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Sample records for supertypes largely form

  1. Origins and relatedness of human leukocyte antigen class I allele supertypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles can be classified into supertypes based on the epitope specificity of their peptide binding grooves. The evolutionary origin of these supertypes has been the topic of prior research and remains an important question because of the increasing interest in HLA supertypes in the contexts of infection and cancer epidemiology and vaccine development. Here I re-examine the origins of HLA class I supertypes using the nucleotide sequences of 88 HLA-A alleles and 117 HLA-B alleles. Phylogenetic trees with ancestral character state reconstruction show that the HLA-A02, A03, and A24 supertypes largely form clades with a single ancestral origin while HLA-A01 shows multiple independent origins all from HLA-A03 ancestors. HLA-B supertypes show multiple origins for the B07, B08, and B27 supertypes, while the B44, B58, and B62 supertypes largely form clades with a single ancestor. Supertypes arising multiple times show different amino acid substitutions in each clade. These findings suggest that convergent evolution has occurred in only a few HLA allele supertypes and may indicate different evolutionary pressures shaping certain supertypes.

  2. MULTIPRED2: A computational system for large-scale identification of peptides predicted to bind to HLA supertypes and alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; DeLuca, David S.; Keskin, Derin B.;

    2011-01-01

    MULTIPRED2 is a computational system for facile prediction of peptide binding to multiple alleles belonging to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II DR molecules. It enables prediction of peptide binding to products of individual HLA alleles, combination of alleles, or HLA supertypes...... groups in North America. MULTIPRED2 is an important tool to complement wet-lab experimental methods for identification of T-cell epitopes. It is available at http://cvc.dfci.harvard.edu/multipred2/....

  3. Classification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Claesson, Mogens H

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new antigenic peptides, derived from infectious agents or cancer cells, which bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, is of importance for the development of new effective vaccines capable of activating the cellular arm of the immune response. However...... this complexity is to group thousands of different HLA molecules into several so-called HLA supertypes: a classification that refers to a group of HLA alleles with largely overlapping peptide binding specificities. In this chapter, we focus on the state-of-the-art classification of HLA supertypes including HLA...

  4. HLA class I supertypes: a revised and updated classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brander Christian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules bind, and present to T cells, short peptides derived from intracellular processing of proteins. The peptide repertoire of a specific molecule is to a large extent determined by the molecular structure accommodating so-called main anchor positions of the presented peptide. These receptors are extremely polymorphic, and much of the polymorphism influences the peptide-binding repertoire. However, despite this polymorphism, class I molecules can be clustered into sets of molecules that bind largely overlapping peptide repertoires. Almost a decade ago we introduced this concept of clustering human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles and defined nine different groups, denominated as supertypes, on the basis of their main anchor specificity. The utility of this original supertype classification, as well several other subsequent arrangements derived by others, has been demonstrated in a large number of epitope identification studies. Results Following our original approach, in the present report we provide an updated classification of HLA-A and -B class I alleles into supertypes. The present analysis incorporates the large amount of class I MHC binding data and sequence information that has become available in the last decade. As a result, over 80% of the 945 different HLA-A and -B alleles examined to date can be assigned to one of the original nine supertypes. A few alleles are expected to be associated with repertoires that overlap multiple supertypes. Interestingly, the current analysis did not identify any additional supertype specificities. Conclusion As a result of this updated analysis, HLA supertype associations have been defined for over 750 different HLA-A and -B alleles. This information is expected to facilitate epitope identification and vaccine design studies, as well as investigations into disease association and correlates of immunity. In addition, the approach

  5. The peptide-binding specificity of HLA-A*3001 demonstrates membership of the HLA-A3 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberth, K; Røder, G; Harndahl, M;

    2008-01-01

    haplotype in populations of African descent, has variously been assigned to the A1, A3, or A24 supertypes. Using a biochemical HLA-A*3001 binding assay, and a large panel of nonamer peptides and peptide libraries, we here demonstrate that the specificity of HLA-A*3001 most closely resembles that of the HLA-A......3 supertype. We discuss approaches to supertype assignment and underscore the importance of experimental verification....

  6. Promiscuous CTL recognition of viral epitopes on multiple human leukocyte antigens: biological validation of the proposed HLA A24 supertype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Scott R; Elkington, Rebecca A; Miles, John J; Green, Katherine J; Walker, Susan; Haryana, Sofia M; Moss, Denis J; Dunckley, Heather; Burrows, Jacqueline M; Khanna, Rajiv

    2003-08-01

    Multiple HLA class I alleles can bind peptides with common sequence motifs due to structural similarities in the peptide binding cleft, and these groups of alleles have been classified into supertypes. Nine major HLA supertypes have been proposed, including an A24 supertype that includes A*2301, A*2402, and A*3001. Evidence for this A24 supertype is limited to HLA sequence homology and/or similarity in peptide binding motifs for the alleles. To investigate the immunological relevance of this proposed supertype, we have examined two viral epitopes (from EBV and CMV) initially defined as HLA-A*2301-binding peptides. The data clearly demonstrate that each peptide could be recognized by CTL clones in the context of A*2301 or A*2402; thus validating the inclusion of these three alleles within an A24 supertype. Furthermore, CTL responses to the EBV epitope were detectable in both A*2301(+) and A*2402(+) individuals who had been previously exposed to this virus. These data substantiate the biological relevance of the A24 supertype, and the identification of viral epitopes with the capacity to bind promiscuously across this supertype could aid efforts to develop CTL-based vaccines or immunotherapy. The degeneracy in HLA restriction displayed by some T cells in this study also suggests that the dogma of self-MHC restriction needs some refinement to accommodate foreign peptide recognition in the context of multiple supertype alleles.

  7. SARS CTL vaccine candidates; HLA supertype-, genome-wide scanning and biochemical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C; Nielsen, M; Lamberth, K;

    2004-01-01

    of the HLA supertypes and identified almost 100 potential vaccine candidates. These should be further validated in SARS survivors and used for vaccine formulation. We suggest that immunobioinformatics may become a fast and valuable tool in rational vaccine design.......An effective Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) vaccine is likely to include components that can induce specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The specificities of such responses are governed by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted presentation of SARS-derived peptide epitopes......-CoV) was isolated and full-length sequenced (Marra et al., Science 2003: 300: 1399-404). Here, we have combined advanced bioinformatics and high-throughput immunology to perform an HLA supertype-, genome-wide scan for SARS-specific CTL epitopes. The scan includes all nine human HLA supertypes in total covering >99...

  8. SARS CTL vaccine candidates; HLA supertype-, genome-wide scanning and biochemical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C.; Nielsen, Morten; Lamberth, K.;

    2004-01-01

    of the HLA supertypes and identified almost 100 potential vaccine candidates. These should be further validated in SARS survivors and used for vaccine formulation. We suggest that immunobioinformatics may become a fast and valuable tool in rational vaccine design.......An effective Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) vaccine is likely to include components that can induce specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The specificities of such responses are governed by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted presentation of SARS-derived peptide epitopes......-CoV) was isolated and full-length sequenced (Marra et al., Science 2003: 300: 1399404). Here, we have combined advanced bioinformatics and high-throughput immunology to perform an HLA supertype-, genome-wide scan for SARS-specific CTL epitopes. The scan includes all nine human HLA supertypes in total covering >99...

  9. SARS CTL vaccine candidates; HLA supertype-, genome-wide scanning and biochemical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C.; Nielsen, Morten; Lamberth, K.

    2004-01-01

    An effective Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) vaccine is likely to include components that can induce specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The specificities of such responses are governed by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted presentation of SARS-derived peptide epitopes...... of the HLA supertypes and identified almost 100 potential vaccine candidates. These should be further validated in SARS survivors and used for vaccine formulation. We suggest that immunobioinformatics may become a fast and valuable tool in rational vaccine design....

  10. Definition of supertypes for HLA molecules using clustering of specificity matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Kesmir, Can;

    2004-01-01

    a novel method for clustering sequence motifs. We construct hidden Markov models for HLA class I molecules using a Gibbs sampling procedure and use the similarities among these to define clusters of specificities. These clusters are extensions of the previously suggested ones. We suggest splitting some...... report that the previously observed specificities of these class II molecules can be clustered into nine classes, which only partly correspond to the serological classification. We show that classification of HLA molecules may be done in a uniform and automated way. The definition of clusters allows......Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins are encoded by extremely polymorphic genes and play a crucial role in immunity. However, not all genetically different MHC molecules are functionally different. Sette and Sidney (1999) have defined nine HLA class I supertypes and showed that with only...

  11. The strong law of large numbers for random quadratic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T

    1996-01-01

    The paper establishes strong laws of large numbers for the quadratic forms [GRAPHICS] and the bilinear forms [GRAPHICS] where X = (X(n)) is a sequence of independent random variables and Y = (Y-n) is an independent copy of it. In the case of independent identically distributed symmetric p-stable ran

  12. The strong law of large numbers for random quadratic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T

    1996-01-01

    The paper establishes strong laws of large numbers for the quadratic forms [GRAPHICS] and the bilinear forms [GRAPHICS] where X = (X(n)) is a sequence of independent random variables and Y = (Y-n) is an independent copy of it. In the case of independent identically distributed symmetric p-stable

  13. Axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Offen, N

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the emerging possibilities to study threshold pion electroproduction at large momentum transfers at Jefferson Laboratory following the 12 GeV upgrade, we provide a short theory summary and an estimate of the nucleon axial form factor for large virtualities in the $Q^2 = 1-10~\\text{GeV}^2$ range using next-to-leading order light-cone sum rules.

  14. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka;

    2011-01-01

    -binding characteristics with the HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypes, respectively, the next most frequent human supertypes after HLA-B7. These data suggest that Chinese rhesus macaques may indeed be a more representative model of HLA gene diversity and function as compared to the species of Indian origin and therefore a better...

  15. High pressure sheet metal forming of large scale body structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompeter, M.; Krux, R.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction

    2005-07-01

    An important trend in the automotive industry is the weight reduction of car bodies by lightweight construction. One approach to realise lightweight structures is the use of load optimised sheet metal parts (e.g. tailored blanks), especially for crash relevant car body structures. To form such parts which are mostly complex and primarily made of high strength steels, the use of working media based forming processes is favorable. The paper presents the manufacturing of a large scale structural component made of tailor rolled blanks (TRB) by high pressure sheet metal forming (HBU). The paper focuses mainly on the tooling system, which is integrated into a specific 100 MN hydroform press at the IUL. The HBU tool basically consists of a multipoint blankholder, a specially designed flange draw-in sensor, which is necessary to determine the material flow, and a sealing system. Furthermore, the paper presents a strategy for an effective closed loop flange draw-in control. (orig.)

  16. LARGE VALUES OF CUSP FORMS ON GL n

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We establish lower bounds on the sup norm of Hecke-Maass cusp forms on congruence quotients of ${\\rm GL}_n(\\mathbb{R})$. The argument relies crucially on uniform estimates for Jacquet-Whittaker functions. These purely local results are of independent interest, and are valid in the more general context of split semi-simple Lie groups. Furthermore, we undertake a fine study of self-dual Jacquet-Whittaker functions on ${\\rm GL}_3(\\mathbb{R})$, showing that their large values are governed by the ...

  17. PspA can form large scaffolds in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standar, Kerstin; Mehner, Denise; Osadnik, Hendrik; Berthelmann, Felix; Hause, Gerd; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Brüser, Thomas

    2008-10-29

    The phage shock protein A (PspA) of Escherichia coli stabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane under stress conditions. Here we demonstrate that PspA can form hollow spherical or prolate spheroidal particles of about 30-40nm diameter with a scaffold-like arrangement of protein subunits at the surface. The 'PspA-scaffold' is the basic structure that is common to all particles. The PspA-scaffold may be of fundamental importance, as it could allow PspA to stabilize the integrity of membranes through numerous contact points over a large surface area.

  18. Stress field control during large caldera-forming eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Marti, Joan

    2016-10-01

    Crustal stress field can have a significant influence on the way magma is channelled through the crust and erupted explosively at the surface. Large Caldera Forming Eruptions (LCFEs) can erupt hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma in a relatively short time along fissures under the control of a far-field extensional stress. The associated eruption intensities are estimated in the range 109 - 1011 kg/s. We analyse syn-eruptive dynamics of LCFEs, by simulating numerically explosive flow of magma through a shallow dyke conduit connected to a magma chamber that in turn is fed by a deeper magma reservoir, both under the action of an extensional far-field stress. Results indicate that huge amounts of high viscosity silicic magma can be erupted over timescales of a few to several hours. Our study provides answers to outstanding questions relating to the intensity and duration of catastrophic volcanic eruptions in the past. In addition, it presents far-reaching implications for the understanding of dynamics and intensity of large-magnitude volcanic eruptions on Earth and to highlight the necessity of a future research to advance our knowledge of these rare catastrophic events.

  19. Stress field control during large caldera-forming eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crustal stress field can have a significant influence on the way magma is channelled through the crust and erupted explosively at the surface. Large Caldera Forming Eruptions (LCFEs can erupt hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometres of magma in a relatively short time along fissures under the control of a far-field extensional stress. The associated eruption intensities are estimated in the range 109 - 1011 kg/s. We analyse syn-eruptive dynamics of LCFEs, by simulating numerically explosive flow of magma through a shallow dyke conduit connected to a magma chamber that in turn is fed by a deeper magma reservoir, both under the action of an extensional far-field stress. Results indicate that huge amounts of high viscosity silicic magma can be erupted over timescales of a few to several hours. Our study provides answers to outstanding questions relating to the intensity and duration of catastrophic volcanic eruptions in the past. In addition, it presents far-reaching implications for the understanding of dynamics and intensity of large-magnitude volcanic eruptions on Earth and to highlight the necessity of a future research to advance our knowledge of these rare catastrophic events.

  20. Adjuvanted HLA-supertype restricted subdominant peptides induce new T-cell immunity during untreated HIV-1-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Brandt, Lea; Vinner, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    -cell responses specific for one or more vaccine epitopes were induced in 10/10 vaccinees. The responses were dominated by CD107a and MIP1β expression. There were no significant changes in HIV-1 viral load or CD4 T-cell counts. Our study demonstrates that the peptide/CAF01 vaccine is safe and that it is possible......We investigated the potential of inducing additional T-cell immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection directed to subdominant HIV-1 epitopes from common HLA-supertypes. Ten treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were immunized with peptides in the adjuvant CAF01. One individual received placebo...... to generate new HIV-1 T-cell responses to defined epitopes in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals....

  1. Therapeutic Vaccination Using Cationic Liposome-Adjuvanted HIV Type 1 Peptides Representing HLA-Supertype-Restricted Subdominant T Cell Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2013-01-01

    , and HIV-1 viral loads. T cell immunogenicity was monitored longitudinally by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISpot. New vaccine-specific T cell responses were induced in 6/14 vaccinees for whom ELISpot data were valid. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were stable. The study shows that therapeutic immunization......We have designed a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine concept based on peptides together with the adjuvant CAF01. Peptides represented 15 HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant and conserved CD8 T cell epitopes and three CD4 T-helper cell epitopes. In this phase I clinical trial, safety and immunogenicity...... were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts...

  2. The most common Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule shares peptide binding repertoire with the HLA-B7 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, C.; Southwood, S.; Hoof, Ilka;

    2010-01-01

    macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS outcomes than the Indian rhesus macaque, the Chinese-origin rhesus macaques have not been well-characterized for their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) composition and function, reducing their greater utilization. In this study, we...... characterized a total of 50 unique Chinese rhesus macaques from several varying origins for their entire MHC class I allele composition and identified a total of 58 unique complete MHC class I sequences. Only nine of the sequences had been associated with Indian rhesus macaques, and 28/58 (48...... binding characteristics with the HLA-B7 supertype, the most frequent supertype in human populations. These studies provide the first functional characterization of an MHC class I molecule in the context of Chinese rhesus macaques and the first instance of HLA-B7 analogy for rhesus macaques....

  3. Human leukocyte antigen supertype matching after myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with 7/8 matched unrelated donor allografts: a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R.; Wang, Hai-Lin; Pidala, Joseph; Nishihori, Taiga; Askar, Medhat; Olsson, Richard; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Yong, Agnes; Gandhi, Manish; Dandoy, Christopher; Savani, Bipin; Hale, Gregory; Page, Kristin; Bitan, Menachem; Reshef, Ran; Drobyski, William; Marsh, Steven GE; Schultz, Kirk; Müller, Carlheinz R.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Verneris, Michael R.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Arora, Mukta; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles can be simplified by consolidating them into fewer supertypes based on functional or predicted structural similarities in epitope-binding grooves of HLA molecules. We studied the impact of matched and mismatched HLA-A (265 versus 429), -B (230 versus 92), -C (365 versus 349), and -DRB1 (153 versus 51) supertypes on clinical outcomes of 1934 patients with acute leukemias or myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorders. All patients were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research following single-allele mismatched unrelated donor myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation. Single mismatched alleles were categorized into six HLA-A (A01, A01A03, A01A24, A02, A03, A24), six HLA-B (B07, B08, B27, B44, B58, B62), two HLA-C (C1, C2), and five HLA-DRB1 (DR1, DR3, DR4, DR5, DR9) supertypes. Supertype B mismatch was associated with increased risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio =1.78, P=0.0025) compared to supertype B match. Supertype B07-B44 mismatch was associated with a higher incidence of both grade II–IV (hazard ratio=3.11, P=0.002) and III–IV (hazard ratio=3.15, P=0.01) acute graft-versus-host disease. No significant associations were detected between supertype-matched versus -mismatched groups at other HLA loci. These data suggest that avoiding HLA-B supertype mismatches can mitigate the risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease in 7/8-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation when multiple HLA-B supertype-matched donors are available. Future studies are needed to define the mechanisms by which supertype mismatching affects outcomes after alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:27247320

  4. PspA can form large scaffolds in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Standar, Kerstin; Mehner, Denise; Osadnik, Hendrik; Berthelmann, Felix; Hause, Gerd; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Brüser, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The phage shock protein A (PspA) of Escherichia coli stabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane under stress conditions. Here we demonstrate that PspA can form hollow spherical or prolate spheroidal particles of about 30-40nm diameter with a scaffold-like arrangement of protein subunits at the surface. The 'PspA-scaffold' is the basic structure that is common to all particles. The PspA-scaffold may be of fundamental importance, as it could allow PspA to stabilize the integrity of membranes through n...

  5. New polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 2-derived peptide with the potential to induce cancer-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takafumi; Minami, Tomoko; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; De Velasco, Marco A; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    Analyses on reactivity of anti-cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and clinical application of peptide-based anti-cancer vaccine have been mainly focused on patients with HLA-A2 or -A24 alleles. In this study, we identified an enhancer of zeste homolog (EZH) 2-derived peptide applicable for anti-cancer vaccine for prostate cancer patients with HLA-A3 supertype alleles. Five EZH2-derived peptides that were prepared based on the binding motif to the HLA-A3 supertype alleles (HLA-A11, -A31, and -A33) were functionally screened for their potential to induce peptide-specific CTLs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients. As a result, EZH2733-741 peptide was found to efficiently induce peptide-specific CTLs. The EZH2733-741 peptide-stimulated and purified CD8(+) T cells from PBMCs of HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients showed higher cytotoxicity against HLA-A3 supertype allele-expressing LNCaP prostate cancer cells than against parental LNCaP cells. This cytotoxicity against HLA-A3 supertype allele-expressing LNCaP cells was partially but significantly inhibited by the addition of EZH2733-741 peptide-pulsed competitive cells. These results indicate that the EZH2733-741 peptide could be a promising candidate for peptide-based immunotherapy for HLA-A3 supertype allele(+) prostate cancer patients.

  6. Shatter cones formed in large-scale experimental explosion craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Davis, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    In 1968, a series of 0.5-ton and 100-ton TNT explosion experiments were conducted in granitic rock near Cedar City, Utah, as part of a basic research program on cratering and shock wave propagation. Of special interest was the formation of an important type of shock metamorphic feature, shatter cones. A description is presented of the first reported occurrence of shatter cones in high explosion trials. A background to shatter cone studies is presented and attention is given to the test program, geology and physical properties of the test medium, the observed cratering, and the formational pressures for shatter cones. The high explosion trials conducted demonstrate beyond any doubt, that shatter cones can be formed by shock wave processes during cratering and that average formational pressures in these crystalline rocks are in the 20-60 kb range.

  7. Promiscuous Recognition of a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T Cell Epitope among HLA-A2, HLA-A24 and HLA-A1 Supertypes in Chagasic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lasso

    Full Text Available TcTLE is a nonamer peptide from Trypanosoma cruzi KMP-11 protein that is conserved among different parasite strains and that is presented by different HLA-A molecules from the A2 supertype. Because peptides presented by several major histocompatibility complex (MHC supertypes are potential targets for immunotherapy, the aim of this study was to determine whether MHC molecules other than the A2 supertype present the TcTLE peptide.From 36 HLA-A2-negative chagasic patients, the HLA-A genotypes of twenty-eight patients with CD8+ T cells that recognized the TcTLE peptide using tetramer (twenty or functional (eight assays, were determined. SSP-PCR was used to identify the A locus and the allelic variants. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of TcTLE-specific CD8+ T cells, and their functional activity (IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-2, perforin, granzyme and CD107a/b production was induced by exposure to the TcTLE peptide. All patients tested had TcTLE-specific CD8+ T cells with frequencies ranging from 0.07-0.37%. Interestingly, seven of the twenty-eight patients had HLA-A homozygous alleles: A*24 (5 patients, A*23 (1 patient and A*01 (1 patient, which belong to the A24 and A1 supertypes. In the remaining 21 patients with HLA-A heterozygous alleles, the most prominent alleles were A24 and A68. The most common allele sub-type was A*2402 (sixteen patients, which belongs to the A24 supertype, followed by A*6802 (six patients from the A2 supertype. Additionally, the A*3002/A*3201 alleles from the A1 supertype were detected in one patient. All patients presented CD8+ T cells producing at least one cytokine after TcTLE peptide stimulation.These results show that TcTLE is a promiscuous peptide that is presented by the A24 and A1 supertypes, in addition to the A2 supertype, suggesting its potential as a target for immunotherapy.

  8. Experimental and numerical friction characterization for large-scale forming simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.

    2013-01-01

    A new trend in forming simulation technology is the development of friction models applicable to large scale forming simulations. In this respect, the optimization of forming processes and the success of newly developed friction models requires a complete understanding of the tribological behavior

  9. Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of large-sized aluminum tube extrusion forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕亚臣; 骆俊廷; 马春荣; 徐岩

    2008-01-01

    Large-sized aluminum tube has big section effect, aspect ratio and thin thickness, so that the extrusion technology is complex and the large specific pressure is generated in extrusion cavity. The temperature variation and velocity effect is difficult to control. The extrusion forming of large-sized aluminum tube was researched and simulated. Three-dimensional thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model was constructed and appropriate boundary conditions were given out. The results show that large-sized aluminum tube can be formed by isothermal extrusion through controlling the extrusion velocity and founding the relationship between extrusion velocity and extrusion temperature.

  10. New large-$N_c$ relations for the electromagnetic nucleon-to-$\\Delta$ form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Pascalutsa; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-12-01

    We establish relations which express the three $N\\to \\Delta$ transition form factors in terms of the nucleon form factors. These relations are based on the known large-$N_c$ relation between the $N\\to \\De$ electric quadrupole moment and the neutron charge radius, and a newly derived large-$N_c$ relation between the electric quadrupole ($E2$) and Coulomb quadrupole ($C2$) transitions. Namely, in the large-$N_c$ limit we find $C2=E2$. We show that these relations provide predictions for the $N\\to\\Delta$ electromagnetic form factors which are found to be in very good agreement with experiment for moderate momentum transfers. They also provide constraints for the $N \\to \\Delta$ GPDs.

  11. Magnetomotive forming for precision sizing and joining of large-diameter tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennight, J. D.; Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic coil enables high precision expansion or constriction and joining of large diameter metal tubes. A nonconducting mandrel or forming die is used on the side of the tubes wall opposite the coil. The coil is insulated from the tube by a thin plastic sleeve.

  12. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese...... rhesus macaques’ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for composition and function should facilitate greater utilization of the species. Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese-origin M. mulatta (Mamu) class I alleles are more polymorphic than their Indian counterparts, perhaps inferring...... a model more representative of human MHC, human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Furthermore, the Chinese rhesus macaque class I allele Mamu-A1*02201, the most frequent allele thus far identified, has recently been characterized and shown to be an HLA-B7 supertype analog, the most frequent supertype in human...

  13. A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Gareth P; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J

    2015-11-27

    Megafaunal extinctions and a lack of suitable remote sensing technology impede our understanding of both the ecological legacy and current impacts of large mammal herbivores in the Earth system. To address this, we reconstructed the form and intensity of herbivory pressure across sub-Saharan Africa ~1000 years ago. Specifically, we modeled and mapped species-level biomass for 92 large mammal herbivores using census data, species distributions, and environmental covariates. Trait-based classifications of these species into herbivore functional types, and analyses of their biomass surfaces, reveal four ecologically distinct continental-scale herbivory regimes, characterized by internally similar forms and intensities of herbivory pressure. Associations between herbivory regimes, fire prevalence, soil nutrient status, and rainfall provide important insights into African ecology and pave the way for integrating herbivores into global-scale studies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Large-scale facilitation of a sessile community by an invasive habitat-forming snail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Wernberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide an example of extensive facilitation of a sessile community throughout an invaded estuary by the invasive snail Batillaria australis. We show that B. australis greatly increases a limiting resource (attachment space) to a community of sessile organisms and estimate that a large......, as a functional group, has benefitted significantly from this invasion. These results expand the current understanding of how invaded marine systems respond to habitat-forming invaders....

  15. Electromagnetic Form Factors of Hadrons in Dual-Large $N_c$ QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, C A

    2010-01-01

    In this talk, results are presented of determinations of electromagnetic form factors of hadrons (pion, proton, and $\\Delta(1236)$) in the framework of Dual-Large $N_c$ QCD (Dual-$QCD_\\infty$). This framework improves considerably tree-level VMD results by incorporating an infinite number of zero-width resonances, with masses and couplings fixed by the dual-resonance (Veneziano-type) model.

  16. A research into the large-scaled spatial forms of cities based on urban design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the process of unprecedented urbanization in contemporary China, a great many of Chinese cities have witnessed a rapid expansion of urban scale to different degrees. With the continuous compilation, amendment and enforcement of urban planning, the functional structure, spatial environment, street patterns and textures and even the social aspect of cities have changed conspicuously, all of which have directly happened to the spatial forms of the dimension, or even the multi-dimension of a certain city. By describing and analyzing the structure, evolution and explicit tokens of the spatial forms of cities, this thesis attempts to set up a model of factors that affect urban forms, as well as discuss the attributes, protection, adjustment and development-potential of urban land closely associated with forms. In addition, on the basis of the professional features for urban design to participate in the modeling and construction-management of desirable spatial forms of cities, the author has put forward technical measures for quantitatively appraising and analyzing the large-scaled spatial forms of cities, thus offering technical support to municipal governments and management departments of planned construction.

  17. A research into the large-scaled spatial forms of cities based on urban design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JianGuo

    2009-01-01

    In the process of unprecedented urbanization in contemporary China, a great many of Chinese cities have witnessed a rapid expansion of urban scale to different degrees. With the continuous compilation,amendment and enforcement of urban planning, the functional structure, spatial environment, street patterns and textures and even the social aspect of cities have changed conspicuously, all of which have directly happened to the spatial forms of the dimension, or even the multi-dimension of a certain city. By describing and analyzing the structure, evolution and explicit tokens of the spatial forms of cities, this thesis attempts to set up a model of factors that affect urban forms, as well as discuss the attributes, protection, adjustment and development-potential of urban land closely associated with forms. In addition, on the basis of the professional features for urban design to participate in the mod-eling and construction-management of desirable spatial forms of cities, the author has put forward technical measures for quantitatively appraising and analyzing the large-scaled spatial forms of cities, thus offering technical support to municipal governments and management departments of planned construction.

  18. Z-DNA-forming sequences generate large-scale deletions in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guliang; Christensen, Laura A; Vasquez, Karen M

    2006-02-21

    Spontaneous chromosomal breakages frequently occur at genomic hot spots in the absence of DNA damage and can result in translocation-related human disease. Chromosomal breakpoints are often mapped near purine-pyrimidine Z-DNA-forming sequences in human tumors. However, it is not known whether Z-DNA plays a role in the generation of these chromosomal breakages. Here, we show that Z-DNA-forming sequences induce high levels of genetic instability in both bacterial and mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, the Z-DNA-forming sequences induce double-strand breaks nearby, resulting in large-scale deletions in 95% of the mutants. These Z-DNA-induced double-strand breaks in mammalian cells are not confined to a specific sequence but rather are dispersed over a 400-bp region, consistent with chromosomal breakpoints in human diseases. This observation is in contrast to the mutations generated in Escherichia coli that are predominantly small deletions within the repeats. We found that the frequency of small deletions is increased by replication in mammalian cell extracts. Surprisingly, the large-scale deletions generated in mammalian cells are, at least in part, replication-independent and are likely initiated by repair processing cleavages surrounding the Z-DNA-forming sequence. These results reveal that mammalian cells process Z-DNA-forming sequences in a strikingly different fashion from that used by bacteria. Our data suggest that Z-DNA-forming sequences may be causative factors for gene translocations found in leukemias and lymphomas and that certain cellular conditions such as active transcription may increase the risk of Z-DNA-related genetic instability.

  19. Channel Networks on Large Fans: Refining Analogs for the Ridge-forming Unit, Sinus Meridiani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Stream channels are generally thought of as forming within confined valley settings, separated by interfluves. Sinuous ridges on Mars and Earth are often interpreted as stream channels inverted by subsequent erosion of valley sides. In the case of the ridge-forming unit (RFU), this interpretation fails to explain the (i) close spacing of the ridges, which are (ii) organized in networks, and which (iii) cover large areas (approximately 175,000 km (exp 2)). Channel networks on terrestrial fans develop unconfined by valley slopes. Large fans (100s km long) are low-angle, fluvial features, documented worldwide, with characteristics that address these aspects of the RFU. Ridge patterns Channels on large fans provide an analog for the sinuous and elongated morphology of RFU ridges, but more especially for other patterns such as subparallel, branching and crossing networks. Branches are related to splays (delta-like distributaries are rare), whose channels can rejoin the main channel. Crossing patterns can be caused by even slight sinuosity splay-related side channels often intersect. An avulsion node distant from the fan apex, gives rise to channels with slightly different, and hence intersecting, orientations. Channels on neighboring fans intersect along the common fan margin. 2. Network density Channels are the dominant feature on large terrestrial fans (lakes and dune fields are minor). Inverted landscapes on subsequently eroded fans thus display indurated channels as networks of significantly close-spaced ridges. 3. Channel networks covering large areas Areas of individual large terrestrial fans can reach >200,000 km 2 (105-6 km 2 with nested fans), providing an analog for the wide area distribution of the RFU.

  20. Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Welzel

    Full Text Available Synapses are distributed heterogeneously in neural networks. The relationship between the spatial arrangement of synapses and an individual synapse's structural and functional features remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of the number of adjacent synapses on individual synaptic recycling pool sizes. When measuring the discharge of the styryl dye FM1-43 from electrically stimulated synapses in rat hippocampal tissue cultures, a strong positive correlation between the number of neighbouring synapses and recycling vesicle pool sizes was observed. Accordingly, vesicle-rich synapses were found to preferentially reside next to neighbours with large recycling pool sizes. Although these synapses with large recycling pool sizes were rare, they were densely arranged and thus exhibited a high amount of release per volume. To consolidate these findings, functional terminals were marked by live-cell antibody staining with anti-synaptotagmin-1-cypHer or overexpression of synaptopHluorin. Analysis of synapse distributions in these systems confirmed the results obtained with FM 1-43. Our findings support the idea that clustering of synapses with large recycling pool sizes is a distinct developmental feature of newly formed neural networks and may contribute to functional plasticity.

  1. Large-scale facilitation of a sessile community by an invasive habitat-forming snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Wernberg, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We provide an example of extensive facilitation of a sessile community throughout an invaded estuary by the invasive snail Batillaria australis. We show that B. australis greatly increases a limiting resource (attachment space) to a community of sessile organisms and estimate that a large part of the invaded estuary now contain ca. 50 times more sessile individuals associated with the invader than all native snails combined. We argue that native snails are unlikely to have been dramatically reduced by the invader, and we therefore suggest that the shell-attached sessile community, as a functional group, has benefitted significantly from this invasion. These results expand the current understanding of how invaded marine systems respond to habitat-forming invaders.

  2. Soft-ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys with large magnetostriction and high glass-forming ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Dy addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA, magnetostriction as well as soft-magnetic properties and fracture strength in FeDyBSiNb glassy alloys was investigated. In addition to the increase of supercooled liquid region from 55 to 100 K, the addition of Dy is effective in approaching alloy to an eutectic point and increasing the saturation magnetostrction (λs. Accordingly, bulk glassy alloy (BGA rods with diameters up to 4 mm were produced, which exhibit a large λs as high as 65×10-6. Besides, the BGA system exhibits superhigh fracture strength of 4000 MPa, combined with good soft-magnetic properties.

  3. Beam-assisted large elongation of in situ formed Li2O nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, He; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Jianbo; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-07-01

    As an important component of the solid electrolyte interface in lithium ion batteries and an effective blanket breeding material in fusion reactor, the mechanical property of Li2O is of great interest but is not well understood. Here we show that the polycrystalline Li2O nanowires were formed in situ by touching and pulling lithium hydroxide under electron beam (e-beam) illumination. The Li2O nanowires sustained an enhanced elongation (from 80% to 176%) under low dose e-beam irradiation near room temperature as compared with that (from 51% to 57%) without e-beam irradiation. The extremely high deformability could be understood by the fast Li2O diffusion under e-beam irradiation and tensile stress condition. The large elongation without e-beam irradiation implies that nano-structured Li2O is ductile near room temperature.

  4. The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai; Robinson, Carol V; Deane, Charlotte M; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2015-05-29

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo.

  5. Spurious reticulocyte profiles in dogs with large form babesiosis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piane, Laetitia; Young, Karen M; Giraud, Lena; Bourges-Abella, Nathalie; Trumel, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Erroneously high reticulocyte counts (pseudoreticulocytosis) have been reported in dogs with leukemia. Pseudoreticulocytosis and an abnormal reticulocyte profile were observed in a dog with large form babesiosis presented at our institution. The aims of this retrospective study were to determine if dogs with babesiosis and other dogs had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, and to correlate these profiles with the primary diagnosis. All canine CBCs obtained with the Sysmex XT-2000iV or Procyte DX were reviewed. Cases of large form babesiosis were identified and their reticulocyte dot plots were analyzed. Dogs with abnormal reticulocyte profiles but without microscopically apparent intraerythrocytic Babesia piroplasms were identified. The reticulocyte profiles and fluorescence ratios of dogs with and without babesiosis were compared. Twenty of 92 dogs with babesiosis had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, including 8 with a separation between the reticulocyte and mature RBC plots or a continuum of reticulocytes from the RBC plot but with a higher density of dots in the middle of the "comet tail" than in the left quarter of the dot plot. Thirteen of 6980 dogs without Babesia on the blood smear had abnormal reticulocyte profiles, including 3 with leukemia. The medium-fluorescence reticulocyte ratios tended to be higher in dogs with babesiosis and abnormal dot plots than in other dogs, whereas the high-fluorescence ratio was higher in one dog with leukemia. Abnormal reticulocyte dot plots and atypical reticulocyte fluorescence ratios may occur in dogs with babesiosis and alert clinical pathologists to consider this diagnosis. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane. PMID:27612497

  7. Outflow and Infall in a Sample of Massive Star Forming Regions II: Large Scale Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D

    2008-01-01

    We present maps of seven sources selected from Klaassen & Wilson (2007a) in SiO (J=8-7) and HCO$^+$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+$ (J=4-3) which were obtained using HARP-B on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find that four out of our seven sources have infall signatures based on their HCO$^+$ emission profiles. From our maps, we have determined the extent of both the outflowing and infalling regions towards these sources, and constrained the amount of infalling and outflowing mass as well as the mass infall rate for each massive star forming region. From our SiO observations, we estimate the source luminosity required to shock the surroundings of these massive star forming regions and find luminosities similar to those of the HII regions themselves. We find that the ratio between our infall and outflow masses is less than one, suggesting high mass entrainment rates in the molecular outflows. We also find that the large scale molecular infall rate towards G10.6-0.4 is comparable to the small scale molecular infal...

  8. Cavitation distribution within large phantom vessel and mechanical damage formed on surrounding vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Li, Zhaopeng; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-11-01

    Blood vessel is one of the most important targets encountered during focused ultrasound (FU) therapy. The lasting high temperature caused by continuous FU can result in structural modification of small vessel. For the vessel with a diameter larger than 2mm, convective cooling can significantly weaken the thermal effect of FU. Meanwhile, the continued presence of ultrasound will cause repetitive cavitation and acoustic microstreaming, making comprehension of continuous wave induced cavitation effect in large vessels necessary. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method, mechanical damage observation and high-speed camera were used in this study to investigate the combination effect of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and continuous FU in large phantom vessels with a diameter of 10mm without consideration of thermal effect. When the focus was positioned at the proximal wall, cylindrical hole along the acoustic axis opposite the ultrasound wave propagation direction was observed at the input power equal to or greater than 50 W. When the focus was located at the distal wall, only small tunnels can be found. The place where the cylindrical hole formed was corresponding to where bubbles gathered and emitted brilliant light near the wall. Without UCAs neither such bright SL nor cylindrical hole can be found. However, the UCAs concentration had little influence on the SL distribution and the length of cylindrical hole. The SL intensity near the proximal vessel wall and the length of the cylindrical hole both increased with the input power. It is suggested that these findings need to be considered in the large vessel therapy and UCAs usage.

  9. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  10. Rapamycin-binding FKBP25 associates with diverse proteins that form large intracellular entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galat, Andrzej, E-mail: galat@dsvidf.cea.fr; Thai, Robert

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The hFKBP25 interacts with diverse components of macromolecular entities. • We show that the endogenous human FKBP25 is bound to polyribosomes. • The endogenous hFKBP25 co-immunoprecipitated with nucleosomal proteins. • FKBP25 could induce conformational switch in macromolecular complexes. - Abstract: In this paper, we show some evidence that a member of the FK506-binding proteins, FKBP25 is associated to diverse components that are part of several different intracellular large-molecular mass entities. The FKBP25 is a high-affinity rapamycin-binding immunophilin, which has nuclear translocation signals present in its PPIase domain but it was detected both in the cytoplasm compartment and in the nuclear proteome. Analyses of antiFKBP25-immunoprecipitated proteins have revealed that the endogenous FKBP25 is associated to the core histones of the nucleosome, and with several proteins forming spliceosomal complexes and ribosomal subunits. Using polyclonal antiFKBP25 we have detected FKBP25 associated with polyribosomes. Added RNAs or 0.5 M NaCl release FKBP25 that was associated with the polyribosomes indicating that the immunophilin has an intrinsic capacity to form complexes with polyribonucleotides via its charged surface patches. Rapamycin or FK506 treatments of the polyribosomes isolated from porcine brain, HeLa and K568 cells caused a residual release of the endogenous FKBP25, which suggests that the immunophilin also binds to some proteins via its PPIase cavity. Our proteomics study indicates that the nuclear pool of the FKBP25 targets various nuclear proteins that are crucial for packaging of DNA, chromatin remodeling and pre-mRNA splicing whereas the cytosolic pool of this immunophilin is bound to some components of the ribosome.

  11. Large inverted duplications in the human genome form via a fold-back mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Hermetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted duplications are a common type of copy number variation (CNV in germline and somatic genomes. Large duplications that include many genes can lead to both neurodevelopmental phenotypes in children and gene amplifications in tumors. There are several models for inverted duplication formation, most of which include a dicentric chromosome intermediate followed by breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB cycles, but the mechanisms that give rise to the inverted dicentric chromosome in most inverted duplications remain unknown. Here we have combined high-resolution array CGH, custom sequence capture, next-generation sequencing, and long-range PCR to analyze the breakpoints of 50 nonrecurrent inverted duplications in patients with intellectual disability, autism, and congenital anomalies. For half of the rearrangements in our study, we sequenced at least one breakpoint junction. Sequence analysis of breakpoint junctions reveals a normal-copy disomic spacer between inverted and non-inverted copies of the duplication. Further, short inverted sequences are present at the boundary of the disomic spacer and the inverted duplication. These data support a mechanism of inverted duplication formation whereby a chromosome with a double-strand break intrastrand pairs with itself to form a "fold-back" intermediate that, after DNA replication, produces a dicentric inverted chromosome with a disomic spacer corresponding to the site of the fold-back loop. This process can lead to inverted duplications adjacent to terminal deletions, inverted duplications juxtaposed to translocations, and inverted duplication ring chromosomes.

  12. Research on deformation characteristics of JCOE forming in large diameter welding pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng Fan; Jia-Xin Yan; Ying Gao; Jian-Bin Yun

    2016-01-01

    In the present work,the JCOE forming is investigated using the finite element (FE) method.A twodimensional FE model is established for the plane strain condition by FE code ABAQUS,and the FE model is validated by experiments.The aim of this research is to investigate forming quality states in the JCOE forming process;in particular,the effects of technological parameters on forming quality are evaluated.Taking the JCOE forming process of X80 steel Φ1 219 mm × 22 mm× 12 000 mmwelding pipe for instance,the deformation characteristics of JCOE forming are analyzed,in which the geometry of the formed pipe,residual stress distributions and effects of process parameters on JCOE forming quality can be obtained.Thus,the presented results of this research provide an effective approach to improve welding pipe forming quality.

  13. GeV Observations of star-forming glaxies with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; /DESY, Zeuthen; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Caliandro, G.A.; /CSIC, Catalunya; Cameron, R.A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Caraveo, P.A.; /Brera Observ. /AIM, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /George Mason U. /Artep Inc. /Natl. Res. Coun., Wash., D.C. /Artep Inc. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Buenos Aires, IAFE /NASA, Goddard /Perugia U. /ASDC, Frascati /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Swedish Acad. Sci. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /AIM, Saclay /Alabama U., Huntsville /INFN, Padua /CSIC, Catalunya /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Kyoto U. /NASA, Goddard /Ohio State U., CCAPP /Iceland U.; /more authors..

    2012-08-07

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values lesssim 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 μm) = –4.3 ± 0.1(statistical) ± 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ⊙ yr–1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 × 10–6 ph cm–2 s–1 sr–1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

  14. SV40 large T-p53 complex: evidence for the presence of two immunologically distinct forms of p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, J.; Gamble, J.

    1985-11-01

    The transforming protein of SV40 is the large T antigen. Large T binds a cellular protein, p53, which is potentially oncogenic by virtue of its functional involvement in the control of cell proliferation. This raises the possibility that p53 may mediate, in part, the transforming function of SV40 large T. Two immunologically distinct forms of p53 have been identified in normal cells: the forms are cell-cycle dependent, one being restricted to nondividing cells (p53-Go) and the second to dividing cells (p53-G divided by). The authors have now dissociated and probed the multimeric complex of SV40 large T-p53 for the presence of immunologically distinct forms of p53. Here they present evidence for the presence of p53-Go and p53-G divided by complexed with SV40 large T.

  15. Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0012 PERFORMANCE OF AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ) ON LARGE-SCALE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE JET (HRJ) FUEL FIRES ...Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires FA4819-09-C-0030 0602102F 4915 D0 QD103001...Forming Foam ( AFFF )”. AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0101, July 2011 7. Sokri, M., Beyler, CL. “Radiation from Larger Pool Fires ” SFPE Journal of Fire Protection

  16. Graphite composite truss welding and cap section forming subsystems. Volume 1: Executive summary. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A rolltrusion process was developed for forming of a hybrid, single-ply woven graphite and glass fiber cloth, impregnated with a polysulfone resin and coated with TI02 pigmented P-1700 resin into strips for the on-orbit fabrication of triangular truss segments. Ultrasonic welding in vacuum showed no identifiable effects on weld strength or resin flow characteristics. An existing bench model cap roll forming machine was modified and used to roll form caps for the prototype test truss and for column test specimens in order to test local buckling and torsional instability characteristics.

  17. Z-DNA-forming sequences generate large-scale deletions in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guliang; Christensen, Laura A.; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous chromosomal breakages frequently occur at genomic hot spots in the absence of DNA damage and can result in translocation-related human disease. Chromosomal breakpoints are often mapped near purine–pyrimidine Z-DNA-forming sequences in human tumors. However, it is not known whether Z-DNA plays a role in the generation of these chromosomal breakages. Here, we show that Z-DNA-forming sequences induce high levels of genetic instability in both bacterial and mammalian cells. In mammali...

  18. JLab Measurements of the 3He Form Factors at Large Momentum Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Camsonne, A; Olson, M; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B D; Arrington, J; Baldwin, A; Chen, J -P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Decowski, P; Dutta, C; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kievsky, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lott, G; Lu, H; Marcucci, L E; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B; Petratos, G G; Puckett, A; Qian, X; Rondon, O; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Solvignon, P; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhang, W -M; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2016-01-01

    The charge and magnetic form factors, FC and FM, of 3He have been extracted in the kinematic range 25 fm-2 < Q2 < 61 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering by detecting 3He recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility at Jefferson Lab. The measurements are indicative of a second diffraction minimum for the magnetic form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and of a continuing diffractive structure for the charge form factor. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the three-body nuclear problem.

  19. A closed form large deformation solution of plate bending with surface effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2017-01-04

    We study the effect of surface stress on the pure bending of a finite thickness plate under large deformation. The surface is assumed to be isotropic and its stress consists of a part that can be interpreted as a residual stress and a part that stiffens as the surface increases its area. Our results show that residual surface stress and surface stiffness can both increase the overall bending stiffness but through different mechanisms. For sufficiently large residual surface tension, we discover a new type of instability - the bending moment reaches a maximum at a critical curvature. Effects of surface stress on different stress components in the bulk of the plate are discussed and the possibility of self-bending due to asymmetry of the surface properties is also explored. The results of our calculations provide insights into surface stress effects in the large deformation regime and can be used as a test for implementation of finite element methods for surface elasticity.

  20. Proton Form Factor Puzzle and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Two-Photon Exchange Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimal, Dipak [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental observables that encode information about the internal structure of the nucleon. This dissertation explored dependence of R on kinematic variables such as squared four-momentum transfer (Q2) and the virtual photon polarization parameter (ε).

  1. Bed forms created by simulated waves and currents in a large flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Rubin, David M.; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Mokudai, Kuniyasu; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of bed forms created by combinations of waves and currents were investigated using an oscillating plate in a 4-m-wide flume. Current speed ranged from 0 to 30 cm/s, maximum oscillatory velocity ranged from 20 to 48 cm/s, oscillation period was 8 s (except for one run with 12 s period), and the median grain size was 0.27 mm. The angle between oscillations and current was 90°, 60°, or 45°. At the end of each run the sand bed was photographed and ripple dimensions were measured. Ripple wavelength was also determined from sonar images collected throughout the runs. Increasing the ratio of current to wave (i.e., oscillatory) velocity decreased ripple height and wavelength, in part because of the increased fluid excursion during the wave period. Increasing the ratio of current to waves, or decreasing the angle between current and waves, increased the three-dimensionality of bed forms. During the runs, ripple wavelength increased by a factor of about 2. The average number of wave periods for evolution of ripple wavelength to 90% of its final value was 184 for two-dimensional ripples starting from a flat bed. Bed form orientations at the end of each run were compared to four potential controlling factors: the directions of waves, current, maximum instantaneous bed shear stress, and maximum gross bed form normal transport (MGBNT). The directions of waves and of MGBNT were equally good predictors of bed form orientations, and were significantly better than the other two factors.

  2. Crystal structures of two peptide-HLA-B*1501 complexes; structural characterization of the HLA-B62 supertype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, G; Blicher, Thomas; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl

    2006-01-01

    -Barr virus nuclear antigen-3A) was determined to 2.3 A resolution. The structure of HLA-B*1501 in complex with a peptide (ILGPPGSVY) derived from human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2 corresponding to positions 91-99 was solved to 1.8 A resolution. Mutual comparisons of these two structures with structures......-pocket in HLA-B*1501. The residues most important for the specificity of this pocket are Tyr74, Leu81, Leu95, Tyr123 and Trp147. These residues create a hydrophobic interior in the F-pocket and their spatial arrangement makes the pocket capable of containing large, bulky peptide side chains. Ser116 is located...

  3. Maps4Science - National Roadmap for Large-Scale Research Facilities 2011 (NWO Application form)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Van der Wal, T.; De By, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is historically known as one of worlds' best-measured countries. It is continuing this tradition today with unequalled new datasets, such as the nationwide large-scale topographic map, our unique digital height map (nationwide coverage; ten very accurate 3D points for every Dutch m2)

  4. Heavy-to-Light Form Factors in the Final Hadron Large Energy Limit Covariant Quark Model Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1999-01-01

    We prove the full covariance of the heavy-to-light weak current matrix elements based on the Bakamjian-Thomas construction of relativistic quark models, in the heavy mass limit for the parent hadron and the large energy limit for the daughter one. Moreover, this quark model representation of the heavy-to-light form factors fulfills the general relations that were recently argued to hold in the corresponding limit of QCD, namely that there are only three independent form factors describing the B -> pi (rho) matrix elements, as well as the factorized scaling law sqrt(M)z(E) of the form factors with respect to the heavy mass M and large energy E. These results constitute another good property of the quark models à la Bakamjian-Thomas, which were previously shown to exhibit covariance and Isgur-Wise scaling in the heavy-to-heavy case.

  5. JLab Measurement of the $^4$He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Camsonne, A; Olson, M; Sparveris, N; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B D; Arrington, J; Baldwin, A; Chen, J -P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Decowski, P; Dutta, C; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kievsky, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lott, G; Lu, H; Marcucci, L E; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B; Petratos, G G; Puckett, A; Qian, X; Rondon, O; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhang, W -M; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2013-01-01

    The charge form factor of $^$4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm$^{-2}$ $\\le Q^2 \\le 77$ fm$^{-2}$ from elastic electron scattering, detecting $^4$He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the $Q^2$ range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  6. Largely Deformed Dinuclear System Formed in 19F +27A1 Dissipative Collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian-Long; WU He-Yu; LI Zhi-Chang; LU Xiu-Qin; ZHAO Kui; ZHOU Ping; LIU Jian-Cheng; XU Guo-Ji; Sergey Yu Kun; WANG Qi; DONG Yu-Chuan; LI Song-Lin; DUAN Li-Min; XU Hu-Shan; XU Hua-Gen; CHEN Ruo-Fu; BAI Zhen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Excitation functions are measured for different charge products of the 19F+27 Al reaction in the laboratory energy range 110.25-118.75MeV in steps of 250keV at θlab = 57°, 31° and -29°. The coherence rotation angular velocities of the intermediate dinuclear systems formed in the reaction are extracted from the cross section energy autocorrelation functions. Compared the angular velocity extracted from the experimental data with the ones deduced from the sticking limit, it is indicated that a larger deformation of the intermediate dinuclear system exists.

  7. Electromagnetic proton form factors in dual large-$N_c$ QCD: an update

    CERN Document Server

    Bisschoff, B; Hernandez, L A

    2016-01-01

    An updated determination is presented of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton, in the framework of a dual-model realization of QCD in the limit of an infinite number of colors. Very good agreement with data is obtained in the space-like region up to $ q^2 \\simeq - \\,30 \\,{GeV}^2$. In particular, the ratio $\\mu_P \\, G_E(q^2) / G_M(q^2)$ is predicted in very good agreement with recoil polarization measurements from Jefferson Lab, up to $q^2 \\simeq - 8.5 \\,{GeV}^2$. \\end{abstract}

  8. Large-scale facilitation of a sessile community by an invasive habitat-forming snail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Wernberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide an example of extensive facilitation of a sessile community throughout an invaded estuary by the invasive snail Batillaria australis. We show that B. australis greatly increases a limiting resource (attachment space) to a community of sessile organisms and estimate that a large...... part of the invaded estuary now contain ca. 50 times more sessile individuals associated with the invader than all native snails combined. We argue that native snails are unlikely to have been dramatically reduced by the invader, and we therefore suggest that the shell-attached sessile community...

  9. Comparative Nozzle Study for Applying Aqueous Film Forming Foam on Large-Scale Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    over protein foam on large-scale fires when utilized in crash rescue and fire fighting vehicles. The air-aspirating nozzles and foam pumps used as...constructed for the Air Force C-5A tests (Reference 4) was utilized . An overall view of the test site is shown in Figure 1. Phase I fire test areas...36.6 gallons per inch. The proportioning of AFFF concentrate was determined by using the refractometri :; method and also by metering the amount of AFPF

  10. An initial discussion on major controlling factors on formation of coal-formed large-medium gas fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The so-called "large-medium gas field" means a gas field with proven reserves equal to or larger than 100×108 m3.Up to 1997,23 coal-formed great-medium fields are discovered in China,excluding two in Taiwan Province.Their proven reserves take 50.9% in total natural gas reserves.Therefore,the coal-formed great-medium gas field plays a decisive role in natural gas reserves and the study of their controlling factors is very important both in theory and in practice.There are six major controlling factors on the formation of coal-formed large-medium gas fields:(ⅰ) The generating center of coal-formed gas and its surrounding area; (ⅱ) low potential area; (ⅲ) late pool-forming period; (ⅳ) traps related to the paleo-uplifits in coal-formed gas area; (ⅴ) above or between abnormally pressured compartments; (ⅵ) faulted traps related to coal-bed.

  11. Measurement properties of PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms in a large, ethnically diverse cancer cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne E. Jensen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate model fit, differential item function (DIF, and construct validity of select short forms from the PROMIS® Sleep Disturbance item bank. METHODS: We recruited cancer survivors who were between 6 - 13 months post diagnosis (n = 4,956, as part of the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health study. We measured sleep disturbance using 10 items commonly found in PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms (Sleep 4a, Sleep 6a, Sleep 8b, and which are frequently administered in computerized adaptive testing. We evaluated domain reliability using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha and factorial validity by fitting a PROMIS Sleep Disturbance unidimensional measurement model using confirmatory factor analy-sis (CFA. At the item-level, we examined DIF with respect to race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White [NHW], non-Hispanic Black [NHB], Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander, age, and sex. We used a multi-group CFA and multiple indicators, multiple methods (MIMIC analyses. We then assessed construct validity (convergent, discriminate, and known groups for sleep short forms, and a new “best fit” 6-item sleep disturbance short form. RESULTS: We identified a satisfactory unidimensional sleep disturbance 6-item measure (χ2(637.6, p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.031. To achieve this, we removed four items from the model with item content overlap and added residual covariances between positively worded items in order to address a method effect. We identified one instance of DIF: NHW participants were less likely to agree with the statement “I had difficulty falling asleep” compared to NHBs, Hispanics, or Asians/Pacific Islanders, who all reported the same level of sleep disturbance. After controlling for DIF, we extended this into a MIMIC model, identifying no additional DIF by age or sex. Across all race/ethnicity groups, the adjusted overall means suggest that older adults reported significantly lower sleep disturbance, and NHW, NHB, and Hispanic women reported

  12. JLab Measurement of the 4He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Acha, Armando; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Bryon; Arrington, John; Baldwin, Alan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Decowski, Piotr; Dutta, Chiranjib; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Gomez, Javier; Hahn, Brian; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jian; Iodice, Mauro; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lee, Byungwuek; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lott, Gordon; Lu, H.; Marcucci, Laura; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Petratos, Gerassimos; Puckett, Andrew; Qian, Xin; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Hashemi, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Viviani, Michele; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W. -M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2 <= Q2 <= 77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14° diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current Hα features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation.

  14. Adaptive fuzzy decentralised control for stochastic nonlinear large-scale systems in pure-feedback form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy decentralised output-feedback control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear pure-feedback large-scale systems with completely unknown functions, the mismatched interconnections and without requiring the states being available for controller design. With the help of fuzzy logic systems approximating the unknown nonlinear functions, a fuzzy state observer is designed estimating the unmeasured states. Therefore, the nonlinear filtered signals are incorporated into the backstepping recursive design, and an adaptive fuzzy decentralised output-feedback control scheme is developed. It is proved that the filter system converges to a small neighbourhood of the origin based on appropriate choice of the design parameters. Simulation studies are included illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Surgical removal of a large vaginal calculus formed after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Feiner, Benjamin; Haya, Nir; Auslender, Ron; Abramov, Yoram

    2016-11-01

    Vaginal calculus is a rare disorder which has been reported in association with urethral diverticulum, urogenital sinus anomaly, bladder exstrophy and the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent, intractable urinary tract infection (UTI) following a TVT procedure. Cystoscopy demonstrated an eroded tape with the formation of a bladder calculus, and the patient underwent laser cystolithotripsy and cystoscopic resection of the tape. Following this procedure, her UTI completely resolved and she remained asymptomatic for several years. Seven years later she presented with a solid vaginal mass. Pelvic examination followed by transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large vaginal calculus located at the lower third of the anterior vaginal wall adjacent to the bladder neck. This video presents the transvaginal excision and removal of the vaginal calculus.

  16. Largely Enhanced Single-molecule Fluorescence in Plasmonic Nanogaps formed by Hybrid Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that narrow gaps between metallic nanostructures can be practical for producing large field enhancement. We design a hybrid silver nanostructure geometry in which fluorescent emitters are sandwiched between silver nanoparticles and silver island film (SIF). A desired number of polyelectrolyte layers are deposited on the SIF surface before the self-assembly of a second silver nanoparticle layer. Layer-by-layer configuration provides a well-defined dye position. It allows us to study the photophyical behaviors of fluorophores in the resulting gap at the single molecule level. The enhancement factor of a fluorophore located in the gap is much higher than those on silver surfaces alone and on glass. These effects may be used for increased detectability of single molecules bound to surfaces which contain metallic structures for either biophysical studies or high sensitivity assays. PMID:23373787

  17. Bio-replicated forming of the biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces in large area based on shark skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xin; ZHANG DeYuan; LI Xiang; LI YuanYue

    2008-01-01

    On the investigation of biomimetic drag-reducing surface, direct replication of the firm scarfskins on low-resistance creatures to form biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces with relatively vivid morphology relative to the living prototype is a new attempt of the bio-replicated forming technology. Taking shark skin as the bio-replication template, the hot embossing method was applied to the micro-replication of its outward morphology. Furthermore, the skins were jointed together to form the drag-reducing sur-face in large area. The results of the resistance measurements in a water tunnel according to the flat-plate sample pieces have shown that the biomimetic shark-skin coating fabricated by the bio-replicated forming method has significant drag reduction effect, and that the drag reduction effi-ciency reached 8.25% in the test conditions.

  18. Peptide-binding motifs associated with MHC molecules common in Chinese rhesus macaques are analogous to those of human HLA supertypes and include HLA-B27-like alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mothé, Bianca R.; Southwood, Scott; Sidney, John

    2013-01-01

    and deciphering outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. In this study, we have provided detailed characterization of six prevalent Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I alleles, yielding a combined phenotypic frequency of 29 %. The peptide-binding specificity of two of these alleles, Mamu-A2*01:02 and Mamu-B*010...... in humans. All six alleles characterized in the present study were found to have specificities analogous to HLA supertype alleles. These data contribute to the concept that Chinese rhesus macaque MHC immunogenetics is more similar to HLA than their Indian rhesus macaque counterparts and thereby warrants......Chinese rhesus macaques are of particular interest in simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) research as these animals have prolonged kinetics of disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared to their Indian counterparts, suggesting...

  19. Studies of Helicity Injection in a Spheromak Formed by a Large Area Planar Coaxial Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Scott; Bellan, Paul; Pracko, Steven

    2000-10-01

    A new planar coaxial gun has been constructed in order to study the process of helicity injection during spheromak formation. Improvements in helicity injection, a key method for poloidal field sustainment in spheromaks, would increase the attractiveness of the spheromak configuration as a fusion energy scheme. The goal of this research is to create simple, well-defined experiments allowing the details of helicity injection to be resolved and better understood. The design of the new gun, which was motivated by insights gained from ongoing solar prominence experiments [Bellan and Hansen, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1991 (1998)], involves large planar electrodes with a low field solenoid, in contrast to smaller cylindrical guns with high field solenoids commonly in existence. More efficient spheromak formation and better ``λ-matching'' should be possible in the new setup. The formation and dynamical evolution of twisted flux tubes will be studied using a variety of optical and probe diagnostics, including (1) visible light photography using a pair of fast, gated intensified CCD cameras, (2) local magnetic field measurements using an array of small pickup coils, (3) density and electron temperature measurements using a triple Langmuir probe, and (4) measurements of local ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence. Details of the new gun design and initial experimental results will be presented.

  20. Large N$_{c}$ universality of the baryon Isgur-Wise form factor the group theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, C K

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article, it has been proved under the framework of chiral soliton model that the same Isgur--Wise form factor describes the semileptonic \\Lambda_b\\to\\Lambda_c and \\Sigma^{(*)}_b\\to\\Sigma^{(* )}_c decays in the large N_c limit. It is shown here that this result is in fact independent of the chiral soliton model and is solely the consequence of the spin-flavor SU(4) symmetry which arises in the baryon sector in the large N_c limit.

  1. Study of forming and Welding performance of Y-shaped transition ring for large launch vehicle tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the critical load-bearing part of launch vehicle tank, the Y-shaped transition ring is manufactured by integral forging process currently, and it puts forward very high requirements for the forming precision, microstructure and welding performance of the integral forged transition ring. In this paper, the integral forging process for the Y-shaped transition ring of large launch vehicle tank is studied. Microstructure, mechanical properties and welding performance of the transition ring are analyzed. Improvement measures for integral forging process of large Y-shaped transition ring are proposed.

  2. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF REMOTE HANDLED AND LARGE SIZED MIXED WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKFORD LT

    2008-02-04

    of RCRA storage regulations, reduce costs for waste management by nearly 50 percent, and create a viable method for final treatment and disposal of these waste forms that does not impact retrieval project schedules. This paper is intended to provide information to the nuclear and environmental clean-up industry with the experience of CH2M HILL and ORP in managing these highly difficult waste streams, as well as providing an opportunity for sharing lessons learned, including technical methods and processes that may be applied at other DOE sites.

  3. Mice, men and MHC supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus

    2010-01-01

    vaccine formulations. Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, causes severe neurologic and ocular disease in congenitally infected and immunocompromised individuals. No protective vaccine exists against human toxoplasmosis. However, studies with mice have revealed immunodominant cytotoxic T...

  4. Flow Curve Determination at Large Plastic Strain Levels to Accurately Constitutive Equations of AHSS in Forming Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, X.; Sriram, S.; Kergen, R.

    2011-05-01

    ArcelorMittal continuously develops new steel grades (AHSS) with high performance for the automotive industry to improve the weight reduction and the passive safety. The wide market introduction of AHSS raises a new challenge for manufacturers in terms of material models in the prediction of forming—especially formability and springback. The relatively low uniform elongation, the high UTS and the low forming limit curve of these AHSS may cause difficulties in forming simulations. One of these difficulties is the consequence of the relatively low uniform elongation on the parameters identification of isotropic hardening model. Different experimental tests allow to reach large plastic strain levels (hydraulic bulge test, stack compression test, shear test…). After a description on how to determine the flow curve in these experimental tests, a comparison of the different flow curves is made for different steel grades. The ArcelorMittal identification protocol for hardening models is only based on stress-strain curves determined in uniaxial tension. Experimental tests where large plastic strain levels are reached are used to validate our identification protocol and to recommend some hardening models. Finally, the influence of isotropic hardening models and yield loci in forming prediction for AHSS steels will be presented.

  5. Influence of Substrate on Crystal Orientation of Large-Grained Si Thin Films Formed by Metal-Induced Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Toko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing large-grained polycrystalline Si (poly-Si film on glass substrates coated with conducting layers is essential for fabricating Si thin-film solar cells with high efficiency and low cost. We investigated how the choice of conducting underlayer affected the poly-Si layer formed on it by low-temperature (500°C Al-induced crystallization (AIC. The crystal orientation of the resulting poly-Si layer strongly depended on the underlayer material: (100 was preferred for Al-doped-ZnO (AZO and indium-tin-oxide (ITO; (111 was preferred for TiN. This result suggests Si heterogeneously nucleated on the underlayer. The average grain size of the poly-Si layer reached nearly 20 µm for the AZO and ITO samples and no less than 60 µm for the TiN sample. Thus, properly electing the underlayer material is essential in AIC and allows large-grained Si films to be formed at low temperatures with a set crystal orientation. These highly oriented Si layers with large grains appear promising for use as seed layers for Si light-absorption layers as well as for advanced functional materials.

  6. Forming limits under multi-index constraints in NC bending of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes with large diameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With increasing diameters of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes (AATTs), the tube forming limits, i.e. the minimum bending factors, and their predictions under multi-index constraints including wrinkling, thinning and flattening have been being a key problem to be urgently solved for improving tube forming potential in numerical control (NC) bending processes of AATTs with large diameters. Thus in this paper, a search algorithm of the forming limits is put forward based on a 3D elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model and a wrinkling energy prediction model for the bending processes under axial compression loading (ACL) or not. This algorithm enables to be considered the effects of process parameter combinations including die, friction parameters on the multi-indices. Based on this algorithm, the forming limits of the different size tubes are obtained, and the roles of the process parameter combinations in enabling the limit bending processes are also revealed. The followings are found: the first, within the appropriate ranges of friction and clearances between the different dies and the tubes enabling the bending processes with smaller bending factors, the ACL enables the tube limit bending processes after a decrease of the mandrel ball thickness and diameters; then, without considering the effects of the tube geometry sizes on the tube constitutive equations, the forming limits will be decided by the limit thinning values for the tubes with diameters smaller than 80 mm, while the wrinkling for the tubes with diameters no less than 80 mm. The forming limits obtained from this algorithm are smaller than the analytical results, and reduced by 57.39%; the last, the roles of the process parameter combinations in enabling the limit bending processes are verified by experimental results.

  7. The Large, Oxygen-Rich Halos of Star-Forming Galaxies Are A Major Reservoir of Galactic Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Werk, Jessica K; Prochaska, J Xavier; Tripp, Todd M; Weinberg, David H; Peeples, Molly S; O'Meara, John M; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Meiring, Joseph D; Katz, Neal S; Dave, Romeel; Ford, Amanda Brady; Sembach, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is fed by galaxy outflows and accretion of intergalactic gas, but its mass, heavy element enrichment, and relation to galaxy properties are poorly constrained by observations. In a survey of the outskirts of 42 galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we detected ubiquitous, large (150 kiloparsec) halos of ionized oxygen surrounding star-forming galaxies, but we find much less ionized oxygen around galaxies with little or no star formation. This ionized CGM contains a substantial mass of heavy elements and gas, perhaps far exceeding the reservoirs of gas in the galaxies themselves. It is a basic component of nearly all star-forming galaxies that is removed or transformed during the quenching of star formation and the transition to passive evolution.

  8. The large, oxygen-rich halos of star-forming galaxies are a major reservoir of galactic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumlinson, J; Thom, C; Werk, J K; Prochaska, J X; Tripp, T M; Weinberg, D H; Peeples, M S; O'Meara, J M; Oppenheimer, B D; Meiring, J D; Katz, N S; Davé, R; Ford, A B; Sembach, K R

    2011-11-18

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is fed by galaxy outflows and accretion of intergalactic gas, but its mass, heavy element enrichment, and relation to galaxy properties are poorly constrained by observations. In a survey of the outskirts of 42 galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we detected ubiquitous, large (150-kiloparsec) halos of ionized oxygen surrounding star-forming galaxies; we found much less ionized oxygen around galaxies with little or no star formation. This ionized CGM contains a substantial mass of heavy elements and gas, perhaps far exceeding the reservoirs of gas in the galaxies themselves. Our data indicate that it is a basic component of nearly all star-forming galaxies that is removed or transformed during the quenching of star formation and the transition to passive evolution.

  9. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  10. Interface of components with large ratio of altitude to diameter formed by laminated pouring and accumulated liquid forging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巨福; 罗守靖; 王迎

    2003-01-01

    Based on the experiment of laminated pouring and accumulated liquid forging of 2A12 aluminum alloy,interface bonding of formed component with large altitude to dimeter ratio of altitude to diameter was investigated by means of SEM and Instron tensile tester.The results show that the method of laminated pouring and accumulated liquid forging can be used for forming components with large ratio.Pouring temperature,reheated temperature of die,pressure,pouring layers and standing time are all important technique parameters that influence the mechanical properties.When pouring temperature is 740℃,reheated temperature of die is 480℃,pressure is 500 kN,pouring layers are three and standing time is 5s,the mechanical properties of interface are the optimum ones,microstructure is equiaxed crystal and tensile fracture has character of dimple.There are three kinds of bonding,which are melting bonding,part melting bonding and mechanical bonding.And the interface of the melting bonding possesses the best mechanical properties.

  11. Sedimentology of new fluvial deposits on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, formed during large-scale dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy; Ritchie, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of two dams 32 m and 64 m high on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, provided the first opportunity to examine river response to a dam removal and controlled sediment influx on such a large scale. Although many recent river-restoration efforts have included dam removal, large dam removals have been rare enough that their physical and ecological effects remain poorly understood. New sedimentary deposits that formed during this multi-stage dam removal result from a unique, artificially created imbalance between fluvial sediment supply and transport capacity. River flows during dam removal were essentially natural and included no large floods in the first two years, while draining of the two reservoirs greatly increased the sediment supply available for fluvial transport. The resulting sedimentary deposits exhibited substantial spatial heterogeneity in thickness, stratal-formation patterns, grain size and organic content. Initial mud deposition in the first year of dam removal filled pore spaces in the pre-dam-removal cobble bed, potentially causing ecological disturbance but not aggrading the bed substantially at first. During the second winter of dam removal, thicker and in some cases coarser deposits replaced the early mud deposits. By 18 months into dam removal, channel-margin and floodplain deposits were commonly >0.5 m thick and, contrary to pre-dam-removal predictions that silt and clay would bypass the river system, included average mud content around 20%. Large wood and lenses of smaller organic particles were common in the new deposits, presumably contributing additional carbon and nutrients to the ecosystem downstream of the dam sites. Understanding initial sedimentary response to the Elwha River dam removals will inform subsequent analyses of longer-term sedimentary, geomorphic and ecosystem changes in this fluvial and coastal system, and will provide important lessons for other river-restoration efforts where large dam removal is planned or

  12. UAV Measurement of the 2015 Large Flood Impact in Kinugawa River on Riverine Vegetation and Channel Form Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Inoue, Toshiya; Chigasaki, Yuka

    2016-04-01

    This presentation gives the results of field observation for a flood impact on riverine environment measured by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The flood we examined occurred on September 9-10, 2015 in Kinugawa River, Japan, owing to the heavy rainfall that brought tremendous volume of water on the Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan. In Kinugawa River, the largest record flood occurred in this time, resulting in the levee failure and the corresponding flood disaster in Joso City located in the downstream part of Kinugawa River, as well as the large flood impact on the riverine environment in the Kinugawa channel network. In order to investigate the very initial state of the after-flood-impact throughout the channel network, 13 channel sections with 2 km in longitudinal length were chosen and observed in October 2015. Orthochromatic images of the river channel sections obtained by the UAV measurement with a geographic information system (GIS) were used for analyzing the changes in riverine vegetation distributions and channel form profiles. The results show that there exist three characteristic river segments having different impact-response states in vegetation and channel form changes. The river sections in the most upstream segment indicated severe damage of trees and herbs as well as large movement of gravel bed material, while those in the most downstream segment showed relatively small damage in vegetation distribution and small change in channel forms. Furthermore, relationships between the vegetation damage, channel deformation, channel slopes, and bed shear stresses calculated by a numerical simulation model were discussed in detail along the river network.

  13. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    CERN Document Server

    Felli, M; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Comoretto, G; Di Franco, S; Massi, F; Moscadelli, L; Nesti, R; Olmi, L; Palagi, F; Panella, D; Valdettaro, R

    2007-01-01

    Context. Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims. We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods. The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results. To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for al...

  14. A two—dimensional photonic crystal with six large bandgaps formed by a hexagonal lattice of anisotropic cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄飞; 吴良; 等

    2002-01-01

    The plane-wave expansion method is used to calculate the band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal formed by a hexagonal structure of anisotropic cylinders.Two cylindrical inclusions in the unit cell have two different radii,R1 and R2(R1large complete bandgaps,among which three are over 0.05 we(where we=2πc/α)in the high region of the normalized frequency (however,one of these over 0.065 we is not stable).There are two other stable complete bandgaps in the low-frequency region.

  15. Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Menten, K. M.; Indebetouw, R.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yuan, Y.; Li, D. L.; He, Y. X.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The kinetic temperature of molecular clouds is a fundamental physical parameter affecting star formation and the initial mass function. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is the closest star-forming galaxy with a low metallicity and provides an ideal laboratory for studying star formation in such an environment. Aims: The classical dense molecular gas thermometer NH3 is seldom available in a low-metallicity environment because of photoionization and a lack of nitrogen atoms. Our goal is to directly measure the gas kinetic temperature with formaldehyde toward six star-forming regions in the LMC. Methods: Three rotational transitions (JKAKC = 303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) of para-H2CO near 218 GHz were observed with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12 m telescope toward six star-forming regions in the LMC. These data are complemented by C18O 2-1 spectra. Results: Using non-local thermal equilibrium modeling with RADEX, we derive the gas kinetic temperature and spatial density, using as constraints the measured para-H2CO 321-220/303-202 and para-H2CO 303-202/C18O 2-1 ratios. Excluding the quiescent cloud N159S, where only one para-H2CO line could be detected, the gas kinetic temperatures derived from the preferred para-H2CO 321-220/303-202 line ratios range from 35 to 63 K with an average of 47 ± 5 K (errors are unweighted standard deviations of the mean). Spatial densities of the gas derived from the para-H2CO 303-202/C18O 2-1 line ratios yield 0.4-2.9 × 105 cm-3 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.4 × 105 cm-3. Temperatures derived from the para-H2CO line ratio are similar to those obtained with the same method from Galactic star-forming regions and agree with results derived from CO in the dense regions (n(H2) > 103 cm-3) of the LMC. A comparison of kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO with those from the dust also shows good agreement. This suggests that the dust and para-H2CO are well mixed in the studied star-forming regions. A comparison of

  16. Guided proliferation and bone-forming functionality on highly ordered large diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruopeng; Wu, Hongliu; Ni, Jiahua, E-mail: jiahua.ni@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhao, Changli; Chen, Yifan; Zheng, Chengjunyi; Zhang, Xiaonong, E-mail: xnzhang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    The significantly enhanced osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were observed on TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface in recent studies in which the scale of nanotube diameter was restricted under 100 nm. In this paper, a series of highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with larger diameters ranging from 150 nm to 470 nm were fabricated via high voltage anodization. The behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to the diameter-controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were investigated. A contrast between the trend of proliferation and the trend of cell elongation was observed. The highest cell elongation (nearly 10:1) and the lowest cell number were observed on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with 150 nm diameter. While, the lowest cell elongation and highest cell number were achieved on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with 470 nm diameter. Furthermore, the ALP activity peaked on the 150 nm diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays and decreased dramatically with the increase of nanotube diameter. Thus a narrow range of diameter (100–200 nm) that could induce the greatest bone-forming activity is determined. It is expected that more delicate design of orthopedic implant with regional abduction of cell proliferation or bone forming could be achieved by controlling the diameter of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. - Highlights: • Improved anodization methods leading to more ordered large diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotubes • Significantly enhanced ALP activity was observed on 150 nm diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • The highest cell density was observed on 470 nm diameter TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. • Similar cell response was observed on the amorphous and anatase phased nanotube surface.

  17. Direct detection of precursors of gas giants formed by gravitational instability with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio; Pineda, Jaime E; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with the RADMC-3D ray-tracing code to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particula...

  18. Large Binocular Telescope and Sptizer Spectroscopy of Star-forming Galaxies at 1 Extinction and Star Formation Rate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C. J.; Weiner, B. J.; Rigby, Jane; Rex, M.; Bian, F.; Kuhn, O. P.; Thompson, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 extinction, Av, of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photometry. Our galaxies occupy a range of Av from 0 to 5.9 mag, larger than previously known for a similar range of IR luminosities at these redshifts. Thus, estimates of SFR even at z 2 must take careful count of extinction in the most IR luminous galaxies.We also measure extinction by comparing SFR estimates from optical emission lines with those from far- IR measurements. The comparison of results from these two independent methods indicates a large variety of dust distribution scenarios at 1 extinction, the Ha SFR indicator underestimates the SFR; the size of the necessary correction depends on the IR luminosity and dust distribution scenario. Individual SFR estimates based on the 6.2µm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission line luminosity do not show a systematic discrepancy with extinction, although a considerable, 0.2 dex, scatter is observed.

  19. Large gas reservoirs and free-free emission in two lensed star-forming galaxies at z=2.7

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, M; Aguirre, J E; Ashby, M L N; Benson, B A; Bothwell, M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; de Breuck, C; Fassnacht, C D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Gullberg, B; Hezaveh, Y; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Keisler, R; Malkan, M; Marrone, D P; McIntyre, V; Reichardt, C L; Sharon, K; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Stark, A A; Vieira, J D; Weiss, A

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission in the bright, lensed star-forming galaxies SPT-S 233227-5358.5 (z=2.73) and SPT-S 053816-5030.8 (z=2.78), using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Both galaxies were discovered in a large-area millimeter survey with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and found to be gravitationally lensed by intervening structures. The measured CO intensities imply galaxies with molecular gas masses of (3.2 \\pm 0.5)x10^10 (mu/15)^{-1}(X_CO/0.8) M_sun and (1.7 \\pm 0.3)x10^10 (mu/20)^{-1}(X_CO/0.8) M_sun, and gas depletion timescales of 4.9x10^7 (X_CO/0.8) yr and 2.6x10^7 (X_CO/0.8) yr, respectively, where mu corresponds to the lens magnification and X_CO is the CO luminosity to gas mass conversion factor. In the case of SPT-S 053816-5030.8, we also obtained significant detections of the rest-frame 115.7 and 132.4 GHz radio continuum. Based on the radio to infrared spectral energy distribution and an assumed synchrotron spectral index, we find that 42 \\pm 10 % and 55 \\pm ...

  20. An Extreme Metallicity, Large-Scale Outflow from a Star-Forming Galaxy at z ~ 0.4

    CERN Document Server

    Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchil, Christopher W; Charlton, Jane C; Nielsen, Nikole M; Mathes, Nigel L; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a large-scale galactic outflow in the CGM of a massive (M_h ~ 10^12.5 Msun), star-forming (6.9 Msun/yr), sub-L* (0.5 L_B*) galaxy at z=0.39853 that exhibits a wealth of metal-line absorption in the spectra of the background quasar Q 0122-003 at an impact parameter of 163 kpc. The galaxy inclination angle (i=63 degree) and the azimuthal angle (Phi=73 degree) imply that the QSO sightline is passing through the projected minor-axis of the galaxy. The absorption system shows a multiphase, multicomponent structure with ultra-strong, wide velocity spread OVI (logN = 15.16\\pm0.04, V_{90} = 419 km/s) and NV (logN = 14.69\\pm0.07, V_{90} = 285 km/s) lines that are extremely rare in the literature. The highly ionized absorption components are well explained as arising in a low density (10^{-4.2} cm^{-3}), diffuse (10 kpc), cool (10^4 K) photoionized gas with a super-solar metallicity ([X/H] > 0.3). From the observed narrowness of the Lyb profile, the non-detection of SIV absorption, and...

  1. Near-infrared Polarimetric Study of the N159/N160 Star-forming Complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeong; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Pak, Soojong; Park, Won-Kee; Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide

    2017-03-01

    We present near-infrared polarimetric results for the N159/N160 star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud with SIRPOL, the polarimeter of the Infrared Survey Facility. We separated foreground sources using their visual extinction derived from near-infrared photometric data. The 45 young stellar candidates and 2 high-excitation blobs were matched with our sources, and 12 of them showed high polarization that did not originate from the interstellar dust. We made a polarimetric catalog of 252, 277, and 89 sources at the J, H, and K s bands, respectively. Based on the ratios of the polarization degree between these bands, we verify that the origin of these polarized sources is the dichroic extinction from the interstellar dust aligned by the magnetic field and that the ratios follow a power-law dependence of {P}λ ∼ {λ }-0.9. The linear polarization vectors projected onto the Hα image of the complex turned out to follow the local magnetic field structure. The vector map overlaid on dust and gas emissions shows the close correlation between the magnetic field structure and surrounding interstellar medium. We suggest that the derived magnetic field structure supports the sequential formation scenario of the complex.

  2. Large-Scale Melting and Impact Mixing on Early-Formed Asteroids: Evidence from High-Precision Oxygen Isotope Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard; Barrat, J-A; Scott, Edward Robert Dalton

    Large-scale melting of asteroids and planetesimals is now known to have taken place ex-tremely early in solar system history [1]. The first-generation bodies produced by this process would have been subject to rapid collisional reprocessing, leading in most cases to fragmentation and/or accretion...

  3. Large-Scale Melting and Impact Mixing on Early-Formed Asteroids: Evidence from High-Precision Oxygen Isotope Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard; Barrat, J-A; Scott, Edward Robert Dalton

    Large-scale melting of asteroids and planetesimals is now known to have taken place ex-tremely early in solar system history [1]. The first-generation bodies produced by this process would have been subject to rapid collisional reprocessing, leading in most cases to fragmentation and/or accretion...

  4. Estimating Latent Variable Interactions with the Unconstrained Approach: A Comparison of Methods to Form Product Indicators for Large, Unequal Numbers of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, M. Grace-Anne; Leite, Walter L.; Cochrane, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This Monte Carlo simulation study investigated methods of forming product indicators for the unconstrained approach for latent variable interaction estimation when the exogenous factors are measured by large and unequal numbers of indicators. Product indicators were created based on multiplying parcels of the larger scale by indicators of the…

  5. Estimating Latent Variable Interactions with the Unconstrained Approach: A Comparison of Methods to Form Product Indicators for Large, Unequal Numbers of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, M. Grace-Anne; Leite, Walter L.; Cochrane, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This Monte Carlo simulation study investigated methods of forming product indicators for the unconstrained approach for latent variable interaction estimation when the exogenous factors are measured by large and unequal numbers of indicators. Product indicators were created based on multiplying parcels of the larger scale by indicators of the…

  6. Innovative capabilities, firm performance and foreign ownership: Empirical analysis of large and medium-sized companies form all industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Talaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article innovative capability, i.e. the ability of new products and markets development, is analyzed and empirically tested. The results have proven that the companies with more developed innovative capabilities achieve higher performance levels, but that there is no difference in innovative capabilities between large and medium-sized companies. On the other hand, medium-sized companies have slightly higher levels of sales growth and increase in market share. Also, companies in foreign ownership are better at development of new products and new production methods, and they have higher levels of sales growth, market share and increase in market share.

  7. Guided proliferation and bone-forming functionality on highly ordered large diameter TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruopeng; Wu, Hongliu; Ni, Jiahua; Zhao, Changli; Chen, Yifan; Zheng, Chengjunyi; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2015-08-01

    The significantly enhanced osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were observed on TiO2 nanotube surface in recent studies in which the scale of nanotube diameter was restricted under 100 nm. In this paper, a series of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with larger diameters ranging from 150 nm to 470 nm were fabricated via high voltage anodization. The behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to the diameter-controlled TiO2 nanotubes were investigated. A contrast between the trend of proliferation and the trend of cell elongation was observed. The highest cell elongation (nearly 10:1) and the lowest cell number were observed on the TiO2 nanotube arrays with 150 nm diameter. While, the lowest cell elongation and highest cell number were achieved on the TiO2 nanotube arrays with 470 nm diameter. Furthermore, the ALP activity peaked on the 150 nm diameter TiO2 nanotube arrays and decreased dramatically with the increase of nanotube diameter. Thus a narrow range of diameter (100-200 nm) that could induce the greatest bone-forming activity is determined. It is expected that more delicate design of orthopedic implant with regional abduction of cell proliferation or bone forming could be achieved by controlling the diameter of TiO2 nanotubes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using ALMA to Resolve the Nature of the Early Star-Forming Large-Scale Structure G073

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Kneissl, R.; Polletta, M.; Clarenc, B.; Dole, H. A.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Scott, D.; Béthermin, M.; Lagache, G.; Montier, L.

    2017-07-01

    Galaxy clusters at large redshift are key targets for understanding the nature of the early Universe, yet locating them has proven to be very challenging. Recently, a large sample of over 2000 high-z candidate structures have been found using Planck's all-sky submillimetre maps, and a subset of 234 have been followed up with Herschel-SPIRE, which showed that the emission can be attributed to large far-infrared overdensities. However, the individual galaxies giving rise to the emission seen by Planck and Herschel have not yet been resolved nor characterized, so we do not yet know whether these sources are the progenitors of present-day, massive galaxy clusters. In an attempt to address this, we targeted the eight brightest Herschel-SPIRE peaks in the centre of the Planck peak G073.4-57.5 using ALMA at 1.3 mm, and complemented these observations with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm and from CFHT-WIRCam at 1.2 and 2.2 μm. We also utilize data on G073.4-57.5 at 850 μm from JCMT's SCUBA-2 instrument. We detect a total of 18 millimetre galaxies brighter than 0.3mJy in 2.4arcmin2. In every case we are able to match these to their NIR counterparts, and while the most significant SCUBA-2 sources are not included in the ALMA pointings, we find an 8σ detection when stacking the ALMA source positions in the 850 μm data. We derive photometric redshifts, IR luminosities, star-formation rates, stellar masses, dust temperatures, and dust masses; the photometric redshifts are concentrated around z ≃ 1 and z ≃ 2 and the NIR colours show a "red" sequence, while the star-formation rates indicate that three of the galaxies are "starbursts". Serendipitous CO line detections of two of the galaxies appear to match their photometric redshifts with z = 2.05. We find that the ALMA source density is 8-30 times higher than average background estimates, and thus also larger than seen in typical "proto-cluster" fields. The evidence seems to be indicating the

  9. Large format cylindrical lens films formed by roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing and applications as diffusion films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X. C.; Liu, T.; Mohaime, M.; Salam, B.; Liu, Y. C.

    2015-03-01

    A roll-to-roll (R2R) ultraviolet (UV) embossing system has been developed for manufacturing micro features on continuous flexible films. The R2R UV embossing system, which has an embossing roller of 160 mm in diameter, can handle flexible polymer films with a width up to 500 mm and thickness ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 mm. A metal sheet template with micro features on its surface is mounted to the embossing roller and used as embossing mould. A slot die coating unit that has a coating width of 250 mm is used to deposit liquid UV curable resin on polymer films and coating thickness ranging from 10 to 50 µm has been achieved. Continuous roll-to-roll UV embossing is conducted and optical films with cylindrical lens arrays (curvature radius = 112  ±  2 µm, sag height = 28  ±  0.5 µm and pitch = 150  ±  2 µm) are formed. The optical films are used for diffusion to improve light uniformity of a printed lighting film that consists of lighting stripes and dark blank lines. The evaluation results show that the non-uniformity of light intensity can be reduced from 30% (with only lighting panel) to about 3% with the cylindrical lens films.

  10. A Founder Large Deletion Mutation in Xeroderma Pigmentosum-Variant Form in Tunisia: Implication for Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben Rekaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum Variant (XP-V form is characterized by a late onset of skin symptoms. Our aim is the clinical and genetic investigations of XP-V Tunisian patients in order to develop a simple tool for early diagnosis. We investigated 16 suspected XP patients belonging to ten consanguineous families. Analysis of the POLH gene was performed by linkage analysis, long range PCR, and sequencing. Genetic analysis showed linkage to the POLH gene with a founder haplotype in all affected patients. Long range PCR of exon 9 to exon 11 showed a 3926 bp deletion compared to control individuals. Sequence analysis demonstrates that this deletion has occurred between two Alu-Sq2 repetitive sequences in the same orientation, respectively, in introns 9 and 10. We suggest that this mutation POLH NG_009252.1: g.36847_40771del3925 is caused by an equal crossover event that occurred between two homologous chromosomes at meiosis. These results allowed us to develop a simple test based on a simple PCR in order to screen suspected XP-V patients. In Tunisia, the prevalence of XP-V group seems to be underestimated and clinical diagnosis is usually later. Cascade screening of this founder mutation by PCR in regions with high frequency of XP provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of XP-V in Tunisia and North Africa.

  11. Improved large $N_c$ parametrizations of the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta(1232)$ quadrupole form factors and the Siegert's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2016-01-01

    The large $N_c$ limit provides relations that can be used to calculate the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta(1232)$ quadrupole form factors at low and intermediate $Q^2$ under the assumption of the pion cloud dominance. There are two limitations in those parametrizations. First, the parametrization of the Coulomb quadrupole form factor underestimate the low $Q^2$ data. Second, when extrapolated for the timelike region, the form factors violate the Siegert's theorem by terms of the order $1/N_c^2$. We propose here corrections to the parametrization of the electric quadrupole form factor, which violate the Siegert's theorem only by terms of the order $1/N_c^4$. Combining the improved large $N_c$ pion cloud parametrizations with the valence quark contributions based on a covariant quark model for the quadrupole transition form factors, we obtain an extrapolation to the timelike region consistent with the Siegert's theorem, and accomplish also a very good description of the data.

  12. The effect of injuries on health measured by short form 8 among a large cohort of Thai adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We investigate the links between health and injury in Thailand. This is important because of the high burden of injury in transitional countries and limited information for public health. METHODS: We analyse 2005 baseline and 2009, 4-year follow-up data from distance learning students of Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University residing nationwide (n = 60569. Injury was reported for the past year in both periods. Medical Outcome Study Short-Form (SF-8™ health status was reported and Physical and Mental Component Summary Scores (PCS and MCS were calculated. Analyses used covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: In 2009, increasing numbers of traffic injuries (0, 1, 2, 3, 4+ associated with declining PCS scores (49.8, 48.4, 46.9, 46.2, 44.0, along with a similar monotonic decline for MCS scores (47.6, 46.0, 44.2, 42.7, 40.6. A similar (but smaller dose-response gradient was found between non-traffic injuries and SF-8 scores. Longitudinal analyses showed those with incident injury (no injury 2005, injury 2009 had lower PCS and MCS scores compared to those with no injury in both periods. Individuals with reverting injury status (injury 2005, no injury 2009 reported improvement in PCS and MCS scores over the four-year period. CONCLUSION: We found significant and epidemiologically important associations between increasing injury frequency and worse health in the past year, especially traffic injuries. Longitudinal 2005-2009 results were supportive and revealed statistically significant adverse 4-year effects of incident injury on health. If injury reverted over four years, low initial scores improved greatly. Findings highlight the importance of injury prevention as a public health priority.

  13. Novel large heteropolymetalate complexes formed from Ni(II) and cryptate [As4W40O140]28-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE; Ganglin; (

    2003-01-01

    [1]Rhule, J. T., Hill, C. L., Tudd, D. A. et al., Polyoxometalates in medicine, Chem. Rev., 1998, 98: 327-357.[2]Pope, M. T., Müller, A., Polyoxometellates: from Platonic Solids to Antiretro-Viral Activity, Kluver: Dordrecht, 1994, 245-371.[3]Ouahab, L., Organic/inorganic supramolecular assemblies and synergy between physical properties, Chem. Mater., 1997, 9: 1909-1926.[4]Baker, L. C. W., Glick, D. C., Present general status of understanding of heteropoly electrolytes and a tracing of some major highlights in the history of their elucidation, Chem. Rev., 1998, 98: 3-49.[5]Hill, C. L., Prosser-Mclartha, C. M., Homogeneous catalysis by transition metal oxygen anion clusters, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 1995, 143: 407-455.[6]Liu Jingfu, Guo Jun, Zhao Beng et al., Synthesis and characterization of novel heteropolytungstoarsenate containing lanthanum [LaAs4W40O140]25- and its derivatives [LaAs4W40O140M2]n-[J], Transition Met. Chem., 1993, 18: 205-208.[7]Wassermann, K., Pope, M. T., Large cluster formation though multiple substitution with lanthanide cations (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd) of the polyoxoanion [(B-a-AsO3W9O30)4(WO2)4]28-: Synthesis and structural characterization, Inorg. Chem., 2001, 40: 2763-2768.[8]Xue Ganglin, A new large heteropolyanion [As4W40O140Ce(H2O)5]25-, Acta Chimica Sinica (in Chinese), 2001, 59: 1519-1521.[9]Robert, F., Leyrie, M., Herve, G. et al., Crystal structure of ammonium dicobalto (II)-40-tungstotetraarsenate (III): Allosteric effects in the ligand, lnorg. Chem., 1980, 19: 1746-1752.[10]Hur, N. H., Klemperer, W. G., Wang, R. C. et al., Sodium tetracontatungstotetraarsenate (III), Na27[NaAs4W40O140]@ 60H2O, Inorganic Synthesis, 1990, 27: 118-119.[11]Xu Jiqing, Wang Renzhang, Guo Chunxiao et al., Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and quantum chemistry of transition metal complex supported by metal-oxo cluster [{Ni(phen)2}2 (ξ-Mo8O26)], Science in China, Series B, 2001, 44(2): 137-146.[12

  14. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul [Tufts School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bullock, Peter A., E-mail: peter.bullock@tufts.edu [Tufts School of Medicine and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  15. New Forms of Embezzlement by Large Shareholders in Listed Companies%我国上市公司大股东利益侵占行为演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文君

    2012-01-01

    The embezzlement by large shareholders is a chronic disease in China's stock market. It not only impairs the benefits of minor shareholders, but also it hinders the development of our stock market. Since equity division reform, the embezzlement by large shareholders has taken on some new forms. This paper reveals and analyzes these forms and puts forward some policy proposals with a view to tightening supervision over the stock market.%大股东侵占中小股东利益是我国证券市场长期以来的顽疾,不仅会损害中小股东的利益,还会阻碍整个国家金融证券市场的发展。股权分置改革后,我国的大股东侵占行为出现新的特征。本文对此进行梳理和归纳,并在此基础上提出如何加强证券市场监管的政策建议。

  16. Structure-based Design of a Disulfide-lined Oligomeric Form of the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Large T Antigen DNA-Binding Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Meinke; P Phelan; A Fradet-Turcotte; J Archambault; P Bullock

    2011-12-31

    The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS-PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  17. Nuclear export signal-interacting protein forms complexes with lamin A/C-Nups to mediate the CRM1-independent nuclear export of large hepatitis delta antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Jiang, Jia-Yin; Chang, Shin C; Tsay, Yeou-Guang; Chen, Mei-Ru; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2013-02-01

    Nuclear export is an important process that not only regulates the functions of cellular factors but also facilitates the assembly of viral nucleoprotein complexes. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) that mediates the transport of proteins bearing the classical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) is the best-characterized nuclear export receptor. Recently, several CRM1-independent nuclear export pathways were also identified. The nuclear export of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L), a nucleocapsid protein of hepatitis delta virus (HDV), which contains a CRM1-independent proline-rich NES, is mediated by the host NES-interacting protein (NESI). The mechanism of the NESI protein in mediating nuclear export is still unknown. In this study, NESI was characterized as a highly glycosylated membrane protein. It interacted and colocalized well in the nuclear envelope with lamin A/C and nucleoporins. Importantly, HDAg-L could be coimmunoprecipitated with lamin A/C and nucleoporins. In addition, binding of the cargo HDAg-L to the C terminus of NESI was detected for the wild-type protein but not for the nuclear export-defective HDAg-L carrying a P205A mutation [HDAg-L(P205A)]. Knockdown of lamin A/C effectively reduced the nuclear export of HDAg-L and the assembly of HDV. These data indicate that by forming complexes with lamin A/C and nucleoporins, NESI facilitates the CRM1-independent nuclear export of HDAg-L.

  18. The Changes of Left Ventricular Form and Function After Closure of Moderate-to Large-sized Patent Ductus Arteriosus Using Domestic-made Occluder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Jianmei; Wu Weifeng; Liu Tangwei; Huang Kai; Guo Shenglan; Zhang Bingdong; Wu Ji

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the changes of the left ventricular form and function after closure of moderate- to large-sized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) using domestic-made occluder.Methods 22 patients with PDA underwent procedure successfuly using the domestic-made occluder. The mean PDA minimal (pulmonary end) diameter by aortography was 8.01±2.47 mm (range 4 to 15.Smm).All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) study before the procedure and the following 48hours, 3 months after procedure. Results All patients had been implanted the domestic-made occluders successfully with no haematolysis, infective endocarditis, recanalization and other complications.At 3 months, mean LVED was decreased to 50.05±6.55mm, compared to the pre-procedure (55.67±8.48mm), P < 0.01. After 48 hours of the procedure, mean LVEDD and LVESD decreased significantly (156.22±51.40 mLvs. 121.28±35.73ml, 57.16±32.07 mL vs.45.88±15.97 mL), P<0.05. At3 months, LVEDDdecreased to 110.93±15.08ml, LVSV reached 73.50±9.19 mL, compared to the pre-procedure, P < 0.01.LVESD decreased to 37.43±10.44 mL at 3 months, P <0.05. Conclusions Closuring of moderate- to largesized PDA using domestic-made occluder is effective and safe. After procedure, left ventricular form and function improved.

  19. Star-forming galaxies versus low- and high-excitation radio AGN in the VLA-COSMOS 3GHz Large Project

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, N; Novak, M; Delhaize, J; Delvecchio, I; Capak, P; Civano, F; Herrera-Ruiz, N; Ilbert, O; Laigle, C; Marchesi, S; McCracken, H J; Middelberg, E; Salvato, M; Schinnerer, E

    2016-01-01

    We study the composition of the faint radio population selected from the VLA-COSMOS 3GHz Large Project, a radio continuum survey performed at 10 cm wavelength. The survey covers the full 2 square degree COSMOS field with mean $rms\\sim2.3$ $\\mu$Jy/beam, cataloging 10,899 source components above $5\\times rms$. By combining these radio data with UltraVISTA, optical, near-infrared, and Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data, as well as X-ray data from the Chandra Legacy, and Chandra COSMOS surveys, we gain insight into the emission mechanisms within our radio sources out to redshifts of $z\\sim5$. From these emission characteristics we classify our souces as star forming galaxies or AGN. Using their multi-wavelength properties we further separate the AGN into sub-samples dominated by radiatively efficient and inefficient AGN, often referred to as high- and low-excitation emission line AGN. We compare our method with other results based on fitting of the sources' spectral energy distributions using both galaxy and AGN spec...

  20. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  1. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  2. THE DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT OF A COMPETITION POLICY ON THE BASIS OF DEVELOPMENT OF CONTRACT FORMS OF JOINT ACTIVITY OF SMALL AND LARGE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebriakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The analysis of the foreign economic theory and practice of antimonopoly regulation, the principles of the Russian civil law and the antitrust law, allows to formulate a number of the basic principles and approaches to an assessment of influence of different types of the contract relations on efficiency of use of public resources, welfare of consumers and the competitive environment, the research basis presented in this article also consists in it. Support of the competition is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, is one of bases of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation, and also relevance of a subject of research is confirmed by a constant priority of a state policy it. Development of the competition in economy is a multidimensional task which decision substantially depends on efficiency of carrying out a state policy in a wide range of the directions: from macroeconomic policy, creation of favorable investment climate, including development of financial and tax system, decrease in administrative and infrastructure barriers, before protection of the rights of citizens and national policy. Due to the complexity of a task dynamic landmark approach to work on development of a competition policy in connection with development of contract forms of joint activity of small and large business in the Russian Federation and to formation of the respective directions is necessary. For research by authors of research the following methods are chosen: a statistical method, a reference method to value, a comparative method, system approach, a historical method and a method of the economic analysis of the public relations and the right. Research covers the latest sources in the field reflecting the last economic and standard and legal changes, in particular, them treat: the statistical given, expert estimates, regulations, acts of judicial and administrative practice, scientific publications of economists

  3. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  4. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, Aidan [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  5. Reliability and validity of the short form of the child health questionnaire for parents (CHQ-PF28) in large random school based and general population samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Raat (Hein); A.M. Botterweck; J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); W.C. Hoogeveen; M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the 28 item short child health questionnaire parent form (CHQ-PF28) containing the same 13 scales, but only a subset of the items in the widely used 50 item CHQ-PF50. DESIGN: Questionnai

  6. Design of a machine for the universal non-contact measurement of large free-form optics with 30 nm uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, R.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.; Saunders, I.; Bergmans, R.

    2005-01-01

    A new universal non-contact measurement machine design for measuring free-form optics with 30 nm expanded uncertainty is presented. In the cylindrical machine concept, an optical probe with 5 mm range is positioned over the surface by a motion system. Due to a 2nd order error effect when measuring s

  7. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...

  8. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period distribution observed in few Myr-old OB binaries.

  9. Research on the kinetic energy ratio of return air entrainment in the form of low supply–middle return in the large space of brine experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in this article is a 1:15 brine model experiment rig with an actual large space building as the research object, which provides different concentration brine for a simulation of the stratified air conditioning in the steady-state flow field featured with columnar air supply in the bottom, heat source on the ground, the central air return, and air exhaust from roof in a large space. According to the similarity theory, it is concluded that the similarity criterion numbers applied here are Reynolds number (Re and Archimedes number (Ar for designation of experiment rig size, choosing device type, and confirming experiment condition. In the designation of key components of experiment rig, the application of automation control makes brine recovery and recycling in the process; designation of electrical control system makes a centralized control of experiment start–stop and the adjustment of the pipeline flow, realizing automation in the whole experiment process. Particle image velocimetry testing technology is used to get velocity vector field of air return mouth area in the model under various working conditions, and also proper orthogonal decomposition method is applied to analyze flow field structure of air return mouth area and reconstruct it. Consequently, we can get a kinetic energy ratio of return air entrainment of lower air-conditioning section and upper non-air-conditioning section in large space. Experiments show that under the conditions of same air supply, indoor environment temperature difference, and height and direction of return air inlet, fastening the speed of return air suction, the entrainment of flow field around it strengthens accordingly. The entrainment of return air inlet has more kinetic energy in the lower air-conditioning section than the upper non-air-conditioning section.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Discs large 1 (Dlg1) scaffolding protein participates with clathrin and adaptator protein complex 1 (AP-1) in forming Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Monique; Léger, Thibaut; Desvaux, Raphaëlle; Walch, Laurence

    2013-05-03

    Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are specific cigar-shaped granules that store von Willebrand factor (VWF) for its regulated secretion by endothelial cells. The first steps of the formation of these granules at the trans-Golgi network specifically require VWF aggregation and an external scaffolding complex that contains the adaptator protein complex 1 (AP-1) and clathrin. Discs large 1 (Dlg1) is generally considered to be a modular scaffolding protein implicated in the control of cell polarity in a large variety of cells by specific recruiting of receptors, channels, or signaling proteins to specialized zones of the plasma membrane. We propose here that in endothelial cells, Dlg1, in a complex with AP-1 and clathrin, participates in the biogenesis of WPBs. Supporting data show that Dlg1 colocalizes with microtubules, intermediate filaments, and Golgi markers. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments led to the identification of clathrin as an Dlg1-interacting partner. Interaction was confirmed by in situ proximity ligation assays. Furthermore, AP-1 and VWF immunoprecipitate and colocalize with Dlg1 in the juxtanuclear zone. Finally, Dlg1 depletion by siRNA duplexes disrupts trans-Golgi network morphology and WPB formation. Our results provide the first evidence for an unexpected role of Dlg1 in controlling the formation of specific secretory granules involved in VWF exocytosis in endothelial cells.

  12. On hull form of large deep-water seismic survey vessels%大型深水物探船船型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付学辉

    2015-01-01

    介绍国际上大型物探船的船型发展情况及其主要作业特点.结合我国近年新建的大型物探船,分析该船型在总布置、性能指标、谐波控制、水下噪声等方面的技术难点.%This paper introduces the major development and the main operation characteristics of the large seismic survey vessels in the world. Based on the vessels recently built in China, it analyzes the technique issues about general arrangement, ship performance, harmonic wave control and subsea noise.

  13. Tephra dispersal during the Campanian Ignimbrite (Italy) eruption: implications for ultra-distal ash transport during the large caldera-forming eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria C.; Isaia, Roberto; Engwell, Sam L.; Albert, Paul. G.

    2016-06-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dispersed ash over much of the central eastern Mediterranean Sea and eastern Europe. The eruption started with a Plinian phase that was followed by a series of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) associated with the collapse of the Plinian column and the caldera. The glass compositions of the deposits span a wide geochemical range, but the Plinian fallout and PDCs associated with column collapse, the Lower Pumice Flow, only erupted the most evolved compositions. The later PDCs, the Breccia Museo and Upper Pumice Flow, erupted during and after caldera collapse, tap a less evolved component, and intermediate compositions that represent mixing between the end-members. The range of glass compositions in the Campanian Ignimbrite deposits from sites across the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea allow us to trace the dispersal of the different phases of this caldera-forming eruption. We map the fallout from the Plinian column and the plumes of fine material associated with the PDCs (co-PDCs) across the entire dispersal area. This cannot be done using the usual grain-size methods as deposits in these distal regions do not retain characteristics that allow attribution to either the Plinian or co-PDC phases. The glass compositions of the tephra at ultra-distal sites (>1500 km from the vent) match those of the uppermost PDC units, suggesting that most of the ultra-distal dispersal was associated with the late co-PDC plume that was generated during caldera collapse.

  14. Process study and quality control for forming large-scale duplex fitting%大比例三通接头成形工艺研究及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 付冬雪; 郎利辉; 王少华; 杨春雷

    2013-01-01

    For meeting requirements of the large content flow inside the tube, a plenty of large-scale duplex fitting structures are used in the aircraft and aerospace areas. There are many issues to be tackled due to the high scrap rate in the large-scale duplex fitting forming processes. Taking duplex fitting with forming factor of 1 as experiment part, the optimization of the process parameters, tooling types and forming experiments were done. These researches show that the conical forming die is better than spherical die for improving the forming quality and qualified products were formed.%为适应导管内容物流量的要求,航空航天、汽配等领域上采用大量大比例成形系数的三通接头结构.成形系数为1的大比例接头存在成形难度大、报废率高等许多亟待解决的问题.本文以某型号成形系数为1的大比例三通接头为典型件,对成形中椭圆孔尺寸、模具形状等工艺参数进行设计与优化,并通过试验验证了锥面模胎工装形式相比两次球面模胎工装形式对成形质量的改善,最终成形出了合格零件.

  15. Large-area, transparent, and flexible infrared photodetector fabricated using P-N junctions formed by N-doping chemical vapor deposition grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Tian, He; Schwartz, Gregor; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Ren, Tian-Ling; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-07-01

    Graphene is a highly promising material for high speed, broadband, and multicolor photodetection. Because of its lack of bandgap, individually gated P- and N-regions are needed to fabricate photodetectors. Here we report a technique for making a large-area photodetector on the basis of controllable fabrication of graphene P-N junctions. Our selectively doped chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene photodetector showed a ∼5% modulation of conductance under global IR irradiation. By comparing devices of various geometries, we identify that both the homogeneous and the P-N junction regions contribute competitively to the photoresponse. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our two-terminal graphene photodetector can be fabricated on both transparent and flexible substrates without the need for complex fabrication processes used in electrically gated three-terminal devices. This represents the first demonstration of a fully transparent and flexible graphene-based IR photodetector that exhibits both good photoresponsivity and high bending capability. This simple approach should facilitate the development of next generation high-performance IR photodetectors.

  16. Genotype and phenotype characterizations in a large cohort of β-thalassemia heterozygote with different forms of α-thalassemia in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamsri, Supawadee; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sae-Ung, Nattaya; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-08-15

    In order to update the molecular basis of β-thalassemia and describe hematological features among different mutations and the concurrent of α- and β-thalassemias, 849 unrelated β-thalassemia heterozygotes recruited in northeast Thailand during a prevention and control program were studied. β- and α-thalassemia mutations were investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technologies and hematological parameters were recorded using standard methods. Seventeen different mutations including both β(0)- and β(+) -thalassemias were identified. Eight of these 17 β-thalassemia alleles accounted for 97.4%, others were found at lower frequencies (<1.0%). Of the 849 cases, 626 were investigated for common α-thalassemia mutations and 155 (24.8%) were found to be co-inherited with different forms of α-thalassemia. Comparison of the hematological parameters among different β-thalassemia mutations revealed an increasing trend of MCV and MCH in a group of heterozygous states for the 3.4kb deletion and the A-G substitution at nucleotide (NT) -28. Hb A(2) and Hb F levels in individuals with the 3.4kb deletion were significantly higher than those with other mutations. Interaction of each β-thalassemia mutation with α-thalassemia did not affect the diagnostic ranges of Hb A(2) and Hb F, though the significantly increased MCV and MCH was noted. These findings underline the heterogeneity of β-thalassemia and the importance of hematological and molecular analyses of both α-and β-thalassemias in the diagnosis and genetic counseling of the couples at-risk of having babies with severe thalassemia diseases in the region.

  17. Optimal Configuration Method for Large-scale Measurement Systems Based on Form Error Uncertainty%基于形状误差不确定度的大尺寸测量系统优化配置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪爱晶; 郑联语

    2011-01-01

    For large-scale measuring system configuration, the solution to configure measurement systems based on form error uncertainty of measurement task is presented. The point simulation and data fusion from multiple instruments based on Monte Carlo are studied. Based on form error mathematical model, particle swarm optimization method is adopted to solve form error and Monte Carlo method is used to simulate and evaluate form error uncertainty. Finally, the simulation measurement test of a large frame between satellite cabins has been carried out The test results indicated that the proposed method for optimal measurement systems configuration based on form error uncertainty is effective. This method is able to provide a solution guide for rapid shop-floor deployment of large-scale measurement systems.%针对大尺寸测量系统部署问题,提出了面向测量任务的以形状误差不确定度为评价指标的优化配置测量系统的方法.对于基于蒙特卡罗仿真方法的测量点仿真和多测量仪器数据融合进行了研究.在建立形状误差评定模型基础上,提出并实现了基于粒子群算法的形状误差评定模型的求解及基于蒙特卡罗法的形状误差不确定度计算方法.通过某卫星舱段端框的仿真试验,验证了以不确定度为指标进行大尺寸测量系统配置方法的有效性,可为大尺寸测量系统现场快速部署提供方案指导.

  18. Research on precise forming process of aircraft aluminum large sheet metal part%飞机铝合金大型钣金件精确成形研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白颖; 张引引; 赵刚; 陈磊

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the large size and low roughness, the forming process of large sheet metal parts of aircraft is difficult The shape and structure were optimized after increasing the corners and decreasing the length of adding straps based on the analysis of the part structure and assemble requirement The reasonable fabrication technology and a set of deformation-proof measures were defined using deep drawing method that improved the forming approach and the accuracy. By finite numerical simulation, theoretical computation and experiment, profile dimensions of the semi finished products were optimized, the reasonable tooling structure and the best BHP value were determined. Thus the precise forming requirement is satisfied.%飞机铝合金大型钣金件成形尺寸大,刚性差,制造难度大.通过对零件结构及装配要求的分析,提出了增大四周拐角角度,减少补加条带长度的改进意见,优化了零件的外形结构.借助双动拉深的优越性,采用了双动拉深的成形方法,确定出合理的制造流程和一套防止零件热处理产生变形的措施,提高了零件的成形准确度.利用有限元数值模拟、理论计算并结合实际试验,优化了展开毛坯的外形尺寸,确定出合理的工装结构以及压边力的最佳数值,达到零件精确成形的要求.

  19. Technical and economical evaluation and optimization of ship form for large middle-water layer trawlers%变水层大型拖网渔船的船型技术经济论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光发; 张亚; 赵学伟; 陆丛红

    2014-01-01

    The method of technical and economical evaluation and optimization of ship form for large middle-water trawlers were investigated based on the fishing model and operation characteristics. The optimized design parameters and estimation models were reasonably selected, the evaluating economical indices fit for fishing vessels were syn-thetically discussed, including net present value, coefficient of fishing effect, investment payback period, fuel con-sumption per ton of fish and cost per ton of fish and the model for evaluating fisheries quality and calculating econo-my was developed. The comprehensive evaluation function was established with index weight method. The parame-ter analysis method was used to optimize selection of ship form for large middle-water trawlers, and the uncertainty factors were considered with sensitivity analysis method. With the developed universal program, the ship form of large middle-water trawlers used in West African waters was optimized as a case study. It is found that the optimal-ly selected ship form parameters for large middle-water trawlers are described as ship length of 82. 4 m, ship width of 16. 2 m, draught of 5. 79 m, block coefficient of 0. 68, and service speed of 13. 2 kn.%根据捕捞方式与运营模式特点,对变水层大型拖网渔船船型技术经济论证方法进行了研究。以船长、船宽、型深、方形系数和设计自航航速为船型优化参数,选取净现值、渔捞效果系数、投资偿还期、吨鱼油耗和吨鱼成本为船型论证经济指标,建立了渔获产量估算及其经济性计算模型,利用指标权重法建立了综合评价函数,利用参数分析法对变水层大型拖网渔船进行船型优选,对论证中的不确定性因素进行敏感性分析。以运营于西非某海域的变水层大型拖网渔船为实例进行计算与优化分析,得到变水层大型拖网渔船最优船型为船长82.4 m、船宽16.2 m、型深9.5 m、吃水5.79 m

  20. FORM, Diagrams and Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Franz; Ueda, Takahiro; Vermaseren, J A M; Vogt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a number of FORM features that are essential in the automatic processing of very large numbers of diagrams as used in the Forcer program for 4-loop massless propagator diagrams. Most of these features are new.

  1. 大尺寸C/E面板铝蜂窝夹层结构筒形件成型工艺%Forming Process of Cylinder With A Large Size of C/E Panel Aluminum Honeycomb Sandwich Structure Cylindrical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智彬; 蒋文革; 李健芳; 张娅婷; 付平俊

    2013-01-01

    对某大尺寸MT300碳纤维/648环氧树脂面板蜂窝夹层结构筒形件成型工艺进行研究,介绍了内外面板成型工艺、“F”形前后金属端框与铝蜂窝夹芯插接工艺以及“F”形前后金属端框、内外面板与蜂窝夹芯的组装整体固化技术.通过模具设计优化大尺寸夹层结构筒形件尺寸满足设计要求,并解决了内外面板-蜂窝夹芯-前后金属框组装整体固化技术成型难点.%The forming process of carbon fiber MT300/648 epoxy panel honeycomb sandwich structure cylindrical with a large size is investigated in the paper.The forming process of internal and external panel,the plug-in process of aluminum honeycomb with "F" shape metal frames and the assembly co-curing technology of panels-aluminum honeycomb-metal frames are introduced.The size of honeycomb sandwich structure cylindrical achieve the requirements by the mold design optimization,and the difficulty of panel-honeycomb-frames assembly technology is resolved.

  2. 变水层拖网渔船船型技术经济论证通用程序设计%Universal Program Design for Technical and Economical Evaluation of Hull Form for Large Middle-Water Trawlers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光发; 秦放; 张亚; 陆丛红

    2014-01-01

    从软件设计的角度,对变水层拖网渔船船型技术经济论证的一般模型与方法进行了抽象。选取合理的数据结构与程序框架,以Excel软件为基础,利用Visual Basic for Applications开发语言设计开发了适合于变水层拖网渔船船型技术经济论证的通用程序。实例计算表明,该通用程序在变水层拖网渔船船型技术经济论证分析方面具有较强的通用性和实用性;同时,由于其功能独立、输入输出数据通用,开发的程序可作为船舶CIMS 中的“渔船船型技术经济论证”子系统,以辅助渔船总体设计中的初期方案确定以及技术任务书的制定工作。%From the perspective of software design, a general model and methodology for technical and economical evaluation of hull form of large middle-water trawlers are researched. Reasonable data structure and application framework is selected and the universal program is developed with Visual Basic for Applications program language based on software MS-EXCEL. Good universality and practicability is shown through case study. Due to independence of functions and universality of input and output data, the developed program can be integrated into the system called as“technical and economical evaluation and optimization of hull form for fish vessel” in the ship CIMS and assists in making initial hull form plan and designing technical specification.

  3. Narrative form

    CERN Document Server

    Keen, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This revised and expanded handbook concisely introduces narrative form to advanced students of fiction and creative writing, with refreshed references and new discussions of cognitive approaches to narrative, nonfiction, and narrative emotions.

  4. FE modeling of a complete warm-bending process for optimal design of heating stages for the forming of large-diameter thin-walled Ti–6Al–4V tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Warm rotary draw bending (WRDB of large-diameter thin-walled (LDTW Ti–6Al–4V tube is a multi-nonlinear thermo-mechanical coupled process. Due to the high-cost, energy-wasting and long-term, the traditional physical experiments based on “trial and error” are no longer suitable for the WRBD process. Considering the non-uniform local heating and multi-tool constraints, a thermal–mechanical coupled 3D FE model of complete WRDB process for LDTW Ti–6Al–4V tube is established on ABAQUS as heating-bending-unloading three-stage. The FE models could predict the overall temperature distribution, describe thermo-mechanical bending deformation considering a modified Johnson–Cook model, and simulate the heating-bending-springback-cooling process. On that basis, the temperature distributions on both tube and dies under various heating schemes are compared, and the optimal heating scheme is determined on the basis of forming quality and efficiency. Combined with the experiments of WRDB, the optimal heating scheme and the established FE models are verified. In conclusion, the FE simulation provides a replacement of physical experiment and a convenient method of deformation prediction for WRDB of LDTW Ti–6Al–4V tube.

  5. Fri form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Dette Kompendiun er lavet i forbindelse med en workshop i møbeldesign. En række af form-Z's værktøjer til konstruktion af dobbeltkrumme flader gennemgås. Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  6. Closed-form on-off control for large angle maneuver of flexible spacecraft%柔性航天器大角度机动闭环开关序列控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宪仁; 杨正贤; 廖俊; 张也弛

    2011-01-01

    针对柔性航天器大角度姿态机动时柔性附件的振动抑制问题,提出了一种闭环脉冲序列控制方法.该方法利用姿态角和角速度作为反馈信号,分别使用喷气推力器、反作用飞轮完成姿态的粗、精控制,以实现航天器的快速大角度机动;同时,为实现平稳的机动过程,设计成形的喷气开关控制指令,以避免机动过程中推力器激起柔性结构的持续振动.全物理实验结果表明,该方法不仅使航天器完成姿态的机动,而且显著地减少了柔性结构的弹性振动,并且具有节省燃料、算法简单、易于在轨实时计算、工程可行性及有效性高的优点.%A closed-form pulse train control algorithm is presented for vibration suppression of flexible spacecraft during large angle maneuver. Based on attitude angle and angular velocity, the control algorithm uses thrusters for coarse attitude control and reaction wheels for high precision attitude control at the final stage of operations. The input shaping is introduced to modulate thruster pulses with a set of properly timed impulses to suppress vibrations introduced by on-off control. Physical experiment results demonstrate that the proposed ap- proach can significantly reduce the vibration of flexible appendages during fast large angle maneuver, and the presented control algorithm has the advantages of less fuel consumption, as well as simplicity and efficiency for practical on-board computer operation.

  7. Automorphic Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Flemming Brændgaard

    systems. For automorphic forms wrt. Hecke triangle groups and Fuchsian groups with no elliptic elements and genus 0, we show that some logarithms of multiplier systems can be interpreted as a linking number. Finally we show a "twisted" version of the prime geodesics theorem, and logarithms of multiplier...

  8. Cosmic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    The continuous 1D defects of an isotropic homogeneous material in an Euclidean 3D space are classified by a construction method, the Volterra process (VP). We employ the same method to classify the continuous 2D defects (which we call \\textit{cosmic forms}) of a vacuum in a 4D maximally symmetric spacetime. These defects fall into three different classes: i)- $m$-forms, akin to 3D space disclinations, related to ordinary rotations and analogous to Kibble's global cosmic strings (except that being continuous any deficit angle is allowed); ii)- $t$-forms, related to Lorentz boosts (hyperbolic rotations); iii)- $r$-forms, never been considered so far, related to null rotations. A detailed account of their metrics is presented. Their inner structure in many cases appears as a non-singular \\textit{core} separated from the outer part by a timelike hypersurface with distributional curvature and/or torsion, yielding new types of geometrical interactions with cosmic dislocations and other cosmic disclinations. Whereas...

  9. 大尺寸自由曲面铝反射镜超精密抛光工艺%Ultra-Precision Polishing Process of Large Free-Form Surface Aluminum Miror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘龙; 宫虎; 房丰洲

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the defects of large free-form surface aluminum mirror after single point diamond turning ( SPDT) , such as scratch and corrugation , the effects of polishing media and process parameters on the ultra-precision polishing results of free-form aluminum surface were studied in this paper .The AA6061 aluminum surface topography before and that after polishing and polishing results under different conditions were compared after detecting in WykoNT 9300 white light interferometer and VHX 500 digital microscope .Polishing experiments of both flat and free-form surfaces were conducted on a precision ma-chining center with different concentrations of diamond oily suspension as polishing liquid and wool wheel as polishing wheel respectively .The surface roughness Ra was reduced from 144.59 nm before polishing to 6.03 nm after polishing , wherein the oil lubricant played a key role in trace removal and reducing scratching and ideal mirror surface was achieved using optimized process parameters .%针对大尺寸自由曲面铝反射镜在单点金刚石车削(SPDT)后出现的划伤、波纹等缺陷,研究了抛光介质和加工参数对自由曲面铝合金超精密抛光结果的影响.利用WykoNT9300白光干涉仪和VHX500超景深显微镜对AA6061铝合金抛光表面进行了检测,将抛光前后的表面形貌以及不同条件下的抛光结果进行了比较.实验中采用质量分数不同的金刚石油性悬浮液作为抛光液,采用羊毛轮作为抛光轮,在一台精密加工中心上先后进行了平面抛光和自由曲面抛光实验.实验结果表明,工件的表面粗糙度Ra由抛光前的144.59nm降低到了抛光后的6.03nm,其中油性润滑剂在抛光过程中起微量去除和降低划擦几率的关键作用,使用优化的工艺参数在AA6061自由曲面上获得了理想镜面.

  10. 模具成形自体颞肌筋膜修补鼓膜大穿孔%Tympanoplasty using fascia-form molds to shape autogenous temporalis fascia for closing large perforations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永青; 卢红; 李晓明; 杜泓; 李建红; 高晓红; 徐瑾

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the efficiency of using autogenous temporalis fascia which was formed and shaped by formaldehyde cross-linking with special fasciaform molds in the repair of large tympanic membrane perforations. Methods Base on machine technique and published data, the molds was designed according to the shape of tympanic membrane (TM), autologous fascia graft shaped by 4% formaldehyde (pH 5.6) was cross-linked on the mold to resemble the natural TM more closely repairing the large perforations of tympanic membrane with the formed fascia. Sixty-one operations were performed to close large perforations in patients with intact ossicular chain in fifty-seven patients from November 2006 to April 2009. The follow up was done from one month to thirty months; the average follow up period was eleven months. Statistical analysis was performed usig a SPSS 13.0 software. Results The repairing of the perforations were successfully with rate of 95. 1% (58/61 ). Three ears were remained small remnant perforations after the surgery, but all hearing had been improved except one patient with biauricular total sensorineural hearing loss within the group. The air bone gap (ABG) of preoperative average (x ± s) hearing level of fifty-nine ears was (31.5 ±6. l)dB, and the ABG of postoperative average hearing level of same group was (14.2 ±4. 4) dB, the diference was significant ((=21.3, P <0. 01 ). During the early stage of using this technique, six ears were found to have graft lateralization recovery, but one case was slightly blunting recovery. No pearl tumor and epicyst had been found during the follow-up period. Conclusions The formaldehyde fasciaform technique produces consistent, reliable as well as reproducible results for repairing large tympanic membrane perforations with minimal complications.%目的 研究运用模具成形自体颢肌筋膜修补鼓膜大穿孔的可行性和疗效.方法 依靠理工技术,模拟鼓膜外侧面的形状设计制造一种模具,将

  11. Chemical forms and stabilization of phosphorus in manures from large-scale livestock and poultry farms%规模化养殖场畜禽粪中磷的化学形态与稳定化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国雄; 吴崇书; 孔樟良; 姜铭北

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intensive confined livestock and poultry production systems generate large quantities of manure by‐products , which have the potential for being recycled on agricultural land . Beneficial use through land application is based on their ability to alter favorably soil properties . However , protecting environmental quality is a major consideration w hen developing management practices are carried out to use effectively manure by‐products as a nutrient resource and soil conditioner in agricultural production system . To date , most of the environmental problems associated with land application of manure by‐products have centered on the contamination of groundwater and surface water with nitrogen and phosphorus . High concentration and high water solubility of phosphorus in animal manures have become a limiting factor for agricultural safety application of manures . Optimum use of these by‐products requires the knowledge of their composition not only in relation to beneficial uses but also to environmental implications . To understand the chemical form of phosphorus in manures of large‐scale livestock and poultry farms , and to seek the ways to stabilize phosphorus in manures , 92 manure samples were collected from representative large‐scale farms in Zhejiang Province . The chemical forms of phosphorus in the manures were identified by the modified Hedley�s phosphorus fractionation . Six amendments , including alum , calcium carbonate , gypsum , fly ash and two soil materials , were used to test their effects on the stability of phosphorus in the manures . One pig manure sample was mixed separately with alum , calcium carbonate , gypsum , and the fly ash at the rates of 0% , 2% , 4%and 6% , and the two soil materials at the rates of 0% , 5% and 10% , and it was incubated at room temperature for 30 days . The incubated materials were analyzed for bio‐available phosphorus ( P) , water extractable P and chemical forms of P . The results showed

  12. Tidal Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla Pittaluga, M.; Seminara, G.; Tambroni, N.

    2003-04-01

    We give an overview of some recent investigations on the mechanics of the processes whereby forms develop in tidal environments. The viewpoint taken here is mechanistic. Some of the questions which deserve an answer may be summarised as follows: i) do tidal channels tend to some altimetric long term equilibrium? ii) why are they typically convergent and weakly meandering? iii) how is such equilibrium affected by the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of tidal inlets? iv) what is the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic role played by tidal flats adjacent to the channels? Some of the above questions have received a considerable attention in the last few years. Schuttelaars and de Swart (1996), Lanzoni and Seminara (2002) and, more recently, Bolla Pittaluga (2003) have investigated the first problem. In particular, the latter two contributions have shown that a straight tidal channel connected to a tidal sea at one end and closed at the other end tends to reach a long term equilibrium profile, which is slightly concave seaward and convex landward where a beach forms. The equilibrium profile is strongly sensitive to the harmonic content of the tidal forcing as well as to the value of sediment concentration established by the coastal hydrodynamics in the far field of the inlet region. Less important are the effect of channel convergence and the role of settling lag in the transport of suspended load. Insufficient attention has been devoted to the understanding of what mechanisms control channel convergence and meandering, though some similarities and differences between tidal and fluvial channels have emerged from some recent works. In particular, free bars form in tidal channels due to an instability mechanism essentially similar to that occurring under steady conditions though the oscillatory character of the flow field makes the bar pattern non migrating (Seminara and Tubino, 2001). Similarly, forced bars in curved tidal channels are driven by the development of

  13. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  14. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  15. Forming processes and mechanics of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report is dealing with the numerical analysis of forming processes. Forming processes is the large group of manufacturing processes used to obtain various product shapes by means of plastic deformations. The report is organized as follows. An overview of the deformation processes and the materia

  16. Contributions respectives des courants et de la houle dans la mobilité sédimentaire d'une plate-forme interne estuarienne. Exemple : le seuil interinsulaire, au large du pertuis d'Antioche, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, Déborah; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Oliveros, Carlos; Sottolichio, Aldo; Choppin, Lorraine; Bertin, Xavier

    2006-08-01

    This paper investigates the relative influence of waves, wind-induced current and tidal current on the sediment mobility of a macro-tidal environment belonging to the inner shelf seaward of the 'pertuis Charentais' (France). This study, mainly based on three-week hydrodynamic in-situ measurements, shows that, for a water depth of 23 m, the swell (rather than wind waves) orbital velocity is large enough to initiate the motion of medium sands that are then transported by currents. Estimations show that medium sand of 0.2 mm is transported during 92% of the measurements, whereas coarse sand and gravel move sporadically, during storm, synchronously with spring tides. Further more, bedload fluxes appear strongly larger when waves are taken into account (370 times larger for 0.2-mm sands). To cite this article: D. Idier et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  17. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  18. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  19. A useful relationship between the presence of extramedullary erythropoeisis and the level of the soluble form of the transferrin receptor in a large cohort of adult patients with thalassemia intermedia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, Paolo; Ammirabile, Massimiliano; Costantini, Silvia; Di Matola, Tiziana; Verna, Roberto; Diano, Alvaro; Foglia, Maria Carmela; Spasiano, Anna; Cinque, Patrizia; Prossomariti, Luciano

    2012-06-01

    In thalassemia intermedia (TI), the increase in bone marrow hemopoietic activity frequently leads to extramedullary erythropoeisis (EMH), but its relationship with the soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR) which fully reflects the marrow erythropoietic activity, has not yet been explored. From January 2007 to December 2010, all TI patients attending at our center were prospectively enrolled to undergo sTfR assay and MRI or CT (if claustrophobic) scan evaluation for the presence of paraspinal EMH. A total of 59 patients with TI were studied; EMH involved 23 (39%) patients; overall, the concentration of sTfR varied from 2.6 to 20.6 (mean = 8.7) mg/L, but in splenectomized group and in unsplenectomized group, it varied from 4.2 to 17.8 (mean ± SD = 9.86 ± 3.33) mg/L and from 2.6 to 20.6 (mean ± SD = 7.25 ± 3.9) mg/L, respectively with a statistically significant intergroup difference (p < 0.01). The cutoff point at 8.6 mg/L using the ROC curve showed a sensitivity of 78.3% and a specificity of 72.2%, in predicting EMH but, in unsplenectomized subgroup, they raised to 100% and 90.9%, respectively. These data showed that in TI the level of sTfR could represent a predictive factor of EMH particularly in patients with spleen.

  20. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve

  1. Advanced forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kliber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forming is usually the final stage of metallurgical production of steel (90 % of the 1,7 billion tons of total steel production in the world and traditionally also largely of the products made of non-ferrous metals. Many procedures and methods exist and we will focus only on some of them. The aim is usually to achieve ultra-fine grained structure, the proper microstructure and (mechanical / electrical properties in innovative materials. The presented article mentions only some examples.

  2. Strange nucleon form-factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, F. E.; Paschke, K. D.

    2017-07-01

    A broad program measuring parity-violation in electron-nuclear scattering has now provided a large set of precision data on the weak-neutral-current form-factors of the proton. Under comparison with well-measured electromagnetic nucleon form-factors, these measurements reveal the role of the strange quark sea on the low-energy interactions of the proton through the strange-quark-flavor vector form-factors. This review will describe the experimental program and the implications of the global data for the strange-quark vector form-factors. We present here a new fit to the world data.

  3. A compiler for variational forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Robert C; 10.1145/1163641.1163644

    2011-01-01

    As a key step towards a complete automation of the finite element method, we present a new algorithm for automatic and efficient evaluation of multilinear variational forms. The algorithm has been implemented in the form of a compiler, the FEniCS Form Compiler FFC. We present benchmark results for a series of standard variational forms, including the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and linear elasticity. The speedup compared to the standard quadrature-based approach is impressive; in some cases the speedup is as large as a factor 1000.

  4. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  5. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  6. Mechanics of Forming Ring Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan R.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of forming ring disk of constant thickness in conditions of large plastic deformations taking into account the interconnected change of effective strain and deformation hardening is carried out. The analytical dependences characterizing the relative size of plastic area are obtained. The interrelation between the initial and final form of a product is established at maximum possible size of internal pressure.

  7. Careers (A Course of Study). Unit V: Forms, Forms, Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Kay

    Designed to enable special needs students to understand and complete various job-related forms, this set of activities devoted to forms encountered before and after one obtains a job is the fifth in a nine-unit secondary level careers course intended to provide handicapped students with the knowledge and tools necessary to succeed in the world of…

  8. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  9. Large N

    CERN Document Server

    Hooft, G

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this lecture, the 1/N expansion technique is illustrated for the case of the large-N sigma model. In large-N gauge theories, the 1/N expansion is tantamount to sorting the Feynman diagrams according to their degree of planarity, that is, the minimal genus of the plane onto which the diagram can be mapped without any crossings. This holds both for the usual perturbative expansion with respect to powers of {tilde g}^2=g^2 N, as well as for the expansion of lattice theories in positive powers of 1/{tilde g}^2. If there were no renormalization effects, the tilde g expansion would have a finite radius of convergence. The zero-dimensional theory can be used for counting planar diagrams. It can be solved explicitly, so that the generating function for the number of diagrams with given 3-vertices and 4-vertices, can be derived exactly. This can be done for various kinds of Feynman diagrams. We end with some remarks about planar renormalization.

  10. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  11. INFORMATIONAL EFFECT OF A FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko V.F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted by method of light scattering of laser emission. The influence of the form field, mutual influence of mental informational and form torsional fields as well as the following exposure of water samples in the form field after the cease of informational influence on water structure were examined. Paper forms of a pyramid, a cylinder, and a prism were used. The experimental findings show that mechanism of mutual influence on water structure of the form and informational torsional fields depended on the initial conditions of spin restructuring process – the configuration of a form, the type of the form field (internal and external ones, and the initial water structure. The influence of the form field on informational aftereffect was determined, the character of which was defined by ratio of intensities of torsional form field and an informational soliton. The phenomenon of the abnormally large amplification of the informational aftereffect in the internal field of a pyramid demonstrating the attributes of positive reverse connection between the informational soliton and torsional field of water structure and selection of generated cluster sizes were discovered.

  12. Watching How Planets Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be

  13. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  14. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  15. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  16. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  17. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  18. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  19. Massive star forming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kathryn Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    We present a study of the earliest stages of massive star formation, in which we focus on Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) and young massive clusters. We present Very Large Array spectral line observations of ammonia (NH 3) and CCS toward four IRDCs. The NH3 lines provide diagnostics of the temperature and density structure within IRDCs. Based upon the NH 3 column density, IRDCs have masses of ˜ 103 to 10 4 M⊙ . We detect twenty NH3 clumps within four IRDCs, with radii regions are presented from the Near Infrared Imager (NIRIM) camera on the 3.5 m WIYN telescope. We report J, H, and K' band photometry in the clusters AFGL437, AFGL5180, and AFGL5142 and use these results to probe the stellar populations, extinction, and ages of the clusters. We find that all three clusters suffer significant extinction (AK ˜1), have ages ≤ 5 Myr, and are actively forming stars. We conclude that the properties of these embedded clusters are consistent with their evolving from IRDC clumps.

  20. Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolen, Larry

    This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his

  1. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  2. 大型飞机机身双曲度蒙皮纵向拉伸成形加载优化设计与试验研究%Optimization Design and Experimental Study on Loading Path of Longitude Stretch Forming for Double-curved Fuselage Skin of Large Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文松涛; 曾斌; 汪洋华; 彭静文; 李卫东; 罗华

    2014-01-01

    目的:针对 C919大型客机机身双曲度蒙皮进行纵向拉形的加载轨迹优化与试验研究。方法应用蒙皮拉形工艺设计制造软件,采用优化设计的方法,对机身典型蒙皮零件进行纵向拉形加载轨迹设计;进行拉形过程的有限元仿真,判断设计的加载轨迹是否满足成形要求,将优化后的加载轨迹应用于实际零件成形;进行实际零件拉形试验,对毛料伸长与局部应变进行测量,与有限元仿真进行对比,验证有限元仿真的准确性。结果实际零件的毛料伸长与轨迹设计和有限元模拟的伸长量十分接近;将优化设计后的加载轨迹应用于实际零件的成形,获得了满足零件交付要求的蒙皮零件。结论通过加载优化设计与试验,验证了有限元模拟有较好的精度;通过加载轨迹优化与有限元模拟结合的拉形工艺设计方法,可以用于零件的实际生产。%Objective To study the optimization design method and production experiment on the longitude stretch forming loading path for double-curved fuselage skin of large aircraft. Methods Appling the optimal design method, The loading path of longitude stretch forming for double-curved fuselage skin of large aircraft has been optimized with XSTR Stretch software. The stretch process is simulated with FEM to evaluate the designed loading path. The optimized loading path has applied di-rectly for the actual part forming. The elongation and local strain of the blank is measured after the actual part stretch forming test and measurements compare with the FEM simulation to verify the accuracy of FEM. Results The elongation of actual forming part and FEM simulation is proximity and acceptable. The fuselage skin which meets the delivery requirement has been obtained after applying the optimized loading path. Conclusion The accuracy of FEM is verified by the lading path de-sign and actual part forming tests. The design method

  3. Fornemmelse for form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skude, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed.......Om den arkitektoniske forms afhængighed af aerodynamik, solens nedbrydning og optimering af materialers holdbarhed....

  4. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  5. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  6. Forms in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Uses the work of M. C. Escher to instruct upper elementary students in the transformation of flat shape into three-dimensional form. Outlines the lesson as a series of sections: (1) reviewing form drawing; (2) creating three-dimensional effects; (3) imagining the forms in an inhabited world; and (4) using color and shading. (DSK)

  7. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  8. Experimental investigation of braided fabric forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Soulat, Damien; Legrand, Xavier; Zemni, Lilia; Jacquot, Pierre-Baptiste

    2016-10-01

    Woven and braided textile structures are largely used as the composite reinforcements. Forming of the continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled yarns can be performed at room temperature. The "cool" forming stage is well-controlled and more economical compared to thermoforming. Many studies have been addressed for carbon and glass fibres / thermoplastic commingled yarns reinforced composite forming for woven structure. On the contrary, few research works has deal with the natural fibre reinforced textile forming and none concerns the braided fabrics forming. In this present work, the Flax/Polyamide 12 commingled yarns are used to produce braided fabric and then to analyze their deformability behaviour.

  9. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  10. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  11. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  12. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  13. Multiscale friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Felder, Eric; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The most often used friction model for sheet metal forming simulations is the relative simple Coulomb friction model. This paper presents a more advanced friction model for large scale forming simulations based on the surface change on the micro-scale. The surface texture of a material changes when

  14. Baryon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Meißner, Ulf G; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the form factors of the baryon octet in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculated charge radius of the show that kaon loop effects can play a significant role in the neutron electric form factor. Furthermore. we derive generalized Caldi-Pagels relations between various charge radii which are free of chiral loop effects.

  15. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  16. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    All uses of HTML forms may benefit from validation of the specified input field values. Simple validation matches individual values against specified formats, while more advanced validation may involve interdependencies of form fields. There is currently no standard for specifying or implementing...

  17. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  18. A "new" supertypic HLA-DP related determinant detected by primed lymphocyte typing (PLT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J

    1987-01-01

    Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) with local (CDP) and the 9th International Histocompatibility Workshop reagents (GNN) revealed "cross-reactions" between HLA-DPw6 and the GNN2B but not other DPw2 PLT-cells (GNN2A, CDP2A, CDP2B). We raised and bulk-expanded a well discriminating PLT-reagent (the JET...

  19. Quantitative analysis of aggregation in dilute solutions of effectively rigid biomacromolecules via the combination of oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity measurements: example study of aggregation of bovine fibrinogen in aqueous glycerol, and detection of a large aggregate formed on addition of guanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J W; Nestler, F H M; Schrag, J L

    2004-12-20

    Oscillatory flow birefringence (OFB) properties have been measured for dilute solutions of bovine fibrinogen in 65-68% aqueous glycerol with the Miller-Schrag Thin Fluid Layer (TFL) apparatus employing either titanium or stainless steel surfaces in contact with the solutions. The shearing frequency range was 1 to 2500 Hz, the concentrations ranged from 4 to 8 mg/ml, and measurement temperatures were 9.9, 10.0, and 15.8 degrees C. The data showed evidence of significant amounts of aggregation that apparently is caused by the presence of glycerol; contributions from the various aggregates were readily detected since the staggered half-overlap aggregation in this system results in substantial differences in the rotational relaxation times of the various effectively rigid aggregates. The combination of oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity (VE) data provided sensitive and precise characterization of aggregation in these example systems; all aggregates exhibited the expected positive optical anisotropy. The length of unaggregated fibrinogen in solution was found to be that obtained via electron microscopy. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride to hopefully reduce aggregation did so but also resulted in formation of a very large (2800 to 3500 A), apparently nearly monodisperse, negatively birefringent aggregate, suggesting that this new species might be formed by lateral aggregation.

  20. Spin forming development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  1. Laser assisted forming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, Alexander

    2007-05-01

    During forming processes high deformations rates can lead to cracks and rupture very easily. Especially brittle materials like titanium or magnesium make difficulties in forming. Due to the dependence of the yield strength on temperature, forming at elevated temperatures eases processing of such materials. Since forming takes place only at localized areas of the work piece selective heating is suffcient and advantageous in most cases. Selective Laser heating offers a possibility to heat only the areas of the work piece where strongest deformations are required. For this purpose several laser sources have been tested like CO II, Diode and Nd:YAG Lasers and their advantages and disadvantages in localized heating of the work pieces will be discussed. The work presented here summarizes research activities at the Institute for Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, on laser assisted deep drawing, laser assisted bending, wire drawing and so on during the last decade. Recent developments like roll profiling, incremental forming processes and hydro forming are discussed briefly.

  2. Circle of Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2012-01-01

    a common professional language like in mathematics, colour and music. The result is a weaker professionalism in the aesthetic competences compared to the professionalism and competences in other areas. A research project [1] on contrasts or opposites in form investigated the phenomenon in the fields...... by this model, and using the knowledge gathered from the other areas, especially perception psychology, it showed to be a possible way to organize contrasts in form, a system of 4 different opposites, geometric, organic, mass and structure: The Circle of Form....

  3. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  4. Forms of matter and forms of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The theory of defects in ordered and ill-ordered media is a well-advanced part of condensed matter physics. Concepts developed in this field also occur in the study of spacetime singularities, namely: i)- the topological theory of quantized defects (Kibble's cosmic strings) and ii)- the Volterra process for continuous defects, used to classify the Poincar\\'e symmetry breakings. We reassess the classification of Minkowski spacetime defects in the same theoretical frame, starting from the conjecture that these defects fall into two classes, as on they relate to massive particles or to radiation. This we justify on the empirical evidence of the Hubble's expansion. We introduce timelike and null congruences of geodesics treated as ordered media, viz. 'm'-crystals of massive particles and 'r'-crystals of massless particles, with parallel 4-momenta in M^4. Classifying their defects (or 'forms') we find (i) 'm'- and 'r'- Volterra continuous line defects and (ii) quantized topologically stable 'r'-defects, these latt...

  5. FormCalc 7

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, S; Mirabella, E

    2011-01-01

    We present additions and improvements in Version 7 of FormCalc, most notably analytic tensor reduction, choice of OPP methods, and MSSM initialization via FeynHiggs, as well as a parallelized Cuba library for numerical integration.

  6. Transplant Center Search Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Your Story Give Us Feedback - A + A Transplant Center Search Form Welcome to the Blood & Marrow ... transplant centers for patients with a particular disease. Transplant Center login Username: * Password: * Request new password Join ...

  7. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  8. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  9. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  10. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  11. Getting in-formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    det vi undersøger på form gennem vores beskrivelser. Paperet tager afsæt i empiriske eksempler fra et postdoc projekt om et såkaldt 'serious game' - Mingoville. Projektet følger circuleringer og etableringer af Mingoville 'på en global markedsplads'. I paperet diskuteres hvordan vi som forskere samler....../performer de fænomener vi forsker i. Aktør-Netværks-Teoretiker Bruno Latour (2005) pointerer at enhver beskrivelse også er en form for forklaring. En form for forklaring, der putter ting ind i et skript og dermed også putter ting på form. Paperet diskuterer to tilgange til at gøre serious games og derved skabe viden om...... engagementer med disse fænomener i serious games forskning: experimentel og etnografisk....

  12. form-Z

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Kompendiet gennemgår 3d-modellering, lyssætning og rendering med form-Z. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie.......Kompendiet gennemgår 3d-modellering, lyssætning og rendering med form-Z. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudie....

  13. Achieving form in autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas (Nick Meihuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, unlike biographies which tend to follow patterns based on conventional expectations, salient autobiographies achieve forms unique to themselves. The article draws on ideas from contemporary formalists such as Peter McDonald and Angela Leighton but also considers ideas on significant form stemming from earlier writers and critics such as P.N. Furbank and Willa Cather. In extracting from these writers the elements of what they consider comprise achieved form, the article does not seek to provide a rigid means of objectively testing the formal attributes of a piece of writing. It rather offers qualitative reminders of the need to be alert to the importance of form, even if the precise nature of this importance is not possible to define. Form is involved in meaning, and this continuously opens up possibilities regarding the reader’s relationship with the work in question. French genetic critic Debray Genette distinguishes between ‘semantic effect’ (the direct telling involved in writing and ‘semiological effect’ (the indirect signification involved. It is the latter, the article argues in summation, which gives a work its singular nature, producing a form that is not predictable but suggestive, imaginative.

  14. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  15. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  16. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  17. Analysis on Tourists Behavior of Outbound Individual Traveler around Guangdong- Taking Data form a Large Travel Agency%对广东居民出境自由行旅游行为的分析--以某大型旅行社数据为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽英; 李加军

    2016-01-01

    我国已成为世界第一出境旅游客源市场和第一出境旅游消费国,自助游已是出境旅游的主要形式。旅行社纷纷推出“机票+酒店”为主的出境自由行项目,以满足游客出境旅游需求。本文以广东某大型旅行社出境自由行旅游系统数据为基础,通过问卷调查,分析了旅行社出境自由行游客特征、旅游行为,包括旅游目的地选择、旅游线路选择原因、参与的旅游项目、旅游花费、出游动机等,总结了出境游客行为特征,展望了未来出境旅游及传统旅行社的发展方向。%China has become the world's ifrst outbound tourist market and the ifrst outbound tourism consumer countries. Self travel is the main form of outbound tourism, the study of the behavior of tourists travel abroad has important practical signiifcance. Based on the data of large scale travel agencies in Guangdong, this paper analyzes the characteristics of travel agents, travel behavior, including destination choice, travel motivation, tourism projects, tourism spending, etc. Summarized the characteristics of the outbound tourism behavior, looking forward to the future development of the direction of travel.

  18. SOURCES OF ORE-FORMING METALS AND FLUIDS,AND MECHANISM OF MINERALIZATION,MAOZU LARGE CARBONARE-HOSTED LEAD-ZNIC DEPOSIT,NORTHEAST YUNNAN PROVINCE%滇东北茂租大型铅锌矿床成矿物质来源及成矿机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家喜; 黄智龙; 高建国; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    茂租铅锌矿床地处扬子地块西缘,是川滇黔铅锌成矿域内赋存于震旦系灯影组白云岩中大型铅锌矿床的典型代表.其工业矿体呈似层状、脉状和不规则状.热液方解石和矿石硫化物(闪锌矿、方铅矿和黄铁矿)是主要矿物,其形成贯穿整个成矿过程.在矿床地质特征解析基础上,获得了热液方解石C-O同位素和矿石硫化物S-Pb同位素数据,结果表明热液方解石δ13CpDB值和δ18OSMOW值变化范围较窄,分别为-3.73‰~-1.95‰和+13.80‰~+14.95‰,在δ13 CPDB与δ18OSMOW图上介于海相碳酸盐岩和原生碳酸岩范围间,呈弱负相关趋势,表明成矿流体中的CO2主要由海相碳酸盐岩溶解作用形成,并存在慢源和有机CO2加入;硫化物δ34 SCDT值介于+13.35‰~+15.37‰,暗示成矿流体中的硫是海相硫酸盐岩热化学还原的产物,而含硫有机质热降解也有贡献;硫化物Pb同位素组成稳定,206 pb/204 Pb,207 pb/204 Pb和208 pb/204 Pb值范围,分别为18.129~18.375,15.644~15.686和38.220~38.577,位于上地壳和造山带Pb演化线之间,落入基底岩石(昆阳群和会理群)Pb同位素组成范围内,表明成矿物质具有壳源特征,主要由基底岩石提供.综合各类地质-地球化学信息,认为茂租铅锌矿床成矿流体中不同组分来源不同,具有“多来源混合”特征,其成矿机制可以用“流体混合”模式来解释.%The Maozu Pb-Zn deposit, a typical large Pb-Zn deposit in Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn metallogenic province, is located on the western margin of Yangtze Block and hosted in the dolomite of Dengying Formation of Upper Sinian. The industrial ore-bodies are stratiform-like, vein and irregular shaped. Hydrothermal calcite and sulfide (sphalerite,galena and pyrite) are the main gangue and ore minerals, which were formed throughout the ore-forming process. C-0 iso-topic compositions of hydrothermal calcites,S-Pb isotopic compositions of sulfides were

  19. Forms of Inattentiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... and it points to activities that produce this blindness as they reduce the probability that potentially destructive subjects are actualized. Information is not only something organizations need, but may also be something they protect themselves against. In that case, the forms of inattentiveness may...

  20. Physical forms of MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffis, Andrea; Dvorakova, Gita; Falcimaigne-Cordin, Aude

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art in the development of methodologies for the preparation of MIPs in predetermined physical forms is critically reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the forms most widely employed in practical applications, such as spherical beads in the micro- to nanometer range, microgels, monoliths, membranes. Although applications of the various MIP physical forms are mentioned, the focus of the paper is mainly on the description of the various preparative methods. The aim is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in the field, as well as with a mean for critically evaluating the various proposed methodologies towards an envisaged application. The review covers the literature up to early 2010, with special emphasis on the developments of the last 10 years.

  1. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  2. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  3. Incentive to Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Madsen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Projektet ’Incitament til Form' har identificeret en række tematiske angreb på formstudier - i stærkt papir – som skaber nye former, hvor af en eller flere ofte indeholder stærkere kvaliteter end udgangspunktet. Incitamenter er, i denne sammenhæng, former skabt ved foldning over variationer af lige...... af hans formstudierne gennem dialog og præsentation af incitamenter. Dialogen om form og læringsrums aktiviteter der var centrale for Lynges pædagogik. Dialogen og formeksperimenter kombineres med opfordringer til at søge inspiration i naturen og videnskabelige udredninger. De tematiske angreb er...

  4. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  5. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...... deformation step to avoid overheating and breakdown of the lubricant....

  6. Geodiversity and land form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Murray

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

  7. Measuring urban form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghauser Pont, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    For many, the notion of ‘measuring urban form’ will sound disturbing. Urban form is about visual images of cities, experiences, feelings, memories of place, thoughts and intellectual constructs anchored in the realm of the arts and the humanities. Anne Vernez Moudon however gives in the paper Urbani

  8. Supercongruences via modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Osburn, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We prove two supercongruences for the coefficients of power series expansions in t of modular forms where t is a modular function. As a result, we settle two recent conjectures of Chan, Cooper and Sica. Additionally, we provide a table of supercongruences for numbers which appear in similar power series expansions and in the study of integral solutions of Apery-like differential equations.

  9. Forming of Thermoplastic Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, S.P.; Sachs, U.; Thije, ten R.H.W.; Rietman, A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2012-01-01

    Design and production guidelines for UD reinforced thermoplastic composites are highly desirable. Therefore, forming experiments and simulations with a realistic complex shaped product were conducted. Thermoforming experiments with quasi-isotropic UD carbon/PEEK and 8HS woven glass/PPS composites sh

  10. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  11. On Quadratic Differential Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.C.; Trentelman, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theory around the notion of quadratic differential forms in the context of linear differential systems. In many applications, we need to not only understand the behavior of the system variables but also the behavior of certain functionals of these variables. The obvious cases w

  12. eta ' transition form factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo Sanchez, del P.; Raven, H.G.; Snoek, H.; BaBar, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    eta((')) transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV(2). The analysis is based on 469 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  13. Three-form cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: T.Koivisto@ThPhys.Uni-Heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany); Nunes, Nelson J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Cosmology of self-interacting three-forms is investigated. The minimally coupled canonical theory can naturally generate a variety of isotropic background dynamics, including scaling, possibly transient acceleration and phantom crossing. An intuitive picture of the cosmological dynamics is presented employing an effective potential. Numerical solutions and analytical approximations are provided for scenarios which are potentially important for inflation or dark energy.

  14. Universal anomalous dimensions at large spin and large twist

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider anomalous dimensions of double trace operators at large spin ($\\ell$) and large twist ($\\tau$) in CFTs in arbitrary dimensions ($d\\geq 3$). Using analytic conformal bootstrap methods, we show that the anomalous dimensions are universal in the limit $\\ell\\gg \\tau\\gg 1$. In the course of the derivation, we extract an approximate closed form expression for the conformal blocks arising in the four point function of identical scalars in any dimension. We compare our results with two different calculations in holography and find perfect agreement.

  15. Pseudoscalar meson form factors and decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dorokhov, A E

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we discuss few topics related with modern experimental data on the physics of light pseudoscalar mesons. It includes the contribution of the pseudoscalar mesons to the muon anomalous magnetic moment (AMM), $g-2$, the rare decays of light pseudoscalar mesons to lepton pair, the transition form factors of pseudoscalar mesons at large momentum transfer, the pion transversity form factor. Measuring the muon anomalous magnetic moment $g-2$ and the rare decays of light pseudoscalar mesons into lepton pair $P\\rightarrow l^{+}l^{-} $ serve as important test of the standard model. To reduce the theoretical uncertainty in the standard model predictions the data on the transition form factors of light pseudoscalar mesons play significant role. Recently new data on behavior of these form factors at large momentum transfer was supplied by the BABAR collaboration. Within the nonlocal chiral quark model it shown how to describe these data and how the meson distribution amplitude evolves as a function o...

  16. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  17. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  18. The Form of Gentrification

    CERN Document Server

    Venerandi, Alessandro; Romice, Ombretta; Porta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Many socioeconomic studies have been carried out to explain the phenomenon of gentrification. Although results of these works shed light on the process around this phenomenon, a perspective which focuses on the relationship between city form and gentrification is still missing. With this paper we try to address this gap by studying and comparing, through classic methods of mathematical statistics, morphological features of five London gentrified neighbourhoods. Outcomes confirm that areas which have undergone gentrification display similar and recognizable morphological patterns in terms of urban type and geographical location of main and local roads as well as businesses. These initial results confirm findings from previous research in urban sociology, and highlight the role of urban form in contributing to shape dynamics of non-spatial nature in cities.

  19. Sleep disorders - resistant forms

    OpenAIRE

    Koláčková, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Pavla Koláčková Supervisor: Doc. RNDr. Vladimír Semecký, CSc. Name of dissertation: Sleep disorders - resistant forms The diploma thesis is about sleep disorders. Sleep disorders are a global problem, lots of people have these problems. This diploma thesis focuses on American International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) and its application in clinical practice...

  20. Parking and Urban Form

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Jan K.; Franco, Sofia F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the provision of residential parking in a monocentric city, with the ultimate goal of appraising the desirability and effects of regulations such as a minimum-parking requirement (MPR) per dwelling. The analysis considers three different regimes for provision of parking space: surface parking, underground parking, and structural parking, with the latter two regimes involving capital investment either in the form of an underground parking garage or an above-ground parking s...

  1. Treatment of traumatic diffuse brain swelling with the once-forming large bilateral fronto-temporal decompressive craniotomy%双额颞部一次成型去大骨瓣减压治疗外伤性弥漫性脑肿胀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓光策; 王岳华; 曾敏敏; 姚兴军; 侯文仲; 关北漩; 李国峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨双额颞部开颅一次成型去大骨瓣减压术治疗外伤性弥漫性脑肿胀的疗效。方法回顾性分析16例弥漫性脑肿胀患者手术时整块去除双额颞部骨瓣、结扎矢状窦并完全剪开大脑镰减压治疗患者的临床效果。结果格拉斯哥预后量表(GOS)评分,恢复良好7例,中度残疾3例,重度残疾1例,植物生存2例,死亡3例。治疗后中重度患者的格拉斯哥昏迷量表(GCS)评分显著优于治疗前(P <0.05)。结论该术式是一种安全有效的治疗外伤性弥漫性脑肿胀的方法。%Objective To investigate the clinical therapeutic effect of the once-forming large bilateralfrontotempory decompressive craniotomy on traumatic diffuse brain swelling.Method The clinical data of 16 patients with diffuse brain swelling who had accepted the operation of the bilateral fronto-temporal decompressive craniectomy with the ligation of longitudinal sinus and the complete open of falx cerebri swelling,were analyzed retrospectively. Results According to the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)prognostic evaluation,of 16 patients,7 had good recovery,3 moderated disability,1 severely disabled,2 in vegetable state,and 3 died.For the patients with moderate-to-severe brain injury,Glasgow coma scale(GCS)score of the post-operation was significantly superior than that of the pre-operation(P<0.05).Conclusion The clinical curative effect of the surgery is a safe,certain method for the treatment of traumatic diffuse brain swelling.

  2. 78 FR 58605 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F, and 8879-EMP. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request...- file Return; Form 8453-EMP, Employment Tax Declaration for an IRS e- file Return; Form 8879-EMP, IRS...

  3. Growth and form of spherulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gránásy, László; Pusztai, Tamás; Tegze, György; Warren, James A.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2005-07-01

    Many structural materials (metal alloys, polymers, minerals, etc.) are formed by quenching liquids into crystalline solids. This highly nonequilibrium process often leads to polycrystalline growth patterns that are broadly termed “spherulites” because of their large-scale average spherical shape. Despite the prevalence and practical importance of spherulite formation, only rather qualitative concepts of this phenomenon exist. It is established that phase field methods naturally account for diffusional instabilities that are responsible for dendritic single-crystal growth. However, a generalization of this model is required to describe spherulitic growth patterns, and in the present paper we propose a minimal model of this fundamental crystal growth process. Our calculations indicate that the diversity of spherulitic growth morphologies arises from a competition between the ordering effect of discrete local crystallographic symmetries and the randomization of the local crystallographic orientation that accompanies crystal grain nucleation at the growth front [growth front nucleation (GFN)]. This randomization in the orientation accounts for the isotropy of spherulitic growth at large length scales and long times. In practice, many mechanisms can give rise to GFN, and the present work describes and explores three physically prevalent sources of disorder that lead to this kind of growth. While previous phase field modeling elucidated two of these mechanisms—disorder created by particulate impurities or other static disorder or by the dynamic heterogeneities that spontaneously form in supercooled liquids (even pure ones)—the present paper considers an additional mechanism, crystalline branching induced by a misorientation-dependent grain boundary energy, which can significantly affect spherulite morphology. We find the entire range of observed spherulite morphologies can be reproduced by this generalized phase field model of polycrystalline growth.

  4. Reflective modular forms in algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, Valery

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the existence of a strongly reflective modular form of a large weight implies that the Kodaira dimension of the corresponding modular variety is negative or, in some special case, it is equal to zero. Using the Jacobi lifting we construct three towers of strongly reflective modular forms with the simplest possible divisor. In particular we obtain a Jacobi lifting construction of the Borcherds-Enriques modular form Phi_4 and Jacobi liftings of automorphic discriminants of the K\\"ahler moduli of Del Pezzo surfaces constructed recently by Yoshikawa. We obtain also three modular varieties of dimension 4, 6 and 7 of Kodaira dimension 0.

  5. Impaired vitality form recognition in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Magali J; Veroni, Vania; Bruschweiler-Stern, Nadia; Pieraccini, Cinzia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Barthélémy, Catherine; Malvy, Joëlle; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Stern, Daniel N; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-08-01

    Along with the understanding of the goal of an action ("what" is done) and the intention underlying it ("why" it is done), social interactions largely depend on the appraisal of the action from the dynamics of the movement: "how" it is performed (its "vitality form"). Do individuals with autism, especially children, possess this capacity? Here we show that, unlike typically developing individuals, individuals with autism reveal severe deficits in recognizing vitality forms, and their capacity to appraise them does not improve with age. Deficit in vitality form recognition appears, therefore, to be a newly recognized trait marker of autism.

  6. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G

    1989-01-01

    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  7. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  8. Do naked singularities form?

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, C; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    1995-01-01

    A naked singularity is formed by the collapse of a Sine-Gordon soliton in 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We examine the quantum stress tensor resulting from the formation of the singularity. Consistent boundary conditions require that the incoming soliton is accompanied by a flux of incoming radiation across past null infinity, but neglecting the back reaction of the spacetime leads to the absurd conclusion that the total energy entering the system by the time the observer is able to receive information from the singularity is infinite. We conclude that the back reaction must prevent the formation of the naked singularity.

  9. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    MB, Roberts AB, Wakersfield LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol...animal facility and had access to food and water as required. 59 Copyright © 2015 American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Unauthorized reproduction...s): F1 Art : PRS182917 Input-nlm 69 Manuscript 3: Large Gap Nerve Reconstruction Using Acellular Nerve Allografts And Photochemical Tissue

  10. On Carleman estimates with two large parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Rousseau, Jerome, E-mail: jlr@univ-orleans.fr [Jerome Le Rousseau. Universite d' Orleans, Laboratoire Mathematiques et Applications, Physique Mathematique d' Orleans, CNRS UMR 6628, Federation Denis-Poisson, FR CNRS 2964, B.P. 6759, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2011-04-01

    We provide a general framework for the analysis and the derivation of Carleman estimates with two large parameters. For an appropriate form of weight functions strong pseudo-convexity conditions are shown to be necessary and sufficient.

  11. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  12. Thickness distribution of multi-stage incremental forming with different forming stages and angle intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军超; 杨芬芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    Although multi-stage incremental sheet forming has always been adopted instead of single-stage forming to form parts with a steep wall angle or to achieve a high forming performance, it is largely dependent on empirical designs. In order to research multi-stage forming further, the effect of forming stages (n) and angle interval between the two adjacent stages (Δα) on thickness distribution was investigated. Firstly, a finite element method (FEM) model of multi-stage incremental forming was established and experimentally verified. Then, based on the proposed simulation model, different strategies were adopted to form a frustum of cone with wall angle of 30° to research the thickness distribution of multi-pass forming. It is proved that the minimum thickness increases largely and the variance of sheet thickness decreases significantly as the value of n grows. Further, with the increase of Δα, the minimum thickness increases initially and then decreases, and the optimal thickness distribution is achieved with Δα of 10°. Additionally, a formula is deduced to estimate the sheet thickness after multi-stage forming and proved to be effective. And the simulation results fit well with the experimental results.

  13. Wave forming mechanisms in explosive welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of wavy metal interfaces obtained by explosive welding are presented and used to determine which wave forming mechanism occurred. It was found that for small collision angles (smaller than about 20°) the Von Karman or jet indentation mechanism occurs, while for large collision

  14. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  15. Tensors, differential forms, and variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelock, David

    1989-01-01

    Incisive, self-contained account of tensor analysis and the calculus of exterior differential forms, interaction between the concept of invariance and the calculus of variations. Emphasis is on analytical techniques, with large number of problems, from routine manipulative exercises to technically difficult assignments.

  16. Building large structures in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, T.

    1976-01-01

    The building of large structures in space would be required for the establishment of a variety of systems needed for different forms of space utilization. The problems involved in the building of such structures in space and the approaches which can be used to solve these problems are illustrated with the aid of an example involving a concept for packaging, transporting, and assembling two representative large space structures. The structure of a radio-astronomy telescope 200 m in diam was felt to be representative of the many medium-size structures of the Shuttle era. A typical very large structure is represented by the supporting structure for the transmission system of a 5000-Mw space solar power station.

  17. The forms of prophecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prophecy is a kind of text holding therefore its own textual marks, differing from other kinds of texts. In order to do a discursive analysis of it, we must bring a semiotic study of its own possible forms. It includes its intertextual connections, as well as the use of typical tropos and topoi. Our aim is to describe the features of a kind of text that seems to appear in every well-known culture. Our analysis is limited to religious prophecies, showing mainly several examples from Judeo-Christian tradition, but also from other cultures, according to our line of argument. Amongst its features we find the use of allusion, forcing to any addressee to expand all possible interpretations. Likewise the prophecy seems to fulfill the double function of threat/promise, depending on each addressee.

  18. Le forme del fondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è vero che la natura ha paura del vuoto. Forse addirittura si completa. Il vuoto è anche una modalità dell'essere. È possibile nidificarvisi, avvolgersi pigramente e, così, proteggersi dall'angoscia del tempo che passa. Il vuoto delle apparenze è, in alcuni momenti, una delle forme d'espressione della vita sociale. Oltretutto occorre saperle riconoscere. Certamente, abbiamo tutti un'esistenza personale, ma siamo, ugualmente, i rappresentanti, a volte anche le vittime, di uno "spirito comune", forse anche di un "inconscio collettivo" che si è costituito di secolo in secolo. E, molto spesso, quando crediamo di esprimere le nostre idee, siamo soltanto dei portavoce, comparse di un vasto "theatrum mundi" dalle dimensioni infinite.

  19. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  20. Paramodular Cusp Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Cris

    2009-01-01

    We classify Siegel modular cusp forms of weight two for the paramodular group K(p) for primes p< 600. We find that weight two Hecke eigenforms beyond the Gritsenko lifts correspond to certain abelian varieties defined over the rationals of conductor p. The arithmetic classification is in a companion article by A. Brumer and K. Kramer. The Paramodular Conjecture, supported by these computations and consistent with the Langlands philosophy and the work of H. Yoshida, is a partial extension to degree 2 of the Shimura-Taniyama Conjecture. These nonlift Hecke eigenforms share Euler factors with the corresponding abelian variety $A$ and satisfy congruences modulo \\ell with Gritsenko lifts, whenever $A$ has rational \\ell-torsion.

  1. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  2. Weird past tense forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Pinker, S

    1995-10-01

    It is often assumed that children go through a stage in which they systematically overapply irregular past tense patterns to inappropriate verbs, as in wipe-wope, bring-brang, trick-truck, walk-has walken. Such errors have been interpreted both as reflecting over-use of minor grammatical rules (e.g. 'change i to a'), and as reflecting the operation of a connectionist pattern associator network that superimposes and blends patterns of various degrees of generality. But the actual rate, time course, and nature of these errors have never been documented. We analysed 20,000 past tense and participle usages from nine children in the CHILDES database, looking for overapplications of irregular vowel-change patterns, as in brang, blends, as in branged, productive suffixations of -en, as in walken, gross distortions, as in mail-membled, and double-suffixation, as in walkeded. These errors were collectively quite rare; children made them in about two tenths of one per cent of the opportunities, and with few stable patterns: the errors were not predominantly word-substitutions, did not occur predominantly with irregular stems, showed no consistency across verbs or ages, and showed no clear age trend. Most (though not all) of the errors were based closely on existing irregular verbs; gross distortions never occurred. We suggest that both rule-theories and connectionist theories have tended to overestimate the predominance of such errors. Children master irregular forms quite accurately, presumably because irregular forms are just a special case of the arbitrary sound-meaning pairings that define words, and because children are good at learning words.

  3. 双额颞部开颅一次成型去大骨瓣减压术治疗双额叶脑挫裂伤临床研究%Clinical study of forming a double frontotemporal craniotomy and removing large decompressive craniectomy to treat dual frontal brain contusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓光策; 王岳华; 姚兴军; 侯文仲; 曾敏敏; 关北漩; 李国峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effectiveness of forming a double frontotemporal craniotomy and removing large decompressive craniectomy to treat dual frontal brain contusion.Methods A randomized single‐blind controlled method was used. Treatment group (TG ,n=47) removed the whole craniectomy ,ligated the superior sagittal sinus and cut the whole falx.Control group (CG ,n=46) conventionally retained osteopontin and did not cut falx. The treatment efficacies of the two groups were observed.Results In TG ,23 cases were good recovery ,13 cases were moderate disability ,2 cases were severe disability ,3 cases were persistent vegetative ,6 cases were deaths;in CG ,15 cases were good recovery ,10 cases were moderate disability ,7 cases were severe disability ,6 cases were persistent vegetative ,8 cases were deaths. These were significantly bet‐ter in TG than CG (P<0.05). Especially ,it was significant better for clinical effect in the moderate to severe patients with short‐term treatment in TG than that of CG ( P < 0.01 ) . Conclusion T his is an affirmation and security surgical treatment for the patients with dual frontal lobe contusion symptoms ,and it also has fewer complications.%目的:探讨双额颞部开颅一次成型去大骨瓣减压术治疗双额叶脑挫裂伤的临床效果。方法采用随机单盲对照法,治疗组在手术时整块去除骨瓣、结扎矢状窦并完全剪开大脑镰,对照组采用常规保留骨桥但不剪开大脑镰,观察治疗效果。结果治疗组恢复良好23例,中度残疾13例,重度残疾2例,植物生存3例,死亡6例;对照组恢复良好15例,中度残疾10例,重度残疾7例,植物生存6例,死亡8例,治疗组明显优于对照组(P<0.05),且对中重度患者短期临床效果显著(P<0.01)。结论该术式治疗双额叶脑挫裂伤患者症状的临床疗效肯定,安全且并发症少。

  4. Inflating with large effective fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, C. P.; Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Williams, M.

    2014-11-01

    We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V propto phi2) and exponential potentials, V(phi) = ∑kVxe-kphi/M. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| ll epsilon and so predict r simeq (8/3)(1-ns) consequently ns simeq 0.96 gives r simeq 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and ns improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.

  5. Inflating with large effective fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P. [PH-TH Division, CERN, CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Cicoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Williams, M., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: f.quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mwilliams@perimeterinsititute.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V ∝ φ{sup 2}) and exponential potentials, V(φ) = ∑{sub k}V{sub x}e{sup −kφ/M}. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |η| || ε and so predict r ≅ (8/3)(1-n{sub s}); consequently n{sub s} ≅ 0.96 gives r ≅ 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and n{sub s} improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.

  6. Refined large N duality for torus knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Kameyama, Masaya

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  7. Refined large N duality for torus knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Kameyama, Masaya

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  8. Large-scale perspective as a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Scale forms a challenge for chain researchers: when exactly is something ‘large-scale’? What are the underlying factors (e.g. number of parties, data, objects in the chain, complexity) that determine this? It appears to be a continuum between small- and large-scale, where positioning on that cont

  9. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  10. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...... search....

  11. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  12. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  13. Group valued differential forms revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    We study the relationship between combinatorial group valued differential forms, and classical differential forms with values in the corresponding Lie algebra. In particular, we compare simplicial coboundary and exterior derivative for 1-forms. The results represent strengthenings of results...

  14. Group valued differential forms revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders

    We study the relationship between combinatorial group valued differential forms, and classical differential forms with values in the corresponding Lie algebra. In particular, we compare simplicial coboundary and exterior derivative for 1-forms. The results represent strengthenings of results...

  15. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  16. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... to project an output image O(x, y) to an output plane. A light image O'(x, y) branched by a beam sampler is picked up by a pickup device and an evaluation value calculating unit evaluates conformity between the image O(x, y) and the image G(x, y).; A control unit performs feedback control of optical...

  17. Applied large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain

    2009-07-28

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity.

  18. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  19. Separation energy dependence of hole form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Vdovin, A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Langevin-Joliot, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1996-08-05

    Form factors of fragmented hole states are studied within the quasiparticle-phonon model, using the inhomogeneous equation method. The validity of this method is successfully checked by comparison with coupled equation solutions in schematic vibrational model cases. A systematic investigation of form factors is performed for neutron and proton hole states in the valence and first inner shells of {sup 208}Pb. Large fluctuations of form factor radii are observed for individual levels superimposed on a general increase with separation energy. Average characteristics are introduced for groups of levels, namely the mean form factors, summed source terms and correction potentials, and their behaviour is presented. The role of the relative values of the interaction radius parameter and binding well radius is discussed in detail. (orig.).

  20. Color-kinematic duality for form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.; Yang, Gang [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.

  1. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  2. Hencky's model for elastomer forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. A.; Oleinikov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the numerical simulation of elastomer forming process, Henckys isotropic hyperelastic material model can guarantee relatively accurate prediction of strain range in terms of large deformations. It is shown, that this material model prolongate Hooke's law from the area of infinitesimal strains to the area of moderate ones. New representation of the fourth-order elasticity tensor for Hencky's hyperelastic isotropic material is obtained, it possesses both minor symmetries, and the major symmetry. Constitutive relations of considered model is implemented into MSC.Marc code. By calculating and fitting curves, the polyurethane elastomer material constants are selected. Simulation of equipment for elastomer sheet forming are considered.

  3. A two-tier atmospheric circulation classification scheme for the European-North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentchev, Galina S.; Winkler, Julie A.

    A two-tier classification of large-scale atmospheric circulation was developed for the European-North-Atlantic domain. The classification was constructed using a combination of principal components and k-means cluster analysis applied to reanalysis fields of mean sea-level pressure for 1951-2004. Separate classifications were developed for the winter, spring, summer, and fall seasons. For each season, the two classification tiers were identified independently, such that the definition of one tier does not depend on the other tier having already been defined. The first tier of the classification is comprised of supertype patterns. These broad-scale circulation classes are useful for generalized analyses such as investigations of the temporal trends in circulation frequency and persistence. The second, more detailed tier consists of circulation types and is useful for numerous applied research questions regarding the relationships between large-scale circulation and local and regional climate. Three to five supertypes and up to 19 circulation types were identified for each season. An intuitive nomenclature scheme based on the physical entities (i.e., anomaly centers) which dominate the specific patterns was used to label each of the supertypes and types. Two example applications illustrate the potential usefulness of a two-tier classification. In the first application, the temporal variability of the supertypes was evaluated. In general, the frequency and persistence of supertypes dominated by anticyclonic circulation increased during the study period, whereas the supertypes dominated by cyclonic features decreased in frequency and persistence. The usefulness of the derived circulation types was exemplified by an analysis of the circulation associated with heat waves and cold spells reported at several cities in Bulgaria. These extreme temperature events were found to occur with a small number of circulation types, a finding that can be helpful in understanding past

  4. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  5. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  6. Inflating with Large Effective Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Quevedo, F; Williams, M

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset $G/H$ (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple {\\em large-field} power laws (like $V \\propto \\phi^2$) and exponential potentials, $V(\\phi) = \\sum_{k} V_k \\; e^{-k \\phi/M}$. Both of these can describe the data well and give slo...

  7. 培育新型农业经营主体发展多种形式规模经营探讨--基于安徽省粮食主产区调查%Discussions on Breeding New Agricultural Management Entities and Developing Diversified Forms of Large-scale Management, Based on the Investigation of Major Grain Production Areas in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光宇; 张扬

    2015-01-01

    创新新型农业经营主体,发展规模经营,必须要守住加强农村土地承包权的管理、规范土地流转市场和引导农村土地承包经营权健康有序流转的底线,同时,要抓住培育专业大户、家庭农场、农民合作社经营主体,培育发展多元服务主体这两个关键。提出在政策倾斜、加大金融信贷扶持力度、提高专业化生产能力方面来扶持规模种粮大户的建议。%To innovate new agricultural management entities and develop large-scale management, at least we must strengthen the management of farmland contracting right, standardize land transfer markets, and guide the healthy order shift of farmland contracting management right. Simultaneously, we must hold the two key points, one is the cultivation of management entities such as large scale grain production households and the family farm and the farmer cooperative, another is multiple service providers. Suggestions to support large scale grain production farmers were put forward, such as the policy incline, increase financial credit support strength, and enhance specialized productivity.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-forms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M. tuberculosis L-forms researches done in China during the recent years were reviewed in this article. M. tuberculosis L-forms could be produced spontaneously or induced by isoniazid or D-cyclic serine, that influenced the synthesis of cell walls. Among the acid-fast organisms isolated from the patients, more L-forms were found than vegetative forms. In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis disseminated through the blood mainly in L-forms, L-forms could adhere on the surface or harbor...

  9. What is a large-scale dynamo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, G.; Pongkitiwanichakul, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider kinematic dynamo action in a sheared helical flow at moderate to high values of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm). We find exponentially growing solutions which, for large enough shear, take the form of a coherent part embedded in incoherent fluctuations. We argue that at large Rm large-scale dynamo action should be identified by the presence of structures coherent in time, rather than those at large spatial scales. We further argue that although the growth rate is determined by small-scale processes, the period of the coherent structures is set by mean-field considerations.

  10. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  11. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  12. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  13. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...... at the electroweak scale. To illustrate the formalism we consider the possibility that the Higgs emerges as: the lightest glueball of a new composite theory; the large N scalar meson in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking; the large N pseudodilaton useful also for models of near-conformal dynamics....... For each of these realisations we determine the leading N corrections to the electroweak precision parameters. The results nicely elucidate the underlying large N dynamics and can be used to confront first principle lattice results featuring composite scalars with a systematic effective approach....

  14. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  15. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...... at the electroweak scale. To illustrate the formalism we consider the possibility that the Higgs emerges as: the lightest glueball of a new composite theory; the large N scalar meson in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking; the large N pseudodilaton useful also for models of near-conformal dynamics....... For each of these realisations we determine the leading N corrections to the electroweak precision parameters. The results nicely elucidate the underlying large N dynamics and can be used to confront first principle lattice results featuring composite scalars with a systematic effective approach....

  16. Form factors for semileptonic D decays

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    We study the form factors for semileptonic decays of $D$-mesons. That is, we consider the matrix element of the weak left-handed quark current for the transitions $D \\rightarrow P$ and $D \\rightarrow V$, where $P$ and $V$ are light pseudoscalar or vector mesons, respectively. Our motivation to perform the present study of these form factors are future calculations of non-leptonic decay amplitudes. We consider the form factors within a class of chiral quark models. Especially, we study how the Large Energy Effective Theory (LEET) limit works for $D$-meson decays. Compared to previous work we also introduce light vector mesons $V = \\rho, K^*,...$ within chiral quark models. In order to determine some of the parameters in our model, we use existing data and results based on some other methods like lattice calculations, light-cone sum rules, and heavy-light chiral perturbation theory. We also obtain some predictions within our framework.

  17. Chiral extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Wang; D. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; R.Young

    2007-04-01

    The extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors calculated within lattice QCD is investigated within a framework based upon heavy baryon chiral effective-field theory. All one-loop graphs are considered at arbitrary momentum transfer and all octet and decuplet baryons are included in the intermediate states. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. At each value of the momentum transfer (Q{sup 2}), a separate extrapolation to the physical pion mass is carried out as a function of m{sub {pi}} alone. Because of the large values of Q{sup 2} involved, the role of the pion form factor in the standard pion-loop integrals is also investigated. The resulting values of the form factors at the physical pion mass are compared with experimental data as a function of Q{sup 2} and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the chiral extrapolation methods presented herein.

  18. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  19. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New form...

  20. Matryoshka of Special Democratic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Weingart, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Special p-forms are forms which have components \\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p} equal to +1,-1 or 0 in some orthonormal basis. A p-form \\phi\\in \\Lambda^p R^d is called democratic if the set of nonzero components {\\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p}} is symmetric under the transitive action of a subgroup of O(d,Z) on the indices {1,...,d}. Knowledge of these symmetry groups allows us to define mappings of special democratic p-forms in d dimensions to special democratic P-forms in D dimensions for successively higher P \\geq p and D \\geq d. In particular, we display a remarkable nested stucture of special forms including a U(3)-invariant 2-form in six dimensions, a G_2-invariant 3-form in seven dimensions, a Spin(7)-invariant 4-form in eight dimensions and a special democratic 6-form \\Omega in ten dimensions. The latter has the remarkable property that its contraction with one of five distinct bivectors, yields, in the orthogonal eight dimensions, the Spin(7)-invariant 4-form. We discuss various properties of this ten dimensional form.

  1. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  2. Large bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bag outside your body. This is called an colostomy . The colostomy may be either short-term or permanent. Colectomy ... to the ureter or bladder Problems with the colostomy Scar tissue that forms in the belly and ...

  3. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  4. FormLink/FeynCalcFormLink : Embedding FORM in Mathematica and FeynCalc

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Feng

    2012-01-01

    FORM, a symbolic manipulation system, has been widely used in a lot of calculations for High Energy Physics due to its high performance and fficient design. Mathematica, another computational software program, has also widely been used, but more for reasons of generality and user-friendliness than for speed. Especially calculations involving tensors and noncommutative operations like calculating Dirac traces can be rather slow in Mathematica, compared to FORM. In this article we describe FormLink and FeynCalcFormLink, two Mathematica packages to link Mathematica and FeynCalc with FORM. FormLink can be used without FeynCalc and FeynCalcFormLink, which is an extension loading FormLink and FeynCalc automatically. With these two packages the impressive speed and other special features of FORM get embedded into the generality of Mathematica and FeynCalc in a simple manner. FeynCalcFormLink provides a FORM-based turbo for FeynCalc, making it much more efficient. FormLink turns Mathematica into an editor and code or...

  5. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  6. Large bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large bowel). You may also have had a colostomy . This article describes what to expect after surgery ... have diarrhea. You may have problems with your colostomy. Self-care Follow your health care provider's instructions ...

  7. Large whale incident database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  8. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. The ileocecal valve of the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the ...

  9. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  10. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  11. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  12. A European Humus Forms Reference Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, A.; Englisch, M.; Ponge, J.-F.; Jabiol, B.; Sartori, G.; Gardi, C.

    2012-04-01

    From 2003 on, a panel of experts in humus and humus dynamics (Humus group) has been working about a standardisation and improvement of existing national humus classifications. Some important goals have been reached, in order to share data and experiences: a) definition of specific terms; b) description of 15 types of diagnostic horizons; c) of 10 basic humus forms references; d) subdivision of each main reference in 2-4 sub-unities; e) elaboration of a general European Humus Form Reference Base (http://hal-agroparistech.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/56/17/95/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB_31_01_2011.pdf); f) publication of the scientific significance of this base of classification as an article [A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Geoderma, 164 (3-4), 138-145]. The classification will be updated every 2 years and presently the Humus group is assessing biological (general: soil, vegetation, biome; specific: fungi, bacteria, pedofauna), physical (air temperature, rainfall) and chemical (pH, mineral elements, organic matter, quality and quantity of humic components…) factors which characterize basic humus forms and their varieties. The content of the new version of the classification is planned to be more "practical", like an ecological manual which lists associated humus forms and environmental data in the aim to contribute to a more precise environmental diagnosis of every analysed terrestrial and semiterrestrial European ecosystem. The Humus group is also involved in an endeavour to include humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soils (WRB-FAO) according to nomenclatural principles erected for soil profiles. Thirty basic references have been defined, complemented by a set of qualifiers (prefixes and suffixes), allowing to classify European humus forms and probably a large majority of humus forms known worldwide. The principles of the classification, the diagnostic horizons and humus forms main references are presented at the General Assembly of

  13. High Resolution RPCs for Large TOF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira-Marques, R; CERN. Geneva; Carolino, N; Policarpo, Armando; Fonte, P

    1999-01-01

    Here we report on a particular type of RPC that presents above 95% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles and a very sharp time resolution, below 80 ps sigma. Our 9cm2 cells, made with glass and metal electrodes that form accurately spaced gaps of a few hundred micrometers, are operated at atmospheric pressure in non-flammable gases and can be economically produced in large quantities, opening perspectives for the construction of large area timeof flight systems.

  14. Third International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts (formerly Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution) was held August 5-7, 2003, at the Kloesterle, Noerdlingen. The conference addressed a wide range of topics relating to planetary impacts and their effects on planetary crusts, climate, life on Earth, rocks, and rock-forming minerals. This CD-ROM contains the preface, table of contents, program, abstracts and indexes.

  15. Asymptotics of Heavy-Meson Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, A.G.; Grozin, Andrey G.; Neubert, Matthias

    1997-01-01

    Using methods developed for hard exclusive QCD processes, we calculate the asymptotic behaviour of heavy-meson form factors at large recoil. It is determined by the leading- and subleading-twist meson wave functions. For $1\\ll |v\\cdot v'|\\ll m_Q/\\Lambda$, the form factors are dominated by the Isgur--Wise function, which is determined by the interference between the wave functions of leading and subleading twist. At $|v\\cdot v'|\\gg m_Q/\\Lambda$, they are dominated by two functions arising at order $1/m_Q$ in the heavy-quark expansion, which are determined by the leading-twist wave function alone. The sum of these contributions describes the form factors in the whole region $|v\\cdot v'|\\gg 1$. As a consequence, there is an exact zero in the form factor for the scattering of longitudinally polarized $B^*$ mesons at some value $v\\cdot v'\\sim m_b/\\Lambda$, and an approximate zero in the form factor of $B$ mesons in the timelike region ($v\\cdot v'\\sim -m_b/\\Lambda$). We obtain the evolution equations and sum rules ...

  16. The semantics of biological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language.

  17. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition...... of tones, pauses, and timbre arranged into harmonies and rhythms. In interaction design it is, for instance, the behaviors of pixels on a screen or the movements in shape-changing interfaces. In this paper we show the power of working explicitly with temporal form in designing computational things. We give...... temporal forms by letting a series of expert designers reflect upon them. We borrow a framework from Boorstin’s film theory in which he distinguishes between the voyeuristic, the vicarious, and the visceral experience. We show how to use rhythms, complexity, gentle or forceful behavior, etc., to create...

  18. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI)has emerged,intending to bring language forms instructionback to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types of application.The tentative conclusion is FFI does show some explicit and reliable effects on accuracy and error elimination in language teaching;however,the investigation into its application is not simply either Focus on Form Or Focus on FormS,but focuses on the optimal combination of the two in teaching.

  19. Isometric Spacelike Immersions of Space Forms in Indefinite Space Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海中; 吴岚

    2001-01-01

    Let M be a connected n-dimensional space form spacelike isometrically immersed in a (2n -1)-dimensional indefinite space form. If M is maximal, we prove that either M is totally geodesic or M is apiece of the n-dimensional hyperbolic cylinder in the (2n - 1)-dimensional pseudo-hyperbolic space.``

  20. SCATTERING BY CYCLIC POLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS AT LARGE SCATTERING VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSMAS, M; BENOIT, H; HADZIIOANNOU, G

    1994-01-01

    General formulae allowing the evaluation of the form factors of cyclic block copolymers are established and graphs for cyclic copolymers of the form (A-B)(N) are shown. When N is large, the linear and the cyclic copolymer have the same behaviour. It is possible to extend at large angle an analytical

  1. SCATTERING BY CYCLIC POLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS AT LARGE SCATTERING VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSMAS, M; BENOIT, H; HADZIIOANNOU, G

    1994-01-01

    General formulae allowing the evaluation of the form factors of cyclic block copolymers are established and graphs for cyclic copolymers of the form (A-B)(N) are shown. When N is large, the linear and the cyclic copolymer have the same behaviour. It is possible to extend at large angle an analytical

  2. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  3. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...

  4. [Pseudotumor form of urinary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; Moufid, Kamal; Joual, Abdenbi; Maani, Ahmed; Bennani, Saad; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2002-12-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is an increasingly frequent serious disease. The diagnosis is often delayed due to the marked clinical polymorphism, leading to serious sequelae. The diagnosis of typical forms is easy, but some forms are misleading and can lead to an incorrect diagnosis. The authors report a pseudoneoplastic form of urogenital tuberculosis in a young patient that was initially diagnosed as lymphoma. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors emphasize the diagnostic difficulties of these forms and the treatment modalities.

  5. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  6. System for forming janus particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang [Midland, MI; Jiang, Shan [Champaign, IL; Granick, Steve [Champaign, IL

    2011-01-25

    The invention is a method of forming Janus particles, that includes forming an emulsion that contains initial particles, a first liquid, and a second liquid; solidifying the first liquid to form a solid that contains at least a portion of the initial particles on a surface of the solid; and treating the exposed particle sides with a first surface modifying agent, to form the Janus particles. Each of the initial particles on the surface has an exposed particle side and a blocked particle side.

  7. Three Dimensional FEM Simulation of Titanium Hollow Blade Forming Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao Bing, [No Value; Li Zhiqiang, [No Value; Hou Hongliang, [No Value; Liao Jinhua, [No Value; Bai Bingzhe, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of high by-pass turbofan engines into both commercial and military aircraft industries, the fabrication of large size fan blade through superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) has become a pivotal technique of turbine fan engine. There are three key steps to form a holl

  8. Discrete large eddy simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.TAO; K.R.RAJAGOPAL

    2001-01-01

    Despite the intense effort expended towards obtaining a model for describing the turbulent flows of fluid,there is no model at hand that can do an adequate job.This leads us to look for a non-traditional approach to turbulence modeling.In this work we conjoin the notion of large eddy simulation with those of fuzzy sets and neural networks to describe a class of turbulent flow.in previous works we had discussed several issues concerning large eddy simulation such as filtering and averaging,Here,we discuss the use of fuzzy sets to improve the filtering procedure.

  9. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  10. Large Deviations and Metastability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Enzo; Eulália Vares, Maria

    2005-02-01

    This self-contained account of the main results in large deviation theory includes recent developments and emphasizes the Freidlin-Wentzell results on small random perturbations. Metastability is described on physical grounds, followed by the development of more exacting approaches to its description. The first part of the book then develops such pertinent tools as the theory of large deviations which is used to provide a physically relevant dynamical description of metastability. Written for graduate students, this book affords an excellent route into contemporary research as well.

  11. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... adverse consequences for animal welfare of Danish breeding for large litter sizes due to increased piglet mortality and the subsequent attempts to reverse these consequences by breeding for number of live piglets at day five rather than number of piglets born. By this change of breeding goal it seems...

  12. Large electromagnetic pumps. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The development of large electromagnetic pumps for the liquid metal heat transfer systems of fission reactors has progressed for a number of years. Such pumps are now planned for fusion reactors and solar plants as well. The Einstein-Szilard (annular) pump has been selected as the preferred configuration. Some of the reasons that electromagnetic pumps may be preferred over mechanical pumps and why the annular configuration was selected are discussed. A detailed electromagnetic analysis of the annular pump, based on slug flow, is presented. The analysis is then used to explore the implications of large size and power on considerations of electromagnetic skin effect, geometric skin effect and the cylindrical geometry.

  13. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...... cooperating with the plurality of user equipment to decode the received data....

  14. Another Form for LAMBDA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yangmei; LIU Jingnan

    2003-01-01

    The LAMBDA methodthat was proposed by Teunissen is introduced. Then, on the basis of both the back-sequential conditional LS technique and the upper-triangular Cholesky decomposition, another form for LAMBDA method is proposed.This new form for LAMBDA method has the same principle and calculation speed as the traditional LAMBDA method.

  15. Large-Scale Galaxy Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a pedagogical proof of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which includes the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in i...

  16. Complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yuchen

    2006-01-01

    Using the "base forces" as the fundamental unknowns to determine the state of an elastic system, the complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation is constructed for the conjugate quantities being displacement gradients, which possesses exactly the same form as that of classical linear elasticity. It is revealed that the complementary energy contains deformation part and rotation part.

  17. Risks of Large Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Shi, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    The risk of a large portfolio is often estimated by substituting a good estimator of the volatility matrix. However, the accuracy of such a risk estimator is largely unknown. We study factor-based risk estimators under a large amount of assets, and introduce a high-confidence level upper bound (H-CLUB) to assess the estimation. The H-CLUB is constructed using the confidence interval of risk estimators with either known or unknown factors. We derive the limiting distribution of the estimated risks in high dimensionality. We find that when the dimension is large, the factor-based risk estimators have the same asymptotic variance no matter whether the factors are known or not, which is slightly smaller than that of the sample covariance-based estimator. Numerically, H-CLUB outperforms the traditional crude bounds, and provides an insightful risk assessment. In addition, our simulated results quantify the relative error in the risk estimation, which is usually negligible using 3-month daily data.

  18. Estimating Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  19. Death Writ Large

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  20. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  1. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    WORLD FAMOUS ARCHITECTS CHALLENGE TODAY THE EXPOSURE OF CONCRETE IN THEIR ARCHITECTURE. IT IS MY HOPE TO BE ABLE TO COMPLEMENT THESE. I TRY TO DEVELOP NEW AESTHETIC POTENTIALS FOR THE CONCRETE AND CERAMICS, IN LARGE SCALES THAT HAS NOT BEEN SEEN BEFORE IN THE CERAMIC AREA. IT IS EXPECTED TO RESULT...

  2. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Wright, Alison

    2007-01-01

    "We are on the threshold of a new era in particle-physics research. In 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - the hightest-energy accelerator ever built - will come into operation at CERN, the European labortory that straddles the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1/2 page)

  3. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  4. Dimensioning large call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Borst (Sem); A. Mandelbaum; M.I. Reiman

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for asymptotic optimization of a queueing system. The motivation is the staffing problem of call centers with 100's of agents (or more). Such a call center is modeled as an M/M/N queue, where the number of agents~$N$ is large. Within our framework, we determine the

  5. Teaching Very Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  6. Dengfeng Large Gnomon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fengxian

    Dengfeng large gnomon is a Yuan Dynasty astronomical instrument used for observing the length of the sun's shadow in different seasons and determining the tropical year. Together with the Tang Dynasty stele lying to the south of it, witnessed the idea of the center of the world.

  7. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...

  8. FormTracer - A Mathematica Tracing Package Using FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Cyrol, Anton K; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided.

  9. Topics on the FORM software; Topicos do software FORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao

    1997-06-01

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  10. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  11. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  12. Chiral analysis of baryon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, T.A.

    2007-11-08

    This work presents an extensive theoretical investigation of the structure of the nucleon within the standard model of elementary particle physics. In particular, the long range contributions to a number of various form factors parametrizing the interactions of the nucleon with an electromagnetic probe are calculated. The theoretical framework for those calculations is chiral perturbation theory, the exact low energy limit of Quantum Chromo Dynamics, which describes such long range contributions in terms of a pion-cloud. In this theory, a nonrelativistic leading one loop order calculation of the form factors parametrizing the vector transition of a nucleon to its lowest lying resonance, the {delta}, a covariant calculation of the isovector and isoscalar vector form factors of the nucleon at next to leading one loop order and a covariant calculation of the isoscalar and isovector generalized vector form factors of the nucleon at leading one loop order are performed. In order to perform consistent loop calculations in the covariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory an appropriate renormalization scheme is defined in this work. All theoretical predictions are compared to phenomenology and results from lattice QCD simulations. These comparisons allow for a determination of the low energy constants of the theory. Furthermore, the possibility of chiral extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of lattice data from simulations at large pion masses down to the small physical pion mass is studied in detail. Statistical as well as systematic uncertainties are estimated for all results throughout this work. (orig.)

  13. On polynomial representation functions for multilinear forms

    CERN Document Server

    Rué, Juanjo

    2011-01-01

    Given an infinite sequence of positive integers $\\cA$, we prove that for every nonnegative integer $k$ the number of solutions of the equation $n=a_1+...+a_k$, $a_1,\\,..., a_k\\in \\cA$, is not constant for $n$ large enough. This result is a corollary of our main theorem, which partially answers a question of S\\'ark\\"ozy and S\\'os on representation functions for multilinear forms. The main tool used in the argument is an application of the Transfer Theorem for asymptotic enumeration by Flajolet and Odlyzko.

  14. On Totally Reducible Binary Forms: I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Hooley

    2001-08-01

    Let () be the number of positive numbers up to a large limit that are expressible in essentially more than one way by a binary form that is a product of > 2 distinct linear factors with integral coefficients. We prove that $$(n) = O\\left(n^{2/l-_l+\\epsilon}\\right),$$ where \\begin{equation*}_l=\\begin{cases}1/l^2, \\quad\\text{if}\\quad l=3,\\\\ (l-2)/l^2(l-1), \\quad\\text{if}\\quad l>3,\\end{cases}\\end{equation*} thus demonstrating in particular that it is exceptional for a number represented by to have essentially more than one representation.

  15. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  16. Nitrogen Forms in Humic Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUOSU-NENG; WENQI-XIAO

    1992-01-01

    In this paper,the nitrogen forms in newly-formed humic substances,including humic acid (HA),fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid in humin (HAI),were studied by using the 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results show that the majority of nitrogen in HA,FA and HAI was in the amide form with some presented as aliphatic and/ or aromatic amines and some as pyrrole type nitrogen,although the contents of nonhydrolyzable nitrogen in them differed greatly from each other (15-55%).

  17. Differential forms theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Differential forms are utilized as a mathematical technique to help students, researchers, and engineers analyze and interpret problems where abstract spaces and structures are concerned, and when questions of shape, size, and relative positions are involved. Differential Forms has gained high recognition in the mathematical and scientific community as a powerful computational tool in solving research problems and simplifying very abstract problems through mathematical analysis on a computer. Differential Forms, 2nd Edition, is a solid resource for students and professionals needing a solid g

  18. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, L.; Catenacci, R.; Grassi, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  19. Supergravity Actions with Integral Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, L; Grassi, P A

    2014-01-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincare' dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  20. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castellani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called “Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem”, relating superfield actions to component actions.

  1. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L., E-mail: leonardo.castellani@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R., E-mail: roberto.catenacci@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Grassi, P.A., E-mail: pietro.grassi@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called “Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem”, relating superfield actions to component actions.

  2. Multiple forming tools in incremental forming - Influence of the forming strategies on sheet contour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T.; Tebaay, L. M.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a well known process which is used for rapid prototyping or for small-quantity production. The feature of this process is the flexible manufacturing of complex hollow shapes with the use of basic equipments. However, this forming process takes very long time. To speed up the process time, multiple forming tools can be used simultaneously. This paper presents the influence of the multiple tools in SPIF on the formed shape. The conventional SPIF with a single tool is taken into account for a comparative analysis. The results in this study showed that the tool arrangements and its distance have a significant effect on the geometrical accuracy. Moreover, it is shown the influence between the vertical step size of the tool and the strain distributions. This knowledge can be used for generation of new forming strategies.

  3. Preserved implicit form perception and orientation adaptation in visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Wu, Ming; Shen, Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Visual form agnosia is mainly characterized by profound deficits in visual form and shape discrimination. Previous studies have shown that patients retain the capacity for coordinated motor behaviors, color naming and implicit letter perception. However, it is unknown to what extent other visual functions, such as implicit form and orientation perception, are preserved. To address these questions, we investigated a single visual form agnosic patient, X.F., in two distinct experiments. X.F.'s visual lesions were mainly localized in the bilateral occipitotemporal cortex, with the dorsal visual stream and early visual cortex largely spared. In Experiment 1, X.F. named the color of different forms across 12 blocks of trials. After the first six blocks, the combinations of a form with its color were changed and the new combination was presented for the remaining six blocks. X.F.'s reaction time increased during the switch block and was significantly greater than the overall RT changes between adjacent, non-switch blocks. This indicates that X.F. retained the ability to perceive changes in form despite her inability to discriminate the forms. In Experiment 2, X.F. showed selective orientation adaptation effects to different spatial frequencies; that is, her contrast threshold was significantly higher when the adapting and test orientations were the same than when they were orthogonal, although her orientation discrimination performance was severely impaired. These data provide evidence of a functional dissociation between explicit and implicit visual abilities, and suggest that the residual early visual cortex mediates form and orientation processing in the absence of awareness.

  4. Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mathew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Large eddy simulation (LES is an emerging technique for obtaining an approximation to turbulent flow fields. It is an improvement over the widely prevalent practice of obtaining means of turbulent flows when the flow has large scale, low frequency, unsteadiness. An introduction to the method, its general formulation, and the more common modelling for flows without reaction, is discussed. Some attempts at extension to flows with combustion have been made. Examples from present work for flows with and without combustion are given. The final example of the LES of the combustor of a helicopter engine illustrates the state-of-the-art in application of the technique.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.598-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.602

  5. Large area mass analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)]. E-mail: mikhail.rachev@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Srama, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Srowig, Andre [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Gruen, Eberhard [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)

    2004-12-11

    A new time-of-flight spectrometer for the chemical analysis of cosmic dust particles in space has been simulated by Simion 7.0. The instrument is based upon impact ionization. This method is a reliable method for in situ dust detection and is well established. Instruments using the impact ionization flew on board of Helios and Galileo and are still in operation on board of the Ulysses and Cassini-Huygens missions. The new instrument has a large sensitive area of 0.1m2 in order to achieve a significant number of measurements. The mass resolution M/{delta}M>100 and the mass range covers the most relevant elements expected in cosmic dust. The instrument has a reflectron configuration which increases the mass resolution. Most of the ions released during the impact are focused to the detector. The ion detector consists of a large area ion-to-electron converter, an electron reflectron and a microchannel plate detector.

  6. Fields and Forms on -Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cătălin Ciupală

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we introduce non-commutative fields and forms on a new kind of non-commutative algebras: -algebras. We also define the Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket in the non-commutative geometry on -algebras.

  7. Distances to star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The determination of accurate distances to star-forming regions are discussed in the broader historical context of astronomical distance measurements. We summarize recent results for regions within 1 kpc and present perspectives for the near and more distance future.

  8. Movement in aesthetic form creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the good practice based experiences found when movement is used to strengthen form creation and to create flow in the process of artistic education. Faced with the design engineering students’ problems with creating forms with aesthetic statements, the experiences with movement...... inspired the thesis that the design engineers’ training in aesthetic form creation can be improved by integrating the movement potential into their education. The paper documents the on-going work on developing a model for embodied creation of form called ‘Somatechne model’. The study also identifies...... a lens to assess the students’ development of mind-body skills, known as ‘The Three Soma’. The Somatechne model also helps to identify the activity that gives the students the opportunity to develop their sensibility and thus aesthetic attention....

  9. Detection of Life Forms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gaia Genomics proposes to develop an instrument for the detection of earthborn and/or planetary life forms that are based on a nucleic acid paradigm. Highly...

  10. Large Curved Surface Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement principle of large curved surface through theodolite industry survey system is introduced. Two methods are suggested with respect to the distribution range of curved surface error. The experiments show that the measurement precision can be up to 0.15mm with relative precision of 3×10-5. Finally, something needed paying attention to and the application aspects on theodolite industry survey system are given.

  11. Lymphomas of large cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, W G; Gétaz, E P

    1977-09-03

    Historial aspects of the classification of large-cell lymphomas are described. Immunological characterization of the lymphomas has been made possible by identification of T and B lymphocytes according to their cell membrane surface characteristics. The pathogenesis of lymphomas has been clarified by the germinal (follicular) centre cell concepts of Lennert and Lukes and Collins. The various classifications are presented and compared. Whether these subdivisions will have any relevance in the clinical context remains to be seen.

  12. BILINEAR FORMS AND LINEAR CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Lempel et al[1] made a connection between linear codes and systems of bilinear forms over finite fields. In this correspondence, a new simple proof of a theorem in [1] is presented; in addition, the encoding process and the decoding procedure of RS codes are simplified via circulant matrices. Finally, the results show that the correspondence between bilinear forms and linear codes is not unique.

  13. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2017-09-19

    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  14. Virksomhedens formål

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2009-01-01

    Formålsdiskussionen hører naturligt sammen med overvejelser om virksomhedens identitet og mission. Hvem er vi? Hvad er vores eksistensberettigelse? Hvad er det, vi kan, som andre ikke kan?......Formålsdiskussionen hører naturligt sammen med overvejelser om virksomhedens identitet og mission. Hvem er vi? Hvad er vores eksistensberettigelse? Hvad er det, vi kan, som andre ikke kan?...

  15. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  16. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical...

  17. Oxidized Form of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希成; 王帆; 邹晓明; 周海梦

    1994-01-01

    The purified rabbit muscle creatine kinase (R-CK) was previously considered homogeneousand without disulfide bonds.By the method of NR/R two-dimensional diagonal SDS-PAGE,two forms of R-CK,designated respectively "oxidized form" of creatine kinase which contained intrachain disulfide bondsand "reduced form" of creatine kinase which did not have any —S—S— bridges,were for the first time sepa-rated.They were found to be the same in amino acid composition,in subunit molecular Weight and in isoelec-tric point,and were almost identical in enzyme activities.Thus it is hard to isolate one from the other bycommon biochemical methods.More extensive studies show that the oxidized form of CK also contains a pair of reactive thiol groupswhich are essential to the enzyme activity,and it has one intrachain disulfide bond per subunit.In the nativestate,this —S—S— bond cannot be reduced by DTT,but by treating the reduced form of CK with some ox-idants,these —S—S— bonds can be formed in vitro.Thus it is presumed that the disulfide bonds are cross-linked through the oxidization of two shallowly buried —SH groups.

  18. Geological characteristics of large gas provinces and large gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the examination of the global researches on oil and gas provinces and large gas fields and the analysis of the features,attributes and distribution of large gas provinces and gas fields,this paper puts forward three indicators of determining large oil and gas provinces:spatial indicator,reservoir-forming indicator and resource indicator.It classifies the gas accumulated areas and large gas provinces in China and analyzes the controlling factors on the distribution of large gas provinces and large gas fields:the lateral distribution is mainly controlled by high-energy sedimentary facies and constructive diagenetic facies,palaeo-highs and their periclinal zones,deep faults,etc,and the vertical distribution is mainly controlled by unconformities,series of evaporates and deep low-velocity highly-conductive beds,etc.It also reveals the main geological characteristics of large gas provinces and large gas fields in China.Large gas fields in four-type basins have their own characteristics and onland large gas fields are dominantly developed in foreland basins and craton basins;there are three types of gas sources,of which,coal is the main source with high gas generating intensity and varying origins;reservoir rocks of the large gas fields(provinces)are of various types and dominated generally by low-middle permeability and porosity pore-type reservoirs;structural traps and litho-stratigraphic traps coexist in Chinese large gas fields and form dense high abundance and large-area low and middle-abundance large gas fields;most of the large gas fields have late hydrocarbon-generation peaks and reservoir formation,and experienced the process of multiple-stage charging and late finalization; large gas provinces(fields)have good sealing and preservation conditions,and evaporates seals are largely developed in large and extra-large gas fields.This paper intends to shed light on the exploration and development of large gas fields(provinces)through analyzing their

  19. Conjoint Forming - Technologies for Simultaneous Forming and Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groche, P.; Wohletz, S.; Mann, A.; Krech, M.; Monnerjahn, V.

    2016-03-01

    The market demand for new products optimized for e. g. lightweight applications or smart components leads to new challenges in production engineering. Hybrid structures represent one promising approach. They aim at higher product performance by using a suitable combination of different materials. The developments of hybrid structures stimulate the research on joining of dissimilar materials. Since they allow for joining dissimilar materials without external heating technologies based on joining by plastic deformation seem to be of special attractiveness. The paper at hand discusses the conjoint forming approach. This approach combines forming and joining in one process. Two or more workpieces are joined while at least one workpiece is plastically deformed. After presenting the fundamental joining mechanisms, the conjoint forming approach is discussed comprehensively. Examples of conjoint processes demonstrate the effectiveness and reveal the underlying phenomena.

  20. Form factors of charged hadrons and quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.; Azhar, I.A.; Rafique, M.

    1988-07-01

    A new parametrization G/sup New//sub p/ of the proton form factor is proposed. It is shown that this and the conventional parametrization G/sup V//sub ..pi../ = (1-t/m/sup 2//sub p/)/sup -1/ of the pion form factor are consistent with the experimental data wherever available, with lattice-QCD-based computations for small -t, and with perturbative QCD calculations for large -t. The hyperon form factors computed by using lattice QCD are also parametrized. The features of these form factors most relevant to the Chou-Yang Model are also discussed.

  1. Properties of hierarchically forming star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maschberger, Th; Bonnell, I A; Kroupa, P

    2010-01-01

    We undertake a systematic analysis of the early (< 0.5 Myr) evolution of clustering and the stellar initial mass function in turbulent fragmentation simulations. These large scale simulations for the first time offer the opportunity for a statistical analysis of IMF variations and correlations between stellar properties and cluster richness. The typical evolutionary scenario involves star formation in small-n clusters which then progressively merge; the first stars to form are seeds of massive stars and achieve a headstart in mass acquisition. These massive seeds end up in the cores of clusters and a large fraction of new stars of lower mass is formed in the outer parts of the clusters. The resulting clusters are therefore mass segregated at an age of 0.5 Myr, although the signature of mass segregation is weakened during mergers. We find that the resulting IMF has a smaller exponent (alpha=1.8-2.2) than the Salpeter value (alpha=2.35). The IMFs in subclusters are truncated at masses only somewhat larger th...

  2. Large Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-22

    EEEEEEEEEEmhEE SENSEffl -2-5 12" 110111111 LLLo 111M1. 2 15 .1 111-= NATIONAL BUREAU OF S Mouopy *9sO9u TESI , C N LARGE OPTICS TECHNOLOGY FINAL...Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY In the Graduate College THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 1981 !mw ’(’* 17 ABSTRACT The mirrors used in high energy laser systems...SCIENCES (GRADUATE) In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY In the Graduate College THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 1982

  3. A large thumb mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit K; Macnair, Rory; Figus, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of a spontaneously occurring soft tissue mass on the palmar aspect of his left non dominant thumb. Over 5 months he was having progressive difficulty flexing at the interphalangeal joint. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass likely to be either a peripheral fibromatosis or giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon (Figure 1). Intraoperatively a large neuroma in continuity with the ulnar digital nerve was found and debulked (Figure 2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  4. The large hadron computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    In the mid-1990s, when CERN physicists made their first cautious estimates of the amount of data that experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would produce, the microcomputer component manufacturer Intel had just released the Pentium Pro processor. Windows was the dominant operating system, although Linux was gaining momentum. CERN had recently made the World Wide Web public, but the system was still a long way from the all-encompassing network it is today. And a single gigabyte (109 bytes) of disk space cost several hundred dollars.

  5. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  6. Sixth-Form Colleges: An Endangered Organisational Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoten, David William

    2014-01-01

    The sixth-form college sector is often marginalised in policy and academic discourse, where the much larger school and further education sectors dominate. This paper sets out to describe the sector's key features, assess its position within the wider education system and consider its future in an increasingly competitive education market. The…

  7. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  8. Form und Sinn: Sprachwissenschaftliche Betrachtungen (Form and Meaning: Linguistic Observations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Roman

    This collection of 14 papers and articles by Roman Jakobson contains works written and published between 1931 and 1970 which deal either with global aspects of language or with specific grammatical issues. The collection emphasizes Jakobson's concern for finding the links between form and meaning in language. The text is entirely in German with…

  9. Large deviations from freeness

    CERN Document Server

    Kargin, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    Let H=A+UBU* where A and B are two N-by-N Hermitian matrices and U is a Haar-distributed random unitary matrix, and let \\mu_H, \\mu_A, and \\mu_B be empirical measures of eigenvalues of matrices H, A, and B, respectively. Then, it is known (see, for example, Pastur-Vasilchuk, CMP, 2000, v.214, pp.249-286) that for large N, measure \\mu_H is close to the free convolution of measures \\mu_A and \\mu_B, where the free convolution is a non-linear operation on probability measures. The large deviations of the cumulative distribution function of \\mu_H from its expectation have been studied by Chatterjee in JFA, 2007, v. 245, pp.379-389. In this paper we improve Chatterjee's estimate and show that P {\\sup_x |F_H (x) -F_+ (x)| > \\delta} < exp [-f(\\delta) N^2], where F_H (x) and F_+ (x) denote the cumulative distribution functions of \\mu_H and the free convolution of \\mu_A and \\mu_B, respectively, and where f(\\delta) is a specific function.

  10. Large Spectral Library Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  11. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro......-containers has shown potential to prevent or delay recrystallization. Another recent approach is the formation of co-amorphous mixtures between either two drugs or one drug and one low molecular weight excipient. Molecular interactions between the two molecules provide an energy barrier that has to be overcome...

  12. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  13. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  14. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    or preferences can be demonstrated, and how the move can be made from observing structured oppositions in cultural consumptions to claims about the existence of cultural capital? We note that current research frequently lack a clear argument about how the cultural forms possessed by the culturally privileged...... Distinction about the significance and content of emerging forms of cultural capital in different Western societies. Among the claims to be discussed are the following: - the claim about a decline in the adherence to traditional highbrow or classic high culture - the claim about increased omnivorousness and...... - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference...

  15. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  16. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  17. Method of forming structural heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  18. New directions in Dirichlet forms

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen; Mosco, Umberto; Rockner, Michael; Sturm, Karl-Theodor

    1998-01-01

    The theory of Dirichlet forms brings together methods and insights from the calculus of variations, stochastic analysis, partial differential and difference equations, potential theory, Riemannian geometry and more. This book features contributions by leading experts and provides up-to-date, authoritative accounts on exciting developments in the field and on new research perspectives. Topics covered include the following: stochastic analysis on configuration spaces, specifically a mathematically rigorous approach to the stochastic dynamics of Gibbs measures and infinite interacting particle systems; subelliptic PDE, homogenization, and fractals; geometric aspects of Dirichlet forms on metric spaces and function theory on such spaces; generalized harmonic maps as nonlinear analogues of Dirichlet forms, with an emphasis on non-locally compact situations; and a stochastic approach based on Brownian motion to harmonic maps and their regularity. Various new connections between the topics are featured, and it is de...

  19. Nucleon and Elastic and Transition Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Jorge; Cloët, Ian C.; Roberts, Craig D.; Schmidt, Sebastian M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a unified study of nucleon and elastic and transition form factors, and compare predictions made using a framework built upon a Faddeev equation kernel and interaction vertices that possess QCD-like momentum dependence with results obtained using a symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector vector contact-interaction. The comparison emphasises that experiments are sensitive to the momentum dependence of the running couplings and masses in the strong interaction sector of the Standard Model and highlights that the key to describing hadron properties is a veracious expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the bound-state problem. Amongst the results we describe, the following are of particular interest: possesses a zero at Q 2 = 9.5 GeV2; any change in the interaction which shifts a zero in the proton ratio to larger Q 2 relocates a zero in to smaller Q 2; there is likely a value of momentum transfer above which ; and the presence of strong diquark correlations within the nucleon is sufficient to understand empirical extractions of the flavour-separated form factors. Regarding the -baryon, we find that, inter alia: the electric monopole form factor exhibits a zero; the electric quadrupole form factor is negative, large in magnitude, and sensitive to the nature and strength of correlations in the Faddeev amplitude; and the magnetic octupole form factor is negative so long as rest-frame P- and D-wave correlations are included. In connection with the transition, the momentum-dependence of the magnetic transition form factor, , matches that of once the momentum transfer is high enough to pierce the meson-cloud; and the electric quadrupole ratio is a keen measure of diquark and orbital angular momentum correlations, the zero in which is obscured by meson-cloud effects on the domain currently accessible to experiment. Importantly, within each framework, identical propagators and vertices are sufficient to describe all properties discussed herein. Our

  20. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasick, David A; Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C

    2013-06-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.

  1. $K_{13}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Chueng Ryong Ji

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K/sub l3/ transition form factors and decay width in the impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K/sub l3/ form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data. (37 refs).

  2. Language, Culture and Symbolic Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Theis, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    As Ernst Cassierer introduced in his “Philosophie der symbolischen Formen” in 1923, he specifically mentioned “language” as well as a way of symbolic forms. In 1991, the self declared “researcher on human sciences”, Norbert Elias, published his work called “The Symbol Theory” where he mainly writes about language as an application of symbolic forms and symbols. Elias does not make any reference to Cassirer at all, but states that languages are a part of a civilization process and part of cult...

  3. Metallurgical Characterization of Superplastic Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The trans - formation of constant-crosshead-speed stress-strain curves into constant-strain- rate curves is clearly not satisfactory because it is based...MILL-ANNEALED AND SUPERPLASTICALLY- FORMED CONDITIONS; FORMING TEMPERATURE - 949EPC (17400F). 01"tln Stoi rte yeld grasa Ultimate l to oret~lSri as...1975), p. 163. 7. G. Rai and N. J. Grant, "On the Measurermients of Superplasticity in an Al-Cu Alloy," Met. Trans . 6A, 385 (1975). 8. A. K, Mukherjee

  4. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  5. Diffuse scattering study of aspirin forms (I) and (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E J; Welberry, T R; Heerdegen, A P; Goossens, D J

    2010-12-01

    Full three-dimensional diffuse scattering data have been recorded for both polymorphic forms [(I) and (II)] of aspirin and these data have been analysed using Monte Carlo computer modelling. The observed scattering in form (I) is well reproduced by a simple harmonic model of thermally induced displacements. The data for form (II) show, in addition to thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) similar to that in form (I), diffuse streaks originating from stacking fault-like defects as well as other effects that can be attributed to strain induced by these defects. The present study has provided strong evidence that the aspirin form (II) structure is a true polymorph with a structure quite distinct from that of form (I). The diffuse scattering evidence presented shows that crystals of form (II) are essentially composed of large single domains of the form (II) lattice with a relatively small volume fraction of intrinsic planar defects or faults comprising misoriented bilayers of molecular dimers. There is evidence of some local aggregation of these defect bilayers to form small included regions of the form (I) structure. Evidence is also presented that shows that the strain effects arise from the mismatch of molecular packing between the defect region and the surrounding form (II) lattice. This occurs at the edges of the planar defects in the b direction only.

  6. 75 FR 26782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I-864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-864, Form I- 864A, Form I-864EZ, and Form I-864W... Collection Under Review; Form I- 864, Affidavit of Support Under Section 213A of the Act; Form I-864A, Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, Form I-864EZ, Affidavit of Support Under Section 213A of...

  7. Evidence for large grains in the star-forming filament OMC 2/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Scott; Mason, Brian; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel; Li, Di; Sadavoy, Sarah; Stanke, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    We present a new 3.3 mm continuum map of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC) 2/3 region. When paired with previously published maps of 1.2 mm continuum and NH3-derived temperature, we derive the emissivity spectral index of dust emission in this region, tracking its changes across the filament and cores. We find that the median value of the emissivity spectral index is 0.9, much shallower than previous estimates in other nearby molecular clouds. We find no significant difference between the emissivity spectral index of dust in the OMC 2/3 filament and the starless or protostellar cores. Furthermore, the temperature and emissivity spectral index, β, are anticorrelated at the 4σ level. The low values of the emissivity spectral index found in OMC 2/3 can be explained by the presence of millimetre-sized dust grains in the dense regions of the filaments to which these maps are most sensitive. Alternatively, a shallow dust emissivity spectral index may indicate non-power-law spectral energy distributions, significant free-free emission, or anomalous microwave emission. We discuss the possible implications of millimetre-sized dust grains compared to the alternatives.

  8. Evidence for Large Grains in the Star-forming Filament OMC-2/3

    CERN Document Server

    Schnee, Scott; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel; Li, Di; Sadavoy, Sarah; Stanke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a new 3.3 mm continuum map of the OMC-2/3 region. When paired with previously published maps of 1.2mm continuum and NH3-derived temperature, we derive the emissivity spectral index of dust emission in this region, tracking its changes across the filament and cores. We find that the median value of the emissivity spectral index is 0.9, much shallower than previous estimates in other nearby molecular clouds. We find no significant difference between the emissivity spectral index of dust in the OMC-2/3 filament and the starless or protostellar cores. Furthermore, the temperature and emissivity spectral index, beta, are anti-correlated at the 4 sigma level. The low values of the emissivity spectral index found in OMC-2/3 can be explained by the presence of millimeter-sized dust grains in the dense regions of the filaments to which these maps are most sensitive. Alternatively, a shallow dust emissivity spectral index may indicate non-powerlaw spectral energy distributions, significant free-free emission...

  9. THE ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT REMESHING IN LARGE DEFORMATION OF METAL FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.X. Guo; J.S. Liu

    2004-01-01

    The adaptive remeshing technique for quadrilateral elements consists of modules the trigger of remeshing, the new mesh generation, adaptive refinement and interpolation of field variables. The new adaptive mesh generation is the key problem. First, a coarse mesh is created by using "loop algorithm". Subsequent local mesh adaptive refinement is performed based on effective strain. Finally, a typical example of upsetting is given to test efficient of techniques, from which it is verified that the remeshing algorithm developed here exhibits good performance and has high accuracy.

  10. Understanding the plasmonic properties of dewetting formed Ag nanoparticles for large area solar cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günendi, M.C.; Tanyeli, I.; Akgüç, G.B.; Bek, A.; Turan, R.; Gülseren, O.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of substrates with technological interest for solar cell industry are examined on the plasmonic properties of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by dewetting technique. Both surface matching (boundary element) and propagator (finite difference time domain) methods are used in numerical simulati

  11. Regulation of cardiac form and function: small RNAs and large hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure, and the cardiac hypertrophy with which it is often associated, is putting an increasing burden on our healthcare system, and its prevalence is rising. Unfortunately the only available treatments are mainly targeting the symptoms, not the underlying cause of disease. Investigation of t

  12. Large Spin Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We consider conformal field theories around points of large twist degeneracy. Examples of this are theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry and perturbations around generalised free fields. At the degenerate point we introduce twist conformal blocks. These are eigenfunctions of certain quartic operators and encode the contribution, to a given four-point correlator, of the whole tower of intermediate operators with a given twist. As we perturb around the degenerate point, the twist degeneracy is lifted. In many situations this breaking is controlled by inverse powers of the spin. In such cases the twist conformal blocks can be decomposed into a sequence of functions which we systematically construct. Decomposing the four-point correlator in this basis turns crossing symmetry into an algebraic problem. Our method can be applied to a wide spectrum of conformal field theories in any number of dimensions and at any order in the breaking parameter. As an example, we compute the spectrum of various theories ...

  13. Silicic Large Igneous Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott Bryan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are the end-product of huge additions of magma to the continental crust both at the surface and at depth. Since the first categorisation of LIPs by Coffin & Eldholm (1994), it has been recognised that LIPs are more varied inform, age and character, and this includes the recognition of Silicic LIPs. Silicic LIPs are the largest accumulations of primary volcaniclastic rocks at the Earth's surface with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 and extrusive and subvolcanic intrusive volumes >0.25 Mkm3. The Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic Silicic LIP events are the best recognised and are similar in terms of their dimension, crustal setting, volcanic architecture and geochemistry.

  14. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  15. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  16. Large area plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  17. Free Form Technology from Delft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Gelder, B.L.; Lockefeer, W.A.A.M.; Veltkamp, M.; Vollers, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, designed and engineered by Frank O. Gehry and inaugurated in 1997, opened the eyes of the world to the plastic possibilities of Free Form Design. That is, on the side of architects and their admiring clients. Some architects draw up complicated but sur

  18. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    a nuanced account of what temporal form is in interaction design, and we look at related work synthesizing what we already know of the temporal concerns in interaction design and HCI. In the second part we present a design experiment through which we explore the experiential qualities of a set of 11 simple...

  19. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  20. Education fees – New forms

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The application forms for the payment of education fees have been updated and are now available in the Admin e-guide (under the “Useful Documents” heading):   Payment of education fees (including language course fees) – AC12A (form to be used by staff members recruited before 1 January 2007, with the exception of former “local staff”).   Payment of education fees – AC12B (form to be used by staff members recruited on or after 1 January 2007, by fellows, scientific associates and guest professors and by former “local staff” whose contracts started before 1 January 2007). The Education Fees service will continue to accept the old forms until the end of the current academic year, i.e. until 31 August 2015. Members of the personnel are reminded that any false declaration or failure to declare information with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain that would result in a financial loss for CERN or...

  1. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    of tones, pauses, and timbre arranged into harmonies and rhythms. In interaction design it is, for instance, the behaviors of pixels on a screen or the movements in shape-changing interfaces. In this paper we show the power of working explicitly with temporal form in designing computational things. We give...

  2. Application of Incremental Sheet Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some manufacturing aspects and an example of application of the Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF technology which was used for production of the craniofacial prosthesis. The brief description of prosthesis designing was presented as well. The main topic of the paper is comparison of milling and ISF technologies for preparing the tools for prosthesis thermoforming.

  3. Multiplicative forms and Spencer operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, Marius; Salazar Pinzon, Maria; Struchiner, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by our attempt to recast Cartan’s work on Lie pseudogroups in a more global and modern language, we are brought back to the question of understanding the linearization of multiplicative forms on groupoids and the corresponding integrability problem. From this point of view, the novelty of

  4. Spin-forming Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  5. Polynomial Algebra in Form 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.

    2012-06-01

    New features of the symbolic algebra package Form 4 are discussed. Most importantly, these features include polynomial factorization and polynomial gcd computation. Examples of their use are shown. One of them is an exact version of Mincer which gives answers in terms of rational polynomials and 5 master integrals.

  6. English Pidgins: Form and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights similarities and variation in both form and function of English pidgins the world over. It is argued that English pidgins are related more by socio-historical conditions and directions of development than by details of their formal structure. Reference list includes 68 citations. (Author/DJD)

  7. Green Lubricants for Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The increasing focus on legislation towards diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has driven efforts to develop new, environmentally benign lubricants for metal forming. The present paper gives an overview of these efforts to substitute environmentally haza...

  8. PIC Reading Readiness Test Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. J.

    This rating form concerns the measurement of basic skills in connection with assessing reading readiness. Motor skills, ability to adjust to learning situations, familiarity with the alphabet, and general knowledge are assessed. See TM 001 111 for details of the Regional PIC program in which it is used. (DLG)

  9. High resolution RPC's for large TOF systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, Paulo J R; Pinhão, J; Carolino, N; Policarpo, Armando

    2000-01-01

    Here we report on a particular type of RPC that presents up to 99% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles and a very good time resolution, below 50 ps s for the most optimized construction. Our 9 cm2 cells, made with glass and metal electrodes that form accurately spaced gaps of a few hundred micrometers, are operated at atmospheric pressure in non-flammable gases and can be economically produced in large quantities, opening perspectives for the construction of large area time of flight systems.

  10. Forms representing forms and linear spaces on hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brandes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    A generalisation of Waring's problem, considered first by Arkhipov and Karatsuba, is the question of representing not an integer, but a given polynomial, as a sum of powers of linear polynomials. We investigate a related problem and prove a Hasse principle for the number of identical representations of a set of given forms by homogeneous polynomials of general shape. The result leads to sizeable improvements for estimates of the number of linear spaces on the intersection of hypersurfaces.

  11. Pressure contours on forming dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Andersen, Claus Bo; Wanheim, Tarras

    2001-01-01

    In contemporary practice, tool desing and its optimisation is accomplished largely though the use of empirical knowledge and extensive experience. A considerable amount of trial and error is necessary in order to be able to set-up a tool for a reliable and reproducible process. One of the major a...

  12. Hadronic Form Factors in Asymptotically Free Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D. J.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    The breakdown of Bjorken scaling in asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions is explored for its implications on the large q{sup 2} behavior of nucleon form factors. Duality arguments of Bloom and Gilman suggest a connection between the form factors and the threshold properties of the deep inelastic structure functions. The latter are addressed directly in an analysis of asymptotically free theories; and through the duality connection we are then led to statements about the form factors. For very large q{sup 2} the form factors are predicted to fall faster than any inverse power of q{sup 2}. For the more modest range of q{sup 2} reached in existing experiments the agreement with data is fairly good, though this may well be fortuitous. Extrapolations beyond this range are presented.

  13. Environmental Effects of Large Impacts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Teresa L.; Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Zahnle, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    The martian valley networks formed near the end of the period of heavy bombardment of the inner solar system, about 3.5 billion years ago. The largest impacts produced global blankets of very hot ejecta, ranging in thickness from meters to hundreds of meters. Our simulations indicated that the ejecta warmed the surface, keeping it above the freezing point of water for periods ranging from decades to millennia, depending on impactor size, and caused shallow subsurface or polar ice to evaporate or melt. Large impacts also injected steam into the atmosphere from the craters or from water innate to the impactors. From all sources, a typical 100-, 200-, or 250-kilometers asteroid injected about 2, 9, or 16 meters, respectively, of precipitable water into the atmosphere, which eventually rained out at a rate of about 2 meters per year. The rains from a large impact formed rivers and contributed to recharging aquifers.

  14. Numerical solution of large Lyapunov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Youcef

    1989-01-01

    A few methods are proposed for solving large Lyapunov equations that arise in control problems. The common case where the right hand side is a small rank matrix is considered. For the single input case, i.e., when the equation considered is of the form AX + XA(sup T) + bb(sup T) = 0, where b is a column vector, the existence of approximate solutions of the form X = VGV(sup T) where V is N x m and G is m x m, with m small is established. The first class of methods proposed is based on the use of numerical quadrature formulas, such as Gauss-Laguerre formulas, applied to the controllability Grammian. The second is based on a projection process of Galerkin type. Numerical experiments are presented to test the effectiveness of these methods for large problems.

  15. THE LARGE MILLIMETER TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between M xico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrof sica, ptica y Electr nica (INAOE and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeterwave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain rst-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the re ector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for nal commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, out ted with its initial complement of scienti c instruments, will be a world-leading scienti c research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  16. Large Databases in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.; Gray, Jim; Kunszt, Peter; Thakar, Anirudha; Slutz, Don

    The next-generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The archives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. The intensive use of advanced data archives will enable astronomers to explore their data interactively. Data access will be aided by multidimensional spatial and attribute indices. The data will be partitioned in many ways. Small tag indices consisting of the most popular attributes will accelerate frequent searches. Splitting the data among multiple servers will allow parallel, scalable I/O and parallel data analysis. Hashing techniques will allow efficient clustering, and pair-wise comparison algorithms that should parallelize nicely. Randomly sampled subsets will allow debugging otherwise large queries at the desktop. Central servers will operate a data pump to support sweep searches touching most of the data. The anticipated queries will require special operators related to angular distances and complex similarity tests of object properties, like shapes, colors, velocity vectors, or temporal behaviors. These issues pose interesting data management challenges.

  17. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  18. Large Size Telescope Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, D; Teshima, M

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to f...

  19. Large Crater Clustering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Jason; Skinner, James A.; Hunter, Marc A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the Large Crater Clustering (LCC) tool set, an ArcGIS plugin that supports the quantitative approximation of a primary impact location from user-identified locations of possible secondary impact craters or the long-axes of clustered secondary craters. The identification of primary impact craters directly supports planetary geologic mapping and topical science studies where the chronostratigraphic age of some geologic units may be known, but more distant features have questionable geologic ages. Previous works (e.g., McEwen et al., 2005; Dundas and McEwen, 2007) have shown that the source of secondary impact craters can be estimated from secondary impact craters. This work adapts those methods into a statistically robust tool set. We describe the four individual tools within the LCC tool set to support: (1) processing individually digitized point observations (craters), (2) estimating the directional distribution of a clustered set of craters, back projecting the potential flight paths (crater clusters or linearly approximated catenae or lineaments), (3) intersecting projected paths, and (4) intersecting back-projected trajectories to approximate the local of potential source primary craters. We present two case studies using secondary impact features mapped in two regions of Mars. We demonstrate that the tool is able to quantitatively identify primary impacts and supports the improved qualitative interpretation of potential secondary crater flight trajectories.

  20. Large size telescope report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, D.; Cortina, J.; Teshima, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirements, present results of element prototyping and describe the installation and operation plans.

  1. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  2. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  3. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Erkek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical point of view, we lay emphasis on its unique expression and diagnosis/treatment. From a histological perspective, we highlight its resemblance to dermatosis neglecta and speculate on the role of ′neglect′ in a patient with seemingly adequate hygiene. The role of urea containing emollients in the development of this disorder remains to be determined.

  4. Free-form illumination optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Hernández, Maikel

    2016-04-01

    In many illumination problems, the beam pattern needed and/or some geometrical constraints lead to very asymmetric design conditions. These asymmetries have been solved in the past by means of arrangements of rotationally symmetric or linear lamps aimed in different directions whose patterns overlap to provide the asymmetric prescriptions or by splitting one single lamp into several sections, each one providing a part of the pattern. The development of new design methods yielding smooth continuous free-form optical surfaces to solve these challenging design problems, combined with the proper CAD modeling tools plus the development of multiple axes diamond turn machines, give birth to a new generation of optics. These are able to offer the performance and other advanced features, such as efficiency, compactness, or aesthetical advantages, and can be manufactured at low cost by injection molding. This paper presents two examples of devices with free-form optical surfaces, a camera flash, and a car headlamp.

  5. Form Factors of Few-Body Systems: Point Form Versus Front Form

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Rocha, Maria; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We present a relativistic point-form approach for the calculation of electroweak form factors of few-body bound states that leads to results which resemble those obtained within the covariant light-front formalism of Carbonell et al. Our starting points are the physical processes in which such form factors are measured, i.e. electron scattering off the bound state, or the semileptonic weak decay of the bound state. These processes are treated by means of a coupled-channel framework for a Bakamjian-Thomas type mass operator. A current with the correct covariance properties is then derived from the pertinent leading-order electroweak scattering or decay amplitude. As it turns out, the electromagnetic current is affected by unphysical contributions which can be traced back to wrong cluster properties inherent in the Bakamjian-Thomas construction. These spurious contributions, however, can be separated uniquely, as in the covariant light-front approach. In this way we end up with form factors which agree with tho...

  6. Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobrist, B.; Marcolli, C.; Pedernera, D. A.; Koop, T.

    2008-01-01

    A new process is presented by which water soluble organics might influence ice nucleation, ice growth, chemical reactions and water uptake of aerosols in the upper troposphere: the formation of glassy aerosol particles. Glasses are disordered amorphous (non-crystalline) solids that form when a liquid is cooled without crystallization until the viscosity increases exponentially and molecular diffusion practically ceases. The glass transition temperatures, Tg

  7. Superprocesses on Two Space Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Superprocess is one class of measure-valued branching Markov processes. Many results of the process on abstract spaces and Euclidean spaces are obtained in the literature. In this paper, we discuss super-Brownian motions on two space forms and reveal partially the relationship between the properties of superprocesses and the geometric structure of the underlying state spaces. Finally, we also presents some open problems.

  8. SOD FORM OF PERENNIAL GRASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the peculiarities of turf and sod, specificity of formation of kidneys for regeneration, types of shoots, vegetative mobility and specificity of growth in certain conditions, turf grasses are divided into loosely-and tightly-turf characterized, by specific features of environmental, biological characteristics; forming turf from generative rosettes, elongated and shortened vegetative, side ground shoots, differing specificity of morphological, biochemical and fitocoenotic...

  9. The Integral Form of Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, L; Grassi, P A

    2016-01-01

    By using integral forms we derive the superspace action of D=3, N=1 supergravity as an integral on a supermanifold. The construction is based on target space picture changing operators, here playing the role of Poincare' duals to the lower-dimensional spacetime surfaces embedded into the supermanifold. We show how the group geometrical action based on the group manifold approach interpolates between the superspace and the component supergravity actions, thus providing another proof of their equivalence.

  10. The faintest star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P

    2003-01-01

    I briefly report on the X-ray detection of 10 radio sub-mJy sources in the 2 Ms Chandra observation of the Hubble Deep Field North region. These sources follow the same radio/X-ray luminosities relation which holds for nearby galaxies. Making use of this relation, X-ray number counts from star forming galaxies are predicted from the deep radio Log N-Log S's.

  11. Lecture Notes on Differential Forms

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This is a series of lecture notes, with embedded problems, aimed at students studying differential topology. Many revered texts, such as Spivak's "Calculus on Manifolds" and Guillemin and Pollack's "Differential Topology" introduce forms by first working through properties of alternating tensors. Unfortunately, many students get bogged down with the whole notion of tensors and never get to the punch lines: Stokes' Theorem, de Rham cohomology, Poincare duality, and the realization of various t...

  12. The integral form of supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, INdAM,P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Grassi, P.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-11

    By using integral forms we derive the superspace action of D=3,N=1 supergravity as an integral on a supermanifold. The construction is based on target space picture changing operators, here playing the rôle of Poincaré duals to the lower-dimensional spacetime surfaces embedded into the supermanifold. We show how the group geometrical action based on the group manifold approach interpolates between the superspace and the component supergravity actions, thus providing another proof of their equivalence.

  13. Lie groups and automorphic forms

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Lizhen; Xu, H W; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    Lie groups are fundamental objects in mathematics. They occur naturally in differential geometry, algebraic geometry, representation theory, number theory, and other areas. Closely related are arithmetic subgroups, locally symmetric spaces and the spectral theory of automorphic forms. This book consists of five chapters which give comprehensive introductions to Lie groups, Lie algebras, arithmetic groups and reduction theories, cohomology of arithmetic groups, and the Petersson and Kuznetsov trace formulas.

  14. Current forms and gauge invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M Castrillon [Departemento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Masque, J Munoz [Instituto de FIsica Aplicada, CSIC, C/Serrano 144, 28006-Madrid (Spain)

    2004-05-14

    Let C be the bundle of connections of a principal G-bundle {pi}:P {yields} M, and let V be the vector bundle associated with P by a linear representation G {yields} GL(V) on a finite-dimensional vector space V. The Lagrangians on J{sup 1}(C x {sub M}V) whose current form is gauge invariant, are described and the gauge-invariant Lagrangians on J{sup 1}(V) are classified.

  15. Rib forming tool for tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  16. Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.

  17. Massive three-loop form factor in the planar limit

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the massive quark-anti-quark-photon form factors $F_1$ and $F_2$ in the large-$N_c$ limit. The analytic results are expressed in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. This allows for a straightforward numerical evaluation. We also derive series expansions, including power suppressed terms, for three kinematic regions corresponding to small and large invariant masses of the photon momentum, and small velocities of the heavy quarks.

  18. Pressure contours on forming dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Andersen, Claus Bo; Wanheim, Tarras

    2001-01-01

    In contemporary practice, tool desing and its optimisation is accomplished largely though the use of empirical knowledge and extensive experience. A considerable amount of trial and error is necessary in order to be able to set-up a tool for a reliable and reproducible process. One of the major a...... aims of cold-forging research, therefore, is to reduce this trial and error procedure. This can be achieved by means of the prysical model technique combined with the necessary calculations....

  19. Nucleon Resonance Transition Form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mokeev, Viktor I. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Aznauryan, Inna G. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (YerPhI) (Armenia)

    2016-08-01

    We discuss recent results from CLAS on electromagnetic resonance transition amplitudes and their dependence on the distance scale (Q2). From the comparison of these results with most advanced theoretical calculations within QCD-based approaches there is clear evidence that meson-baryon contributions are present and important at large distances, i.e. small Q2, and that quark core contributions dominate the short distance behavior.

  20. Automated UMLS-based comparison of medical forms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dugas

    Full Text Available Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far--to our knowledge--an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS. Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care. Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms.

  1. Automated UMLS-based comparison of medical forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur; Krumm, Rainer; Breil, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far--to our knowledge--an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS). Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care). Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms.

  2. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  3. Fostering Student Introspection through Guided Reflection Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Laura; Matheson, Amanda; Franklin, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Student self-reflection is an important metacognitive skill to developing expert-like habits of mind. This study focuses on student responses to Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) and individualized instructor feedback to the submissions. Student and instructor entries were hand-coded by an emergent rubric and, separately, analyzed with LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count), a computerized text analysis program that extracts affective sentiment. Sentiment analysis supports the development of a stable basis set (rubric) to describe responses that is robust across both introductory and advanced classes. The analysis also reveals the instructor's use of the ``praise sandwich,'' instinctively embedding critiques and suggestions between specific and general encouragements. The study demonstrates the utility of validated, automated, sentiment analysis as a method by which to analyze large corpuses of written text.

  4. Holography, chiral Lagrangian and form factor relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Fen

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of mesonic properties in a class of holographic models of QCD, which is described by the Yang-Mills plus Chern-Simons action. By decomposing the 5 dimensional gauge field into resonances and integrating out the massive ones, we reproduce the Chiral Perturbative Theory Lagrangian up to ${\\cal O}(p^6)$ and obtain all the relevant low energy constants (LECs). The numerical predictions of the LECs show minor model dependence, and agree reasonably with the determinations from other approaches. Interestingly, various model-independent relations appear among them. Some of these relations are found to be the large-distance limits of universal relations between form factors of the anomalous and even-parity sectors of QCD.

  5. Advanced free-form micro tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present deliverable contains the report of the work and results achieved within the framework of WP 2.2 in Tasks 2.2.4 “Advanced free-form micro tooling” in experimental research done regarding practical applications of methods of applying nano structures to tooling solutions. As part of Task 2...... nanometre features can affect physical and optical properties of the surface [Liu03][Por99]. Since sub-μm feature details with ultra-low tolerances have to be manufactured, these structures are usually fabricated using clean room technologies or direct ultra precision machining procedures. Methods such as e......-beam lithography and nano imprinting lithography [Che05][Che09] have high manufacturing cost and a low throughput. The aim was obtain large tool area with nano structures patterning without using energy intensive nano machining (e.g. focus ion beam, X-ray lithography, etc) but, instead, by exploiting the advantage...

  6. [Obstetrical handbook in comic strip form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    An obstetric handbook was created in comic strip form in cooperation with the Ministry of Health in the region of Segou, Mali, for training of traditional midwives living far from community health centers. The drawings illustrate pregnancies at risk that the midwife should be able to identify in order to advise women to stay near the health facility before onset of labor. Drawings indicate pregnancies that are at risk because of the following: small stature, limping as a result of polio or sciatic paralysis, high parity, prior cesarean delivery, heart disease, overly large uterus, or prior stillbirth. Serious complications requiring referral to a health service are also illustrated and include severe anemia, genital bleeding, and signs of toxemia and edema. The midwife should accompany the woman during transport.

  7. Converting energy from fusion into useful forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Jenkins, I; Kiely, C

    2014-01-01

    If fusion power reactors are to be feasible, it will still be necessary to convert the energy of the nuclear reaction into usable form. The heat produced will be removed from the reactor core by a primary coolant, which might be water, helium, molten lithium-lead, molten lithium-containing salt, or CO2. The heat could then be transferred to a conventional Rankine cycle or Brayton (gas turbine) cycle. Alternatively it could be used for thermochemical processes such as producing hydrogen or other transport fuels. Fusion presents new problems because of the high energy neutrons released. These affect the selection of materials and the operating temperature, ultimately determining the choice of coolant and working cycle. The limited temperature ranges allowed by present day irradiated structural materials, combined with the large internal power demand of the plant, will limit the overall thermal efficiency. The operating conditions of the fusion power source, the materials, coolant, and energy conversion system w...

  8. Isospin violation in the vector form factors of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, B; Kubis, Bastian; Lewis, Randy

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of isospin violation is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors from experimental data. We calculate the isospin violating electric and magnetic form factors in chiral perturbation theory to leading and next-to-leading order respectively, and we extract the low-energy constants from resonance saturation. Uncertainties are dominated largely by limitations in the current knowledge of some vector meson couplings. The resulting bounds on isospin violation are sufficiently precise to be of value to on-going experimental studies of the strange form factors.

  9. Longitudinal vector form factors in weak decays of nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Simkovic, F; Krivoruchenko, M I

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal form factors of the weak vector current of particles with spin $ J = 1/2 $ and isospin $ I = 1/2 $ are determined by the mass difference and the charge radii of members of the isotopic doublets. The most promising reactions to measure these form factors are the reactions with large momentum transfers involving the spin-1/2 isotopic doublets with a maximum mass splitting. Numerical estimates of longitudinal form factors are given for nucleons and eight nuclear spin-1/2 isotopic doublets.

  10. Numerical simulation of involutes spline shaft in cold rolling forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志奎; 张庆

    2008-01-01

    Design of forming dies and whole process of simulation of cold rolling involutes spline can be realized by using of CAD software of PRO-E and CAE software of DEFORM-3D. Software DEFORM-3D provides an automatic and optimized remeshing function, especially for the large deformation. In order to use this function sufficiently, simulation of cold rolling involutes spline can be implemented indirectly. The relationship between die and workpiece, forming force and characteristic of deformation in the forming process of cold rolling involutes spline are analyzed and researched. Meanwhile, reliable proofs for the design of dies and deforming equipment are provided.

  11. Development of unconventional forming methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents results of progress ECAP processing method for UFG structure reached (gained.The properties and microstructure are influenced by technological factors during application ECAP method.Design/methodology/approach: Summary of methods studied on Department of technology at Machining faculty of VŠB-TU Ostrava through of co-operation with Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology is presented.Findings: Achievement of ultra-fine grained structure in initial material leads to substantial increase of plasticity and makes it possible to form materials in conditions of „superplastic state“. Achievement of the required structure depends namely of the tool geometry, number of passes through the matrix, obtained deformation magnitude and strain rate, process temperature and lubrication conditions. High deformation at comparatively low homologous temperatures is an efficient method of production of ultra-fine grained solid materials.The new technologies, which use severe plastic deformation, comprise namely these techniques: High Pressure Torsion, Equal Channel Angular Pressing = ECAP, Cyclic Channel Die Compression = CCDC, Cyclic Extrusion Compression = CEC, Continuous Extrusion Forming = CONFORM, Accumulative Roll Bonding, Constrained Groove Pressing.Research limitations/implications: Achieved hardness and microstructure characteristics will be determined by new research.Practical implications: The results may be utilized for a relation between structure and properties of the investigated materials in future process of manufacturing.Originality/value: These results contribute to complex evaluation of properties new metals after application unconventional forming methods. The results of this paper are determined for research workers deal by the process severe plastic deformation.

  12. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Peen Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Xiaoming; Ma Zeen; Gu Lin; Chen ming

    2004-01-01

    Peen forming is the most important process for the manufacturing of integral wing skin panels. In order to determine peening parameters, an equivalent deformation theory was proposed in which peening parameters are transformed into equivalent nodal forces. In this study, a linear elastic shell finite element method is adopted. Other related problems such as wing skin panel modeling and peening scheme analysis were also outlined. The method has been applied to manufacturing panels of a certain Chinese aircraft and was proved to be effective in reducing peening experimental tests and improving products quality.

  14. Noncigarette forms of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis

    2008-12-01

    There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.

  15. The Form of HWID Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of activities within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) area named Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) is to establish relationships between empirical work-domain studies and recent developments in interaction design. Recent areas of research within HWID include design sketches for work...... in research presented at a recent working conference, and find that a frequent form of HWID theory may be a combination of a HCI theory, domain-specific theory and theorizing on the relation between empirical work analysis and interaction design. At the end of the paper, we propose some constraints...

  16. Strange chiral nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmert, T R; Meißner, Ulf G; Hemmert, Thomas R.; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory to third order in the chiral expansion. All counterterms can be fixed from data. In particular, the two unknown singlet couplings can be deduced from the parity-violating electron scattering experiments performed by the SAMPLE and the HAPPEX collaborations. Within the given uncertainties, our analysis leads to a small and positive electric strangeness radius, $ = (0.05 \\pm 0.16) fm^2$. We also deduce the consequences for the upcoming MAMI A4 experiment.

  17. Baryon Form Factors at Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Pacetti, Simone [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    An extensive study of the e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}pp{sup Macron }BABAR cross section data is presented. Two unexpected outcomes have been found: the modulus of the proton form factor is normalized to one at threshold, i.e.: |G{sup p}(4M{sub p}{sup 2})|=1, as a pointlike fermion, and the resummation factor in the Sommerfeld formula is not needed. Other e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} baryon-antibaryon cross sections show a similar behavior near threshold.

  18. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  19. Terra Firma-forme Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha Ramesh Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a cutaneous discoloration. ‘Dirty’ brown grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can be rid off by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads characterize it. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. It poses no medical threat. A 40-year-old male patient presented to the Department of Dermatology with a 2-3 month history of persistent pigmented patches on both upper arms. The lesions were not associated with itching or burning sensation. He gives no history of exacerbation on exposure to the sun.

  20. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  1. Screening three-form fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, Tiago; Nunes, Nelson J

    2016-01-01

    Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  2. Screening three-form fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Tiago; Bertello, Ugo; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2017-10-01

    Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  3. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  4. Capillary flows with forming interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2007-01-01

    PREFACEINTRODUCTION Free-surface flows in nature and industryScope of the bookFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS Main concepts Governing equations Elements of thermodynamics Classical boundary conditions Physically meaningful solutions and paradoxes of modelingMOVING CONTACT LINES: AN OVERVIEW Essence of the problem Experimental observations Molecular dynamics simulations Review of theoriesThe key to the moving contact-line problemBOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON FORMING INTERFACES Modeling of interfacesConservation lawsLiquid-gas and liquid-solid interfacesLiquid-liquid interfaces SummaryOpen questions an

  5. Instructions & Forms for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Materials Sciences & Technology is a monthly journal for the rapid dissemination of new, impor- tant results in material and related fields. Submission Electronic files of MS Word and PDF are acceptable. Please visit http://www.jmst.org and submit online. Submission of a manuscript must be the original work of the author(s) and has not been published elsewhere or under consideration for another publication, or a substantially similar form in any language. Authors are encouraged to recommend three to five individuals (including their research fields, e-mail, phone numbers and addresses) who are qualified to serve as referees for their paper.

  6. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  7. Development of precision spray forming for rapid tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yunfeng [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Hannula, Simo-Pekka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, POB 6200, FI-02015 TKK (Finland)], E-mail: simo-pekka.hannula@tkk.fi

    2008-03-25

    The aim of the work is to improve the capability of the precision spray forming (PSF) rapid tooling process so that it can be extended to various applications. This work comprises the upgrading of the current spray-forming machine from single atomizer to twin atomizers, so that the capability is much improved in terms of insert size and complexity. As a result, the insert size is increased from about 200 mm to 400 mm in diameter, and the process is more reliable to make complex structures. Know-how is accumulated for making large and/or complex inserts with controllable surface and internal soundness. A process of spray forming conformal cooling channels in die inserts or other components used at elevated temperatures is also developed and various mould inserts are spray formed. In this paper the plant modification is described. It is shown that the twin atomizers are more reliable in spray forming small inserts of about 200 mm in diameter and of high complexity than the single atomizer system. Spray forming of disc type inserts up to 400 mm diameter is demonstrated. Influence of deposition temperature and substrate moving speed, as well as the treatment of the ceramic mould surface is determined and the technical measures to prevent surface defects related to large insert spray forming are specified.

  8. Technetium Waste Form Development - Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, David S.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Seffens, Rob J.; Chamberlin, Clyde E.

    2009-01-07

    Analytical electron microscopy using SEM and TEM has been used to analyze a ~5 g. ingot with composition 71.3 wt% 316SS-5.3 wt% Zr-13.2 wt% Mo-4.0 wt% Rh-6.2 wt% Re prepared at the Idaho National Laboratory. Four phase fields have been identified two of which are lamellar eutectics, with a fifth possibly present. A Zr rich phase was found distributed as fine precipitate, ~10µm in diameter, often coating large cavities. A Mo-Fe-Re-Cr lamellar eutectic phase field appears as blocky regions ~30µm in diameter, surrounded by a Fe-Mo-Cr lamellar eutectic phase field, and that in turn is surrounded by a Zr-Fe-Rh-Mo-Ni phase field. The eutectic phase separation reactions are different. The Mo-Fe-Re-Cr lamellar eutectic appears a result of austenitic steel forming at lower volume fraction within an Mo-Fe-Re intermetallic phase, whereas the Fe-Mo-Cr lamellar eutectic may be a result of the same intermetallic phase forming within a ferritic steel phase. Cavitation may have arisen either as a result of bubbles, or from loss of equiaxed particles during specimen preparation.

  9. Planetesimal Collisions as a Chondrule Forming Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain unique spherical materials named chondrules: sub-mm sized silicate grains once melted in a high temperature condition in the solar nebula. We numerically explore one of the chondrule forming processes—planetesimal collisions. Previous studies have found that impact jetting via protoplanet–planetesimal collisions can make chondrules with 1% of the impactors’ mass, when the impact velocity exceeds 2.5 km s‑1. Based on the mineralogical data of chondrules, undifferentiated planetesimals would be more suitable for chondrule-forming collisions than potentially differentiated protoplanets. We examine planetesimal–planetesimal collisions using a shock physics code and find two things: one is that planetesimal–planetesimal collisions produce nearly the same amount of chondrules as protoplanet–planetesimal collisions (∼1%). The other is that the amount of produced chondrules becomes larger as the impact velocity increases when two planetesimals collide with each other. We also find that progenitors of chondrules can originate from deeper regions of large targets (planetesimals or protoplanets) than small impactors (planetesimals). The composition of targets is therefore important, to fully account for the mineralogical data of currently sampled chondrules.

  10. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  11. Forming Disk Galaxies in Lambda CDM Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Governato, F; Mayer, L; Quinn, T; Stinson, G; Valenzuela, O; Wadsley, J; Willman, B

    2006-01-01

    We used fully cosmological, high resolution N-body + SPH simulations to follow the formation of disk galaxies with rotational velocities between 135 and 270 km/sec in a Lambda CDM universe. The simulations include gas cooling, star formation, the effects of a uniform UV background and a physically motivated description of feedback from supernovae. The host dark matter halos have a spin and last major merger redshift typical of galaxy sized halos as measured in recent large scale N--Body simulations. The simulated galaxies form rotationally supported disks with realistic exponential scale lengths and fall on both the I-band and baryonic Tully Fisher relations. An extended stellar disk forms inside the Milky Way sized halo immediately after the last major merger. The combination of UV background and SN feedback drastically reduces the number of visible satellites orbiting inside a Milky Way sized halo, bringing it in fair agreement with observations. Our simulations predict that the average age of a primary gal...

  12. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  13. Forming Compact Massive Galaxies at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Franx, Marijn; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E; van der Wel, Arjen; Bezanson, Rachel; Fumagalli, Mattia; Kriek, Mariska; Leja, Joel; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study a key phase in the formation of massive galaxies: the transition of star forming galaxies into massive (M_stars~10^11 Msun), compact (r_e~1 kpc) quiescent galaxies, which takes place from z~3 to z~1.5. We use HST grism redshifts and extensive photometry in all five 3D-HST/CANDELS fields, more than doubling the area used previously for such studies, and combine these data with Keck MOSFIRE and NIRSPEC spectroscopy. We first confirm that a population of massive, compact, star forming galaxies exists at z~2, using K-band spectroscopy of 25 of these objects at 2.0large range of observed velocity dispersions. We infer from the kinematics and spatial distribution of Halpha that the galaxies have rotating disks of ionized gas that are a factor of ~2 more extended than the stellar distribution. By combining measurements of individual galaxies, we find that the kinematics are co...

  14. Forming Planets in the Hostile Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Can protoplanetary disks form and be maintained around low-mass stars in the harsh environment of a highly active, star-forming nebula? A recent study examines the Carina nebula to answer this question.Crowded ClustersStars are often born in clusters that contain both massive and low-mass stars. The most massive stars in these clusters emit far-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet light that irradiates the region around them, turning the surrounding area into a hostile environment for potential planet formation.Planet formation from protoplanetary disks typically requires timescales of at least 12 million years. Could the harsh radiation from massive stars destroy the protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars by photoevaporation before planets even have a chance to form?Artists impression of a protoplanetary disk. Such disks can be photoevaporated by harsh ultraviolet light from nearby massive stars, causing the disk to be destroyed before planets have a chance to form within them. [ESO/L. Calada]Turning ALMA Toward CarinaA perfect case study for exploring hostile environments is the Carina nebula, located about 7500 lightyears away and home to nearly 100 O-type stars as well as tens of thousands of lower-mass young stars. The Carina population is ~14 Myr old: old enough to form planets within protoplanetary disks, but also old enough that photoevaporation could already have wreaked havoc on those disks.Due to the dense stellar populations in Carinas clusters, this is a difficult region to explore, but the Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA) is up to the task. In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Adal Mesa-Delgado (Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) made use of ALMAs high spatial resolution to image four regions spaced throughout Carina, searching for protoplanetary disks.Detections and Non-DetectionsTwo evaporating gas globules in the Carina nebula, 104-593 and 105-600, that each contain a protoplanetary disk. The top panels are

  15. Active star-forming galaxies in the X ray foreground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Padovani, P.

    1989-01-01

    Star forming galaxies were discovered as a component of the X-ray background (XRB) in the Einstein deep surveys. Such star forming galaxies may be largely powered by superluminous Population 1 massive X-ray binaries (MXRB), formed in the wake of star formation in regions of low metallicity. The star forming galaxies with moderate numbers of MXRB may evolve into the infrared starburst galaxies found at low redshifts using IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and may also be related to those galaxies identified with sub-mJy radio sources. A conservative contribution to the XRB of at least approximately 15 percent, without evolution is estimated. It is shown that moderate evolution leads to a contribution at least equalling that of quasars. Above 3 keV, star forming galaxies may dominate the XRB.

  16. Salt forms of the pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is well known as a model active pharmaceutical ingredient used in the study of polymorphism and the generation and comparison of cocrystal forms. The pharmaceutical amide dihydrocarbamazepine (DCBZ) is a less well known material and is largely of interest here as a structural congener of CBZ. Reaction of DCBZ with strong acids results in protonation of the amide functionality at the O atom and gives the salt forms dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)}, dihydrocarbamazepine hydrochloride monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium chloride monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Cl(-)·H2O} and dihydrocarbamazepine hydrobromide monohydrate {systematic name: [(10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-yl)(hydroxy)methylidene]azanium bromide monohydrate, C15H15N2O(+)·Br(-)·H2O}. The anhydrous hydrochloride has a structure with two crystallographically independent ion pairs (Z' = 2), wherein both cations adopt syn conformations, whilst the two hydrated species are mutually isostructural and have cations with anti conformations. Compared to neutral dihydrocarbamazepine structures, protonation of the amide group is shown to cause changes to both the molecular (C=O bond lengthening and C-N bond shortening) and the supramolecular structures. The amide-to-amide and dimeric hydrogen-bonding motifs seen for neutral polymorphs and cocrystalline species are replaced here by one-dimensional polymeric constructs with no direct amide-to-amide bonds. The structures are also compared with, and shown to be closely related to, those of the salt forms of the structurally similar pharmaceutical carbamazepine.

  17. Galactic Warps Formed through Cosmic Infall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    The extended HI disks of many edge-on spiral galaxies appear noticeably warped away from the inner disk with an ``integral sign'' shape. At least half, perhaps all, of spiral galaxies are warped. The origin and maintenance of warps are still not well understood. We use fully self-consistent N-body simulations to study the effect of cosmic infall on an isolated disk galaxy, which we find to be a promising way of making warps. The amplitude and morphology of warps formed in an idealized experiment to test this scenario resemble observations closely. The agreement with Briggs (1990)'s rules is also very encouraging: the inner disk tilts remarkably rigidly, indicating the strong cohesion due to the self-gravity; the line of nodes (LON) inside R26.5 ˜ 4.5 Rd is straight; and the LON beyond R26.5 always forms a loosely-wound leading spiral. We show that the leading spiral arises from the torque from the misaligned inner disk. In this scenario the damping of a warp by the halo is weak, because the free precession rate of the inner disk is slow and the inner halo generally remains aligned with the inner disk. Thus warps formed this way can persist for a relatively long time (a few Gyrs), by which time another infall event can be expected. We also point out the spirality of the LON of warps in this idealized model should twist from leading to trailing at very large radii, such feature may be observable in future HI surveys.

  18. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  19. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  20. Gravity, light and plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangarter, R P

    1997-06-01

    Plants have evolved highly sensitive and selective mechanisms that detect and respond to various aspects of their environment. As a plant develops, it integrates the environmental information perceived by all of its sensory systems and adapts its growth to the prevailing environmental conditions. Light is of critical importance because plants depend on it for energy and, thus, survival. The quantity, quality and direction of light are perceived by several different photosensory systems that together regulate nearly all stages of plant development, presumably in order to maintain photosynthetic efficiency. Gravity provides an almost constant stimulus that is the source of critical spatial information about its surroundings and provides important cues for orientating plant growth. Gravity plays a particularly important role during the early stages of seedling growth by stimulating a negative gravitropic response in the primary shoot that orientates it towards the source of light, and a positive gravitropic response in the primary root that causes it to grow down into the soil, providing support and nutrient acquisition. Gravity also influences plant form during later stages of development through its effect on lateral organs and supporting structures. Thus, the final form of a plant depends on the cumulative effects of light, gravity and other environmental sensory inputs on endogenous developmental programs. This article is focused on developmental interactions modulated by light and gravity.