetric-modulated radiotherapy (S&S IMRT/VMAT). A vector model base, retrieving similar radiotherapy cases, was developed with respect to the structural and physiologic features extracted from the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files. Planning parameters were retrieved from the selected similar reference case and applied to the test case to bypass the gradual adjustment of planning parameters. Therefore, the planning time spent on the traditional trial-and-error manual optimization approach in the beginning of optimization could be reduced. Each S&S IMRT/VMAT prostate reference database comprised 100 previously treated cases. Prostate cases were replanned with both traditional optimization and vector-model-supported optimization based on the oncologists' clinical dose prescriptions. A total of 360 plans, which consisted of 30 cases of S&S IMRT, 30 cases of 1-arc VMAT, and 30 cases of 2-arc VMAT plans including first optimization and final optimization with/without vector-model-supported optimization, were compared using the 2-sided t-test and paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, with a significance level of 0.05 and a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. For S&S IMRT, 1-arc VMAT, and 2-arc VMAT prostate plans, there was a significant reduction in the planning time and iteration with vector-model-supported optimization by almost 50%. When the first optimization plans were compared, 2-arc VMAT prostate plans had better plan quality than 1-arc VMAT plans. The volume receiving 35 Gy in the femoral head for 2-arc VMAT plans was reduced with the vector-model-supported optimization compared with the traditional manual optimization approach. Otherwise, the quality of plans from both approaches was comparable. Vector-model-supported optimization was shown to offer much shortened planning time and iteration

  14. Vector-model-supported approach in prostate plan optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Eva Sau Fan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Wu, Vincent Wing Cheung [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Harris, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Lehman, Margot; Pryor, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Queensland (Australia); Chan, Lawrence Wing Chi, E-mail: wing.chi.chan@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2017-07-01

    Lengthy time consumed in traditional manual plan optimization can limit the use of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy/volumetric-modulated radiotherapy (S&S IMRT/VMAT). A vector model base, retrieving similar radiotherapy cases, was developed with respect to the structural and physiologic features extracted from the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files. Planning parameters were retrieved from the selected similar reference case and applied to the test case to bypass the gradual adjustment of planning parameters. Therefore, the planning time spent on the traditional trial-and-error manual optimization approach in the beginning of optimization could be reduced. Each S&S IMRT/VMAT prostate reference database comprised 100 previously treated cases. Prostate cases were replanned with both traditional optimization and vector-model-supported optimization based on the oncologists' clinical dose prescriptions. A total of 360 plans, which consisted of 30 cases of S&S IMRT, 30 cases of 1-arc VMAT, and 30 cases of 2-arc VMAT plans including first optimization and final optimization with/without vector-model-supported optimization, were compared using the 2-sided t-test and paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, with a significance level of 0.05 and a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. For S&S IMRT, 1-arc VMAT, and 2-arc VMAT prostate plans, there was a significant reduction in the planning time and iteration with vector-model-supported optimization by almost 50%. When the first optimization plans were compared, 2-arc VMAT prostate plans had better plan quality than 1-arc VMAT plans. The volume receiving 35 Gy in the femoral head for 2-arc VMAT plans was reduced with the vector-model-supported optimization compared with the traditional manual optimization approach. Otherwise, the quality of plans from both approaches was comparable. Vector-model-supported optimization was shown to offer much shortened planning time and iteration

  15. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  16. Barriers to utilization of modern methods of family planning amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to utilization of modern methods of family planning amongst women in a ... is recognized by the world health organization (WHO) as a universal human right. ... Conclusion: The study finds numerous barriers to utilization of family ...

  17. An Examination of Family Physicians Plan Implementation in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Family physician plan (FPP) and referral system (RS) is one of the major plans in Iran's health system with the aim of increasing the accountability in the health market, enhancing the public's access to the health services, lowering the unnecessary costs and equitable distribution of health across the society.

  18. Family planning in a rural setting in Uganda, the USHAPE initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily; Goodhart, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The total fertility rate in Uganda is 5.9 children per woman, and women admit to having nearly two more children than they actually want. The maternal mortality rate remains stubbornly high. Family planning saves lives. It prevents maternal deaths by delaying motherhood, helping women limit their family size and avoid unwanted pregnancies. It also reduces infant mortality. USHAPE (Ugandan Sexual Health and Pastoral Education) is an initiative run in conjunction with the Royal College of General Practitioners in south-west Uganda. USHAPE aims to disseminate positive messages about modern contraception in an attempt to dispel fears and misconceptions and address the high rate of unmet need. The aim was to determine the rate of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in the population local of Kisiizi hospital and to use the successful USHAPE model to train health workers to address this need. 100 patients were screened in the outpatient department to determine the level of unmet need by asking 2 questions. Level 1 training aims enhance every staff member's knowledge, so that the responsibility for family planning is adopted by the whole institution. Level 2 trains clinicians to become full family planning providers, with the necessary communication, educational and practical skills. The screening for unmet need for contraception revealed that 51% have an unmet need, which is higher than the national average of 38%. Sixty-eight members of staff at Kisiizi trained to a basic level and a further 32 staff have been trained to Level 2 higher level. The USHAPE approach has begun to tackle some of the barriers to accessing family planning, but there are further areas which need development. Our cascade model of training, involves training Ugandan USHAPE trainers with the aim of future scale up and long-term development.

  19. FAMILY PLANNING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS Glory. A. Msacky, MD3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    planning suggests the need for African national governments and population policy ... Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest average fertility rate in the world. .... Generally, the success of family planning programs in Africa is affected by poverty, ...

  20. Taking family planning services to hard-to-reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1996-01-01

    Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care.

  1. Implementation and acceptability of strategies instituted for engaging men in family planning services in Kibaha district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msovela, Judith; Tengia-Kessy, Anna

    2016-11-21

    Men as the main decision makers in most of African families have an important role to play towards acceptance of family planning methods. This study sought to identify strategies used to engage men in family planning services and determine the extent to which men in Kibaha district in Tanzania accept these interventions. We conducted a cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. We used a questionnaire to interview a random sample of 365 of currently married or cohabiting men who had at least one child under the age of five years. We further conducted in-depth interviews with health workers involved in delivering reproductive health services as well as community dispensers of family planning commodities. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the extent to which men were engaged in family planning services. The data from the indepth interviews were analysed manually according to the predetermined themes, guided by the grounded theory to identify the existing strategies used to encourage male involvement in family planning services. According to the key informants, strategies that are used to encourage men to engage in family planning services include invitations through their spouses, either verbally or by using partner notification cards, incorporating family planning messages during monthly meetings and community outreach reproductive health programs. Of 365 men responding to the questionnaire, only 31 (8.4%) said they were invited to accompany their spouses to family planning clinics. Among them, 71% (22/31) visited family planning clinics. A third (32%) of the respondents had heard of community health meetings and only 20.7% of them attended these meetings. More than a third (12/34) of men who attended these meeting asserted that family planning messages targeting men featured in the agenda and subsequently half of them visited health facilities for family planning services. Existing strategies such as invitations to clinics

  2. The pediatrician's role in development and implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The Individual Education Plan and Individual Family Service Plan are legally mandated documents developed by a multidisciplinary team assessment that specifies goals and services for each child eligible for special educational services or early intervention services. Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable of federal, state, and local requirements; establish linkages with early intervention, educational professionals, and parent support groups; and collaborate with the team working with individual children.

  3. Work-Family Conflict, Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), and Sleep Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  4. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  5. Ethnic differentials of the impact of Family Planning Program on contraceptive use in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Kumar Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is wide variation of family planning services use among ethnic groups in Nepal. Despite three decades of implementation the need for family planning services is substantially unmet (25Š, and there have been no systematic studies evaluating the impact of the family planning program. This study pooled data from nationally representative surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, and 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analysis of 23,381 married women of reproductive age nested within 764 clusters indicated that Muslims, Janjatis, and Dalits were significantly less likely to use contraceptives than Brahmins and Chhetries (OR=0.27, 0.88 and 0.82 respectively. The odds of using contraceptives by the Newar were higher than the odds for Brahmins and Chhetries, although it was not significant. Exposure of women to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, radio, and television increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, the impact of family planning information on contraceptive use varied according to ethnicity. We also found that modern contraceptive use varied significantly across the clusters, and the cluster-level indicators, such as mean age at marriage, mean household asset score, percentage of women with secondary education, and percentage of women working away from home, were important in explaining this.

  6. Family planning services for incarcerated women: models for filling an unmet need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of

  7. Reasons for using traditional methods and role of nurses in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakul, Mine; Vural, Gülsen

    2002-05-01

    The withdrawal method and other traditional methods of contraception are still used in Turkey. Ninety-eight percent of women in Turkey know about modern family planning methods and where to find contraceptives. In fact, only one in every three women uses an effective method. The aim of this descriptive and experimental study was to investigate reasons for using traditional methods and the role of nurses in family planning. The women included in the sample were visited in their homes by nurses and educated for family planning in four sessions. Overall, 53.3% of women were using an effective method. However, 54.3% of women living in the Sirintepe district and 41.6% of women living in the Yenikent district were still using the traditional methods they used before. After the education sessions, the most widely used method was found to be intrauterine device (22.8%) in Sirintepe and condom (25%) in Yenikent. There was a significant difference in family planning methods between these two districts (p < 0.001).

  8. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  9. Family Planning: Between Rejection And Acceptance In Islam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Planning: Between Rejection And Acceptance In Islam. ... factor for health workers and policy makers to impact positively on their communities. ... who are likely to work in such communities for effective negotiation and application of ...

  10. Family Support in Children's Mental Health: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Burns, Barbara J.; Slaton, Elaine; Gruttadaro, Darcy; Hughes, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive review of structured family support programs in children's mental health was conducted in collaboration with leadership from key national family organizations. The goals were to identify typologies of family support services for which evaluation data existed and identify research gaps. Over 200 programs were examined; 50 met…

  11. Implementation of a Family Planning Clinic-Based Partner Violence and Reproductive Coercion Intervention: Provider and Patient Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Levenson, Rebecca; Zelazny, Sarah; Jones, Kelley A; Anderson, Heather; Silverman, Jay G

    2017-06-01

    Despite multiple calls for clinic-based services to identify and support women victimized by partner violence, screening remains uncommon in family planning clinics. Furthermore, traditional screening, based on disclosure of violence, may miss women who fear reporting their experiences. Strategies that are sensitive to the signs, symptoms and impact of trauma require exploration. In 2011, as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial, staff at 11 Pennsylvania family planning clinics were trained to offer a trauma-informed intervention addressing intimate partner violence and reproductive coercion to all women seeking care, regardless of exposure to violence. The intervention sought to educate women about available resources and harm reduction strategies. In 2013, at the conclusion of the trial, 18 providers, five administrators and 49 patients completed semistructured interviews exploring acceptability of the intervention and barriers to implementation. Consensus and open coding strategies were used to analyze the data. Providers reported that the intervention increased their confidence in discussing intimate partner violence and reproductive coercion. They noted that asking patients to share the educational information with other women facilitated the conversation. Barriers to implementation included lack of time and not having routine reminders to offer the intervention. Patients described how receiving the intervention gave them important information, made them feel supported and less isolated, and empowered them to help others. A universal intervention may be acceptable to providers and patients. However, successful implementation in family planning settings may require attention to system-level factors that providers view as barriers. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  12. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,

  13. Depression and family support in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su JA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jian-An Su,1–3,* Dah-Cherng Yeh,4,* Ching-Chi Chang,5,* Tzu-Chin Lin,6,7 Ching-Hsiang Lai,8 Pei-Yun Hu,8 Yi-Feng Ho,9 Vincent Chin-Hung Chen,1,2 Tsu-Nai Wang,10,11 Michael Gossop12 1Chang Gung Medical Foundation, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan; 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Surgery, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Psychiatry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychiatry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 7Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 8Department of Medical Informatics, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 9Tsaotun Psychiatric Center, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Nan-Tou,Taiwan; 10Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 11Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 12King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Among the survivors, depression is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities. This paper reports the point prevalence of major depressive disorder among breast cancer patients and the association between family support and major depressive disorder.Methods: Clinical data were collected from a breast cancer clinic of a general hospital in central Taiwan. Participants included 300 patients who were older than 18 years and diagnosed with breast cancer. Among these individuals, we used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (a structural diagnostic tool for

  14. The influence of perceived family support on post surgery recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Moreno, M J; Tomás-Aragones, L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possible relationship between perceived family support, levels of cortisol and post surgery recovery. The study sample comprised 42 patients that were due to undergo open cholecystectomy surgery in a Regional Health Authority Reference Centre of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura in Spain. The FACES-II questionnaire was used for the evaluation of perceived family support and to measure the three fundamental dimensions of perceived family behaviour: cohesion, adaptability and family type. The day before surgery, a sample of saliva was taken from each subject in order to determine the level of cortisol. Results showed a clear relationship between family support and recovery. Patients with higher scores on the Cohesion Scale demonstrated better post surgery recovery (F = 8.8; gl = 40; p = .005). A relationship between levels of cortisol, perceived family support and recovery was also revealed. Patients with lower scores on the Cohesion scale and higher cortisol levels demonstrated poorer post surgery recovery (F = 10.96; gl = 40; p = .006). These results are coherent with other studies that have highlighted the beneficial effects of perceived family support on mental and physical health.

  15. Emotions, Ideas and Experiences of Caregivers of Patients With Schizophrenia About "Family to Family Support Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya

    2016-06-01

    "Family to Family Support Program" is a significant intervention program to assist families by informing them about treatment procedures and coping strategies, increasing their functionality, helping them to overcome the challenges of the disease. This study was particularly designed to investigate the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of caregivers of schizophrenia patients who participated in "Family to Family Support Program." The study was conducted with one of the qualitative research methods, phenomenological method. The study sample included caregivers who care for schizophrenia patients and participated in the "Family to Family Support Program". Twenty caregivers were included in the sample. The study was carried out in İzmir Schizophrenia Support Association. The study data were collected with four open ended questions. The average age of the participants was 56,77 ± 72,89, 10 male caregivers and 10 female caregivers, 9 caregivers were fathers, 6 caregivers were mothers, and 5 of them were siblings. The thematic analysis indicated that the emotions, thoughts and experiences of caregivers can be categorized in four groups: "I learned to deal with my problems", "I am conscious in my interaction with the patient and I know and I am not alone", "I feel much better", and "Schizophrenia is not the end of the road, knowledge sorts things out." Caregivers who participated in "Family to Family Support Program" expressed their satisfaction that they were benefited from the program, their coping skills were improved, they experienced less challenges when providing care, they understood the disease better, and it felt comfortable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autism Treatment and Family Support Models Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Esbati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong neurological disability of unknown etiology. The criteria for a diagnosis of autism are based on a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication and a lack of flexibility in thinking and behavior There are several factors which are likely to contribute to this variation including the definition of autism and variability in diagnosis amongst professionals, however anecdotally there appears to have been a steadily increasing demand for services. The purpose of this review of research literature relating to the management and treatment of children with autism is to identify the most effective models of best practice. The review includes Comparative evidence supporting a range of treatment and intervention models, across the range of individuals included within autism spectrum disorders, psychodynamic treatment/management which are based on the assumption that autism is the result of emotional damage to the child, usually because of failure to develop a close attachment to parents, especially the mother, biological treatments, educational and behavioral interventions, communication therapies, cost benefits and supporting families.The research is examined for evidence to support best practice models in supporting families at the time of diagnosis and assessment and an overview of the nature of comprehensive supports that help reduce stresses that may be experienced by families of a child with autism and promote inclusion in community activities.

  17. A cost analysis of family planning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, J L; Day, L M

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a step-down cost analysis using secondary data sources from 26 Bangladesh non-government organizations (NGOs) providing family planning services under a US Agency for International Development-funded umbrella organization. The unit costs of the NGOs' Maternal-Child Health (MCH) clinics and community-based distribution (CBD) systems were calculated and found to be minimally different. Several simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of alternative cost-reduction measures. The more general financial analysis proved more insightful than the unit cost analysis in terms of identifying means by which to improve the efficiency of the family planning operations of these NGOs. The analysis revealed that 56 per cent of total expenditures in the two-tiered umbrella's organizational structure are incurred in management operations and overheads. Of the remaining 44 per cent of project expenditures, 39 per cent is spent on the CBD program and 5 per cent on the MCH clinics. Within the CBD program, most resources are spent providing 4 million contacts (two-thirds of the annual total) which do not involve contraceptive re-supply. The clinics devote more resources to providing MCH services than to providing family planning services. The findings suggest that significant savings could be generated by containing administrative costs, improving operational efficiency, and reducing unnecessary or redundant fieldworker contacts. The magnitude of the potential savings raises a fundamental question about the continued viability and sustainability of this supply-driven CBD strategy.

  18. Providing Family Planning Services at Primary Care Organizations after the Exclusion of Planned Parenthood from Publicly Funded Programs in Texas: Early Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel; Potter, Joseph E

    2017-10-20

    To explore organizations' experiences providing family planning during the first year of an expanded primary care program in Texas. Between November 2014 and February 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 30 organizations: 7 women's health organizations, 13 established primary care contractors (e.g., community health centers, public health departments), and 10 new primary care contractors. Interviews addressed organizational capacities to expand family planning and integrate services with primary care. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Themes were compared across the three types of organizations. Established and new primary care contractors identified several challenges expanding family planning services, which were uncommon among women's health organizations. Clinicians often lacked training to provide intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants. Organizations often recruited existing clients into family planning services, rather than expanding their patient base, and new contractors found family planning difficult to integrate because of clients' other health needs. Primary care contractors frequently described contraceptive provision protocols that were not evidence-based. Many primary care organizations in Texas initially lacked the capacity to provide evidence-based family planning services that women's health organizations already provided. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. 'Women now wear trousers': men's perceptions of family planning in the context of changing gender relations in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Onono, Maricianah; Oyier, Beryl; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation. While many men viewed family planning positively, fears that family planning would lead to more female sexual agency and promiscuity or that male roles would be further jeopardised were widespread and were major deterrents to male family planning approval. By addressing such fears, gender-sensitive programmes could help more men to accept family planning. Increased family planning education for men is needed to dispel misconceptions regarding family planning side-effects. Focusing on the advantages of family planning, namely financial benefits and reduced conflict among couples, could resonate with men. Community leaders, outreach workers and healthcare providers could help shift men's approval of joint decision-making around family size to other reproductive domains, such as family planning use.

  20. Reducing Work-Family Conflict through Different Sources of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Geertje; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between four sources of social support (i.e., spouse, relatives and friends, supervisor, and colleagues) and time and strain-based work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among 444 dual-earners. Gender differences with respect to the relationship between social support and work-family conflict were…

  1. Support for Teens When a Family Member has Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a parent, brother, or sister has been diagnosed with cancer, family members need extra support. Information to help teens learn how to cope, talk with family members, manage stress, and get support from counselors when a loved one has been diagnosed with, or is being treated for, cancer.

  2. Relations between agreeableness and perceived support in family relationships: Why nice people are not always supportive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Do more agreeable individuals perceive more support, and are they perceived as more supportive, across all family relationships or only within specific relationships? In a study of 256 Dutch two-parent families with two adolescents, we examine whether links between Agreeableness and support are

  3. The roles of men in family planning - a study of married men at the UKM primary care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jes; Tong, S F

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers' involvement in family planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being. This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs; 39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men discussing family planning activities were older age ( p family planning activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the discussion of FPMs.

  4. Perceived organizational support-burnout-satisfaction relationship in workers with disabilities: The moderation of family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Chambel, Maria José; Fernández, Juan José; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2018-05-02

    Our study tests the perceived organizational support-burnout-satisfaction relationship based on stressor-strain-outcome model of stress (Koeske & Koeske, ) and on the conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, ) in workers with disabilities employed in ordinary or competitive jobs (open labor market), analyzing the relationship between perceived organizational support, family support, job satisfaction and burnout. We use a sample of 246 workers with physical, motor, sensory and psychological disabilities working in ordinary jobs. To test our proposed model we used a regression-based path analysis using PROCESS software, which is a computational tool for estimating and probing interactions and the conditional indirect effects of moderated mediation models. We find that the positive relationship between organizational support and job satisfaction was partially mediated by the levels of cynicism and the relationship between burnout and job satisfaction was moderated by family support. Employees with low support from family had identical job satisfaction with high burnout or low burnout, but employees with high support from family when they had high burnout had lower job satisfaction than when they had low burnout, indicating that the support outside work could have a negative effect in workers' life. Practical implications and future research are discussed and proposed. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Family Planning Needs of Women Experiencing Severe Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Morbidity in Accra, Ghana: Another Missed Opportunity? ... was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use .... Of the 19 women who wanted more children, more than half ...

  6. INTRODUCTION Family planning implies the ability of individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about 25% of women who have abortion in Nigeria ... Keywords: Family planning, awareness, pregnant women, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan .... Washington D.C. World bank 1987;52. 6. ... 2007;1(1) : Accessed on line on 7th March,2008. 19.

  7. Women's attitudes towards receiving family planning services from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kenya ranks among the countries in Africa with high fertility rates. In order ... fertility rates, there is need to increase uptake of family planning services particularly by use of ... cluding distribution of pills as well as injectable contra-.

  8. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, Robert; Kuhn,Emily

    2014-01-01

    Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be deli...

  9. Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

  10. A model for effective planning of SME support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakićević, Zoran; Omerbegović-Bijelović, Jasmina; Lečić-Cvetković, Danica

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a model for effective planning of support services for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The idea is to scrutinize and measure the suitability of support services in order to give recommendations for the improvement of a support planning process. We examined the applied support services and matched them with the problems and needs of SMEs, based on the survey conducted in 2013 on a sample of 336 SMEs in Serbia. We defined and analysed the five research questions that refer to support services, their consistency with the SMEs' problems and needs, and the relation between the given support and SMEs' success. The survey results have shown a statistically significant connection between them. Based on this result, we proposed an eight-phase model as a method for the improvement of support service planning for SMEs. This model helps SMEs to plan better their requirements in terms of support; government and administration bodies at all levels and organizations that provide support services to understand better SMEs' problems and needs for support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of service quality in family planning clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nancy L; Vwalika, Bellington; Sitali, Elizabeth Siyama; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Chi, Benjamin H; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2015-10-01

    To determine the quality of contraceptive services in family planning clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, using a standardized approach. We utilized the Quick Investigation of Quality, a cross-sectional survey tool consisting of a facility assessment, client-provider observation and client exit interview, in public-sector family planning clinics. Data were collected on availability of seven contraceptive methods, information given to clients, interpersonal relations between providers and clients, providers' technical competence and mechanisms for continuity and follow-up. Data were collected from five client-provider observations and client exit interviews in each of six public-sector family planning clinics. All clinics had at least two contraceptive methods continuously available for the preceding 6 months. Most providers asked clients about concerns with their contraceptive method (80%) and told clients when to return to the clinic (87%). Most clients reported that the provider advised what to do if a problem develops (93%), described possible side effects (89%), explained how to use the method effectively (85%) and told them when to come for follow-up (83%). Clients were satisfied with services received (93%). This application of the Quick Investigation of Quality showed that the participating family planning clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, were prepared to offer high-quality services with the available commodities and that clients were satisfied with the received services. Despite the subjective client satisfaction, quality improvement efforts are needed to increase contraceptive availability. Although clients perceived the quality of care received to be high, family planning service quality could be improved to continuously offer the full spectrum of contraceptive options. The Quick Investigation of Quality was easily implemented in Lusaka, Zambia, and this simple approach could be utilized in a variety of settings as a modality for quality improvement. Copyright © 2015

  12. Utilization of family planning services in a Nigerian tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Family planning is an integral part of maternal health as its uptake is a significant factor in the reduction of maternal mortality and in ensuring positive child health outcomes. Objectives: To describe prevalence and pattern of contraceptive use, and identify reasons for discontinuation among women accessing family ...

  13. Medical Students' Knowledge of Fertility Awareness-Based Methods of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Peter G; Kurz, Sally A; Covert, Laura M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation. Two lectures about FABMs and their clinical applications were given during the rotation. Students were given the same questions at the end of the rotation. Each questionnaire consisted of eight questions to assess a student's knowledge of FABMs and two questions to assess the student's confidence in sharing and utilizing that information in a clinical setting. McNemar's test was used to analyze the data. Two hundred seventy-seven students completed a pretest questionnaire and 196 students completed the posttest questionnaire. Medical knowledge improved from an initial test score of 38.99% to final test score of 53.57% ( p  Medical schools may not include FABMs in OB-GYN curriculum; however, to patients, these methods remain a sought after and valid form of family planning. This study shows that brief, focused education can increase medical students' knowledge of and confidence with FABMs of family planning.

  14. Sex education and family planning services for young adults: alternative urban strategies in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J W; Diaz de May, E; Sepúlveda, Y; Santos de Garza, Y; Rosenhouse, S

    1987-01-01

    In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas.

  15. Impact of Economic Crisis to Family Planning Realination on Poor Household in Banjarsari District, Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Apri Astuti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out in Nusukan, Banjarsari, Surakarta. The problems that are related to economic crisis in Indonesia are the supply of contraception, the weakening of people purchasing power so they influence the realization of family planning program. The goals of the study are: to know the supply of contraception for poor household, to study the influence of the effect of economic crisis for the participant of family planning, to study the change of birth control and its effective strategy and to know the quality of family planning service. The data are collected using observation, and questionnaire. The study takes the area in which it has more productive couple, the percentage of poor families and the prosperous families I that belong to productive couple whose age 20 to 49 years old, at least they have two children, and participant of family planning or ever followed it. The result of the study shows that 82% respondents can get contraception easily before and at economic crisis. It is one of the important factors, for which the participant of family planning is still high. Although the economic crisis influences the price of contraception and family Income, it does not affect the participant of family planning. 87% respondents participate actively the family planning. This shows that the people have realized the importance of family planning program. There is an impact of economic crisis for the change of the ways of birth control. 38% respondents have changed over their strategy from modern to traditional contraception and the contrary, and from modern contraception to the other one. Some of them are abstention. The level of the people adaptation is high enough. They use various ways to prevent of being pregnant. 92% respondents do not want to be pregnant. If it happens an unwanted pregnancy, 15% of the respondents will abort their pregnancy. This is the challenge for the officers and the government to supply safe and accurate

  16. Stress and Support in Family Relationships after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Megan; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors merge the study of support, strain, and ambivalence in family relationships with the study of stress to explore the ways family members provide support or contribute to strain in the disaster recovery process. The authors analyze interviews with 71 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, and identify three family…

  17. Strategies needed to involve men, other family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1998-01-01

    Women typically do not make decisions about contraceptive use and family planning on their own, and many women often have little, if any, decision-making power in the home. Strategies are therefore needed to empower women, educate family members, and involve men in reproductive health programs. Policymakers should expand the range of male services and encourage the greater use of male contraceptive methods. Furthermore, health programs should include counseling to help men and women improve their communications skills and conduct education campaigns to inform men about the roles they can play in family planning. Men should also learn about the side effects of both male and female methods, since concern over method side effects can frustrate their support of family planning. Appropriate strategies can be tailored to meet individual group needs. Programs in Madagascar, Bangladesh, Honduras, and Nepal are described as examples of how the support of family members can positively affect family planning use and reproductive health.

  18. Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your breastfeeding support network How to get your family on board with breastfeeding African-American celebrity moms ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' ...

  19. Knowledge and Perception about Family Planning Among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... The study adopted a qualitative and quantitative approach which included a survey of 136 randomly ... of awareness were many, very few women had adequate knowledge about family planning methods.

  20. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  1. Countywide Evaluation of the Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency Plan. Assessing the Utility of the LTFSS Plan Service Delivery and Planning Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lois

    2002-01-01

    ...) Plan on November 16,1999. The LTFSS Plan consists of 46 projects whose goal is to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating in the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids Act of 1997 (CalWORKS...

  2. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  3. Family medicine practice in Saudi Arabia: The current situation and Proposed Strategic Directions Plan 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Al-Mogbil, Tariq I; Al-Khashan, Hesham I

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of the teaching and training of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in family medicine in KSA, assess the current practice of family medicine, and draw a roadmap to achieve Saudi vision 2020. This study was conducted with the support and collaboration of the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, and World Health Organization (EMRO) in November 2015. Based on the literature review of previous studies conducted for similar purposes, relevant questionnaires were developed. These consisted of four forms, each of which was directed at a different authority to achieve the above-mentioned objectives. Data of all questionnaires were coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 16. There are 2282 primary health-care centers (PHCCs), 60% of which are in rural areas. More than half of the PHCCs have a laboratory and more than one-third have a Radiology Department. Out of the 6107 physicians, 636 are family physicians (10%). All medical colleges have a family medicine department with a total staff of 170 medical teachers. Thirteen departments run family medicine courses of 4-8 weeks' duration for students. Fourteen colleges have internship programs in family medicine and four colleges have postgraduate centers for family medicine (27%). There are 95 training centers for Saudi Board (Saudi Board of Family Medicine [SBFM]) and 68 centers for Saudi Diploma (Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine [SDFM]). The total number of trainers was 241, while the total trainees were 756 in SBFM and 137 in SDFM. This survey showed that there is a shortage of qualified family physicians in all health sectors in Saudi Arabia as a result of the lack of a strategic plan for the training of family physicians. A national strategic plan with specific objectives and an explicit budget are necessary to deal with this shortage and improve the quality of health-care services at PHCCs.

  4. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  5. Determinants of unmet need for family planning in rural Burkina Faso: a multilevel logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-12-19

    Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.

  6. Analysis of Work Performance of Family Planning Field Workers in Male Family Planning Program in Cilacap District

    OpenAIRE

    Suryani, Untari Fajar; Nurjazuli, Nurjazuli; Arso, Septo Pawelas

    2013-01-01

    Target of MDG's to reach maternal mortality rate of 102/100.000 live-births and infantmortality rate of 23/1000 live-births had been performed by improving maternal health throughincreasing contraceptive prevalence rate and decreasing unmet need. Percentage of male withpermanent birth control in Cilacap district was in the lowest rank, 0.16%. Success of familyplanning program could not be separated from work performance of PLKB (family planning field workers); assessment of PLKB work performa...

  7. Ecological support for rural land-use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Theobald; Thomas Spies; Jeff Kline; Bruce Maxwell; N. T. Hobbs; Virginia H. Dale

    2005-01-01

    How can ecologists be more effective in supporting ecologically informed rural land-use planning and policy? Improved decision making about rural lands requires careful consideration of how ecological information and analyses can inform specific planning and policy needs. We provide a brief overview of rural land-use planning, including recently developed approaches to...

  8. Training of Family Planning Counselors in Jordan: Developing Human Resources through Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the development and status of family planning (FP) services, including counseling, in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It also reports extensively on a FP counseling training course organized by the Jordanian Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP) which is a local NGO. A field survey approach, with…

  9. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  10. SUPPORTING FAMILIES OF FOREIGN FIGHTERS. A REALISTIC APPROACH FOR MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy-Jane Gielen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently so-called ´family hotlines’ were launched in the Netherlands, France, Austria, serving as a resource for the parents and relatives who are confronted with the (potential foreign fighter phenomenon. The hotline connects callers with social and religious services in an effort help prevent the (further radicalisation of young Muslims or support families whose loved ones have travelled to Syria. In other countries such as Denmark (Aarhus family talk groups were set up by the municipality or by affected parents, such as ‘Les parents concernés’ in Belgium. Family support is a relatively new approach within counter-radicalisation policy in which the Germans pioneered since 2012. Supporting families is considered valuable for several reasons and can be provided at different stages (Gielen, 2014: In its earliest stages, family support can be provided to parents of individuals at risk, by addressing their concerns, working on (maintaining a positive family environment with an open atmosphere in which they can discuss extremist ideas with their child and provide positive alternatives. If radical or extremist ideas lead to travel to a conflict zone abroad, such as Syria or Iraq, foreign fighters quite often remain in touch with their families back home. Family support can then be aimed at maintaining contact with their children or relatives and in creating a positive environment for a child to return home; When extremist views turn into violence and ultimately imprisonment, families can be supported whilst their relative is imprisoned or afterwards in the re-integration and re-habilitation process, such going back to school and helping them find a job. If practitioners are able to create and sustain a relationship with families of foreign fighters, then it will be easier to create an entry point for contact with the foreign fighter upon his/her return. This is of particular importance, as families are also crucial for de-radicalisation and

  11. How can policy strengthen community support for children in military families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberiene, Liepa V; Hornback, Bradley J

    2014-09-01

    The extraordinary demands of recent wars have increased burdens on many military families and existing systems of care. The sacrifices made by service members are made also by their children and families, and these sacrifices can have long-term consequences. Therefore, military children and families cannot go unrecognized and unsupported. Policy responses should be less about diagnosing and treating individuals and more about recognizing and supporting families' and communities' resilience in the face of wartime deployment. Policy should focus on identifying military children in diverse communities and supporting them where they live, learn, and receive care. A range of community-based prevention strategies could decrease stress before it escalates into serious mental health issues. Efforts to develop family resilience during deployment and reintegration are extremely important in facilitating children's healthy development and veterans' recovery. Military personnel should partner with community leaders to implement effective programs providing emotional, social, and practical support to families. Emphasizing family cohesion, community social support, and comprehensive programs through education and health care organizations would go a long way in fostering families' resilience. At the same time, pro- grams should be monitored and evaluated, and military and civilian researchers should share data on family risk and resilience to improve evidence- based approaches. Such efforts would benefit not only military children, but also larger populations as programs improve family and community capacity to support thriving and mitigate challenges in the face of adversity.

  12. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurusi, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  13. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  14. The impact of family planning clinic programs on adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Hermalin, A I; Henshaw, S K

    1981-01-01

    During the 1970s, there was a decline in adolescent childbearing in the United States and, among teenagers who were sexually active, there was a decline in pregnancy rates as well. To what extent was increased enrollment by teenagers in federally funded family planning clinics responsible for these declines? Areal multivariate analysis reveals that adolescent birthrates were reduced between 1970 and 1975 as the result of enrollment by teenagers in family planning clinics, independent of the effects of other factors also affecting fertility, such as poverty status, education and urbanization. Using a model which controls for differences in adolescent sexual activity in different areas in 1970 and 1975, the analysis found that for every 10 teenage patients enrolled in family planning clinics in 1975, about one birth was averted in 1976. Other multivariate models, which did not control for differences in sexual activity, showed changes in the same direction, though of smaller dimension. Since the family planning program averts not only births but also pregnancies that result in abortions and miscarriages, an estimate was made of the total number of pregnancies averted by the program. Based on the proportion of unintended pregnancies among adolescents that resulted in live births in 1976 (36 percent), it was estimated that for every 10 teen patients enrolled in 1975, almost three pregnancies were averted in the following year. Over the 1970s, an estimated 2.6 million unintended adolescent pregnancies were averted by the program--944,000 births, 1,376,000 abortions and 326,000 miscarriages. In 1979 alone, an estimated 417,000 unintended pregnancies were prevented by the program.

  15. Remembering sacrifices: attitude and beliefs among second-generation Korean Americans regarding family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Kim, Barbara W

    2010-06-01

    Korean immigration peaked in the mid-1980s, so that large cohorts of post-1965 immigrants are now approaching or entering retirement. As the baby boomer generation ages, few studies have examined how the lack of retirement savings and eldercare plans combined with cultural expectations such as filial piety may pose challenges for aging Korean immigrants and their adult children. This exploratory study examines attitudes and beliefs among 1.5 and 2nd generation Korean American adults regarding filial expectations and support for aging immigrant parents. In-depth interviews conducted with 124 adult children of immigrants show that their attitudes and beliefs around filial care were primarily motivated by feelings of gratitude and a strong sense of responsibility toward their parents. In addition, because Korean immigrant parents often face language and financial barriers, adult children were preparing themselves for future support of their parents' finances, health care and long-term care needs. Although both adult sons and daughters expressed a desire to care for their parents, adult daughters often discussed in detail their concerns and worries about future care of their parents. The findings of this paper illustrate how the intersections of gender, culture, and class inform attitudes and beliefs regarding aging and family support among Korean American families.

  16. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  17. The Role of Public-Sector Family Planning Programs in Meeting the Demand for Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John; Hardee, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Commonly used indicators of contraceptive behavior in a population-modern contraceptive prevalence (mCPR), unmet need for contraception, demand for contraception and demand satisfied-are not well-suited for evaluating the progress made by government family planning programs in helping women and men achieve their reproductive goals. Trends in these measures in 26 Sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 2014 were examined. Trends in a proposed new indicator, the public-sector family planning program impact score (PFPI), and its relationship to mCPR and the family planning effort score were also assessed. Case studies were used to review public family planning program development and implementation in four countries (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Kenya). The four commonly used indicators capture the extent to which women use family planning and to which demand is satisfied, but shed no direct light on the role of family planning programs. PFPI provides evidence that can be used to hold governments accountable for meeting the demand for family planning, and was closely related to policy developments in the four case-study countries. PFPI provides a useful addition to the indicators currently used to assess progress in reproductive health and family planning programs.

  18. Indonesia. B. The building of a successful population-family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1984-01-01

    Indonesia's population and family planning program is one of the most successful in the world, but much work must be done to meet the reduction in fertility targets set by the government. The goal is a birthrate of 22/1000 by the year 1990, a 50% decrease from the 1970 birthrate. With eligible couples entering the program at a rate of 600,000-750,000, a hard job lies ahead. The basic tenets which have made the Indonesia program strong will be used to meet the goals for 1990. The first of these is political commitment, meaning that all government leaders, from the President to the village chief, back the program and work actively for its success. Along with political commitment is the use of cultural values. The javanese society is feudal, in the sense that people try to respect elders, both leaders in the village and beyond. Thus, when the President speaks in favor of family planning, it carries considerable weight and significance. The village chief speaks favorably of family planning and that means the villagers are receptive to trying it. Another important cultural tenet is that of mutual help, or what is termed "gotong royong." This system goes back for centuries and forms the basis of village interaction. It is simply that people help each other for the common good. The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), with the help of the formal and informal leaders, has defined family planning as something which is for the mutual benefit of the entire community. A 3rd tenet of the program is flexibility. The BKKBN has continually experimented with various approaches. With flexibility comes some risk. The BKKBN has managed to maintain a system whereby it is possible to take risks, and this element of flexibility has benefitted the program greatly. Ownership is another important tenet of the program. The community feels that the program is theirs and that they can decide the activities of the acceptor groups and that they are responsible for maintaining and

  19. Africa takes a more male-friendly approach to family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuodo, D O

    1996-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that men are more likely to support family planning (FP) and to use a method themselves if services and educational programs are targeted to them. Because men fear that contraception reduces their control over their wives' sexuality, male-friendly approaches can enhance gender equality in reproductive health decisions. In Togo, the media is being used to encourage positive attitudes towards FP in specific male groups. In Ghana, FP services targeted to men have resulted in increased male involvement. In Swaziland, male audiences are targeted with FP education. In Sierra Leone, men have met in groups to learn about how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and about the benefits of FP, and in Kenya, three male-only clinics exist to provide FP services to men.

  20. Grandmother Support, Family Functioning, and Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbarello, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…

  1. University of Venda's male students' attitudes towards contraception and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raselekoane, Nanga R; Morwe, Keamogetse G; Tshitangano, Takalani

    2016-07-08

    Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students. This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.

  2. Overcoming family planning challenges in Africa: toward meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcoming family planning challenges in Africa: toward meeting unmet need and scaling up service delivery. Andrzej Kulczycki. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services among Women of Child Bearing Age (15 - 49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... Using accidental sampling technique, 150 women of childbearing age were selected to constitute the sample. Data were collected using a ...

  4. The impact of family planning on women's lives: expanding the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, P R; Hardee, K; Bailey, P; Williamson, N

    1994-01-01

    Women's reproductive health, quality of life, human rights, and status in society have become the focus for international development and public health programs in the 1990s. This reflects a growing awareness that population programs and policies have often failed to take women's needs into account and excluded women from programmatic decision making. Needed is a new research agenda aimed at documenting the impact of family planning programs on women beyond their physical health. Salient research questions include the influence of gender relations on women's ability to select and use family planning methods, men's views of women's contraceptive use, the circumstances under which contraceptive use contributes to a sense of self-worth and autonomy, and the extent to which family planning adoption enables women to achieve long-term goals. This research agenda will require an interdisciplinary approach that draws from sociology, social psychology, economics, and the health sciences. The incorporation of qualitative methods into research designs is recommended to clarify the nuances of women's experiences. Culture-specific measures to constructs such as self-esteem, autonomy, and satisfaction must be developed. Most important is creation of a dialogue between researchers and actual and potential users of family planning aimed at defining and examining central issues.

  5. Integrating Family Planning and HIV Services at the Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized ..... process evaluation data from several studies on facility-based ... PEPFAR blueprint: Creating an AIDS-free generation.

  6. Uso de servicios de planificación familiar de la Secretaría de Salud, poder de decisión de la mujer y apoyo de la pareja Use of family planning services and its relationship with women's decision-makingand support from their partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Estrada

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la influencia de las características reproductivas y el empoderamiento femenino en el uso de servicios de planificación familiar (PF. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño de casos y no casos pareado por controles vecindarios (147 usuarias y 146 no usuarias de servicios de PF de la Secretaría de Salud durante 2003, en dos municipios del estado de Guanajuato, México. Análisis logístico multivariado para identificar diferencias entre usuarias y no usuarias. RESULTADOS: El uso de servicios de PF se asoció positiva y significativamente con poder de decisión de la mujer (alto: RM=3.2; IC95% 1.4-7.4; comunicación con la pareja para el uso de métodos de PF (RM =3.5; IC95% 1.4-9.3, y número de embarazos en su vida (> 6 hijos: RM =4.4; IC95% 1.4-13.8. CONCLUSIONES: El desarrollo de estrategias que involucren a los hombres y que, por otra parte, fomenten y fortalezcan el empoderamiento femenino, puede contribuir a una mayor utilización de servicios de PF.OBJECTIVE: To identify the influence of reproductive characteristics and women empowerment with the use of family planning services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases and non-cases design with neighborhood controls (147 users and 146 non-users of family planning services during 2003, in Guanajuato State, Mexico. Various indexes were constructed to evaluate women's empowerment and its relationship with family planning use. RESULTS: The use of family planning services was positively and significantly associated with the woman's power to make decisions (High: OR 3.2, CI95% 1.4-7.4, a high level of communication with her partner on contraceptive use (OR 3.5, CI95% 1.4-9.3; and a greater number of pregnancies (> 6 children: OR 4.4, CI95% 1.4-13.8. CONCLUSION: Factors such as a high level of female decision-making and more partner support for contraceptive use are related to the use of family planning services. Therefore, developing strategies that involve men and support female empowerment

  7. Clarifying Relationships among Work and Family Social Support, Stressors, and Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Pichler, Shaun; Cullen, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Although work and family social support predict role stressors and work-family conflict, there has been much ambiguity regarding the conceptual relationships among these constructs. Using path analysis on meta-analytically derived validity coefficients (528 effect sizes from 156 samples), we compare three models to address these concerns and…

  8. Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waled Amen Mohammed; Shokai, Sara Boutros; Abduelkhair, Insaf Hassan; Boshra, Amira Yahia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County. This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting) and Renk (urban setting). The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes. The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes. The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak) and urban (Renk) areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported

  9. Blended learning on family planning policy requirements: key findings and implications for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Rupali J; Ahmed, Naheed; Ohkubo, Saori; Ballard, Anne

    2018-04-01

    To address unmet needs for family planning and advance women's rights, US federal foreign aid recipients must ensure compliance with the family planning legislative and policy requirements. Because many health providers work in rural and remote settings, blended learning, which combines in-person and online experiences, is a promising approach for strengthening their compliance knowledge. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of blended learning that included three components (online course, in-person training and conference call) on retention of family planning compliance knowledge. A total of 660 learners from 44 countries completed the online survey (8% response rate). Study participants were asked about their knowledge of family planning compliance and suggestions to improve their learning experiences. Knowledge retention was higher in the group that utilised all three learning approaches compared with the online course plus conference call group (Pblended learning training resulted in the highest gains in knowledge retention compared with online-only learning. These findings suggest that blended learning and repeat online trainings are critical to ensuring health professionals are aware of family planning compliance regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Changing Patterns of Unmet Needs for Family Planning Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study employed secondary data analysis of the National HIV/AIDS and. Reproductive Health ... Keywords: Unmet Need, Family Planning, Women of Reproductive Age group. Résumé ... The World Health Organization in 2012 highlighted ...

  11. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  12. Family Planning Needs of Women Experiencing Severe Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery ...

  13. Family medicine residents' practice intentions: Theory of planned behaviour evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2015-11-01

    To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.

  14. Reproductive health and family planning needs among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2013-03-01

    Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.

  15. Better Together: Expanding Rural Partnerships to Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklee, Harriet; Bigbee, Jeri; Wall, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortages of health, social service, and mental health professionals in rural areas necessitate creative partnerships in support of families. Cooperative extension professionals in Family and Consumer Sciences and community health nurses, who can bring critical skills to human services teams, are introduced as trusted professionals in…

  16. Determinants of family planning service uptake and use of contraceptives among postpartum women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Katelyn M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Kiene, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum. Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44). Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.

  17. Job attitudes among workers with disabilities: The importance of family support in addition to organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Vanesa; Alcover, Carlos-María; Chambel, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    In the case of workers with disabilities, family support is often essential to gain access to the labor market and achieve personal autonomy and financial independence, in addition to fostering job satisfaction and permanence in the organization. Moreover, the support offered by organizations is particularly valued by workers with disabilities, as the organizations that hire such people generally go to considerable lengths to ensure their adaptation and integration in the workplace, contributing to job satisfaction and permanence in the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between organizational support and family support with job satisfaction and intention to quit the organization among workers with disabilities employed in ordinary firms. Our study surveyed 204 workers using a questionnaire, and we used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses to test these relationships. Our results show that organizational support is a significant explanatory factor in the levels of job satisfaction. Moreover, our results indicate that the participants perceived high levels of support from their families, facilitating the conciliation of work and family life. Our results have practical implications in order to improve full integration and normalization of workers with disabilities in ordinary jobs.

  18. A SWOT analysis of Planning Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, G.; Geertman, S.; Schot, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Insight into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of planning support systems (PSS) is fragmented between users and system developers. The lack of combined insights blocks development in the right direction and makes potential users hesitant to apply PSS in planning. This

  19. Perspectives of family and veterans on family programs to support reintegration of returning veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ellen P; Sherman, Michelle D; McSweeney, Jean C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Owen, Richard R; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-08-01

    Combat deployment and reintegration are challenging for service members and their families. Although family involvement in mental health care is increasing in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system, little is known about family members' preferences for services. This study elicited the perspectives of returning Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and their families regarding family involvement in veterans' mental health care. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 veterans receiving care for posttraumatic stress disorder at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System or Oklahoma City VA Medical Center and 36 veteran-designated family members. Interviews addressed perceived needs related to veterans' readjustment to civilian life, interest in family involvement in joint veteran/family programs, and desired family program content. Interview data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Both groups strongly supported inclusion of family members in programs to facilitate veterans' postdeployment readjustment and reintegration into civilian life. Both desired program content focused on information, practical skills, support, and gaining perspective on the other's experience. Although family and veteran perspectives were similar, family members placed greater emphasis on parenting-related issues and the kinds of support they and their children needed during and after deployment. To our knowledge, this is the first published report on preferences regarding VA postdeployment reintegration support that incorporates the perspectives of returning male and female veterans and those of their families. Findings will help VA and community providers working with returning veterans tailor services to the needs and preferences of this important-to-engage population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  1. Integrating Intimate Partner Violence Screening and Counseling in a Family Planning Clinic: Evaluation of a Pilot Project in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Delamou, Alexandre; Traore, Pernamou; Diallo, Fatoumata Guilinty; Millimono, Sita; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Laffe, Kira; Verani, Fabio; Tolliver, Maimouna

    2016-06-01

    Few programs exist to address Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Guinea. In 2014, Engender Health, in partnership with the local health authorities in Conakry, Guinea, piloted an integrated approach to IPV screening and counseling, within an existing family planning clinic. This article describes both the process of formulating and implementing this approach, as well as the results of an evaluation of the program. From January to June of 2014, Engender Health staff trained midwives at the Conakry International Planned Parenthood Federation family planning clinic staff in screening and counseling client for IPV. Program evaluators used project records, interview with program staff (n=3), midwives (n=3) and client exit interviews (n=53) to measure the outcomes of this pilot project. Regardless of their IPV status, clients appreciated having a venue in which to discuss IPV. Program staff also felt empowered by the additional training and support for IPV screening. The evaluation yielded valuable suggestions for improvement, including more time for staff training and mock client interview practice, additional skills in counseling, and stronger referral links for women who screen positive for IPV. Integrating IPV screening into family planning services is an important and feasible method for reaching vulnerable women with IPV services.

  2. Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use and Its Impact on Family Planning Program in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mishra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.

  3. The relationship between family support; pain and depression in elderly with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren W; Crum, Anthony B; Chen, Wei; Birmingham, Wendy C

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and chronic nature of arthritis make it the most common cause of disability among U.S.A adults. Family support reduces the negative impact of chronic conditions generally but its role in pain and depression for arthritic conditions is not well understood. A total of 844 males (35.0%) and 1567 females (65.0%) with arthritic conditions (n = 2411) were drawn from the 2012 Health and Retirement Study to examine the effect of family support on pain and depressive symptoms. Using regression analysis and controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, marital/educational status and employment/income, physical function/disability status, pain and antidepressant medications, and other clinical indicators of chronic health conditions, we examined the effects of family support (spouse, children, other) on pain and depression levels. Results indicated that depressive symptoms decreased significantly with strong family and spousal support (p relationship between family support, pain, and depression for individuals with arthritis. Future longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate family support and relationships over a wider spectrum of demographics.

  4. Values clarification as a technique for family planning education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J

    1983-02-01

    A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time.

  5. Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sandy; Lee, Alexia

    2011-01-01

    This study extended incivility research beyond the confines of the workplace by exploring the relationships between incivility, work-to-family conflict and family support. Data collected from 180 employees from various organizations in Singapore showed that incivility is not a rare phenomenon in Asian cultures. Employees experienced more incivility from superiors than coworkers or subordinates, and these experiences were related to different outcomes. Coworker-initiated incivility was associated with decreased coworker satisfaction, increased perceptions of unfair treatment, and increased depression. On the other hand, superior-initiated incivility was associated with decreased supervisor satisfaction and increased work-to-family conflict. Results also revealed that employees with high family support showed stronger relationships between workplace incivility and negative outcomes, compared with employees with low family support.

  6. Family members and health professionals' perspectives on future life planning of ageing people with Down syndrome: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelli, Venusia; Raggi, Alberto; Paganelli, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-08-08

    To address the way in which primary caregivers of people over 45 with Down syndrome describe daily life activities and context and foresee their future. Thirteen family members and 15 health professionals participated to four focus groups. Meaningful concepts were identified and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health using established linking rules. A total of 258 relevant concepts were identified and linked to 75 categories of the classification: 38 were from activity and participation and 17 from environmental factors domains. The most commonly reported issues were mental functions (b117-intellectual functions and b152-emotional functions), community life activities (d910-community life and d920-recreation and leisure) and environmental factors (e310-support of immediate family, e355-support from health professionals and e555-associations and organizational services). Information on the daily life and health of ageing people with Down syndrome is important to plan social and health care interventions tailored to deal with problems that they may encounter in older age. Considering the interaction between health and environment and maintaining a continuity of daily routines were reported as the most relevant topics for managing daily lives of persons with Down syndrome in older ages. Implications for rehabilitation Pay more attention to the interaction between environmental factors and health condition in ageing people with Down syndrome. Information about the life contest are important in order to plan present and future social-health care interventions. Future planning for people with Down syndrome is a great concern for family members.

  7. Characteristics of Consumers of Family Planning Services in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Dahal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Family planning services in Nepal are provided by government and non-government health facilities. A descriptive cross sectional study was done by secondary data review of eight months from Institutional clinic, District Health Office (DHO Ilam district. Use of different family planning methods through government health facility was studied in relation to different variables like age, sex, ethnicity, and, number of children. Around 53% of the female users of spacing method and around 47% of female users of permanent method were in age group 20-29 years and 25-29 years respectively. The major reasons for removal of IUCD were husband’s migration and experienced physical problems. Most of the females doing sterilization were from Disadvantaged Janajati group whereas most of the males doing sterilization were from Upper caste ethnic group. Among females doing sterilization, 70% already had their second live birth baby. Out of the total sterilization performed in 8 months, only 15.15% was done among males. So, there is need of increasing male involvement in Family planning. There is also need of programs to encourage spacing methods among the target population. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8482 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 125-138

  8. The ethnography of help - Supporting families with children with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explored parents’ of children with learning disabilities perceptions of family support workers’ helping strategies. A qualitative approach drawing on the principles of ethnography was used to explore the experiences of six families of the helping strategies adopted by family workers and posed three research questions:\\ud (1) What are the perceptions of parents, of children with learning disabilities, of the helping strategies of family support workers?\\ud (2) How do parents unders...

  9. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site's infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford's infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition

  10. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam. Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability. PMID:28729979

  11. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik

    2007-01-01

    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  12. Using Program Data to Improve Access to Family Planning and Enhance the Method Mix in Conflict-Affected Areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Wheeler, Erin

    2018-03-21

    Unmet need for family planning in the conflict-affected area of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been reported to be as high as 38%, and women in such conflict settings are often the most at risk for maternal mortality. The International Rescue Committee implements the Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies program in 3 provinces of eastern DRC to provide women and couples access to family planning, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). This article presents routine program data from June 2011 through December 2013 from 2 health zones as well as results from a qualitative assessment of family planning clients and of male and female non-users, conducted in 2013. It then describes how these findings were used to make program adjustments to improve access to family planning services and client informed choice and assesses the effects of the program design changes on family planning uptake and method mix using routine program data from January 2014 through December 2016. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,985 clients adopted family planning, with an average 14 clients adopting a method per facility, per month. The method mix remained stable during this period, with implants dominating at 48%. Barriers to uptake identified from the qualitative research were both supply- and demand-related, including misconceptions about certain modern contraceptive methods on the part of providers, users, and other community members. The program implemented several program changes based on the assessment findings, including clinical coaching and supportive supervision to improve provider skills and attitudes, introduction of immediate postpartum insertion of the intrauterine device (IUD) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and behavior change communication campaigns to raise awareness about family planning. After these program changes, the mean number of clients adopting modern family planning per facility, per month

  13. Using Program Data to Improve Access to Family Planning and Enhance the Method Mix in Conflict-Affected Areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Wheeler, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Unmet need for family planning in the conflict-affected area of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been reported to be as high as 38%, and women in such conflict settings are often the most at risk for maternal mortality. The International Rescue Committee implements the Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies program in 3 provinces of eastern DRC to provide women and couples access to family planning, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). This article presents routine program data from June 2011 through December 2013 from 2 health zones as well as results from a qualitative assessment of family planning clients and of male and female non-users, conducted in 2013. It then describes how these findings were used to make program adjustments to improve access to family planning services and client informed choice and assesses the effects of the program design changes on family planning uptake and method mix using routine program data from January 2014 through December 2016. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,985 clients adopted family planning, with an average 14 clients adopting a method per facility, per month. The method mix remained stable during this period, with implants dominating at 48%. Barriers to uptake identified from the qualitative research were both supply- and demand-related, including misconceptions about certain modern contraceptive methods on the part of providers, users, and other community members. The program implemented several program changes based on the assessment findings, including clinical coaching and supportive supervision to improve provider skills and attitudes, introduction of immediate postpartum insertion of the intrauterine device (IUD) and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and behavior change communication campaigns to raise awareness about family planning. After these program changes, the mean number of clients adopting modern family planning per facility, per month

  14. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  15. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    .... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...

  16. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    .... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...

  17. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  18. Emerging models for mobilizing family support for chronic disease management: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D

    2010-03-01

    We identify recent models for programmes aiming to increase effective family support for chronic illness management and self-care among adult patients without significant physical or cognitive disabilities. We then summarize evidence regarding the efficacy for each model identified. Structured review of studies published in medical and psychology databases from 1990 to the present, reference review, general Web searches and conversations with family intervention experts. Review was limited to studies on conditions that require ongoing self-management, such as diabetes, chronic heart disease and rheumatologic disease. Programmes with three separate foci were identified: (1) Programmes that guide family members in setting goals for supporting patient self-care behaviours have led to improved implementation of family support roles, but have mixed success improving patient outcomes. (2) Programmes that train family in supportive communication techniques, such as prompting patient coping techniques or use of autonomy supportive statements, have successfully improved patient symptom management and health behaviours. (3) Programmes that give families tools and infrastructure to assist in monitoring clinical symptoms and medications are being conducted, with no evidence to date on their impact on patient outcomes. The next generation of programmes to improve family support for chronic disease management incorporate a variety of strategies. Future research can define optimal clinical situations for family support programmes, the most effective combinations of support strategies, and how best to integrate family support programmes into comprehensive models of chronic disease care.

  19. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizta Tilahun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning

  20. [Learning about the social support provided to the family caregiver assisting a family dependent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Edileuza de Fátima Rosina; de Oliveira, Magda Lúcia Félix

    2008-03-01

    The elderly suffering disability caused by diseases need a network of support in order to continue feeling socially active. This study aims at characterizing the social support provided to the family caregiver who looks after an elderly dependent, in Brazil. A descriptive study with qualitative approach was conducted at the municipality of Jandaia do Sul, Paraná, Brazil. Data collection was performed through semi-structured interviews with 19 primary family caregivers. Data analysis was based on Thematic Analysis. The results show that when it comes to informal sources, the reference to grown up children was mostly used, while as formal ones Unidade Básica de Saúde, the Brazilian Basic Health Unit, and the team from Programa Saúde da Familia, Brazilian Pro-Family Health Program, were referred to. However, the image of Community Health Agent was the most mentioned. Thus, it is necessary to create support nets to integrate both formal and informal systems.

  1. Using Survey Data to Identify Opportunities to Reach Women with An Unmet Need for Family Planning: The Example of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Ratovonanahary, Raseliarison; Andrianantoandro, Tokinirina; Randrianarisoa, Hiangotiana

    2016-01-01

    In several African countries fertility levels have stagnated or increased slightly. However, many women still report an unmet need for family planning. Therefore achieving further fertility declines requires programs that increase demand for family planning, but that also address the existing unmet need. One way to improve contraceptive access in a cost-effective manner might be to integrate family planning services into other existing health services. This paper analyzes secondary data from the 2012-2013 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) survey in Madagascar to estimate the number of women with an unmet need for family planning that might benefit from integrating family planning services into other health services. In Madagascar, one third of the demand for family planning is not met; an estimated 820,000 women have an unmet need for family planning. A substantial portion of these women can be reached by integrating family planning services into existing maternal and child health services. Health providers are uniquely positioned to help address method-related reasons for non-use of family planning, such as concerns about health problems and side-effects. Given the large unmet need for family planning, programs should not exclusively focus on increasing the demand for family planning, but also seek new ways to address the existing unmet need. Our study illustrates that simple analyses of existing health survey data can be an important tool for informing the design of programs to tackle this unmet need.

  2. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2008-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.

  3. Work-family conflict and enrichment in nurses: between job demands, perceived organisational support and work-family backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how work relationships (perceived organisational support, supervisor and co-worker work-family backlash) and job demands (workload, emotional dissonance) can interact with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Despite the extensive literature on the work-family interface, few studies on the nursing profession have considered the role of job demands and work relationships, focusing on both the positive and negative side of the work-family interface. The study involved a sample of 500 nurses working in an Italian hospital. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Analyses showed that work-family conflict has a positive relationship with job demands and supervisor backlash, and a negative relationship with perceived organisational support. Work-family enrichment was found to have a negative relationship with job demands and a positive relationship with perceived organisational support. No significant relationships were found between work-family enrichment and both backlash dimensions. The study confirmed the importance of promoting a balance between job demands and resources in order to create favourable conditions for work-family enrichment and to prevent work-family conflict. The findings suggest that it may be advisable for health-care organisations to invest in measures at individual, team and organisational levels, specifically in training and counselling for nurses and supervisors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Traditional Methods Used in Family Planning and Conception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge and incorporate it into the national health care delivery service. Researchers should document the available indigenous knowledge before they are forgotten while ascertaining the validity of some of the methods. Keywords: Maternal health, family planning, pregnancy management, homebased health care.

  5. Perceptions of Supported Employment Providers: What Students with Developmental Disabilities, Families, and Educators Need to Know for Transition Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sherril; Simonsen, Monica L.; Neubert, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey community rehabilitation providers (CRPs) to determine their perceptions of the skills, experiences, and information that transitioning youth with developmental disabilities (DD) and their families need to access supported employment (SE) services. Supervisors of SE from 12 CRPs across one state…

  6. Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.

  7. Couple based family planning education: changes in male involvement and contraceptive use among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Tizta; Coene, Gily; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-07-21

    Family planning contributes substantially in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Recently, male involvement has gained considerable attention in family planning programs but the implementation thereof remains a challenge. In that context, our study aimed at measuring the effect of a six-month-long family planning education program on male involvement in family planning, as well as on couples' contraceptive practice. We conducted a quasi-experimental research among 811 married couples in Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Our study consisted of an intervention and a control group for comparative purpose; and surveyed before and after the implementation of the intervention. The intervention consisted of family planning education, given to both men and women at the household level in the intervention arm, in addition to monthly community gatherings. During the intervention period, households in the control group were not subject to particular activities but had access to routine health care services. We obtained follow-up data from 760 out of 786 (96.7%) couples who were originally enrolled in the survey. Findings were compared within and between groups before and after intervention surveys. At the baseline, contraceptive use in both control and intervention households were similar. After the intervention, we observed among men in the intervention arm a significantly higher level of willingness to be actively involved in family planning compared to the men in the control arm (p family planning issues was less reported within the control group, both in the case of men and women ((p = 0.031) and (p family planning educational intervention, which includes both spouses and promotes spousal communication, might be useful to foster contraceptive practice among couples. The results also offer practical information on the benefits of male involvement in family planning as a best means to increase contraceptive use. Thus, providing opportunities to reinforce

  8. Women’s Opinion about Women’s Rights regarding Family Planning in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Saw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated that all mankind have equal right and dignity. Both woman and man have rights regarding family planning. It is often assumed that in developing country, women do not consider their rights in family planning decision making process. This study was carried out to determine the opinion of women regarding women’s rights in family planning. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to 99 respondents during the period of August to October 2013, in Hegarmanah village, Jatinangor subdistrict. The inclusion criteria were women aged 15–49 years old, able to speak Bahasa Indonesia, and agreed to participate. Variables for this study were the opinions of the respondents regarding woman’s rights in family planning which were represented in 12 questions. Collected data were presented as percentages shown in tables. Results: Most of the respondents stated that they had the rights in family planning decision making, including choosing contraceptive methods, number of children, and spacing of each child. However, all of the respondents agreed that men should be involved in it. More than half of the respondents stated that they asked opinion from family member regarding family planning especially their mothers. Cultural norms did not influence the family planning decision making. However, religion influenced the family planning decision making. Conclusions: Majority of the women in Hegarmanah village have the role to make decision on family planning by considering the opinions of their spouses, other family members, friends and their religions.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning in Kishanganj district, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years, to evaluate the various factors that influence the unmet need and to explore the common reasons for unmet need for family planning. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2012 in Laucha village in Kishanganj, Bihar through multistage sampling. Married women aged 15-49 years, who were permanent residents of the village, were selected by complete enumeration (330 in total and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The total unmet need for family planning was 23.9%; 9.4% for spacing births and 14.5% for limiting births. The unmet need varied significantly with age (p < 0.05 and was highest in ≤ 19 years age group (33.7%. It was also significantly higher among illiterates, those with low monthly per capita income, among Muslims and among those having more than two living issues (p < 0.05. Husband’s disapproval (34.2%, lack of awareness (27.8% and fear of side effects (24.1% were common reasons behind the unmet need. Conclusion: the unmet need for family planning was quite high among the respondents and associated with various bio-social determinants that should be considered while planning for scaling-up the program.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of unmet need for family planning in Kishanganj district, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Lata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to determine the magnitude of unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years, to evaluate the various factors that influence the unmet need and to explore the common reasons for unmet need for family planning. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2012 in Laucha village in Kishanganj, Bihar through multistage sampling. Married women aged 15-49 years, who were permanent residents of the village, were selected by complete enumeration (330 in total and interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre-designed, pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The total unmet need for family planning was 23.9%; 9.4% for spacing births and 14.5% for limiting births. The unmet need varied significantly with age (p < 0.05 and was highest in ≤ 19 years age group (33.7%. It was also significantly higher among illiterates, those with low monthly per capita income, among Muslims and among those having more than two living issues (p < 0.05. Husband’s disapproval (34.2%, lack of awareness (27.8% and fear of side effects (24.1% were common reasons behind the unmet need. Conclusion: the unmet need for family planning was quite high among the respondents and associated with various bio-social determinants that should be considered while planning for scaling-up the program.

  11. Provision of family planning services in Tanzania: a comparative analysis of public and private facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakoko, D.C.; Ketting, E.; Kamazima, S.R.; Ruben, R.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based

  12. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  13. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda’s Southern Kayonza District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southern Kayonza district, which has the country’s highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers’ catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district’s Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Results: Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman’s matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. Conclusions: As Rwanda

  15. Family Planning Behavior and Small Family Concept Acceptance in Two Different Geographical Characteristics Municipality of South Klaten, Klaten, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Priyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance sma