WorldWideScience

Sample records for superstring-inspired e6 unification

  1. Explaining the CMS $eejj$ and $e \\slashed {p}_T jj$ Excess and Leptogenesis in Superstring Inspired $E_6$ Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi; Rangarajan, Raghavan; Sarkar, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    We show that superstring inspired $E_6$ models can explain both the recently detected excess $eejj$ and $e \\slashed p_T jj$ signals at CMS, and also allow for leptogenesis. Working in a R-parity conserving low energy supersymmetric effective model, we show that the excess CMS events can be produced via the decay of exotic sleptons in alternative left-right symmetric models of $E_6$, which can also accommodate leptogenesis at a high scale. On the other hand, either the $eejj$ excess or the $e \\slashed p_T jj$ excess can be produced via the decays of right handed gauge bosons, but some of these scenarios may not accommodate letptogenesis as there will be strong $B-L$ violation at low energy, which, along with the anomalous fast electroweak $B+L$ violation, will wash out all baryon asymmetry. Baryogenesis below the electroweak scale may then need to be implemented in these models.

  2. Minimal E6 unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  3. Perturbative unification of gauge couplings in supersymmetric E6 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gi-Chol; Maru, Nobuhito; Yotsutani, Kaho

    2016-07-01

    We study gauge coupling unification in supersymmetric (SUSY) E6 models where an additional U(1)‧ gauge symmetry is broken near the TeV scale and a number of exotic matter fields from the 27 representations have O(TeV) mass. Solving the two-loop renormalization group equations (RGE) of gauge couplings and a kinetic mixing coupling between the U(1)‧ and U(1)Y gauge fields, we find that the gauge couplings fall into the non-perturbative regime below the grand unified theories (GUT) scale. We examine threshold corrections on the running of gauge couplings from both light and heavy ( ˜ GUT scale) particles and show constraints on the size of corrections to achieve the perturbative unification of gauge couplings.

  4. Preon model and family replicated E_6 unification

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2007-01-01

    Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' E_6\\times \\tilde{E_6} gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic \\tilde g charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an N=1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present talk we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions T_k=k T_0 (k=1,2,3) producing three (and only three) generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons') and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated [E_6]^3 unification near the Planck scale. This group of unification has the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: [SU(3)_C]^3\\times [SU(2)_L]^3\\times [U(1)_Y]^3 \\times [U(1)_{(B-L)}]^3 which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. The AntiGUT scenario ...

  5. Preon Model and Family Replicated E_6 Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chitta Ranjan; Laperashvili, Larisa V.

    2008-02-01

    Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' E6 × ˜E6 gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic ˜g charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present paper we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions Tk = kT0 (k = 1,2,3) producing three (and only three) generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons') and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated [E6]3 unification at the scale ~1017 GeV. This group of unification ha! s the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: [SU(3)C]3 × [SU(2)L]3 × [U(1)Y]3 × [U(1)(B-L)]3 which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. Some predictive advantages of the family replicated gauge groups of symmetry are briefly discussed.

  6. Preon Model and Family Replicated E_6 Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V. Laperashvili

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we suggested a new preon model of composite quark-leptons and bosons with the 'flipped' $E_6imes widetilde{E_6}$ gauge symmetry group. We assumed that preons are dyons having both hyper-electric $g$ and hyper-magnetic $ilde g$ charges, and these preons-dyons are confined by hyper-magnetic strings which are an ${f N}=1$ supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes created by the condensation of spreons near the Planck scale. In the present paper we show that the existence of the three types of strings with tensions $T_k=k T_0$ $(k = 1,2,3$ producing three (and only three generations of composite quark-leptons, also provides three generations of composite gauge bosons ('hyper-gluons' and, as a consequence, predicts the family replicated $[E_6]^3$ unification at the scale $sim 10^{17}$ GeV. This group of unification has the possibility of breaking to the group of symmetry: $ [SU(3_C]^3imes [SU(2_L]^3imes [U(1_Y]^3 imes [U(1_{(B-L}]^3$ which undergoes the breakdown to the Standard Model at lower energies. Some predictive advantages of the family replicated gauge groups of symmetry are briefly discussed.

  7. Neutron-anti-neutron oscillation as a test of grand unification

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the predictions for neutron-anti-neutron oscillation in various supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric grand unified theories. It is pointed out that in a new class of superstring inspired grand unified theories of E_6-type that satisfy gauge coupling unification, breakdown of B-L symmetry occurs at an intermediate scale leading in turn to \\Delta B=1 type R-parity violating interactions naturally suppressed to the level of 10^{-5} to 10^{-7}. This inturn implies an N-\\bar{N} transition time of order 10^{10} to 10^{11} sec. which may be observable in the next generation of experiments. This model also satisfies the conditions needed for generating the cosmological baryon asymmetry of the right order of magnitude for a restricted range of the parameter space.

  8. Accelerated Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew; Georgi, Howard

    2001-01-01

    We construct four dimensional gauge theories in which the successful supersymmetric unification of gauge couplings is preserved but accelerated by N-fold replication of the MSSM gauge and Higgs structure. This results in a low unification scale of $10^{13/N}$ TeV.

  9. Explaining the CMS excesses, baryogenesis and neutrino masses in $E_{6}$ motivated $U(1)_{N}$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    We study the superstring inspired $E_{6}$ model motivated $U(1)_{N}$ extension of the supersymmetric standard model to explore the possibility of explaining the recent excess CMS events and the baryon asymmetry of the universe in eight possible variants of the model. In light of the hints from short-baseline neutrino experiments at the existence of one or more light sterile neutrinos, we also study the neutrino mass matrices dictated by the field assignments and the discrete symmetries in these variants. We find that all the variants can explain the excess CMS events via the exotic slepton decay, while for a standard choice of the discrete symmetry four of the variants have the feature of allowing high scale baryogenesis (leptogenesis). For one other variant three body decay induced soft baryogenesis mechanism is possible which can induce baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation. We also point out a new discrete symmetry which has the feature of ensuring proton stability and forbidding tree lev...

  10. E6 inspired composite Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2015-01-01

    We consider a composite Higgs model embedded into a Grand Unified Theory(GUT) based on the E_6 gauge group. The phenomenological viability of this E_6 inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM) implies that standard model (SM) elementary fermions with different baryon or lepton number should stem from different 27 representations of E_6. We present a six-dimensional orbifold GUT model in which the E_6 gauge symmetry is broken to the SM gauge group so that the appropriate splitting of the bulk 27-plets takes place. In this model the strongly coupled sector is localised on one of the branes and possesses an SU(6) global symmetry that contains the SU(3)_C\\times SU(2)_W\\times U(1)_Y subgroup. In this case the approximate gauge coupling unification can be attained if the right-handed top quark is a composite state and the elementary sector involves extra exotic matter beyond the SM which ensures anomaly cancellation. The breakdown of the approximate SU(6) symmetry at low energies in this model results in a set of the ...

  11. Explaining the CMS excesses, baryogenesis, and neutrino masses in a E6 motivated U (1 )N model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Hati, Chandan; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    We study the superstring inspired E6 model motivated U (1 )N extension of the supersymmetric standard model to explore the possibility of explaining the recent excess CMS events and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in eight possible variants of the model. In light of the hints from short-baseline neutrino experiments at the existence of one or more light sterile neutrinos, we also study the neutrino mass matrices dictated by the field assignments and the discrete symmetries in these variants. We find that all the variants can explain the excess CMS events via the exotic slepton decay, while for a standard choice of the discrete symmetry four of the variants have the feature of allowing high scale baryogenesis (leptogenesis). For one other variant three body decay induced soft baryogenesis mechanism is possible which can induce baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation. We also point out a new discrete symmetry which has the feature of ensuring proton stability and forbidding tree level flavor changing neutral current processes while allowing for the possibility of high scale leptogenesis for two of the variants. On the other hand, neutrino mass matrix of the U (1 )N model variants naturally accommodates three active and two sterile neutrinos which acquire masses through their mixing with extra neutral fermions giving rise to interesting textures for neutrino masses.

  12. Aspects of String Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Pokorski, Witold; Pokorski, Witold; Ross, Graham G.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the phenomenological implications of a class of compactified string theories which naturally reproduces the flavour multiplet structure of the Standard Model. The implications for gauge unification depends on which of three possibilities is realised for obtaining light Higgs multiplets. The more conventional one leads to predictions for the gauge couplings close to that of the MSSM but with an increased value of the unification scale. The other two cases offer a mechanism for bringing the prediction for the strong coupling into agreement with the measured value while still increasing the unification scale. The various possibilities lead to different expectations for the structure of the quark masses.

  13. Unification-Based Glossing

    CERN Document Server

    Hatzivassiloglou, V; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Knight, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    We present an approach to syntax-based machine translation that combines unification-style interpretation with statistical processing. This approach enables us to translate any Japanese newspaper article into English, with quality far better than a word-for-word translation. Novel ideas include the use of feature structures to encode word lattices and the use of unification to compose and manipulate lattices. Unification also allows us to specify abstract features that delay target-language synthesis until enough source-language information is assembled. Our statistical component enables us to search efficiently among competing translations and locate those with high English fluency.

  14. Towards Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, Burra G

    2016-01-01

    Sidharth had shown that gravitation can be reconciled with electromagnetic and other forces if we start from a Landau-Ginzburg phase transition. This is further remarked upon and a unification of all forces of nature is proposed.

  15. E6Tensors: A Mathematica Package for E6 Tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Deppisch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present the Mathematica package E6Tensors, a tool for explicit tensor calculations in E6 gauge theories. In addition to matrix expressions for the group generators of E6, it provides structure constants, various higher rank tensors and expressions for the representations 27, 78, 351 and 351'. This paper comes along with a short manual including physically relevant examples. I further give a complete list of gauge invariant, renormalisable terms for superpotentials and Lagrangians.

  16. E6 inspired supersymmetric models with exact custodial symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of E6 gauge symmetry at high energies may lead to supersymmetric models based on the standard model gauge group together with extra U(1)ψ and U(1)χ gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that generically give rise to nondiagonal flavor transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete Z˜2H symmetry can be used to forbid tree-level flavor changing transitions, as well as the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold grand unified theory constructions that lead to the E6 inspired supersymmetric models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)ψ and U(1)χ gauge symmetries that preserves E6 matter parity assignment guarantees that ordinary quarks and leptons and their superpartners, as well as the exotic states which originate from 27 representations of E6, survive to low energies. These E6 inspired models contain two dark matter candidates and must also include additional TeV scale vectorlike lepton or vectorlike down-type quark states to render the lightest exotic quark unstable. We examine gauge coupling unification in these models and discuss their implications for collider phenomenology and cosmology.

  17. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  18. Unification By Induction

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    We show that the problem of unifying electromagnetism with gravity has an elegant solution in classical physics through the phenomenon of induction. By studying the way that induction leads to the formation of electromagnetic fields, we identify the classical field equations which the unified field must satisfy and a corresponding set of constitutive equations for the medium sustaining the field. The unification problem is then reduced to the problem of finding the exact form of these constitutive equations for different media by experiments.

  19. Unification with mirror fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new framework unifying interactions in nature by introducing mirror fermions, explaining the hierarchy between the weak scale and the coupling unification scale, which is found to lie close to Planck energies. A novel process leading to the emergence of symmetry is proposed, which not only reduces the arbitrariness of the scenario proposed but is also followed by significant cosmological implications. Phenomenology includes the probability of detection of mirror fermions via the corresponding composite bosonic states and the relevant quantum corrections at the LHC.

  20. String Theory and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2004-01-01

    The use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to arrive at quiver gauge field theories is discussed. An abelian orbifold with the finite group $Z_{p}$ can give rise to a nonsupersymmetric $G = U(N)^p$ gauge theory with chiral fermions and complex scalars in different bi-fundamental representations of $G$. The precision measurements at the $Z$ resonance suggest the values $p = 12$ and $N = 3$, and a unifications scale $M_U \\sim 4$ TeV. Dedicated to the 65th birthday of Pran Nath.

  1. Warped Supersymmetric Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberger, W D; Smith, D R; Goldberger, Walter D.; Nomura, Yasunori; Smith, David R.

    2003-01-01

    We construct a realistic model of grand unification in AdS_5 truncated by branes, in which the unified gauge symmetry is broken by boundary conditions and the electroweak scale is generated by the AdS warp factor. We show that the model preserves the successful gauge coupling unification of the 4D MSSM at leading-logarithmic level. Kaluza-Klein towers, including those of XY gauge and colored Higgs multiplets, appear at the TeV scale, while the extra dimension provides natural mechanisms for doublet-triplet splitting and proton decay suppression. In one possible scenario supersymmetry is strongly broken on the TeV brane, in which case the lightest SU(3)_C x SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y gauginos are Dirac fermions, with universal masses at the weak scale, and the mass of the lightest XY gaugino is pushed well below that of the lowest gauge boson KK mode, improving the prospects for its production at the LHC. The bulk Lagrangian possesses a symmetry that we call GUT parity. If GUT parity is exact, the lightest GUT particle,...

  2. Asymmetric Unification: A New Unification Paradigm for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38574-2_16 We present a new paradigm for unification arising out of a technique commonly used in cryptographic protocol analysis tools that employ unification modulo equational theories. This paradigm relies on: (i) a decomposition of an equational theory into (R,E) where R is confluent, terminating, and coherent modulo E, and (ii) on reducing unification problems to a set of problems s=?ts=?t under the ...

  3. Large radii and string unification

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    1997-01-01

    We study strong coupling effects in four-dimensional heterotic string models where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken with large internal dimensions, consistently with perturbative unification of gauge couplings. These effects give rise to thresholds associated to the dual theories: type I superstring or M-theory. In the case of one large dimension, we find that these thresholds appear close to the field-theoretical unification scale $\\sim 10^{16}$ GeV, offering an appealing scenario for unification of gravitational and gauge interactions. We also identify the inverse size of the eleventh dimension of M-theory with the energy at which four-fermion effective operators become important.

  4. Supersymmetry, supergravity, and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran

    2017-01-01

    This unique book gives a modern account of particle physics and gravity based on supersymmetry and supergravity, two of the most significant developments in theoretical physics since general relativity. The book begins with a brief overview of the history of unification and then goes into a detailed exposition of both fundamental and phenomenological topics. The topics in fundamental physics include Einstein gravity, Yang-Mills theory, anomalies, the standard model, supersymmetry and supergravity, and the construction of supergravity couplings with matter and gauge fields, as well as computational techniques for SO(10) couplings. The topics of phenomenological interest include implications of supergravity models at colliders, CP violation, and proton stability, as well as topics in cosmology such as inflation, leptogenesis, baryogenesis, and dark matter. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers seeking to master the techniques for building grand unified models.

  5. Renormalizable SU(5) Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Pavel Fileviez

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple renormalizable grand unified theory based on the SU(5) gauge symmetry where the neutrino masses are generated at the quantum level through the Zee mechanism. In this model the same Higgs needed to correct the mass relation between charged leptons and down-type quarks plays a crucial role to generate neutrino masses. We show that in this model one can satisfy the constrains coming from the unification of gauge couplings and the mechanism for neutrino masses is discussed in detail. We find an interesting relation between the neutrino masses and the charged fermion masses. The predictions for proton decay are discussed in order to understand the testability at current and future experiments such as Hyper-Kamiokande. This simple theory predicts a light colored octet which could give rise to exotic signatures at the LHC.

  6. Diphoton excess from $E_6$ in F-theory GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Karozas, Athanasios; Leontaris, George K; Meadowcroft, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    We interpret the 750-760 GeV diphoton resonance as one or more of the spinless components of a singlet superfield arising from the three 27-dimensional representations of $E_6$ in F-theory, which also contain three copies of colour-triplet charge $\\mp 1/3$ vector-like fermions $D_i,\\bar{D}_i$ and inert Higgs doublets to which the singlets may couple. For definiteness we consider (without change) a model that was proposed some time ago which contains such states, as well as bulk exotics, leading to gauge coupling unification. The smoking gun prediction of the model is the existence of other similar spinless resonances, possibly close in mass to 750-760 GeV, decaying into diphotons, as well as the three families of vector-like fermions $D_i,\\bar{D}_i$.

  7. Unification beyond GUT`s: Gauge-Yukawa unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, J. [College of Liberal Arts, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, Nat. Technical University, Athens (Greece)

    1996-12-01

    Gauge-Yukawa Unification (GYU) is a renormalization group invariant functional relation among gauge and Yukawa couplings which holds beyond the unification point in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). We present here various models where GYU is obtained by requiring the principles of finiteness and reduction of couplings. We examine the consequences of these requirements for the low energy parameters, especially for the top quark mass. The predictions are such that they clearly distinguish already GYU from ordinary GUTs. It is expected that it will be possible to discriminate among the various GYUs when more accurate measurements of the top quark mass are available. (author) 63 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Threshold Effects And Perturbative Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Bastero-Gil, M; Pérez-Mercader, J

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the effect of the renormalization procedure in the computation of the unification point for running coupling constants. We explore the effects of threshold--crossing on the $\\beta$--functions. We compute the running of the coupling constants of the Standard Model, between $m_Z$ and $M_P$, using a mass dependent subtraction procedure, and then compare the results with $\\bar{MS}$, and with the $\\theta$-- function approximation. We also do this for the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. In the latter, the bounds on susy masses that one obtains by requiring perturbative unification are dependent, to some extent, on the procedure.

  9. Gauge coupling unification in gauge-Higgs grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.

  10. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  11. Low energy gauge unification theory

    CERN Document Server

    Li Tian Jun

    2002-01-01

    Because of the problems arising from the fermion unification in the traditional Grand Unified Theory and the mass hierarchy between the 4-dimensional Planck scale and weak scale, we suggest the low energy gauge unification theory with low high-dimensional Planck scale. We discuss the non-supersymmetric SU(5) model on M sup 4 xS sup 1 /Z sub 2 xS sup 1 /Z sub 2 and the supersymmetric SU(5) model on M sup 4 xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 ')xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 ')xS sup 1 /(Z sub 2 xZ sub 2 '). The SU(5) gauge symmetry is broken by the orbifold projection for the zero modes, and the gauge unification is accelerated due to the SU(5) asymmetric light KK states. In our models, we forbid the proton decay, still keep the charge quantization, and automatically solve the fermion mass problem. We also comment on the anomaly cancellation and other possible scenarios for low energy gauge unification.

  12. Problems in unification and supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, G.; Henyey, F. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented. (WHK)

  13. Differential localization of HPV16 E6 splice products with E6-associated protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponglikitmongkol Mathurose

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the etiological agent associated with the majority of anogenital cancers. The primary HPV oncogenes, E6 and E7, undergo a complex splicing program resulting in protein products whose purpose is not fully understood. Previous mouse studies have confirmed the existence of a translated product corresponding to the E6*I splice product. In terms of function, the translated E6*I protein has been shown to bind to E6 protein and to E6 associated protein (E6AP. E6*I has an inhibitory effect on E6-mediated p53 degradation in E6 expressing cells. In order to analyze the relationship between E6*I and full-length E6 in relation to localization, we created a series of green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion products. The localization of these proteins with reference to E6AP in vivo remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the cellular distribution of different forms of E6 with reference to E6AP. E6 and E6*I proteins, expressed from a wild type E6 gene cassette, were dispersed in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Whereas, the E6 splice donor mutant (E6MT was primarily localized to the nucleus. E6*I protein and E6AP were found to co-localize mainly to the cytoplasm, whereas the co-localization of full-length E6 protein and E6AP, if at all, was found mainly at the perinuclear region. These results suggest a functional relationship between the E6*I and full-length E6 protein which correlates with their localization and likely is important in regulation of the E6-E6AP complex.

  14. Gauge coupling unification and nonequilibrium thermal dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Olive, Keith A; Quevillon, Jérémie; Zaldívar, Bryan

    2013-06-14

    We study a new mechanism for the production of dark matter in the Universe which does not rely on thermal equilibrium. Dark matter is populated from the thermal bath subsequent to inflationary reheating via a massive mediator whose mass is above the reheating scale T(RH). To this end, we consider models with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry broken at some intermediate scale (M(int) ≃ 10(10)-10(12) GeV). We show that not only does the model allow for gauge coupling unification (at a higher scale associated with grand unification) but it can provide a dark matter candidate which is a standard model singlet but charged under the extra U(1). The intermediate scale gauge boson(s) which are predicted in several E6/SO(10) constructions can be a natural mediator between dark matter and the thermal bath. We show that the dark matter abundance, while never having achieved thermal equilibrium, is fixed shortly after the reheating epoch by the relation T(RH)(3)/M(int)(4). As a consequence, we show that the unification of gauge couplings which determines M(int) also fixes the reheating temperature, which can be as high as T(RH) ≃ 10(11) GeV.

  15. HPV16 E6 and E6AP differentially cooperate to stimulate or augment Wnt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sominsky, Sophia, E-mail: sophia.tab@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kuslansky, Yael, E-mail: ykuslansky@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shapiro, Beny, E-mail: benyshap@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Jackman, Anna, E-mail: jackman@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Haupt, Ygal, E-mail: ygal.haupt@petermac.org [Research Division, The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina, E-mail: arina@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sherman, Levana, E-mail: lsherman@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    The present study investigated the roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway. We showed that E6 levels are markedly reduced in cells in which Wnt signaling is activated. Coexpression of wild-type or mutant E6AP (C820A) in Wnt-activated cells stabilized E6 and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin/TCF transcription. Expression of E6AP alone in nonstimulated cells elevated β-catenin level, promoted its nuclear accumulation, and activated β-catenin/TCF transcription. A knockdown of E6AP lowered β-catenin levels. Coexpression with E6 intensified the activities of E6AP. Further experiments proved that E6AP/E6 stabilize β-catenin by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. This function was dependent on the catalytic activity of E6AP, the kinase activity of GSK3β and the susceptibility of β-catenin to GSK3β phosphorylation. Thus, this study identified E6AP as a novel regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, capable of cooperating with E6 in stimulating or augmenting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby possibly contributing to HPV carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • The roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway were investigated. • E6AP stabilizes E6 and enhances E6 activity in augmentation of Wnt signaling. • E6AP cooperates with E6 to stabilize β-catenin and stimulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. • E6AP and E6 act through different mechanisms to augment or stimulate Wnt signaling.

  16. An Ordering Linear Unification Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发

    1989-01-01

    In this paper,we present an ordering linear unification algorithm(OLU).A new idea on substituteion of the binding terms is introduced to the algorithm,which is able to overcome some drawbacks of other algorithms,e.g.,MM algorithm[1],RG1 and RG2 algorithms[2],Particularly,if we use the directed eyclie graphs,the algoritm needs not check the binding order,then the OLU algorithm can also be aplied to the infinite tree data struceture,and a higher efficiency can be expected.The paper focuses upon the discussion of OLU algorithm and a partial order structure with respect to the unification algorithm.This algorithm has been implemented in the GKD-PROLOG/VAX 780 interpreting system.Experimental results have shown that the algorithm is very simple and efficient.

  17. Naval Cooperation After Korean Unification,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Korean Unification _ ’ - < ~ ■::-■;-■’ "’&■ ■ *>’ -■ ■’■ I Analyses for Defense Analyses Center for Korea ... Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) held a workshop in Washington, DC, from December 4 to 6, 1995, to examine the prospects for U.S.- Korean ... Korean Navy, coastal missions are certain to continue. Korea will still require defense of its coastlines; regulatory missions to enforce

  18. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  19. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and unification of couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovsky, S L; Troitsky, S V

    1997-01-01

    We consider the possibility of unification of the Supersymmetric Standard Model gauge groups with those of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) sector in theories with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find constraints on the DSB gauge group beta function that come from unification of the gauge coupling constants of the two sectors. These constraints are satisfied by a fairly wide class of models. We discuss possible unification scenarios in the context of a simple model.

  20. Precision gauge unification in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, Stuart, E-mail: raby@pacific.mps.ohio-state.ed [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: mratz@ph.tum.d [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai, E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@ph.tum.d [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-04-19

    We discuss the issue of precision gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that a comparably light gluino, as it emerges in certain patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, can be a key ingredient for ensuring precision gauge unification without relying on the presence of extra particles around the scale of grand unification. In particular, the so-called mirage pattern for gaugino masses can naturally lead to precision gauge unification. There is also an interesting correlation with reduced fine-tuning, due to rather light gluinos.

  1. 331 Models and Grand Unification: From Minimal SU(5) to Minimal SU(6)

    CERN Document Server

    Deppisch, Frank F; Patra, Sudhanwa; Sarkar, Utpal; Valle, Josè W F

    2016-01-01

    We consider the possibility of grand unification of the $\\mathrm{ SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3)_L \\otimes U(1)_X}$ model in an SU(6) gauge unification group. Two possibilities arise. Unlike other conventional grand unified theories, in SU(6) one can embed the $\\mathrm{ SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3)_L \\otimes U(1)_X}$ model as a subgroup such that different multiplets appear with different multiplicities. Such a scenario may emerge from the flux breaking of the unified group in an E(6) F-theory GUT. This provides new ways of achieving gauge coupling unification in $\\mathrm{ SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3)_L \\otimes U(1)_X}$ models while providing the radiative origin of neutrino masses. Alternatively, a sequential variant of the $\\mathrm{ SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3)_L \\otimes U(1)_X}$ model can fit within a minimal SU(6) grand unification, which in turn can be a natural E(6) subgroup. This minimal SU(6) embedding does not require any bulk exotics to account for the chiral families while allowing for a TeV scale $\\mathrm{ SU(3)_c \\otimes SU(3...

  2. Grand unification in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2003-07-01

    We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory— SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin 2θw=0.2313±0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M c≃5×10 14 GeV and M s≃1×10 17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10 34 years is expected with a variety of final states such as e+π0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating μ→ e and τ→ μ transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068, and hep-ph/0205067 [1-3].

  3. Gauge coupling unification with extra Higgs doublets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Junpei [Research Center for Higher Education, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Gauge coupling unification is studied within the framework where there are extra Higgs doublets and E{sub 6} exotic fields. Supersymmetric models and nonsupersymmetric models are investigated, and a catalog of models with gauge coupling unification is presented. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Proton hexality in local grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerste, Stefan; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-07-15

    Proton hexality is a discrete symmetry that avoids the problem of too fast proton decay in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Unfortunately it is inconsistent with conventional grand unification. We show that proton hexality can be incorporated in the scheme of ''Local Grand Unification'' discussed in the framework of model building in (heterotic) string theory. (orig.)

  5. A proof theory for general unification

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    In this monograph we study two generalizations of standard unification, E-unification and higher-order unification, using an abstract approach orig­ inated by Herbrand and developed in the case of standard first-order unifi­ cation by Martelli and Montanari. The formalism presents the unification computation as a set of non-deterministic transformation rules for con­ verting a set of equations to be unified into an explicit representation of a unifier (if such exists). This provides an abstract and mathematically elegant means of analysing the properties of unification in various settings by providing a clean separation of the logical issues from the specification of procedural information, and amounts to a set of 'inference rules' for unification, hence the title of this book. We derive the set of transformations for general E-unification and higher­ order unification from an analysis of the sense in which terms are 'the same' after application of a unifying substitution. In both cases, this results in a...

  6. Grand unification: quo vadis domine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    The present theoretical and experimental situation with grand unification is summarized. The issues of proton decay and the Weinberg angle are addressed, going through the predictions of both the standard SU(5) theory and its supersymmetric extension. The SO(10) theory, which provides a minimal one family model, is then studied. The gravitational characteristics of domain walls and strings are then discussed. It is argued that there is a need to go beyond SO(10) in order to incorporate a unified picture of families. This leads to the prediction of mirror fermions, whose physics is analyzed. 31 refs. (LEW)

  7. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  8. Alternative $Z'$ Bosons in $E_6$

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We classify the quantum numbers of the extra $U(1)'$ symmetries contained in $E_6$. In particular, we categorize the cases with rational charges and present the full list of models which arise from the chains of the maximal subgroups of $E_6$. As an application, the classification allows us to determine all embeddings of the Standard Model fermions in all possible decompositions of the fundamental representation of $E_6$ under its maximal subgroups. From this we find alternative chains of subgroups for Grand Unified Theories. We show how many of the known models including some new ones appear in alternative breaking patterns. We also use low energy constraints coming from parity-violating asymmetry measurements and atomic parity non-conservation to set limits on the $E_6$ motivated parameter space for a $Z'$ boson mass of~1.2~TeV. We include projected limits for the present and upcoming QWEAK, MOLLER and SOLID experiments.

  9. E6SSM vs MSSM gluino phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Svantesson, Patrik; Hall, Jonathan P; King, Stephen F

    2012-01-01

    The E6SSM is a promising model based on the group E6, assumed to be broken at the GUT scale, leading to the group SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)\\times U(1)' at the TeV scale. It gives a solution to the MSSM {\\mu}-problem without introducing massless axions, gauge anomalies or cosmological domain walls. The model contains three families of complete 27s of E6, giving a richer phenomenology than the MSSM. The E6SSM generically predicts gluino cascade decay chains which are about 2 steps longer than the MSSM's due to the presence of several light neutralino states. This implies less missing (and more visible) transverse momentum in collider experiments and kinematical distributions such as M_eff are different. Scans of parameter space and MC analysis suggest that current SUSY search strategies and exclusion limits have to be reconsidered.

  10. E6SSM vs MSSM gluino phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The E6SSM is a promising model based on the group E6, assumed to be broken at the GUT scale, leading to the group SU(3×SU(2×U(1×U(1′ at the TeV scale. It gives a solution to the MSSM μ-problem without introducing massless axions, gauge anomalies or cosmological domain walls. The model contains three families of complete 27s of E6, giving a richer phenomenology than the MSSM. The E6SSM generically predicts gluino cascade decay chains which are about 2 steps longer than the MSSM’s due to the presence of several light neutralino states. This implies less missing (and more visible transverse momentum in collider experiments and kinematical distributions such as Meff are different. Scans of parameter space and MC analysis suggest that current SUSY search strategies and exclusion limits have to be reconsidered.

  11. Alternative Z ' bosons in E 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eduardo; Erler, Jens

    2015-10-01

    We classify the quantum numbers of the extra U(1)' symmetries contained in E 6. In particular, we categorize the cases with rational charges and present the full list of models which arise from the chains of the maximal subgroups of E 6. As an application, the classification allows us to determine all embeddings of the Standard Model fermions in all possible decompositions of the fundamental representation of E 6 under its maximal subgroups. From this we find alternative chains of subgroups for Grand Unified Theories. We show how many of the known models including some new ones appear in alternative breaking patterns. We also use low energy constraints coming from parity-violating asymmetry measurements and atomic parity non-conservation to set limits on the E 6 motivated parameter space for a Z ' boson mass of 1.2 TeV. We include projected limits for the present and upcoming QWEAK, MOLLER and SOLID experiments.

  12. Grand Unification in Higher Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, L J; Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2003-01-01

    We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory --- SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin^2theta_w = 0.2313 \\pm 0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M_c \\simeq 5 x...

  13. Towards unification of GUT families

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the mere 5 % of atoms in the cosmic energy pie. It is basically the chiral matter problem. Then, I review the chiral matter problem from a grand unification (GUT) point of view, and point out that anti-SU(N), easily implementable in string compactification, is a possibility. Here `anti-' means that the GUT group breaking is through the anti-symmetric tensor field(s), e.g. = . We argued for an anti-SU(7) [= SU(7) x U(1)] families-unification model from a Z(12-I) orbifold compactification. The Z(12-I) orbifold is briefly discussed and the multiplicity 2 in the T3 twisted sector is the key obtaining three chiral families. Yukawa coupling structure is shown to be promising. A numerical study shows that the anti-SU(7) model satisfies the CKM fit. It is shown that the doublet-triplet splitting is obtained naturally, where the dominant process for proton decay is by the exchange of GUT scale gauge bosons such that proton to pi-zero plus positron is the dominant channel.

  14. Overexpression of ligase defective E6-associated protein, E6-AP, results in mammary tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Tufail, Rozina; Hokayem, Jimmy El; Jorda, Mercy; Zhao, Wei; Reis, Zizi; Nawaz, Zafar

    2012-02-01

    E6-associated protein (E6-AP) is a dual function protein. It acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase enzyme and coactivator of steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptors. It promotes the degradation of ERα and PR through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, it has been shown that the levels of E6-AP are inversely associated with that of ERα in human breast tumors. But the role of wild-type human E6-AP and its ubiquitin-protein ligase activity in mammary tumorigenesis is still unknown. To investigate this role, the authors utilized transgenic mice lines that specifically overexpress either the wild-type human E6-AP (E6-AP(WT)) or the ubiquitin-protein ligase defective E6-AP that contains C833S mutation (E6-AP(C833S)) in the mammary gland. To further substantiate the role of E6-AP in the development of breast tumorigenesis, it was also examined the expression of E6-AP in a large cohort of human breast cancer samples. The transgenic mice that overexpress wild-type E6-AP (E6-AP(WT)) fail to develop mammary tumors. Unlike the E6-AP(WT) mice, the E6-AP(C833S) mice that overexpress ubiquitin-protein ligase defective E6-AP protein develop mammary hyperplasia with a median latency of 18 months. These observations suggest that the inactivation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase function of E6-AP is sufficient to initiate the process of mammary tumor development. Furthermore, the data also suggests that E6-AP exerts its effects on target cells by modulating the protein levels and functions of ERα and PR. In addition, it was found in human breast cancer patients that the level of E6-AP is decreased in invasive breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue. Moreover, the authors also show that the survival patterns for E6-AP negative patients were worse compared to E6-AP positive patients. Taken together, these data suggests that E6-AP may act as a tumor suppressor in breast.

  15. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yoshioka, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2008-04-15

    We present a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where gaugino masses are naturally unified and scalar partners of quarks and leptons have no mass hierarchy. The low-energy mass spectrum is governed by the mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. We also study several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification. (orig.)

  16. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yoshioka, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2008-04-15

    We present a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where gaugino masses are naturally unified and scalar partners of quarks and leptons have no mass hierarchy. The low-energy mass spectrum is governed by the mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. We also study several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification. (orig.)

  17. Unification of Force and Substance

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as "dynamical systems". That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: The physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.

  18. Grand Unification in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to `isolated neutron stars,' from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in celebration of its tenth anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical `grand unification' of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  19. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  20. Proton decay and grand unification

    CERN Document Server

    Senjanovic, Goran

    2009-01-01

    I review the theoretical and experimental status of proton decay theory and experiment. Regarding theory, I focus mostly, but not only, on grand unification. I discuss only the minimal, well established SU(5) and SO(10) models, both ordinary and supersymmetric. I show how the minimal realistic extensions of the original Georgi - Glashow model can lead to interesting LHC physics, and I demonstrate that the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) theory is in perfect accord with experiment. Since no universally accepted model has of yet emerged, I discuss the effective operator analysis of proton decay and some related predictions from a high scale underlying theory. A strong case is made for the improvement of experimental limits, or better the search of, two body neutron decay modes into charged kaons and charged leptons. Their discovery would necessarily imply a low energy physics since they practically vanish in any theory with a desert in energies between M_W and M_GUT.

  1. Radiatively induced Fermi scale and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Alanne, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework, where the hierarchy between the unification and the Fermi scale emerges radiatively. This work tackles the long-standing question about the connection between the low Fermi scale and a more fundamental scale of Nature. As a concrete example, we study a Pati-Salam-type unification of Elementary-Goldstone-Higgs scenario, where the Standard Model scalar sector is replaced by an SU(4)-symmetric one, and the observed Higgs particle is an elementary pseudo-Goldstone boson. We construct a concrete model where the unification scale is fixed to a phenomenologically viable value, while the Fermi scale is generated radiatively. This scenario provides an interesting link between the unification and Fermi scale physics, and opens up prospects for exploring a wide variety of open problems in particle physics, ranging from neutrinos to cosmic inflation.

  2. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small {mu} parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between gluino and LSP, collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  3. Crosschecks for unification at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Valeri, E-mail: loewen@th.physik.uni-bonn.d [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Nilles, Hans Peter, E-mail: nilles@th.physik.uni-bonn.d [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might test the picture of supersymmetric Grand Unification in particle physics. We argue that the identification of gaugino masses is the most promising step in this direction. Mass predictions for gauginos are pretty robust and often related to the values of the gauge couplings constants. They might allow a meaningful crosscheck for grand unification, at least in simple schemes like gravity, anomaly or mirage mediation.

  4. Crosschecks for Unification at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Löwen, Valéri

    2009-01-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) might test the picture of supersymmetric Grand Unification in particle physics. We argue that the identification of gaugino masses is the most promising step in this direction. Mass predictions for gauginos are pretty robust and often related to the values of the gauge couplings constants. They might allow a meaningful crosscheck for grand unification, at least in simple schemes like gravity, anomaly or mirage mediation.

  5. SO(10) Yukawa Unification with mu < 0

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Un, Cem Salih

    2011-01-01

    We consider the low energy implications including particle spectroscopy of SO(10) inspired t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification with mu 0. We find that t-b-tau Yukawa unification with mu 0 and universal gaugino masses in which the gluino is the lightest colored sparticle and the sqaurks of the first two families have masses in the multi-TeV range.

  6. Finite Unification: Theory and Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Heinemeyer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs are very interesting N=1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs which not only realise an old field theoretic dream but also have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. The reduction of the dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exist RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of all beta-functions in certain N=1 GUTs even to all orders. Furthermore developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations, i.e. reduction of couplings, in this dimensionful sector of the theory too. Based on the above theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTS have been constructed. Here we present FUT models based on the SU(5 and SU(3^3 gauge groups and their predictions. Of particular interest is the Higgs mass prediction of one of the models which is expected to be tested at the LHC.

  7. Unification: Not Just a Thing of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Votsis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We often hear that simplicity, explanatory power and unification, though aesthetically pleasing or beautiful qualities, are at best pragmatic considerations in matters of choosing between rival hypotheses. This paper aims to offer a novel conception and an associated measure of unification, both of which are demonstrably more than just pragmatic considerations. The discussion departs from a brief survey of some failed attempts to carve out adequate conceptions of unification. It then proceeds to an analysis of the notions of confirmational connectedness and disconnectedness. Roughly speaking, these notions attempt to capture the way support propagates or fails to propagate between the content parts of a hypothesis or, equivalently, between the contents of two or more hypotheses. The two notions are instrumental in helping to tackle the problem of ad hoc, and in particular monstrous, hypotheses. More importantly for the purposes of this paper, they are essential ingredients in the proposed conception of unification and its associated measure. In simple terms, the more the content of a hypothesis (or, equivalently, the content of a set of hypotheses is confirmationally connected the more that content is unified. Since the confirmational connectedness of two content parts is determined by purely objective matters of fact, the proposed notion and measure of unification are themselves strictly objective, i.e. not merely pragmatic considerations in matters of hypothesis choice. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the proposed measure handles real and hypothetical examples but also how it stands up to various objections.

  8. Quasifixed point scenarios and the Higgs mass in the E6 inspired supersymmetric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, R.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the two-loop renormalization group (RG) flow of the gauge and Yukawa couplings within the E6 inspired supersymmetric models with extra U(1)N gauge symmetry under which right-handed neutrinos have zero charge. In these models, single discrete Z stretchy="false">˜2H symmetry forbids the tree-level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We consider two different scenarios A and B that involve extra matter beyond the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model contained in three and four 5+5¯ representations of SU(5), respectively, plus three SU(5) singlets which carry U(1)N charges. In scenario A, the measured values of the SU(2)W and U(1)Y gauge couplings lie near the fixed points of the RG equations. In scenario B, the contribution of two-loop corrections spoils the unification of gauge couplings, resulting in the appearance of the Landau pole below the grand unification scale MX. The solutions for the Yukawa couplings also approach the quasifixed points with increasing their values at the scale MX. We calculate the two-loop upper bounds on the lightest Higgs boson mass in the vicinity of these quasifixed points and compare the results of our analysis with the corresponding ones in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. In all these cases, the theoretical restrictions on the Standard-Model-like Higgs boson mass are rather close to 125 GeV.

  9. Grand Unification, Higgs Bosons, and Baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Marc

    2004-03-01

    My task in these lectures is to discuss "Grand Unification and Higgs Bosons". Given that each of these subjects has had books written about them, this is a daunting task. My goal will be to introduce the basics of each topic, and provide references for those who wish to explore the topics further. I'll begin with a general motivation for grand unification, followed with an elementary review of SU(N) group algebra. The seminal SU(5) model will be discussed, followed by the supersymmetric version. On the second day, we'll look at other grand unified theories, and then look at the various methods of supersymmetry breaking in the context of grand unification. The third day, we'll turn to the Higgs mechanism, the effective potential, and mass bounds in the Standard Model and the MSSM. Finally, we'll look at baryogenesis, first in grand unified theories and then in the electroweak model.

  10. Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    4D Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. $SO(5) \\times U(1)$ gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase $\\theta_H$ in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for $\\theta_H < 0.1$, and predicts $Z'$ bosons around 6 - 10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is genelarized to $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of $SO(11)$. Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  11. Unification and Matching on Compressed Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Gascón, Adrià; Schmidt-Schauß, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Term unification plays an important role in many areas of computer science, especially in those related to logic. The universal mechanism of grammar-based compression for terms, in particular the so-called Singleton Tree Grammars (STG), have recently drawn considerable attention. Using STGs, terms of exponential size and height can be represented in linear space. Furthermore, the term representation by directed acyclic graphs (dags) can be efficiently simulated. The present paper is the result of an investigation on term unification and matching when the terms given as input are represented using different compression mechanisms for terms such as dags and Singleton Tree Grammars. We describe a polynomial time algorithm for context matching with dags, when the number of different context variables is fixed for the problem. For the same problem, NP-completeness is obtained when the terms are represented using the more general formalism of Singleton Tree Grammars. For first-order unification and matching polynom...

  12. Focus and Higher-Order Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Gardent, C; Gardent, Claire; Kohlhase, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Pulman has shown that Higher--Order Unification (HOU) can be used to model the interpretation of focus. In this paper, we extend the unification--based approach to cases which are often seen as a test--bed for focus theory: utterances with multiple focus operators and second occurrence expressions. We then show that the resulting analysis favourably compares with two prominent theories of focus (namely, Rooth's Alternative Semantics and Krifka's Structured Meanings theory) in that it correctly generates interpretations which these alternative theories cannot yield. Finally, we discuss the formal properties of the approach and argue that even though HOU need not terminate, for the class of unification--problems dealt with in this paper, HOU avoids this shortcoming and is in fact computationally tractable.

  13. China’s unification: Myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Mario Arturo Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the prospect of a possible unification between People’s Republic of China (Mainland China and Republic of China (Taiwan from a multi-dimensional perspective which encompasses the political, social, economic, and technological dimensions. The underlying idea is to evaluate the possibility of a partial or total reunification between the two countries in a more comprehensive way than just assessing the economic costs and benefits. Our evaluation is based on the application of the GDRI-Model, which looks at unification and regional integration simultaneously from the political, economic, social and technological perspectives.

  14. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, K., E-mail: kbenakli@lpthe.jussieu.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Boite 126, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Goodsell, M.D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-21

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.

  15. Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)

  16. Low-energy electroweak model from E6×E'6 preons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sutapa

    1988-03-01

    A low-energy electroweak symmetry group is proposed from an E6×E'6 preon model which leads to SU(3)C×SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1)YL×U(1)YR where SU(2)R can either be the usual left-right-symmetric model group or an ``inert SU(2)R'' with electromagnetically neutral gauge bosons. Additional discrete symmetries proposed in E6 models are obtained as a transformation of preons and conservation of quantum numbers. Among the results of this model are (i) the existence of two effective scales, metacolor (ΛM~1014 GeV) and hypercolor ΛH (1 TeV), (ii) preon substructures for vector leptons (both right and left handed), (iii) B-L number (1/3 for the g quark, (iv) neutral composite Higgs scalar bosons, and (v) small mixing angles between (E-d,e-),(d,g) states and neutrino mixing.

  17. Unification of Patrimonial Laws Governing International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Should the laws of the world dealing with cross-border transactions be unified? Such unification presupposes an agreement on what we understand by ‘law’ and what its sources are. The drafters of uniform laws and lawyers who are preoccupied with comparative law often ask themselves: Is there, among...

  18. Families in the nonperturbative unification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Theisen, S. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Zoupanos, G. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-10-12

    Within the nonperturbative unification framework of Maiani, Parisi and Petronzio, we examine the influence of the number of fermion and Higgs families, when they are grouped in representations of horizontal family groups, on the low energy couplings of the standard model. In this way we find a number of new phenomenologically acceptable solutions for the standard model's low energy couplings. (orig.).

  19. Unification types of housing during Sochi Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Babaev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the statement of the unification problem of housing accommodation of participants, spectators, staff, committee during the Winter Olympics in Sochi. We give a mathematical formalization of the problem, where the unknown variables are theelements of the combination of types of accommodation sorted by the level of comfortand representation.

  20. Radiatively Induced Fermi Scale in Grand Unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Meroni, Aurora; Sannino, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    We consider Grand Unified Theories in which the hierarchy between the unification and the Fermi scale emerges radiatively. Within the Pati-Salam framework, we show that it is possible to construct a viable model where the Higgs is an elementary pseudo-Goldstone boson, and the correct hierarchy...

  1. Tinkertoys for the $E_6$ Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chacaltana, Oscar; Trimm, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Compactifying the 6-dimensional (2,0) superconformal field theory, of type ADE, on a Riemann surface, $C$, with codimension-2 defect operators at points on $C$, yields a 4-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=2$ superconformal field theory. An outstanding problem is to classify the 4D theories one obtains, in this way, and to understand their properties. In this paper, we turn our attention to the $E_6$ (2,0) theory, which (unlike the A- and D-series) has no realization in terms of M5-branes. Classifying the 4D theories amounts to classifying all of the 3-punctured spheres ("fixtures"), and the cylinders that connect them, that can occur in a pants-decomposition of $C$. We find 904 fixtures: 19 corresponding to free hypermultiplets, 825 corresponding to isolated interacting SCFTs (with no known Lagrangian description) and 60 "mixed fixtures", corresponding to a combination of free hypermultiplets and an interacting SCFT. Of the 825 interacting fixtures, we list only the 139 "interesting" ones. As an application, we study...

  2. E6 inspired composite Higgs model and 750 GeV diphoton excess

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2016-01-01

    In the E6 inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM) the strongly interacting sector possesses an SU(6)\\times U(1)_B\\times U(1)_L global symmetry. Near scale f\\gtrsim 10 TeV the SU(6) symmetry is broken down to its SU(5) subgroup, that involves the standard model (SM) gauge group. This breakdown of SU(6) leads to a set of pseudo--Nambu--Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) including a SM--like Higgs and a SM singlet pseudoscalar A. Because of the interactions between A and exotic fermions, which ensure the approximate unification of the SM gauge couplings and anomaly cancellation in this model, the couplings of the pseudoscalar A to gauge bosons get induced. As a result, the SM singlet pNGB state A with mass around 750 GeV may give rise to sufficiently large cross section of pp\\to \\gamma\\gamma that can be identified with the recently observed diphoton excess.

  3. Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unifiation scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase θH in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for θH bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.

  4. The Unification of Private International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kazazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Civil and the common law approaching Europe is no longer a “future project”, but more and more rather a present attempt (Kötz, 2003 – 2004. In this prism, concentrating on the European International Private Law within the space of mixed jurisdictions, it may seem surprising in light of the attempts to create a new European ius commune. But is it possible that a unification of the material law may sign the start of the end of the European conflicts of laws? Last but not the least private international law is not just a choice of law. The unification of the private law, in its definition as a concept, does not influence two of the three pillars of the private international law: respectively, that of the jurisdiction and recognition as well as implementation of foreign decisions.

  5. Unification modulo a partial theory of exponentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kapur, Deepak; Narendran, Paliath; 10.4204/EPTCS.42.2

    2010-01-01

    Modular exponentiation is a common mathematical operation in modern cryptography. This, along with modular multiplication at the base and exponent levels (to different moduli) plays an important role in a large number of key agreement protocols. In our earlier work, we gave many decidability as well as undecidability results for multiple equational theories, involving various properties of modular exponentiation. Here, we consider a partial subtheory focussing only on exponentiation and multiplication operators. Two main results are proved. The first result is positive, namely, that the unification problem for the above theory (in which no additional property is assumed of the multiplication operators) is decidable. The second result is negative: if we assume that the two multiplication operators belong to two different abelian groups, then the unification problem becomes undecidable.

  6. Gauge coupling unification in six dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2006-11-15

    We compute the one-loop gauge couplings in six-dimensional non-Abelian gauge theories on the T{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} orbifold with general GUT breaking boundary conditions. For concreteness, we apply the obtained general formulae to the gauge coupling running in a 6D SO(10) orbifold GUT where the GUT group is broken down to the standard model gauge group up to an extra U(1). We find that the one-loop corrections depend on the parity matrices encoding the orbifold boundary conditions as well as the volume and shape moduli of extra dimensions. When the U(1) is broken by the VEV of bulk singlets, the accompanying extra color triplets also affect the unification of the gauge couplings. In this case, the B-L breaking scale is closely linked to the compactification scales for maintaining a success of the gauge coupling unification. (orig.)

  7. Unification and New Particles at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Low, Matthew; Pinner, David

    2016-01-01

    Precision gauge coupling unification is one of the primary quantitative successes of low energy or split supersymmetry. Preserving this success puts severe restrictions on possible matter and gauge sectors that might appear at collider-accessible energies. In this work we enumerate new gauge sectors which are compatible with unification, consisting of horizontal gauge groups acting on vector-like matter charged under the Standard Model. Interestingly, almost all of these theories are in the supersymmetric conformal window at high energies and confine quickly after the superpartners are decoupled. For a range of scalar masses compatible with both moderately tuned and minimally split supersymmetry, the confining dynamics happen at the multi-TeV scale, leading to a spectrum of multiple spin-0 and spin-1 resonances accessible to the LHC, with unusual quantum numbers and striking decay patterns.

  8. Gauge Unification from Split Supersymmetric String Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kokorelis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the unification of gauge coupling constants in non-supersymmetric open string vacua that possess the properties of Split Supersymmetry, namely the Standard Model with Higgsinos at low energies and where the Standard model spectrum is always accompanied by right handed neutrinos. These vacua achieve partial unification of two out of three (namely SU(3)$_c$, SU(2), U(1)) running gauge couplings, possess massive gauginos and light Higgsinos at low energies and also satisfy $sin^2\\theta_w (M_s) = 3/8$. These vacua are based on four dimensional orbifold $Z_3 \\times Z_3$ compactifications of string IIA orientifolds with D6-branes intersecting at angles, where the (four dimensional) chiral fermions of the Standard Model appear as opens strings streching between the intersections of seven dimensional objects the so called D6-branes.

  9. Regulation of apoptosis by the papillomavirus E6 oncogene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Li; Li-Na Zhao; Zhi-Guo Liu; Ying Han; Dai-Ming Fan

    2005-01-01

    Infection with human papillomaviruses is strongly associated with the development of multiple cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The HPV E6 gene is essential for the oncogenic potential of HPV.The recgulation of apoptosis by oncogene has been relatel to carcinogenesis closely; therefore, the modulation of E6 on cellular apoptosis has become a hot research topic recently. Inactivation of the pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor p53 by E6 is an important mechanism by which E6promotes cell growth; it is expected that inactivation of p53 by E6 should lead to a reduction in cellular apoptosis,numerous studies showed that E6 could in fact sensitize cells to apoptosis. The molecular basis for apoptosis modulation by E6 is poorly understood. In this article, we will present an overview of observations and current understanding of molecular basis for E6-induced apoptosis.

  10. A Possible Unification Model for All Basic Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Liang, Wu; Guang-Zhao, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    A unification model for strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational forces is proposed. The tangent space of ordinary coordinate 4-dimensional spacetime is a submanifold of an 14-dimensional internal spacetime spanned by four frame fields. The unification of the standard model with gravity is governed by gauge symmetry in the internal spacetime.

  11. Higher-Order Coloured Unification and Natural Language Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gardent, C; Gardent, Claire; Kohlhase, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we show that Higher-Order Coloured Unification - a form of unification developed for automated theorem proving - provides a general theory for modeling the interface between the interpretation process and other sources of linguistic, non semantic information. In particular, it provides the general theory for the Primary Occurrence Restriction which (Dalrymple, Shieber and Pereira, 1991)'s analysis called for.

  12. Technicolor and Beyond: Unification in Theory Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    exactly near the upper end of the conformal window (Conformal S-parameter) with relevant consequences on the selection of nature's next strong force. We will then introduce the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) models. In the second part of this review we consider the interesting possibility to marry...... supersymmetry and technicolor. The reason is to provide a unification of different extensions of the standard model. For example, this means that one can recover, according to the parameters and spectrum of the theory distinct extensions of the standard model, from supersymmetry to technicolor and unparticle...

  13. Gauge-Higgs Unification on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Irges, Nikos; Yoneyama, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    The simplest Gauge-Higgs Unification model is a five-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory compactified on the S^1/Z_2 orbifold, such that on the four-dimensional boundaries of space-time there is an unbroken U(1) symmetry and a complex scalar, the latter identified with the Higgs boson. Perturbatively the U(1) remains spontaneously unbroken. Earlier lattice Monte Carlo simulations revealed however that the spontaneous breaking of the U(1) does occur at the non-perturbative level. Here, we verify the Monte Carlo result via an analytical lattice Mean-Field expansion.

  14. MUC (Memory, Unification, Control and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHagoort

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A neurobiological model of language is discussed that overcomes the shortcomings of the classical Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model. It is based on a subdivision of language processing into three components: Memory, Unification, and Control. The functional components as well as the neurobiological underpinnings of the model are discussed. In addition, the need for extension of the model beyond the classical core regions for language is shown. Attentional networks as well as networks for inferential processing are crucial to realize language comprehension beyond single word processing and beyond decoding propositional content. It is shown that this requires the dynamic interaction between multiple brain regions.

  15. Unification as a Measure of Natural Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gijsbers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the idea that there can be scientific understanding without explanation lends new relevance to Duhem's notion of natural classification. According to Duhem, a classification that is natural teaches us something about nature without being explanatory. However, Duhem's conception of naturalness leaves much to be desired. In this paper, I argue that we can measure the naturalness of classification by using an amended version of the notion of unification as defined by Schurz and Lambert. If this thesis is correct, it both leads to a better conceptual understanding of scientific understanding, and also gives the nascent literature on this topic some much-needed precision.

  16. Electroweak symmetry breaking and bottom-top Yukawa unification

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, M S; Olechowski, M; Wagner, C E M

    1994-01-01

    The condition of unification of gauge couplings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model provides successful predictions for the weak mixing angle as a function of the strong gauge coupling and the supersymmetric threshold scale. In addition, in some scenarios, e.g.\\ in the minimal SO(10) model, the tau lepton and the bottom and top quark Yukawa couplings unify at the grand unification scale. The condition of Yukawa unification leads naturally to large values of $\\tan\\beta$, implying a proper top quark--bottom quark mass hierarchy. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of unification of the Yukawa couplings, in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (assumed) universal mass parameters at the unification scale and with radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry. We show that strong correlations between the parameters $\\mu_0$ and $M_{1/2}$ appear within this scheme. These correlations have relevant implications for the sparticle spectrum, which presents several characteri...

  17. Gravity as a Grand Unification of Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, R S

    2004-01-01

    Any of all possible types of charges corresponds in nature to a kind of the inertial mass. Such a mass - charge duality of matter explains the coexistence of grand united rest mass and charge for the same neutrino equal respectively to its all the gravitational mass and charge which consist of the gravitoelectric, gravitoweak, gravitostrong and a range of others, innate components. From their point of view, a new grand unification theory has been created at the discussion of a question about unification of forces of a different nature. In this theory, the gravitational field must be naturally united gauge field of the unified system of the most diverse combinations of electromagnetic photons, weak bosons and strong gluons where the four pairs of forces of the micro world fundamental interactions are united. Some consequences and laboratory confirmations of the suggested theory have been listed which allow also to define the structure of the graviton as a grand united boson. Thereby it gives the possibility to...

  18. SUGRA Grand Unification, LHC and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Pran

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent developments related to the Higgs signal and its implications for supersymmetry in the supergravity grand unification framework. The Higgs data indicates that the allowed parameter space largely lies on focal curves and focal surfaces of the Hyperbolic Branch of radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry where TeV size scalars naturally arise. The high mass of the Higgs leads to a more precise prediction for the allowed range of the spin independent neutralino -proton cross section which is encouraging for the detection of dark matter in future experiments with greater sensitivity. Also discussed is the status of grand unification and a natural solution to breaking the GUT group at one scale and resolving the doublet-triplet problem. It is shown that the cosmic coincidence can be compatible within a supersymmetric framework in a muticomponent dark matter picture with one component charged under $B-L$ while the other component is the conventional supersymmetric dark matter...

  19. Quasi-fixed point scenarios and the Higgs mass in the E6 inspired SUSY models

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the renormalization group (RG) flow of the gauge and Yukawa couplings within the E6 inspired supersymmetric (SUSY) models with extra U(1)_{N} gauge symmetry under which right-handed neutrinos have zero charge. In these models single discrete \\tilde{Z}^{H}_2 symmetry forbids the tree-level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We argue that the measured values of the SU(2)_W and U(1)_Y gauge couplings lie near the quasi-fixed points of the RG equations in these models. The solutions for the Yukawa couplings also approach the quasi-fixed points with increasing their values at the Grand Unification scale. We calculate the two-loop upper bounds on the lightest Higgs boson mass in the vicinity of these quasi-fixed points and compare the results of our analysis with the corresponding ones in the NMSSM. In all these cases the theoretical restrictions on the SM-like Higgs boson mass are rather close to 125 GeV.

  20. Masses of Third Family Vector-like Quarks and Leptons in Yukawa-Unified $E_6$

    CERN Document Server

    Hebbar, Aditya; Shafi, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric $E_6$ the masses of the third family quarks and charged lepton, $t-b-\\tau$, as well as the masses of the vector-like quarks and leptons, $D-\\bar{D}$ and $ L-\\bar{L}$, may arise from the coupling $27_3$ x $27_3$ x $27_H$, where $27_3$ and $27_H$ denote the third family matter and Higgs multiplets respectively. We assume that the SO(10) singlet component in $27_H$ acquires a TeV scale VEV which spontaneously breaks U(1)$_\\psi$ and provides masses to the vector-like particles in $27_3$, while the MSSM doublets in $27_H$ provide masses to $ t, b$ and $\\tau$. Imposing Yukawa coupling unification $h_t=h_b=h_{\\tau}=h_D=h_L$ at $M_{GUT}$ and employing the ATLAS and CMS constraints on the $Z'_\\psi$ boson mass, we estimate the lower bounds on the third family vector-like particles $D-\\bar{D}$ and $L-\\bar{L}$ masses to be around 5.85 TeV and 2.9 TeV respectively. These bounds apply in the supersymmetric limit.

  1. Unification of coupling constants without a covering GUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, S.; Zoupanos, G.; Tracas, D.

    1988-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of unification of gauge coupling constants of the standard model and its extensions at some high scale without the assumption of the existence of a covering GUT at that scale. In our analysis we examine (i) the standard model, (ii) its supersymmetric extension and (iii) an extension in which the spontaneous symmetry breaking is based on the condensation of high-colour fermions. The latter case is favoured for perturbative coupling constants unification while the supersymmetric extension of the standard model, with five families, is favoured for non-perturbative unification.

  2. Natural Supersymmetry and Unification in Five Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalgabar, Ammar; Deandrea, Aldo; McGarrie, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    We explore unification and natural supersymmetry in a five dimensional extension of the standard model in which the extra dimension may be large, of the order of 1-10 TeV. Power law running generates a TeV scale A_ term allowing for the observed 125 GeV Higgs and allowing for stop masses below 2 TeV, compatible with a natural SUSY spectrum. We supply the full one-loop RGEs for various models and use metastability to give a prediction that the gluino mass should be lighter than 3.5 TeV for A_t <= 2.5 TeV, for such a compactification scale, with brane localised 3rd generation matter. We discuss why models in which the 1st and 2nd generation of matter fields are located in the bulk are likely to be ruled out. We also look at electroweak symmetry breaking in these models.

  3. String Theory, Unification and Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Stelle, K S

    2012-01-01

    An overview is given of the way in which the unification program of particle physics has evolved into the proposal of superstring theory as a prime candidate for unifying quantum gravity with the other forces and particles of nature. A key concern with quantum gravity has been the problem of ultraviolet divergences, which is naturally solved in string theory by replacing particles with spatially extended states as the fundamental excitations. String theory turns out, however, to contain many more extended-object states than just strings. Combining all this into an integrated picture, called M-theory, requires recognition of the r\\^ole played by a web of nonperturbative duality symmetries suggested by the nonlinear structures of the field-theoretic supergravity limits of string theory.

  4. Light higgsino for gauge coupling unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Sik Jeong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore gauge coupling unification and dark matter in high scale supersymmetry where the scale of supersymmetry breaking is much above the weak scale. The gauge couplings unify as precisely as in low energy supersymmetry if the higgsinos, whose mass does not break supersymmetry, are much lighter than those obtaining masses from supersymmetry breaking. The dark matter of the universe can then be explained by the neutral higgsino or the gravitino. High scale supersymmetry with light higgsinos requires a large Higgs mixing parameter for electroweak symmetry breaking to take place. It is thus naturally realized in models where superparticle masses are generated at loop level while the Higgs mixing parameter is induced at tree level, like in anomaly and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking.

  5. Finite SU(N){sup k} unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ernest [Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Mondragon, Myriam [Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 01000, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: myriam@fisica.unam.mx; Zoupanos, George [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2004-12-01

    We consider N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories based on the group SU(N){sub 1} x SU(N){sub 2} x ... x SU(N){sub k} with matter content (N,N*,1,...,1)+(1,N,N*,...,1)+ ... +(N*,1,1,...,N) as candidates for the unification symmetry of all particles. In particular we examine to which extent such theories can become finite and we find that a necessary condition is that there should be exactly three families. We discuss further some phenomenological issues related to the cases (N,k) = (3,3), (3,4), and (4,3), in an attempt to choose those theories that can become also realistic. Thus we are naturally led to consider the SU(3){sup 3} model which we first promote to an all-loop finite theory and then we study its additional predictions concerning the top quark mass, Higgs mass and supersymmetric spectrum. (author)

  6. Light higgsino for gauge coupling unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik

    2017-06-01

    We explore gauge coupling unification and dark matter in high scale supersymmetry where the scale of supersymmetry breaking is much above the weak scale. The gauge couplings unify as precisely as in low energy supersymmetry if the higgsinos, whose mass does not break supersymmetry, are much lighter than those obtaining masses from supersymmetry breaking. The dark matter of the universe can then be explained by the neutral higgsino or the gravitino. High scale supersymmetry with light higgsinos requires a large Higgs mixing parameter for electroweak symmetry breaking to take place. It is thus naturally realized in models where superparticle masses are generated at loop level while the Higgs mixing parameter is induced at tree level, like in anomaly and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking.

  7. Seminatural Gauge Mediation from Product Group Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Hajime; Yanagida, Tsutomu T; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a focus point gauge mediation model based on the product group unification (PGU), which solves the double-triplet splitting problem of the Higgs multiplets. In the focus point gauge mediation, the electroweak symmetry breaking scale can be naturally explained even for multi-TeV stops. It is known that the focus point behavior appears if a ratio of the number of SU(2) doublet messengers to that of SU(3) triplet messengers is close to 2.5. Importantly, this ratio (effectively) appears in our scenario based on the PGU, if the messenger field is an adjoint representation of SU(5) gauge group. Therefore, our focus point scenario is very predictive. It is also pointed out the gravitino can be dark matter without spoiling the success of the thermal leptogenesis.

  8. Minimal flavour violation and SU(5)-unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo, E-mail: barbieri@sns.it; Senia, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.senia@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Minimal flavour violation in its strong or weak versions, based on U(3){sup 3} and U(2){sup 3}, respectively, allows suitable extensions of the standard model at the TeV scale to comply with current flavour constraints in the quark sector. Here we discuss considerations analogous to minimal flavour violation (MFV) in the context of SU(5)-unification, showing the new effects/constraints that arise both in the quark and in the lepton sector, where quantitative statements can be made controlled by the CKM matrix elements. The case of supersymmetry is examined in detail as a particularly motivated example. Third generation sleptons and neutralinos in the few hundred GeV range are shown to be compatible with current constraints.

  9. SU(5) and New Departures in Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakvasa, S.; Tuan, S. F.

    1982-01-01

    "Just as today, most of us are certain of the validity of SU(2) × U(l) even though we have not seen a W or Z, so also if proton decay is seen at the expected rate, we can presume that unification involves SU(S). Indeed, our faith in SU(2) × U(l) is not based entirely on hard experimental evidence. There is an infinite class of theories which give the same neutral current structure. But compared to SU(2) × U(l), the alternatives are complicated, unnatural and ugly. My faith in SU(5) is likewise based on my belief that the world is simple and beautiful." --Howard Georgi

  10. Gauge and space-time symmetry unification

    CERN Document Server

    Besprosvany, J

    2000-01-01

    Unification ideas suggest an integral treatment of fermion and boson spin and gauge-group degrees of freedom. Hence, a generalized quantum field equation, based on Dirac's, is proposed and investigated which contains gauge and flavor symmetries, determines vector gauge field and fermion solution representations, and fixes their mode of interaction. The simplest extension of the theory with a 6-dimensional Clifford algebra predicts an SU(2)_L X U(1) symmetry, which is associated with the isospin and the hypercharge, their vector carriers, two-flavor charged and chargeless leptons, and scalar particles. A mass term produces breaking of the symmetry to an electromagnetic U(1), and a Weinberg's angle theta_W with sin^2(theta_W)=.25 . A more realistic 8-d extension gives coupling constants of the respective groups g=1/sqrt 2~.707 and g'=1/sqrt 6~.408, with the same theta_W.

  11. Towards unification of product and enterprise system descriptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An argument is presented for the unification of descriptions of product systems and enterprise systems. Product systems are developed and produced by enterprises, thus forming an integral part of the enterprise's architecture. However, many products...

  12. Gauge Coupling Unification with Hidden Photon, and Minicharged Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Daido, Ryuji; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-01-01

    We show that gauge coupling unification is realized with a greater accuracy in the presence of a massless hidden photon which has a large kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and find that the GUT unification scale is around $10^{16.5}$ GeV which sufficiently suppresses the proton decay rate, and that the unification depends only on the kinetic mixing, but not on the hidden gauge coupling nor the presence of vector-like matter fields charged under U(1)$_H$ and/or SU(5). Matter fields charged under the unbroken hidden U(1)$_H$ are stable and they contribute to dark matter. Interestingly, they become minicharged dark matter which carries a small but non-zero electric charge, if the hidden gauge coupling is tiny. The minicharged dark matter is a natural outcome of the gauge coupling unification with a hidden photon.

  13. Synchronizability Analysis of Harmonious Unification Hybrid Preferential Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The harmonious unification hybrid preferential model uses the dr ratio to adjust the proportion of deterministic preferential attachment and random preferential attachment, enriched the only deterministic preferential network model,

  14. E6 inspired SUSY models with exact custodial symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2012-01-01

    The breakdown of E_6 gauge symmetry at high energies may result in supersymmetric (SUSY) models based on the Standard Model (SM) gauge group together with extra U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries. To ensure anomaly cancellation the particle content of these E_6 inspired models involves extra exotic states that can give rise to non--diagonal flavour transitions and rapid proton decay. We argue that a single discrete \\tilde{Z}^{H}_2 symmetry can be used to forbid tree--level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present 5D and 6D orbifold GUT models that can lead to the E_6 inspired SUSY models of this type. The breakdown of U(1)_{\\psi} and U(1)_{\\chi} gauge symmetries that preserves E_6 matter parity assignment guarantees that the exotic states which originate from 27_i representations of E_6 as well as ordinary quark and lepton states survive to low energies. The considered E_6 inspired models contain at least two dark-matter candidates a...

  15. The proactive grand strategy for consensual and peaceful Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungsoo

    2007-01-01

    This thesis assesses the reasons for the continuous division of the two Koreas and proposes necessary policies for Korean unification. In modern times, Koreans have been unable to determine their own destiny. Many examples show that Koreaαs circumstances have been influenced by other countries. Koreaαs division and the North Korean nuclear standoff are not only Korean problems but also international issues. In these contexts, Korean unification requires not only domestic efforts but also in...

  16. On the Possibility of Optical Unification in Heterotic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Cleaver, G; Hanson, H; Perkins, J; Robbins, D; Shields, S; Cleaver, Gerald; Desai, Virendra; Hanson, Heather; Perkins, John; Robbins, David; Shields, Scot

    2003-01-01

    Recently J. Giedt discussed a mechanism, entitled optical unification, whereby string scale unification is facilitated via exotic matter with intermediate scale mass. This mechanism guarantees that a virtual MSSM unification below the string scale is extrapolated from the running of gauge couplings upward from M_Z^o when an intermediate scale desert is assumed. In this letter we explore the possibility of optical unification within the context of weakly coupled heterotic strings. In particular, we investigate this for models of free fermionic construction containing the NAHE set of basis vectors. This class is of particular interest for optical unification, because it provides a standard hypercharge embedding within SO(10), giving the standard k_Y = 5/3 hypercharge level, which was shown necessary for optical unification. We present a NAHE model for which the set of exotic SU(3)_C triplet/anti-triplet pairs, SU(2)_L doublets, and non-Abelian singlets with hypercharge offers the possibility of optical unificat...

  17. Height System Unification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak

    2015-04-01

    GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good

  18. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  19. Diphoton signature of neutral pseudo-Goldstone boson in the E6CHM at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of the SU(6) global symmetry to its SU(5) subgroup, that contains the standard model (SM) gauge group, in the $E_6$ inspired composite Higgs model (E$_6$CHM) results in a set of pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs). This set, in particular, involves the SM--like Higgs doublet and a SM singlet boson. In the limit when CP is conserved the SM singlet scalar A is a CP-odd state that does not mix with the SM-like Higgs. The interactions of A with exotic matter beyond the SM, which ensures anomaly cancellation and approximate gauge coupling unification, can induce couplings of this pseudoscalar to the SM gauge bosons. As a consequence, we argue that the SM singlet pNGB state can be identified with the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently reported by the LHC experiments. Such an interpretation requires that either all or some of the exotic states have masses below 1 TeV. We specify the interactions of the SM singlet pNGB state with the exotic vector-like fermions, top quark and SM gauge bosons as well ...

  20. Human papillomavirus: E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Gaëlle; Horvath, Caroline; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Sahebali, Shaira; Bogers, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The recognition of a causal relationship between human papillomaviruses and cancer almost 30 years ago led to a rapid expansion of knowledge in the field, resulting in the description of the main mediators of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, the viral proteins E6 and E7. These oncoproteins show a remarkable pleiotropism in binding host-cell proteins, with the tumour suppressor genes p53 and pRb as their major targets. These interactions induce proliferation, immortalization and malignant transformation of infected cells. The link between HPV and cervical cancer led to the development of molecular methods, often based on the detection of E6 and E7, for screening and diagnosis. Therapeutic vaccines and gene therapy are primarily directed at E6 and E7. Although prophylactic vaccines are available, further understanding of the viral life cycle and the mechanisms underlying HPV-induced oncogenesis is necessary to face the many challenges in the field of HPV and cancer.

  1. BPS states in the Minahan-Nemeschansky E6 theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hollands, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    We use the method of spectral networks to compute BPS state degeneracies in the Minahan-Nemeschansky $E_6$ theory, on its Coulomb branch, without turning on a mass deformation. The BPS multiplicities come out in representations of the $E_6$ flavor symmetry. For example, along the simplest ray in electromagnetic charge space, we give the first $14$ numerical degeneracies, and the first $7$ degeneracies as representations of $E_6$. We find a complicated spectrum, exhibiting exponential growth of multiplicities as a function of the electromagnetic charge. There is one unexpected outcome: the spectrum is consistent (in a nontrivial way) with the hypothesis of "spin purity," that if a BPS state in this theory has electromagnetic charge equal to $n$ times a primitive charge, then it appears in a spin-$\\frac{n}{2}$ multiplet.

  2. Affine structures and a tableau model for E_6 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Brant

    2009-01-01

    We provide the unique affine crystal structure for type E_6^{(1)} Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystals corresponding to the multiples of fundamental weights s Lambda_1, s Lambda_2, and s Lambda_6 for all s \\geq 1 (in Bourbaki's labeling of the Dynkin nodes, where 2 is the adjoint node). Our methods introduce a generalized tableaux model for classical highest weight crystals of type E and use the order three automorphism of the affine E_6^{(1)} Dynkin diagram. In addition, we provide a conjecture for the affine crystal structure of type E_7^{(1)} Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystals corresponding to the adjoint node.

  3. Toward realistic gauge-Higgs grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furui, Atsushi; Hosotani, Yutaka; Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    The SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth-dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase θ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). SO(11) is broken to SO(4)×SO(6) by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to SU2×U1×SU3 by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential V(θ), we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to U1. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. Proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses given; however, it turns out to be smaller than the observed value.

  4. Studying Gaugino Mass Unification at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Altunkaynak, Baris; Holmes, Michael; Kane, Gordon; Nelson, Brent D

    2009-01-01

    We begin a systematic study of how gaugino mass unification can be probed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a quasi-model independent manner. As a first step in that direction we focus our attention on the theoretically well-motivated mirage pattern of gaugino masses, a one-parameter family of models of which universal (high scale) gaugino masses are a limiting case. We improve on previous methods to define an analytic expression for the metric on signature space and use it to study one-parameter deviations from universality in the gaugino sector, randomizing over other soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters. We put forward three ensembles of observables targeted at the physics of the gaugino sector, allowing for a determination of this non-universality parameter without reconstructing individual mass eigenvalues or the soft supersymmetry-breaking gaugino masses themselves. In this controlled environment we find that approximately 80% of the supersymmetric parameter space would give rise to a model f...

  5. Local grand unification in the heterotic landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jonas

    2009-07-15

    We consider the possibility that the unification of the electroweak interactions and the strong force arises from string theory, at energies significantly lower than the string scale. As a tool, an effective grand unified field theory in six dimensions is derived from an anisotropic orbifold compactification of the heterotic string. It is explicitly shown that all anomalies cancel in the model, though anomalous Abelian gauge symmetries are present locally at the boundary singularities. In the supersymmetric vacuum additional interactions arise from higher-dimensional operators. We develop methods that relate the couplings of the effective theory to the location of the vacuum, and find that unbroken discrete symmetries play an important role for the phenomenology of orbifold models. An efficient algorithm for the calculation of the superpotential to arbitrary order is developed, based on symmetry arguments. We furthermore present a correspondence between bulk fields of the orbifold model in six dimensions, and the moduli fields that arise from compactifying four internal dimensions on a manifold with non-trivial gauge background. (orig.)

  6. NMSGUT-III: Grand Unification upended

    CERN Document Server

    Aulakh, Charanjit S

    2011-01-01

    We show that matter yukawa couplings of the New Minimal Supersymmetric (SO(10)) GUT(NMSGUT) are subject to very significant GUT scale threshold corrections. Including these threshold effects relaxes the constraint $ y_b-y_\\tau\\simeq y_s-y_\\mu$ operative in $\\textbf{10} -\\textbf{120} $plet generated tree level MSSM matter fermion yukawas $y_f$. We find accurate fits of the MSSM fermion mass-mixing data in terms of NMSGUT superpotential couplings and 5 independent soft Susy breaking parameters $M_0, M_{1/2}, A_0, M^2_{H,\\bar{H}}$ at $M_X$. The fits generally have elevated unification scale $M_X$ near $M_{Planck}$, viable values of $\\alpha_3(M_Z)$, and are consistent with current limits on B violation, $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$, muon magnetic moment anomaly and Standard Model $\\rho$ parameter. The associated novel and distinctive soft Susy spectra have light gauginos, a \\emph{normal} s-hierarchy and Bino LSP. The Bino LSP is accompanied by second and first generation right chiral sfermions light enough to mediate a...

  7. Toward Realistic Gauge-Higgs Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Furui, Atsushi; Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase $\\theta_H$ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of $SO(11)$. $SO(11)$ is broken to $SO(4) \\times SO(6)$ by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to $SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y \\times SU(3)_C$ by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential $V_{\\rm eff} (\\theta_H)$, we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to $U(1)_{\\rm EM}$. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. The proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses ...

  8. Supersymmetry and the unification of fundamental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, P.

    Les physiciens élaborent progressivement une description unifée des lois de l'Univers, qui fait intervenir des principes de symétrie de plus en plus étendus. La supersymétrie, qui englobe la mécanique quantique et la relativité générale en opérant dans une extension de l'espace-temps ordinaire, appelée le superespace, est-elle l'un de ces principes fondamentaux? Dans cet article, l'auteur explique ce qu'est cette nouvelle symétrie, et comment, pour appliquer celle-ci au monde physique, il a été amené à envisager l'existence de toute une famille de nouvelles particules - comme les photinos, gluinos, squarks et sélectrons - que l'on recherche activement aujourd'hui. On espère parvenir à les détecter grâce aux nouvelles générations d'accélerateurs, et découvrir ainsi un nouveau principe auquel doivent satisfaire toutes les lois physiques, aussi fondamental que la relativité.

  9. Flavor Mixing in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Lim, C S; Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We discuss flavor mixing and resultant flavor changing neutral current processes in the SU(3) \\otimes SU(3)_\\text{color} gauge-Higgs unification scenario. To achieve flavor violation is a challenging issue in the scenario, since the Yukawa couplings are originally higher dimensional gauge interactions. We argue that the presence of Z_2-odd bulk masses of fermions plays a crucial role as the new source of flavor violation. Although introducing brane-localized mass terms in addition to the bulk masses is necessary to realize flavor mixing, if the bulk masses were universal among generations, the flavor mixing and flavor changing neutral current processes are known to disappear. We also discuss whether natural flavor conservation is realized in the scenario. It is shown that the new source of flavor violation leads to flavor changing neutral current processes at the tree level due to the exchange of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gauge bosons. As a typical example we calculate the rate of K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing due to th...

  10. Predictions from high scale mixing unification hypothesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2016-02-01

    Starting with ‘high scale mixing unification’ hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana-type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization group equations. For both types of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution naturally results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle 13. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle 23 turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which this hypothesis works. The results can be tested by the present and future experiments.

  11. Global Unification Problem of the Height System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Houze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Some fundamental problems on the establishment of the global unified height system, including the geometry and gravity definition of the normal height, the global unification of the regional height systems obtained from leveling measurements, and the determination of geoid potential W0 are discussed. The main conclusions are summarized:①The definition of normal height in the sense of geometry leveling and gravity theory is different, so that h-ζ≠HL, here h, ζ and HL are geodetic height, height anomaly and levelling height respectively. Instead of it, we found HL=h-ζ+∂γ/∂hζH, in the mountain area, the last correction term have to be added. ②Based on the merging of GNSS/gravity/regional leveling, the regional leveling height can be transformed into a global relative unified height system, however the value of geoid potential W0 is still needed in order to establish an absolute height system. ③W0 can be determinated from the modern geodetic techniques with a certain accuracy, but it is time variable, so that people may only define a global absolute unified height system in a fixed epoch.

  12. Unification of Gauge Couplings in Radiative Neutrino Mass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Riad, Stella; Schmidt, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively. We study three different classes of neutrino mass models: (I) minimal ultraviolet completions of the dimension-7 $\\Delta L=2$ operators which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level without and with dark matter candidates, (II) models with dark matter which lead to neutrino masses at one-loop level and (III) models with particles in the adjoint representation of $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$. In class (I), gauge couplings unify in a few models and adding dark matter amplifies the chances for unification. In class (II), about a quarter of the models admit gauge coupling unification. In class (III), none of the models leads to gauge coupling unification. Regarding the scale of unification, we find values between $10...

  13. SO(10) grand unification in a fuzzy setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [King Abdul Aziz City of Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-05-15

    While the SU (5) unification is controlled by vertical bar SU(5) vertical bar = 24 charges, the SO(10) grand unification possesses vertical bar SO(10) vertical bar = 45 charges. The present work gives a partial reformulation of SO(10) unification in a fuzzy setting. In particular, it is argued that the geometrical picture behind the {l_brace}126{r_brace} representation of SO(10) is identical to the structure behind E-infinity and the transfinite E {sub 8} - E {sub 8} exceptional Lie group when we continue {l_brace}126{r_brace} transfinitely. It is conjectured that within the fuzzy setting, SU(5) and SO(10) are essentially various homeomorphisms approximating E-infinity theory.

  14. 76 FR 15209 - 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... the Unification of Italy, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 17, Italy celebrates the 150th anniversary of its unification as a single state. On this day, we... own Union, Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaign for the unification of Italy inspired many around the...

  15. Proton Stability, Gauge Coupling Unification and a Light $Z^\\prime$ in Heterotic-string Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Alon E

    2013-01-01

    We explore the phenomenological viability of a light $Z^\\prime$ in heterotic-string models, whose existence has been motivated by proton stability arguments. A class of quasi-realistic string models that produce such a viable $Z^\\prime$ are the Left-Right Symmetric (LRS) heterotic-string models in the free fermionic formulation. A key feature of these models is that the matter charges under $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ do not admit an $E_6$ embedding. The light $Z^\\prime$ in the LRS heterotic-string models forbids baryon number violating operators, while allowing lepton number violating operators, hence suppressing proton decay yet allowing for sufficiently small neutrino masses via a seesaw mechanism. We show that the constraints imposed by the gauge coupling data and heterotic-string coupling unification nullify the viability of a light $Z^\\prime$ in these models. We further argue that agreement with the gauge coupling data necessitates that the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ charges admit an $E_6$ embedding. We discuss how viable...

  16. $E_{6}$ and the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, M J

    2007-01-01

    Recent investigations have established an analogy between the entropy of four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes in string theory and entanglement in quantum information theory. Examples include: (1) N=2 STU black holes and the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (2-state systems), where the common symmetry is [SL(2)]^3 and (2) N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the common symmetry is E_7 which contains [SL(2)]^7. Here we present another example: N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions and the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems), where the common symmetry is E_6 which contains [SL(3)]^3. Both the black hole (or black string) entropy and the entanglement measure are provided by the Cartan cubic E_6 invariant. Similar analogies exist for ``magic'' N=2 supergravity black holes in both four and five dimensions.

  17. Z' Bosons from E(6): Collider and Electroweak Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Munir, Shoaib; Rojas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Many models beyond the Standard Electroweak Theory, top-down or bottom-up, contain extensions of the gauge symmetry group by extra U(1)' factors which can be understood or treated as subgroups of E(6). A brief overview of such models is followed by a sketch of a systematic classification. We then describe how the resulting extra massive neutral gauge bosons can be searched for and in case of positive evidence diagnosed using electroweak and collider data.

  18. Baryon Asymmetry, Neutrino Mixing and Supersymmetric SO(10) Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Plümacher, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy right-handed neutrinos. We analyse this mechanism in the framework of a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and show that lepton number violating scatterings are indispensable for baryogenesis, even though they may wash-out a generated asymmetry. By assuming a similar pattern of mixings and masses for neutrinos and up-type quarks, as suggested by SO(10) unification, we can generate the observed baryon asymmetry without any fine tuning, if (B-L) is broken at the unification scale preferred by the MSW solution to the solar neutrino deficit.

  19. New dark matter candidates motivated from superstring derived unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Coriano, C.; Faraggi, A.E.

    1996-03-01

    Perturbative gauge coupling unification in realistic superstring models suggest the existence of additional heavy down-type quarks, beyond the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The mass scale of the heavy down-type quarks is constrained by requiring agreement between the measured low energy gauge parameters and the string-scale gauge coupling unification. These additional quarks arise and may be stable due to the gauge symmetry breaking by ``Wilson lines`` in the superstring models. We argue that there is a window in the parameter space within which this down-type quark is a good candidate for the dark matter. 18 refs.

  20. Multi-Higgs Mass Spectrum in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kentaro; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    We study an SU(2) supersymmetric gauge model in a framework of gauge-Higgs unification. Multi-Higgs spectrum appears in the model at low energy. We develop a useful perturbative approximation scheme for evaluating effective potential to study the multi-Higgs mass spectrum. We find that both tree-massless and massive Higgs scalars obtain mass corrections of similar size from finite parts of the loop effects. The corrections modify multi-Higgs mass spectrum, and hence, the loop effects are significant in view of future verifications of the gauge-Higgs unification scenario in high-energy experiments.

  1. A Partial Unification Model in Non-commutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlon, B E

    1994-01-01

    We consider the construction of $SU(2)_{L}\\otimes SU(2)_{R}\\otimes SU(4)$ partial unification models as an example of phenomenologically acceptable unification models in the absence of supersymmetry in non-commutative geometry. We exploit the Chamseddine, Felder and Fr\\"ohlich generalization of the Connes and Lott model building prescription. By introducing a bi-module structure and appropriate permutation symmetries we construct a model with triplet Higgs fields in the $SU(2)$ sectors and spontaneous breaking of $SU(4)$.

  2. b-tau Yukawa (Non-)Unification in the CMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Supersymmetric Grand Unification usually provides unification of the bottom quark and the tau lepton Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. In the CMSSM this can be realised only for a very particular choice of parameters. In this letter we study the GUT scale ratio y_tau/y_b for less peculiar parameters in the large tan beta regime and identify one parameter region preferred by current experimental data. In this region, which is well within the reach of the LHC, the ratio is very close to the recently proposed value of 3/2.

  3. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the Unification Scheme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veeresh Singh; Prajval Shastri; Ramana Athreya

    2011-12-01

    Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Unification scheme hypothesizes that the observed similarities and differences between the two Seyfert subtypes can be understood as due to the differing orientations of anisotropically distributed obscuring material having a torus-like geometry around the AGN. We investigate the radio continuum emission properties of a sample of Seyfert galaxies in the framework of the unification scheme.

  4. Dark matter in a constrained E 6 inspired SUSY model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, P.; Harries, D.; Nevzorov, R.; Williams, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate dark matter in a constrained E 6 inspired supersymmetric model with an exact custodial symmetry and compare with the CMSSM. The breakdown of E 6 leads to an additional U(1) N symmetry and a discrete matter parity. The custodial and matter symmetries imply there are two stable dark matter candidates, though one may be extremely light and contribute negligibly to the relic density. We demonstrate that a predominantly Higgsino, or mixed bino-Higgsino, neutralino can account for all of the relic abundance of dark matter, while fitting a 125 GeV SM-like Higgs and evading LHC limits on new states. However we show that the recent LUX 2016 limit on direct detection places severe constraints on the mixed bino-Higgsino scenarios that explain all of the dark matter. Nonetheless we still reveal interesting scenarios where the gluino, neutralino and chargino are light and discoverable at the LHC, but the full relic abundance is not accounted for. At the same time we also show that there is a huge volume of parameter space, with a predominantly Higgsino dark matter candidate that explains all the relic abundance, that will be discoverable with XENON1T. Finally we demonstrate that for the E 6 inspired model the exotic leptoquarks could still be light and within range of future LHC searches.

  5. Human papillomavirus type 18 E6*, E6, and E7 protein synthesis in cell-free translation systems and comparison of E6 and E7 in vitro translation products to proteins immunoprecipitated from human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, B; Larsen, P M; Fey, S J; Bartsch, D; Gissmann, L; Schwarz, E

    1991-09-01

    Expression of the E6 and E7 transforming genes of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) occurs via structurally bicistronic mRNAs in which the downstream open reading frame (ORF) E7 is preceded either by the full-length ORF E6 or by a spliced ORF, E6*. We have used in vitro transcription and translation of HPV18 cDNAs in order to analyze the synthesis of E6*, E6, and E7 proteins and to compare the E6 and E7 in vitro translation products with the authentic proteins immunoprecipitated from cervical cancer cells. In wheat germ extract, in vitro translation resulted in the production of all three proteins, E6*, E6, and E7. In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, however, only the E6 and E7 proteins were produced. The lack of E6* protein was due neither to template RNA degradation nor to an inhibitory influence of the RNA 5' leader sequences, thus indicating the possibility of either inhibition of synthesis or degradation of E6* protein in reticulocyte lysate. The E7 protein was synthesized from both E6*-E7 and E6-E7 RNAs. In vitro-synthesized and authentic HPV18 E7 proteins revealed identical electrophoretic mobilities in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, thus indicating similar modifications. By using a monoclonal antibody against the N terminus of HPV18 E6* and E6, an 18-kDa protein was detected not only in HPV18-positive but also in HPV18-negative epithelial cells. The 18-kDa proteins and the in vitro-synthesized HPV18 E6 protein exhibited comparable electrophoretic characteristics in two-dimensional gels. These results suggest the possible existence of a cellular protein related to HPV18 E6.

  6. Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Zapien, Denise; Ruiz, Francesc Xavier; Poirson, Juline; Mitschler, André; Ramirez-Ramos, Juan; Forster, Anne; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Masson, Murielle; Pol, Scott Vande; Podjarny, Alberto; Travé, Gilles; Zanier, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The p53 pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor is mutated or functionally altered in most cancers. In epithelial tumors induced by “high-risk” mucosal Human Papillomaviruses (hrm-HPVs), including human cervical carcinoma and a growing number of head-and-neck cancers 1, p53 is degraded by the viral oncoprotein E6 2. In this process, E6 binds to a short LxxLL consensus sequence within the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP 3. Subsequently, the E6/E6AP heterodimer recruits and degrades p53 4. Neither E6 nor E6AP are separately able to recruit p53 3,5, and the precise mode of assembly of E6, E6AP and p53 is unknown. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising full-length HPV16 E6, the LxxLL motif of E6AP and the core domain of p53. The LxxLL motif of E6AP renders the conformation of E6 competent for interaction with p53 by structuring a p53-binding cleft on E6. Mutagenesis of critical positions at the E6-p53 interface disrupts p53 degradation. The E6-binding site of p53 is distal from previously described DNA- and protein-binding surfaces of the core domain. This suggests that, in principle, E6 may avoid competition with cellular factors by targeting both free and bound p53 molecules. The E6/E6AP/p53 complex represents a prototype of viral hijacking of both the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway and the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. The present structure provides a framework for the design of inhibitory therapeutic strategies against HPV-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:26789255

  7. Higgs boson mass limits in perturbative unification theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tobe, K; Tobe, Kazuhiro; Wells, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated in part by recent demonstrations that electroweak unification into a simple group may occur at a low scale, we detail the requirements on the Higgs mass if the unification is to be perturbative. We do this for the Standard Model effective theory, minimal supersymmetry, and next-to-minimal supersymmetry with an additional singlet field. Within the Standard Model framework, we find that perturbative unification with sin2(thetaW)=1/4 occurs at Lambda=3.8 TeV and requires m_h<460 GeV, whereas perturbative unification with sin2(thetaW)=3/8 requires mh<200 GeV. In supersymmetry, the presentation of the Higgs mass predictions can be significantly simplified, yet remain meaningful, by using a single supersymmetry breaking parameter Delta_S. We present Higgs mass limits in terms of Delta_S for the minimal supersymmetric model and the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model. We show that in next-to-minimal supersymmetry, the Higgs mass upper limit can be as large as 500 GeV even for moderate supersymmetry ...

  8. Does monetary unification lead to excessive debt accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    If discretionary monetary policy implies an inflation bias, monetary unification boosts the accumulation of public debt. The additional debt accumulation is welfare reducing only if governments are sufficiently myopic. In the presence of myopic governments, debt ceilings play a useful role in

  9. Gauge coupling unification and light exotica in string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Stuart; Wingerter, Akin

    2007-08-03

    In this Letter we consider the consequences for the CERN Large Hadron Collider of light vectorlike exotica with fractional electric charge. It is shown that such states are found in orbifold constructions of the heterotic string. Moreover, these exotica are consistent with gauge coupling unification at one loop, even though they do not come in complete multiplets of SU(5).

  10. Pre-metric electromagnetism as a path to unification

    CERN Document Server

    Delphenich, David

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the pre-metric approach to Maxwell's equations provides an alternative to the traditional Einstein-Maxwell unification program, namely, that electromagnetism and gravitation are unified in a different way that makes the gravitational field a consequence of the electromagnetic constitute properties of spacetime, by way of the dispersion law for the propagation of electromagnetic waves.

  11. Does monetary unification lead to excessive debt accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    If discretionary monetary policy implies an inflation bias, monetary unification boosts the accumulation of public debt. The additional debt accumulation is welfare reducing only if governments are sufficiently myopic. In the presence of myopic governments, debt ceilings play a useful role in avoidi

  12. Unification of gauge couplings in radiative neutrino mass models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively...

  13. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  14. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Massimi, Paola [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Lizano, Marcela, E-mail: lizanosoberon@gmail.com [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Banks, Lawrence, E-mail: banks@icgeb.org [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  15. Dark Matter in a Constrained $E_6$ Inspired SUSY Model

    CERN Document Server

    Athron, P; Nevzorov, R; Williams, A G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dark matter in a constrained $E_6$ inspired supersymmetric model with an exact custodial symmetry and compare with the CMSSM. The breakdown of $E_6$ leads to an additional $U(1)_N$ symmetry and a discrete matter parity. The custodial and matter symmetries imply there are two stable dark matter candidates, though one may be extremely light and contribute negligibly to the relic density. We demonstrate that a predominantly Higgsino, or mixed bino-Higgsino, neutralino can account for all of the relic abundance of dark matter, while fitting a 125 GeV SM-like Higgs and evading LHC limits on new states. However we show that the recent LUX 2016 limit on direct detection places severe constraints on the mixed bino-Higgsino scenarios that explain all of the dark matter. Nonetheless we still reveal interesting scenarios where the gluino, neutralino and chargino are light and discoverable at the LHC, but the full relic abundance is not accounted for. At the same time we also show that there is a huge volu...

  16. Intra- and intermembrane distribution of chlorin e6 derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, Vladimir P.; Zorina, Tatyana E.; Mikhalovsky, Iosif S.; Khludeyev, Ivan I.

    1995-01-01

    The parameters of chlorin e6 and trimethylester of chlorin e6 incorporation and distribution in suspensions of unilamellar liposomes of DMPC, DPPC, and DSPC, as well as efficiency of the pigment redistribution from liposomes to cellular membranes have been studied. Determination of the fraction of pigments' fluorescence which is accessible to quenching by a watersoluble quencher indicates that for both chlorins the outer monolayer of the liposomal membrane is more populated than the inner one. Gel-liquid crystalline phase transition induces a shift of a part of the pigments' molecules toward the inner monolayer. By means of ultrafiltration technique it is shown that chlorins binding to liposomal membrane occurs as partitioning between water and lipid phases. The partition coefficient is affected strongly by the type of pigment, the phase state of the lipid bilayer. Similar results were obtained when the influence of the physical state of the lipid bilayer on the rate of chlorins redistribution from liposomes to cellular membrane was studied. These findings show that diffusive mobility of the sensitizer in suspensions of cellular and model membranes is a complex process which is dependent on structural features of both the pigment and its biological carriers.

  17. HPV16 E6-induced and E6AP-dependent inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator hADA3 in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Ye, Feng; Lu, Weiguo; Hong, Die; Wan, Xiaoyun; Xie, Xing

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether there exists an additional pathway of E6 that is independent of direct P53 degradation and whether hADA3, a transcriptional coactivator, is involved in this process. We investigated the association between E6 and hADA3, as well as E6-associated protein (E6AP) and hADA3, in SiHa cells via RNA interference technique. Our results showed that the expression of hADA3 protein was significantly increased, cellular proliferation was decreased and apoptotic rate was increased in SiHa cells treated by E6 siRNA and E6AP siRNA respectively. Our results suggested that oncoprotein E6 inhibits hADA3 in cervical cancer cells and this process is E6AP-dependent.

  18. Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.

  19. Quantum gravity unification via transfinite arithmetic and geometrical averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Department of Astrophysics, University of Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: Chaossf@aol.com

    2008-01-15

    In E-Infinity theory, we have not only infinitely many dimensions but also infinitely many fundamental forces. However, due to the hierarchical structure of {epsilon}{sup ({infinity})} spacetime we have a finite expectation number for its dimensionality and likewise a finite expectation number for the corresponding interactions. Starting from the preceding fundamental principles and using the experimental findings as well as the theoretical value of the coupling constants of the electroweak and the strong forces we present an extremely simple averaging procedure for determining the quantum gravity unification coupling constant with and without super symmetry. The work draws heavily on previous results, in particular a paper, by the Slovian Prof. Marek-Crnjac [Marek-Crnjac L. On the unification of all fundamental forces in a fundamentally fuzzy Cantorian {epsilon}{sup ({infinity})} manifold and high energy physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;4:657-68].

  20. Yukawa Unification and Sparticle Spectroscopy in Gauge Mediation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih

    2015-01-01

    We explore the implications of t-b-tau (and b-tau) Yukawa coupling unification condition on the fundamental parameter space and sparticle spectroscopy in the minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (mGMSB) model. We find that this scenario prefers values of the CP-odd Higgs mass m_A > 1 TeV, with all colored sparticle masses above 3 TeV. These predictions will be hard to test at LHC13 but they may be testable at HE-LHC 33 TeV or a 100 TeV collider. Both t-b-tau and b-tau Yukawa coupling unifications prefer a relatively light gravitino with mass < 30 eV, which makes it a candidate hot dark matter particle. However, it cannot account for more than 15 % of the observed dark matter density.

  1. Toward unification of the multiscale modeling of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests two possible routes to achieve the unification of model physics in coarse- and fine-resolution atmospheric models. As far as representation of deep moist convection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs. Ideally, these two kinds of model physics should be unified so that a continuous transition of model physics from one kind to the other takes place as the resolution changes. With such unification, the GCM can converge to a global CRM (GCRM as the grid size is refined. ROUTE I for unification continues to follow the parameterization approach, but uses a unified parameterization that is applicable to any horizontal resolutions between those typically used by GCMs and CRMs. It is shown that a key to construct such a unified parameterization is to eliminate the assumption of small fractional area covered by convective clouds, which is commonly used in the conventional cumulus parameterizations either explicitly or implicitly. A preliminary design of the unified parameterization is presented, which demonstrates that such an assumption can be eliminated through a relatively minor modification of the existing mass-flux based parameterizations. Partial evaluations of the unified parameterization are also presented. ROUTE II for unification follows the "multi-scale modeling framework (MMF" approach, which takes advantage of explicit representation of deep moist convection and associated cloud-scale processes by CRMs. The Quasi-3-D (Q3-D MMF is an attempt to broaden the applicability of MMF without necessarily using a fully three-dimensional CRM. This is accomplished using a network of cloud-resolving grids with gaps. An outline of the Q3-D algorithm and highlights of preliminary results are reviewed.

  2. Exchange-Rate Unification with Black Market Leakages; Russia 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 Russia unified the multiple exchange rates that had applied to international transactions. This paper describes the multiple exchange rate system that existed in Russia prior to mid-1992 and undertakes a theoretical exploration of the effects of the exchange rate unification that took place in July 1992. The model developed here allows for leakages between official and black markets and permits flexibility of the exchange rates in both official and parallel currency markets. Within th...

  3. On Deftly Introducing Procedural Elements into Unification Parsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    be represented by a substitution list that binds ?AGR to the disjunction itself, but the following case (AGR ?P ?N) lq (:OR (AGR (2ND) (SNG)) (AGR...identifies the two values by binding them both to a single variable, the conditions for our constrained disjunction are met. However, if the...be unknown in different circumstances. Either class, for example, can be unknown in questions or anaphors . While unification can certainly handle

  4. A New Theory for Unification of Electromagnetic and Gravitational Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new theory for unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. By considering a four-dimensional spacetime as a hypersurface embedded in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime, we derive the complete set of field equations on the four-dimensional spacetime from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. We show that, besides the Einstein field equation on the four-dimensional spacetime, a new electromagnetic field equation is also derived: $\

  5. Purchasing policy model based on components/parts unification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunXiaolin; ZhongDeqiang; ManDaqing; BinSheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for components/parts unification (CPU) policy. This model considers two components/parts that are functionally interchangeable but purchased from suppliers with different prices and quality characteristics. Because of the buyer's quality preference and suppliers' discount rates for bulky purchases, the model assists the procurement manager to determine how best to purchase the components/parts to meet its demand while minimizing the total acquisition costs.

  6. Dark Matter after LHC Run I: Clues to Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After the results of Run I, can we still ‘guarantee’ the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC? It is shown that viable dark matter models in CMSSM-like models tend to lie in strips (co-annihilation, funnel, focus point. The role of grand unification in constructing supersymmetric models is discussed and it is argued that non-supersymmetric GUTs such as SO(10 may provide solutions to many of the standard problems addressed by supersymmetry.

  7. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brümmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ibe, Masahiro [Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-10-07

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the fine-tuning remains modest. In this Letter, we show that such gauge mediation models with “focus point” behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5)×U(3) product group unification.

  8. Quantum Field Theory and Unification in AdS5

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider gauge bosons in the bulk of AdS5 in a two-brane theory that addresses the hierarchy problem. We show such a theory can be consistent with gauge coupling unification at a high scale. We discuss subtleties in this calculation and show how to regulate consistently in a bounded AdS5 background. Our regularization is guided by the holographic dual of the calculation.

  9. Unification of Filled Function and Tunnelling Function in Global Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Yong-jian Yang; Lian-sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two auxiliary functions for global optimization are proposed. These two auxiliary functions possess all characters of tunnelling functions and filled functions under certain general assumptions.Thus, they can be considered as the unification of filled function and tunnelling function. Moreover, the process of tunneling or filling for global optimization can be unified as the minimization of such auxiliary functions.Result of numerical experiments shows that such two auxiliary functions are effective.

  10. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    calculated—albeit limited— wars against his European neighbors to create Germany’s second empire. As the archetypical statesman who espoused the power of...neighbors to create Germany’s second empire. As the archetypical statesman who espoused the power of the state in the international system, Bismarck...national hero . However, accomplishing one of the foremost capital achievements of history—the unification of Germany—required more than diplomacy

  11. Towards a unification of unified theories of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Brian J

    2010-05-01

    A unified theory in science is a theory that shows a common underlying set of rules that regulate processes previously thought to be distinct. Unified theories have been important in physics including the unification of electricity and magnetism and the unification of the electromagnetic with the weak nuclear force. Surprisingly, ecology, specifically the subfields of biodiversity and macroecology, also possess not one but at least six unified theories. This is problematic as only one unified theory is desirable. Superficially, the six unified theories seem very different. However, I show that all six theories use the same three rules or assertions to describe a stochastic geometry of biodiversity. The three rules are: (1) intraspecifically individuals are clumped together; (2) interspecifically global or regional abundance varies according to a hollow curve distribution; and (3) interspecifically individuals are placed without regard to individuals of other species. These three rules appear sufficient to explain local species abundance distributions, species-area relationships, decay of similarity of distance and possibly other patterns of biodiversity. This provides a unification of the unified theories. I explore implications of this unified theory for future research.

  12. M theory: a possible unification of physics laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Alexandre da Silva; Silva, Diego Oliveira Nolasco da; Sousa, Claudio Manoel Gomes de [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia (UCB), DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Physics has two pillars which are mutually incompatible: quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Throughout its history, various unifications have been made, and in attempts to have a better understanding of the birth and formation of the Universe is also necessary to unify these pillars. This unification may require 11 dimensions, and 6 of them are compressed so that it cannot be seen with existing instruments. These dimensions are the spaces in which the strings vibrate, and each mode of vibration corresponds to a particle. The last dimension shows that the universe is a brane, it is in full motion in the multiverse and the collision of two branes can answer the biggest problem of cosmology: what was the Big Bang? Black holes can be explained using a theory that contains gravity and quantum mechanics. The theory is still being developed, some problems are being solved and the main one is the experimental problem, because it requires energy levels that are not yet achieved by current particle accelerators. This work presents M theory as a possibility of unification between the micro and macro, which maybe leading us to the theory of everything. (author)

  13. Probes of Yukawa unification in supersymmetric SO(10) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoff, Susanne

    2009-10-23

    This work is composed as follows: In Chapter 1, the disposed reader is made familiar with the foundations of flavourphysics and Grand Unification, including group-theoretical aspects of SO(10). In Chapter 2, we introduce a specific supersymmetric GUT model based on SO(10) and designed to probe down-quark-lepton Yukawa unification. Within this framework we explore the effects of large atmospheric neutrino mixing in bottom-strange transitions on the mass difference and CP phase in B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} meson mixing. Chapter 3 is devoted to corrections to Yukawa unification. We derive constraints on Yukawa corrections for light fermions from K- anti K and B{sub d}- anti B {sub d} mixing. As an application we study implications of neutrino mixing effects in CP-violating K and B{sub d} observables on the unitrity triangle. Finally, in Chapter 4, we discuss effects of large tan {beta} in B{yields}(D){tau}{nu} decays with respect to their potential to discover charged Higgs bosons and to discriminate between different GUT models of flavour.

  14. Higgs Boson Mass from t-b-tau Yukawa Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Un, Cem Salih

    2011-01-01

    We employ the Yukawa coupling unification condition, y_t= y_b= y_tau at M_GUT, inspired by supersymmetric SO(10) models, to estimate the lightest Higgs boson mass as well as masses of the associated squarks and gluino. We employ non-universal soft masses, dictated by SO(10) symmetry, for the gauginos. Furthermore, the soft masses for the two scalar Higgs doublets are set equal at M_GUT, and in some examples these are equal to the soft masses for scalars in the matter multiplets. For mu > 0, essentially perfect t-b-tau Yukawa unification is possible, and it predicts a Higgs mass of 122 - 124 GeV with a theoretical uncertainty of about 3 GeV. Similarly, for mu < 0, the best unification solutions predict a Higgs mass close to 123 GeV (3 GeV). The corresponding gluino and the first two family squarks have masses 3 TeV. We present some LHC testable benchmark points which also show the presence of neutralino-stau coannihilation in this scenario. The well-known MSSM parameter tan beta~47.

  15. Korean Unification and the Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    agreed to by the two sides. Before his November 2013 visit to Seoul, Vladimir Putin told the Russian press that “we unconditionally support the Koreans...2011), 124. 53 “ Russia Supports Korea’s Drive for Unification as ‘Natural Pro- cess’— Putin ,” RT.com, November 12, 2013, available at <www.rt.com...politics/ putin - russia -korea-unification-587/>. 54 Georgy Toloraya, Korean Security and Unification Dilemmas: A Russian Perspective (Washington, DC: Korea

  16. E6^E7, a novel splice isoform protein of human papillomavirus 16, stabilizes viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins via HSP90 and GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2015-02-17

    Transcripts of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 oncogenes undergo alternative RNA splicing to produce multiple splice isoforms. However, the importance of these splice isoforms is poorly understood. Here we report a critical role of E6^E7, a novel isoform containing the 41 N-terminal amino acid (aa) residues of E6 and the 38 C-terminal aa residues of E7, in the regulation of E6 and E7 stability. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we identified that HSP90 and GRP78, which are frequently upregulated in cervical cancer tissues, are two E6^E7-interacting proteins responsible for the stability and function of E6^E7, E6, and E7. Although GRP78 and HSP90 do not bind each other, GRP78, but not HSP90, interacts with E6 and E7. E6^E7 protein, in addition to self-binding, interacts with E6 and E7 in the presence of GRP78 and HSP90, leading to the stabilization of E6 and E7 by prolonging the half-life of each protein. Knocking down E6^E7 expression in HPV16-positive CaSki cells by a splice junction-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) destabilizes E6 and E7 and prevents cell growth. The same is true for the cells with a GRP78 knockdown or in the presence of an HSP90 inhibitor. Moreover, mapping and alignment analyses for splicing elements in 36 alpha-HPVs (α-HPVs) suggest the possible expression of E6^E7 mostly by other oncogenic or possibly oncogenic α-HPVs (HPV18, -30, -31, -39, -42, -45, -56, -59, -70, and -73). HPV18 E6^E7 is detectable in HPV18-positive HeLa cells and HPV18-infected raft tissues. All together, our data indicate that viral E6^E7 and cellular GRP78 or HSP90 might be novel targets for cervical cancer therapy. HPV16 is the most prevalent HPV genotype, being responsible for 60% of invasive cervical cancer cases worldwide. What makes HPV16 so potent in the development of cervical cancer remains a mystery. We discovered in this study that, besides producing two well-known oncoproteins, E6 and E7, seen in other high-risk HPVs, HPV16 produces E6^E

  17. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil); Sichero, Laura [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre for Translational Research in Oncology, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Boccardo, Enrique [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo., São Paulo (Brazil); Villa, Luisa Lina [Department of Radiology and Oncology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Rahal, Paula, E-mail: rahalp@yahoo.com.br [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  18. Relating Complexity to Practical Performance in Parsing with Wide-Coverage Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, J

    1994-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that exponential complexities with respect to grammar size and input length have little impact on the performance of three unification-based parsing algorithms, using a wide-coverage grammar. The results imply that the study and optimisation of unification-based parsing must rely on empirical data until complexity theory can more accurately predict the practical behaviour of such parsers.

  19. The right to family unification : between migration control and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Mark Arnoldus Karel

    2015-01-01

    The central question in this book is whether there is a human right to family unification. This book identifies the key elements of the right to family unification. By investigating different sources of international, European and domestic law, it assesses whether and how the different legal systems

  20. Unification of Non-Abelian SU(N) Gauge Theory and Gravitational Gauge Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a general theory on unification of non-Abelian SU(N) gauge interactions and gravitationalinteractions is discussed. SU(N) gauge interactions and gravitational interactions are formulated on the similar basisand are unified in a semi-direct product group GSU(N). Based on this model, we can discuss unification of fundamentalinteractions of Nature.

  1. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [King Abdul Aziz City of Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-04-15

    The SU(5) grand unification with its vertical bar SU(5) vertical bar = 24 gauge Bosons is partially reformulated in a transfinite setting. By means of transfinite continuation it is shown that a new version of the theory yields an expectation value < vertical bar SU(5) vertical bar {sub c}> = 26 + k instead of the classical 24. By systematically exploring the non-super symmetric SU(5) scheme and transforming many of its fundamental aspects, it becomes plausible that it is a fundamental theory which could be integrated in various other fundamental theories including the transfinite forms of super strings and M theory.

  2. Gauge Unification at the String Scale and Fermion Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Allanach, B. C.; King, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), we discuss the introduction of exotic matter below the string scale $M_X$ in order to achieve gauge unification at $M_X$ (a constraint of a large class of string models). The possible types of exotic matter that can realise this are investigated and its effect on the top quark mass $m_t$ is presented. The implementation of a theory of fermion masses which utilises the exotic matter is briefly discussed.

  3. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). ICRR; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-03-15

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.

  4. Gauge-Yukawa unification in SO(10) SUSY GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, J. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Mondragon, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Shoda, S. [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Zoupanos, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    1996-06-10

    We study supersymmetric unified models with three fermion generations based on the gauge group SO(10) and require gauge-Yukawa unification, i.e. a renormalization group invariant functional relationship among the gauge and Yukawa couplings of the third generation in the symmetric phase. In the case of the minimal model, we find that the predicted values for the top and bottom quark masses are in agreement with the present experimental data for a wide range of supersymmetry breaking scales. We also find that an experimental accuracy of less than 1% for the top quark mass could test the corresponding prediction of the gauge-Yukawa unified model. (orig.).

  5. Reduction of Cycle Unification of Type Cpg+r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡运发; WolfgangBibel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a class of cycle unification problems called type Cpg+r is studied,and an intuitive representation method,called the position supergraph,is presented to analyze or reduce the cycle problem.A typical case of Cpg+r problems is considered and an algorithm is given,which tansforms the original problem of Cpg+r that is of the exponential complexity into a new one that is of the linear complexity when using SLD resolution method.These results are of importance for practice and theory.

  6. Grand unification in the spectral Pati-Salam model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [Physics Department, American University of Beirut,Beirut (Lebanon); College de France,3 rue Ulm, F-75005 Paris (France); Connes, Alain [College de France,3 rue Ulm, F-75005 Paris (France); I.H.E.S.,F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University,Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Suijlekom, Walter D. van [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-04

    We analyze the running at one-loop of the gauge couplings in the spectral Pati-Salam model that was derived in the framework of noncommutative geometry. There are a few different scenarios for the scalar particle content which are determined by the precise form of the Dirac operator for the finite noncommutative space. We consider these different scenarios and establish for all of them unification of the Pati-Salam gauge couplings. The boundary conditions are set by the usual RG flow for the Standard Model couplings at an intermediate mass scale at which the Pati-Salam symmetry is broken.

  7. Constraints on gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    We examine the possibility of observing the Kaluza-Klein gluons in gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC with the energy sqrt{s}=14 TeV. We consider a benchmark model with the gauge symmetry SU(3)_C x SU(3)_W in five-dimensional space-time, where SU(3)_C is the gauge symmetry of the strong interaction and SU(3)_W is that for the electroweak interaction and a Higgs doublet field. It is natural in general to introduce SU(3)_C gauge symmetry in five-dimensional space-time as well as SU(3)_W gauge symmetry in gauge-Higgs unification models. Since the fifth dimension is compactified to S1/Z2 orbifold, there are Kaluza-Klein modes of gluons in low-energy effective theory in four-dimensional space-time. We investigate the resonance contribution of the first Kaluza-Klein gluon to dijet invariant mass distribution at the LHC, and provide signal-to-noise ratios in various cases of Kaluza-Klein gluon masses and kinematical cuts. Although the results are given in a specific benchmark model, we discuss their applicati...

  8. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    2006-06-09

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  9. Supersymmetric grand unification with light color-triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhiani, Lasha

    2012-05-01

    We construct a natural model of the supersymmetric SU (6) unification, in which the symmetry breaking, down to the standard model gauge group, results in the number of pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone superfields with interesting properties. Namely, besides the Higgs doublet-antidoublet pair which is responsible for the electroweak phase transition, the Nambu-Goldstone sector consists of multiplets in the anti- and fundamental representations of SU (5). While being strictly massless in the supersymmetric limit, they acquire the weak scale masses as a result of its breaking. The color-triplet components of this light sector could, in principle, mediate an unacceptably fast proton decay; however, because of the natural TeV /MGUT suppression of the Yukawa couplings to the light quarks and leptons, their existence is compatible with the experimental bound on proton lifetime. This suppression is made further interesting, since it results in the lifetime, of the lightest of the above-mentioned colored particles from 1 s to 1 day, long enough for it to appear stable in the detector. Furthermore, we argue that the accommodation of the color-triplet pseudo-Nambu-Goldstones, without fine-tuning or contradicting observations, implies SU (6) unification.

  10. A Complete Theory of Grand Unification in Five Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, L J; Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    A fully realistic unified theory is constructed, with SU(5) gauge symmetry and supersymmetry both broken by boundary conditions in a fifth dimension. Despite the local explicit breaking of SU(5) at a boundary of the dimension, the large size of the extra dimension allows precise predictions for gauge coupling unification, alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.118 \\pm 0.003, and for Yukawa coupling unification, m_b(M_Z) = 3.3 \\pm 0.2 GeV. A complete understanding of the MSSM Higgs sector is given; with explanations for why the Higgs triplets are heavy, why the Higgs doublets are protected from a large tree-level mass, and why the mu and B parameters are naturally generated to be of order the SUSY breaking scale. All sources of d=4,5 proton decay are forbidden, while a new origin for d=6 proton decay is found to be important. Several aspects of flavor follow from an essentially unique choice of matter location in the fifth dimension: only the third generation has an SU(5) mass relation, and the lighter two generations have small mi...

  11. Proton Decay Prediction in 5D Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson mass and top quark mass imply that the Higgs quartic coupling vanishes around the scale of $10^8 - 10^{12}$ GeV, depending on the precise value of the top quark mass. The vanishing quartic coupling can be naturally addressed if the Higgs field originates from a 5-dimensional gauge field and the 5th dimension is compactified at the scale of the vanishing Higgs quartic coupling, which is a scenario based on gauge-Higgs unification. We present a general prediction of the scenario on the proton decay process $p \\to \\pi^0 e^+$. In many gauge-Higgs unification models, the 1st generation fermions are localized towards an orbifold fixed point in order to realize the realistic Yukawa couplings. Hence, four-fermion operators responsible for the proton decay can appear with a suppression of the 5-dimensional Planck scale (not the 4-dimensional Planck scale). Since the 5-dimensional Planck scale is connected to the compactification scale, we have a correlation between the proton partial decay width and th...

  12. ECONOMIC-POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF IMPORT TARIFF UNIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Afontsev

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic-political determinants of the Russian import tariff reform in 2000 − 2001 years, leading up to partial unification of the import customs duties, are considered a With this purpose the model of tariff policy definition which considers the aspiration of the government to minimize the losses of tariff incomes caused by incorrect declaring of the goods by importers is constructed in the work. It is revealed, that reception of tariff incomes was the main motive at the development of tariff policy; the following on a degree of importance were the motives connected with increase of citizens well-being and attraction of support from business lobbies. As a whole, the government has established lower rates of the tariff for the goods with higher probability of incorrect declaring, and higher rates - for the goods which otherwise could be used as a "screen" for incorrectly declared goods. At the same time significant opportunities for the further unification of import duties which can serve as perspective strategy of tariff policy during a transition period after Russian connection to WTO are kept.

  13. Constraints on gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki; Sakai, Yuki

    2016-02-01

    We examine the possibility of observing the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gluons in gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC with the energy s=14 TeV. We consider a benchmark model with the gauge symmetry SU(3)C×SU(3)W in five-dimensional spacetime, where SU(3)C is the gauge symmetry of the strong interaction and SU(3)W is that for the electroweak interaction and a Higgs doublet field. It is natural in general to introduce SU(3)C gauge symmetry in five-dimensional spacetime as well as SU(3)W gauge symmetry in gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) models. Since the fifth dimension is compactified to S1/Z 2 orbifold, there are KK modes of gluons in low-energy effective theory in four-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the resonance contribution of the first KK gluon to dijet invariant mass distribution at the LHC, and provide signal-to-noise ratios in various cases of KK gluon masses and kinematical cuts. Although the results are given in a specific benchmark model, we discuss their application to general GHU models with KK gluons. GHU models can be verified or constrained through the physics of the strong interaction, though they are proposed to solve the naturalness problem in electroweak symmetry breaking.

  14. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  15. False Vacuum Higgs Inflation and the Graviweak Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we develop a model of the Higgs inflation based on the non-minimal coupling of the Higgs boson to gravity predicted by Graviweak Unification. We construct a self-consistent $Spin(4,4)$-invariant model of the unification of gravity with weak $SU(2)$ interactions in the assumption of the existence of visible and invisible sectors of the Universe. Assuming the interaction between the ordinary and mirror Higgs fields, we develop a special Hybrid model of inflation. According to this model, the inflaton starts trapped from the "false vacuum" of the Universe at the Higgs field VEV $v\\sim 10^{18}$ GeV (in the visible world). Then the inflations of the two Higgs doublet fields, visible $\\phi$ and mirror $\\phi'$, lead to the emergence of the Standard Model vacua at the Electroweak scales with the Higgs boson VEVs $v_1\\approx 246$ GeV and $v'_1=\\zeta v_1$ in the visible and invisible worlds, respectively. Considering the results of cosmology and calculating the number of e-folds $N^*$, we predict $...

  16. Unification of reactor elastomeric sealing based on material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2012-02-15

    The unification of elastomeric sealing applications of Indian nuclear reactors based on a few qualified fluoroelastomer/perfluoroelastomer compounds and standardized approaches for finite element analysis (FEA) based design, manufacturing process and antifriction coatings is discussed. It is shown that the advance polymer architecture based Viton{sup Registered-Sign} formulation developed for inflatable seals of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and its four basic variations can encompass other sealing applications of PFBR with minimum additional efforts on development and validation. Changing the blend ratio of Viton{sup Registered-Sign} GBL 200S and 600S in inflatable seal formulation could extend its use to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The higher operating temperature of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) seals expands the choice to perfluoroelastomers. FEA based on plane-strain/axisymmetric modeling (with Mooney-Rivlin as the basic constitutive model), seal manufacture by cold feed extrusion and injection molding as well as plasma Teflon-like coating belonging to two variations obtained from the development of inflatable seals provide the necessary standardization for unification. The gains in simplification of design, development and operation of seals along with the enhancements of safety and reliability are expected to be substantial.

  17. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  18. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, J C

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)$_L \\times$ SU(2)$_R \\times$ SU(4)$^c$ or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in $\\mu \\to e\\gamma$, $\\tau \\to\\mu\\gamma$, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we ...

  19. Yukawa matrix unification in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Iskrzyński, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is studied as a low-energy theory stemming from the $SU(5)$ Grand Unified Theory (GUT). We investigate the possibility of satisfying the minimal $SU(5)$ boundary condition $\\mathbf{Y}^d=\\mathbf{Y}^{e\\,T}$ for the full $3\\!\\times\\!3$ down-quark and lepton Yukawa matrices at the GUT scale within the $R$-parity conserving MSSM. We give numerical evidence in favour of the statement: There exist regions in the parameter space of the R-parity conserving MSSM for which the unification of the down-quark and lepton Yukawa matrices takes place, while the predicted values of flavour, electroweak and other collider observables are consistent with experimental constraints. Furthermore, we find evidence that the bottom-tau and strange-muon Yukawa unification is possible with a stable MSSM vacuum in the standard form. We investigate two separate scenarios of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms at the GUT scale. In the first one, it is assumed that the ...

  20. Vector-like quarks and leptons, SU(5) ⊗ SU(5) grand unification, and proton decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2017-02-01

    SU(5) ⊗ SU(5) provides a minimal grand unification scheme for fermions and gauge forces if there are vector-like quarks and leptons in nature. We explore the gauge coupling unification in a non-supersymmetric model of this type, and study its implications for proton decay. The properties of vector-like quarks and intermediate scales that emerge from coupling unification play a central role in suppressing proton decay. We find that in this model, the familiar decay mode p → e +π0 may have a partial lifetime within the reach of currently planned experiments.

  1. Vector-Like Quarks and Leptons, SU(5) $\\otimes$ SU(5) Grand Unification, and Proton Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    SU(5) $\\otimes$ SU(5) provides a minimal grand unification scheme for fermions and gauge forces if there are vector-like quarks and leptons in nature. We explore the gauge coupling unification in a non-supersymmetric model of this type, and study its implications for proton decay. The properties of vector-like quarks and intermediate scales that emerge from coupling unification play a central role in suppressing proton decay. We find that in this model, the familiar decay mode $p \\to e^+ \\pi^0$ may have a partial lifetime within the reach of currently planned experiments.

  2. Gauge-Higgs unification with brane kinetic terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: fefo@ucol.mx; Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo [Cuerpo Academico de Particulas, Campos y Relatividad, FCFM-BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lorenzo.diaz@fcfm.buap.mx

    2006-02-16

    By identifying the Higgs field as an internal component of a higher-dimensional gauge field it is possible to solve the little hierarchy problem. The construction of a realistic model that incorporates such a gauge-Higgs unification is an important problem that demands attention. In fact, several attempts in this direction have already been put forward. In this Letter we single out one such attempt, a 6D SU(3) extended electroweak theory, where it is possible to obtain a Higgs mass prediction in accord with global fits. One shortcoming of the model is its prediction for the Weinberg angle, it is too large. We slightly modify the model by including brane kinetic terms in a way motivated by the orbifold action on the 6D fields. We show that in this way it is possible to obtain the correct Weinberg angle while keeping the desired results in the Higgs sector.

  3. Supersymmetric Grand Unification with Light Color-Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhiani, Lasha

    2011-01-01

    We construct a natural model of the supersymmetric SU(6) unification, in which the symmetry breaking, down to the standard model gauge group, results in the number of pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone superfields with interesting properties. Namely, besides the Higgs doublet-antidoublet pair which is responsible for the electroweak phase transition, the Nambu-Goldstone sector consists of multiplets in the anti- and fundamental representations of SU(5). While being strictly massless in the supersymmetric limit, they acquire the weak scale masses as a result of its breaking. The color-triplet components of this light sector could, in principle, mediate an unacceptably fast proton decay; however, because of the natural $\\text{TeV}/M_{\\text{GUT}}$ suppression of the Yukawa couplings to the light quarks and leptons, their existence is compatible with the experimental bound on proton lifetime. This suppression is made further interesting, since it results in the lifetime, of the lightest of the above-mentioned colored particl...

  4. Testing Gaugino Mass Unification Directly at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Brent D

    2010-01-01

    We report on the first step of a systematic study of how gaugino mass unification can be probed at the LHC in a quasi-model independent manner. Here we focus our attention on the theoretically well-motivated mirage pattern of gaugino masses, a one-parameter family of models of which universal (high scale) gaugino masses are a limiting case. Using a statistical method to optimize our signature selection we arrive at three ensembles of observables targeted at the physics of the gaugino sector, allowing for a determination of this non-universality parameter without reconstructing individual mass eigenvalues or the soft supersymmetry-breaking gaugino masses themselves. In this controlled environment we find that approximately 80% of the supersymmetric parameter space would give rise to a model for which our method will detect non-universality in the gaugino mass sector at the 10% level with approximately 10 inverse femptobarns of integrated luminosity.

  5. Gauge coupling unification in a classically scale invariant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2016-02-01

    There are a lot of works within a class of classically scale invariant model, which is motivated by solving the gauge hierarchy problem. In this context, the Higgs mass vanishes at the UV scale due to the classically scale invariance, and is generated via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Since the mass generation should occur not so far from the electroweak scale, we extend the standard model only around the TeV scale. We construct a model which can achieve the gauge coupling unification at the UV scale. In the same way, the model can realize the vacuum stability, smallness of active neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and dark matter relic abundance. The model predicts the existence vector-like fermions charged under SU(3) C with masses lower than 1 TeV, and the SM singlet Majorana dark matter with mass lower than 2.6 TeV.

  6. Towards a Loop Quantum Gravity and Yang-Mills unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon, E-mail: stephonalexander@mac.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Department of Physics, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marciano, Antonino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Tacchi, Ruggero Altair [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-09-19

    We propose a new method of unifying gravity and the Standard Model by introducing a spin-foam model. We realize a unification between an SU(2) Yang-Mills interaction and 3D general relativity by considering a constrained Spin(4){approx}SO(4) Plebanski action. The theory is quantized a la spin-foam by implementing the analogue of the simplicial constraints for the Spin(4) symmetry, providing a way to couple Yang-Mills fields to spin-foams. A natural 4D extension of the theory is introduced. We also present a way to recover 2-point correlation functions between the connections as a first way to implement scattering amplitudes between particle states, aiming to connect Loop Quantum Gravity to new physical predictions.

  7. Tadpoles and Symmetries in Higgs-Gauge Unification Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    In theories with extra dimensions the Standard Model Higgs fields can be identified with internal components of bulk gauge fields (Higgs-gauge unification). The bulk gauge symmetry protects the Higgs mass from quadratic divergences, but at the fixed points localized tadpoles can be radiatively generated if U(1) subgroups are conserved, making the Higgs mass UV sensitive. We show that a global symmetry, remnant of the internal rotation group after orbifold projection, can prevent the generation of such tadpoles. In particular we consider the classes of orbifold compactifications T^d/Z_N (d even, N>2) and T^d/Z_2 (arbitrary d) and show that in the first case tadpoles are always allowed, while in the second they can appear only for d=2 (six dimensions).

  8. Testing Gaugino Mass Unification Directly at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Brent D. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We report on the first step of a systematic study of how gaugino mass unification can be probed at the CERN LHC in a quasi-model independent manner. Here we focus our attention on the theoretically well-motivated mirage pattern of gaugino masses, a one-parameter family of models of which universal (high scale) gaugino masses are a limiting case. Using a statistical method to optimize our signature selection we arrive at three ensembles of observables targeted at the physics of the gaugino sector, allowing for a determination of this non-universality parameter without reconstructing individual mass eigenvalues or the soft supersymmetry-breaking gaugino masses themselves. In this controlled environment we find that approximately 80% of the supersymmetric parameter space would give rise to a model for which our method will detect non-universality in the gaugino mass sector at the 10% level with O(10fb{sup -1}) of integrated luminosity.

  9. Gauge-Higgs unification with brane kinetic terms

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    By identifying the Higgs field as an internal component of a higher dimensional gauge field it is possible to solve the little hierarchy problem. The construction of a realistic model that incorporates such a gauge-Higgs unification is an important problem that demands attention. In fact, several attempts in this direction have already been put forward. In this letter we single out one such attempt, a 6D SU(3) extended electroweak theory, where it is possible to obtain a Higgs mass prediction in accord with global fits. One shortcoming of the model is its prediction for the Weinberg angle, it is too large. We slightly modify the model by including brane kinetic terms in a way motivated by the orbifold action on the 6D fields. We show that in this way it is possible to obtain the correct Weinberg angle while keeping the desired results in the Higgs sector.

  10. Testing Grand Unification at the (S)LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rainwater, D L

    2007-01-01

    We examine the possibility of measuring the three gauge couplings at high scales at the LHC, in order to see the first steps as they run toward Grand Unification at much higher energies. Using the MSSM with sparticle masses of several hundred GeV as an example of a theory in which the couplings do unify at very high energies, we find that the processes pp->lv, pp->l+l- and pp->gamma+j can be useful to discriminate the SM from the MSSM with masses at the few hundred GeV scale, and determine that the couplings are converging at better than the SM prediction toward the GUT scale. Such measurements indirectly probe the existence of lower mass states, charged under the SM gauge groups, but which may be difficult to produce directly or extract from backgrounds at the LHC.

  11. Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism I: Mach's Principle and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghose, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenological consequences of unification of Einstein gravity and electromagnetism in an early phase of a Machian universe with a very small and uniform electrical charge density $\\rho_q$ are explored. A form of the Strong Equivalence Principle for unified electrogravity is first formulated, and it immediately leads to (i) the empirical Schuster-Blackett law relating the magnetic moments and angular momenta of neutral astronomical bodies, (ii) an analogous relation between the linear acceleration of neutral massive bodies and associated electric fields, (iii) gravitational lensing in excess of Einstein gravity, and, with the additional assumption of scaling, to (iv) the Wesson relation between the angular momentum and the square of the mass of astronomical bodies. Incorporation of Sciama's version of Mach's principle leads to a new post-Newtonian dynamics (in the weak field limit of gravity alone without electromagnetism) that predicts flat rotation curves of galaxies without the need of dark matter ha...

  12. The Origin of Families and $SO(18)$ Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    BenTov, Yoni

    2015-01-01

    We exploit a recent advance in the study of topological superconductors to propose a solution to the nagging family puzzle of particle physics in the context of SO(18) (or more correctly, Spin(18)) grand unification. We argue that Yukawa couplings of intermediate strength may allow the mirror matter and extra families to decouple at arbitrarily high energies. As was clear from the existing literature, we have to go beyond the Higgs mechanism in order to solve the family puzzle. A pattern of symmetry breaking which results in the SU(5) grand unified theory with horizontal or family symmetry USp(4) = Spin(5) (or more loosely, SO(5)) leaves exactly three light families of matter and seems particularly appealing. We comment briefly on an alternative scheme involving discrete non-abelian family symmetries. In a few lengthy appendices we review some of the pertinent condensed matter theory.

  13. Conjectures regarding kissing spheres hierarchy and quantum gravity unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Cairo (Egypt); Donghua University Shanghai (China)], E-mail: Chaossf@aol.com

    2008-01-15

    Conjectures regarding connections between hyper-spheres kissing problems in one- to eight-dimensional spaces and the inverse coupling constant of quantum gravity are presented. In particular we demonstrate that in S{sup (7)} and S{sup (8)} the coupling constants of the non-super-symmetric and the super-symmetric unification are given by {alpha}-bar{sub g}={sup 7}{radical}(K(128)){approx_equal}42 and {alpha}-bar{sub gs}={sup 8}{radical}(K(128)){approx_equal}26 respectively where K(128) {approx_equal} (2.18)(10){sup 11} is the sphere kissing number in D = 128 Euclidian space.

  14. Gauge coupling unification in a classically scale invariant model

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of works within a class of classically scale invariant model, which is motivated by solving the gauge hierarchy problem. In this context, the Higgs mass vanishes at the UV scale due to the classically scale invariance, and is generated via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Since the mass generation should occur not so far from the electroweak scale, we extend the standard model only around the TeV scale. We construct a model which can achieve the gauge coupling unification at the UV scale. In the same way, the model can realize the vacuum stability, smallness of active neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, and dark matter relic abundance. The model predicts the existence vector-like fermions charged under $SU(3)_C$ with masses lower than $1\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and the SM singlet Majorana dark matter with mass lower than $2.6\\,{\\rm TeV}$.

  15. Unification of Relativistic and Quantum Mechanics from Elementary Cycles Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dolce, Donatello

    2016-01-01

    In Elementary Cycles theory elementary quantum particles are consistently described as the manifestation of ultra-fast relativistic spacetime cyclic dynamics, classical in the essence. The peculiar relativistic geometrodynamics of Elementary Cycles theory yields de facto a unification of ordinary relativistic and quantum physics. In particular its classical-relativistic cyclic dynamics reproduce exactly from classical physics first principles all the fundamental aspects of Quantum Mechanics, such as all its axioms, the Feynman path integral, the Dirac quantisation prescription (second quantisation), quantum dynamics of statistical systems, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, atomic physics, superconductivity, graphene physics and so on. Furthermore the theory allows for the explicit derivation of gauge interactions, without postulating gauge invariance, directly from relativistic geometrodynamical transformations, in close analogy with the description of gravitational interaction in general relativity. In thi...

  16. The HPV E6/E7 Oncogenes: Key Factors for Viral Carcinogenesis and Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Bossler, Felicitas; Braun, Julia A; Herrmann, Anja L; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2017-08-17

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers are expected to remain a major health problem worldwide for decades. The growth of HPV-positive cancer cells depends on the sustained expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes which act in concert with still poorly defined cellular alterations. E6/E7 constitute attractive therapeutic targets since E6/E7 inhibition rapidly induces senescence in HPV-positive cancer cells. This cellular response is linked to the reconstitution of the antiproliferative p53 and pRb pathways, and to prosenescent mTOR signaling. Hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells could be a major obstacle for treatment strategies targeting E6/E7 since they downregulate E6/E7 but evade senescence through hypoxia-induced mTOR impairment. Prospective E6/E7 inhibitors may therefore benefit from a combination with treatment strategies directed against hypoxic tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsner, Ilja [University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in Split (FESB), Split (Croatia); Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kosnik, Nejc [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-06-15

    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} and S{sub 1,3}-R{sub 2}, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S{sub 1,3}-R{sub 2} scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10{sup 12} and 5 x 10{sup 13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S{sub 3}-R{sub 2} scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups. (orig.)

  18. Toward unification of the multiscale modeling of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arakawa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As far as the representation of deep moist convection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs. Ideally, these two kinds of model physics should be unified so that a continuous transition of model physics from one kind to the other takes place as the resolution changes. With such unification, the GCM can converge to a global CRM (GCRM as the grid size is refined. This paper suggests two possible routes to achieve the unification. ROUTE I continues to follow the parameterization approach, but uses a unified parameterization that is applicable to any horizontal resolutions between those typically used by GCMs and CRMs. It is shown that a key to construct such a unified parameterization is to eliminate the assumption of small fractional area covered by convective clouds, which is commonly used in the conventional cumulus parameterizations either explicitly or implicitly. A preliminary design of the unified parameterization is presented, which demonstrates that such an assumption can be eliminated through a relatively minor modification of the existing mass-flux based parameterizations. Partial evaluations of the unified parameterization are also presented. ROUTE II follows the "multi-scale modeling framework (MMF" approach, which takes advantage of explicit representation of deep moist convection and associated cloud-scale processes by CRMs. The Quasi-3-D (Q3-D MMF is an attempt to broaden the applicability of MMF without necessarily using a fully three-dimensional CRM. This is accomplished using a network of cloud-resolving grids with large gaps. An outline of the Q3-D algorithm and highlights of preliminary results are reviewed.

  19. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doršner, Ilja; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Košnik, Nejc

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S_3-R_2 and S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2 scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10^{12} and 5 × 10^{13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S_3-\\tilde{R}_2 scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S_3-R_2 scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups.

  20. Prospects for mass unification at low energy scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkas, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    A simple Pati-Salam SU(4) model with a low symmetry breaking scale of about 1000 TeV is presented. The analysis concentrates on calculating radiative corrections to tree level mass relations for third generation fermions. The tree-level relation m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} = 1 predicted by such models can receive large radiative corrections up to about 50% due to threshold effects at the mass unification scale. These corrections are thus of about the same importance as those that give rise to renormalisation group running. The high figure of 50% can be achieved because l-loop graphs involving the physical charged Higgs boson give corrections to m{sub {tau}} -m{sub b} that are proportional to the large top quark mass. These corrections can either increase or decrease m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} depending on the value of an unknown parameter. They can also be made to vanish through a fine-tuning. A related model of tree-level t-b-{tau} unification which uses the identification of SU(2){sub R} with custodial SU(2) is then discussed. A curious relation m{sub b}{approx} {radical}2m{sub {tau}} is found to be satisfied at tree-level in this model. The overall conclusion of this work is that the tree-level relation m{sub b}=m{sub {tau}} at low scales such as 1000 TeV or somewhat higher can produce a successful value for m{sub b}/m{sub {tau}} after corrections, but one must be mindful that radiative corrections beyond those incorporated through the renormalisation group can be very important. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are considered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interaction between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation-color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deepens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a

  2. Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are con- sidered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interac- tion between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation- color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deep- ens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a

  3. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condit, Richard C., E-mail: condit@mgm.ufl.edu; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.

  4. Logarithmic unification from symmetries enhanced in the sub-millimeter infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1999-08-21

    In theories with TeV string scale and sub-millimeter extra dimensions the attractive picture of logarithmic gauge coupling unification at 10{sup 16} GeV is seemingly destroyed. In this paper we argue to the contrary that logarithmic unification can occur in such theories. The rationale for unification is no longer that a gauge symmetry is restored at short distances, but rather that a geometric symmetry is restored at large distances in the bulk away from our 3-brane. The apparent ''running'' of the gauge couplings to energies far above the string scale actually arises from the logarithmic variation of classical fields in (sets of) two large transverse dimensions. We present a number of N = 2 and N = 1 supersymmetric D-brane constructions illustrating this picture for unification.

  5. 2-Loop supersymmetric renormalization group equations including R-parity violation and aspects of unification

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, H; Dreiner, Herbi; Pois, Heath

    1995-01-01

    We present the complete 2-loop renormalization group equations of the supersymmetric standard model. We thus explicitly include the full set of R -parity violating couplings, including \\kappa_iL_iH_2. We use these equations to do a first study of (a) gauge coupling unification, (b) bottom-tau unification, (c) the fixed point structure of the top quark Yukawa coupling, and (d) two-loop bounds from perturbative unification. We find significant shifts which can be larger than the effect from the top quark Yukawa coupling. The value of \\alpha_3(M_Z) can change by \\pm5\\%. The \\tan\\beta region for bottom-tau unification and for the top quark IR quasi fixed point structure is significantly increased. For heavy scalar fermion masses {\\cal{O}}(1\\tev) the limits on the \\Delta L\

  6. Neutralino Dark Matter and Other LHC Predictions from Quasi Yukawa Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih

    2015-01-01

    We explore the dark matter and LHC implications of t-b-tau quasi Yukawa unification in the framework of supersymmetric models based on the gauge symmetry G=SU(4)_{c}\\times SU(2)_{L}\\times SU(2)_{R}. The deviation from exact Yukawa unification is quantified by a dimensionless parameter C (|C| ~ 2 TeV, while the first two family squarks and sleptons are of order 4-5 TeV and 3 TeV respectively.

  7. Triple Unification of Inflation, Dark matter and Dark energy in Chaotic Braneworld Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Min(Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 Japan)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that in the framework of chaotic braneworld inflation, after preheating, the remaining oscillating inflaton field can play the role of dark matter with the observed level. Augmented by a non-zero effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda_4$ on the brane, triple unification of inflation, dark matter and dark energy by a single field is realized. Our model perhaps is the simplest one in the market of theories to achieve triple unification.

  8. Constructing a regional order Northeast Asia and the systemic constraints on Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Terence J.

    2006-01-01

    Nowhere has the mid-20th century polarization of Northeast Asia been more evident than on the Korean Peninsula. Over the past six decades, efforts toward Korean unification have spanned the range of total warfare, covert attacks, propagandist affronts, and formal diplomacy to no avail. Amidst the talk of unification however, it seens a better understanding about the evolving nature of Korea's division is needed. Using a truly unique International Relations approach, this thesis explores th...

  9. Left-right model with TeV fermionic dark matter and unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Triparno; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2017-08-01

    The ingredients for a model with a TeV right-handed scale, gauge coupling unification, and suitable dark matter candidates lie at the heart of left-right symmetry with broken D-parity. After detailing the contents of such a model, with SU(2)R self-conjugate fermions at the right-handed scale aiding in unification of couplings, we explore its dark matter implications and collider signatures.

  10. Reconciling BICEP2 and Planck results with right-handed Dirac neutrinos in the fundamental representation of grand unified E6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Vlcek, Brian J.

    2014-06-01

    The tensor-to-scalar ratio (r = 0.20+0.07-0.05) inferred from the excess B-mode power observed by the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP2) experiment is almost twice as large as the 95% CL upper limits derived from temperature measurements of the WMAP (r grand unification scale, in this paper we investigate whether we can accommodate the required Neff with three right-handed (partners of the left-handed standard model) neutrinos living in the fundamental representation of a grand unified exceptional E6 group. We show that the superweak interactions of these Dirac states (through their coupling to a TeV-scale Z' gauge boson) lead to decoupling of right-handed neutrino just above the QCD cross over transition: 175 MeVlesssimTνRdeclesssim250 MeV. For decoupling in this transition region, the contribution of the three right-handed neutrinos to Neff is suppressed by heating of the left-handed neutrinos (and photons). Consistency (within 1σ) with the favored Neff is achieved for 4.5 TeV < MZ' < 7.5 TeV. The model is fully predictive and can be confronted with future data from LHC14.

  11. Reconciling BICEP2 and Planck results with right-handed Dirac neutrinos in the fundamental representation of grand unified E_6

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Huang, Xing; Vlcek, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    The tensor-to-scalar ratio (r = 0.20^{+0.07}_{-0.05}) inferred from the excess B-mode power observed by the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP2) experiment is almost twice as large as the 95% CL upper limits derived from temperature measurements of the WMAP (r<0.13) and Planck (r<0.11) space missions. Very recently, it was suggested that additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons can help to relieve this tension: the data favor an effective number of light neutrino species N_{eff} = 3.86 \\pm 0.25. Since the BICEP2 ratio implies the energy scale of inflation (V_*^{1/4} \\sim 2 \\times 10^{16} GeV) is comparable to the grand unification scale, in this paper we investigate whether we can accommodate the required N_{eff} with three right-handed (partners of the left-handed standard model) neutrinos living in the fundamental representation of a grand unified exceptional E_6 group. We show that the superweak interactions of these Dirac st...

  12. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Tamara A.; Nicol, Clare; Cesur, Özlem [School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Travé, Gilles [UMR 7242 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, Illkirch 67412 (France); Blair, George Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J., E-mail: n.j.stonehouse@leeds.ac.uk [School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-24

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4) which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E6OL-1MCEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E6OL-1MCEA 1E6O 1MCE L A EIVLTQSPAITAASLGQKVTITCSAS----SSVSYMHWY...DINVKWKIDGSERQNGVLNSWTDQDS-KDSTYSMSSTLTLTKDEYERHNSYTCEATHKTSTSPIVKSFNRN--- PSALTQ-PPSASGSLGQSVT...82 1MCE A 1MCEA...in> 1MCE A 1MCEA...2 1MCE A 1MCEA

  14. Assessment of human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogene expression as cervical disease biomarker

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fontecha, Nerea; Basaras, Miren; Hernáez, Silvia; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    .... After RNA extraction, E6/E7 oncogene mRNA detection was performed by NucliSens[R] EasyQ[R] HPV v1 Test (bioM#241;rieux). The results of the present study showed that E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate...

  15. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Belyaeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4 which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future.

  16. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  17. HPV16 E6 Controls the Gap Junction Protein Cx43 in Cervical Tumour Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 causes a range of cancers including cervical and head and neck cancers. HPV E6 oncoprotein binds the cell polarity regulator hDlg (human homologue of Drosophila Discs Large. Previously we showed in vitro, and now in vivo, that hDlg also binds Connexin 43 (Cx43, a major component of gap junctions that mediate intercellular transfer of small molecules. In HPV16-positive non-tumour cervical epithelial cells (W12G Cx43 localised to the plasma membrane, while in W12T tumour cells derived from these, it relocated with hDlg into the cytoplasm. We now provide evidence that E6 regulates this cytoplasmic pool of Cx43. E6 siRNA depletion in W12T cells resulted in restoration of Cx43 and hDlg trafficking to the cell membrane. In C33a HPV-negative cervical tumour cells expressing HPV16 or 18 E6, Cx43 was located primarily in the cytoplasm, but mutation of the 18E6 C-terminal hDlg binding motif resulted in redistribution of Cx43 to the membrane. The data indicate for the first time that increased cytoplasmic E6 levels associated with malignant progression alter Cx43 trafficking and recycling to the membrane and the E6/hDlg interaction may be involved. This suggests a novel E6-associated mechanism for changes in Cx43 trafficking in cervical tumour cells.

  18. Radio Loud AGN Unification: Connecting Jets and Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Eileen T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While only a fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei are observed to host a powerful relativistic jet, a cohesive picture is emerging that radio-loud AGN may represent an important phase in the evolution of galaxies and the growth of the central super-massive black hole. I will review my own recent observational work in radio-loud AGN unification in the context of understanding how and why jets form and their the connection to different kinds of accretion and growing the black hole, along with a brief discussion of possible connections to recent modeling work in jet formation. Starting from the significant observational advances in our understanding of jetted AGN as a population over the last decade thanks to new, more sensitive instruments such as Fermi and Swift as well as all-sky surveys at all frequencies, I will lay out the case for a dichotomy in the jetted AGN population connected to accretion mode onto the black hole. In recent work, we have identified two sub-populations of radio-loud AGN which appear to be distinguished by jet structure, where low-efficiency accreting systems produce ‘weak’ jets which decelerate more rapidly than the ’strong’ jets of black holes accreting near the Eddington limit. The two classes are comprised of: (1The weak jet sources, corresponding to the less collimated, edge-darkened FR Is, with a decelerating or spine-sheath jet with velocity gradients, and (2 The strong jet sources, having fast, collimated jets, and typically displaying strong emission lines. The dichotomy in the vp-Lp plane can be understood as a "broken power sequence" in which jets exist on one branch or the other based on the particular accretion mode (Georganopolous 2011.We suggest that the intrinsic kinetic power (as measured by low-frequency, isotropic radio emission, the orientation, and the accretion rate of the SMBH system are the the fundamental axes needed for unification of radio-loud AGN by studying a well-characterized sample

  19. Photodynamic activity of the boronated chlorin e6 amide in artificial and cellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Yuri N; Kotova, Elena A; Omarova, Elena O; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Ol'shevskaya, Valentina A; Kalinin, Valery N; Nikitina, Roza G; Osipchuk, Julia S; Kaplan, Mikhail A; Ramonova, Alla A; Moisenovich, Mikhail M; Agapov, Igor I; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic tumor-destroying activity of the boronated chlorin e6 derivative BACE (chlorin e6 13(1)-N-{2-[N-(1-carba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)methyl]aminoethyl}amide-15(2), 17(3)-dimethyl ester), previously described in Moisenovich et al. (2010) PLoS ONE 5(9) e12717, was shown here to be enormously higher than that of unsubstituted chlorin e6, being supported by the data on much higher photocytotoxicity of BACE in M-1 sarcoma cell culture. To validate membrane damaging effect as the basis of the enhanced tumoricidal activity, BACE was compared with unsubstituted chlorin e6 in the potency to photosensitize dye leakage from liposomes, transbilayer lipid flip-flop, inactivation of gramicidin A ionic channels in planar lipid membranes and erythrocyte hemolysis. In all the models comprising artificial and cellular membranes, the photodynamic effect of BACE exceeded that of chlorin e6. BACE substantially differed from chlorin e6 in the affinity to liposomes and erythrocytes, as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, flow cytometry and centrifugation. The results support the key role of membrane binding in the photodynamic effect of the boronated chlorin e6 amide.

  20. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of HPV16 E6 and E7 genes in Greek women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakogiannis, D; Papadopoulou, A; Kontostathi, G; Ruether, I G A; Kyriakopoulou, Z; Dimitriou, T G; Orfanoudakis, G; Markoulatos, P

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) non-European variants have been associated with persistent infection and cervical cancer development, while the L83V variant of the E6 gene has been correlated with the progression of cervical malignancy. The present study investigated the presence of the HPV16 L83V variant in Greek women. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes was conducted in order to estimate the evolution of the HPV16 genome in the Greek population. The E6 L83V variant was found in 78.2 % of high- and 64.28 % of low-grade specimens. Moreover, the prototype and E6 L83V variants were both prevalent in high- and low-grade malignancies in Greek women. Selective pressure analysis of the individual amino acid residues of HPV16 sequences from the Greek population indicates that codon 83 of the E6 protein, as well as codon 85 of the E7 protein, are undergoing positive selection. Novel sequence variations were recorded within the E6 and E7 genes in cervical samples, characterized as (T350G) European variants. However, no signal of intratypic recombination event was identified within the E6-E7 region. Molecular and evolutionary analyses of HPV16 genomes from distinct geographical locations might provide valuable information about viral evolution and oncogenecity.

  1. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of chlorin e6 and its complexes with quantum dots in different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundelev, E. V.; Orlova, A. O.; Maslov, V. G.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The circular dichroism (CD) spectra of chlorin e6 and its complexes with ZnS:Mn/ZnS and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solutions with different pH, in methanol, and in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been experimentally investigated. The changes in the CD spectra of free chlorin e6 caused by its complexing with semiconductor QDs are analyzed. The application of CD spectroscopy made it possible to record for the first time the CD spectrum of luminescent dimer of chlorin e6 and reveal a nonluminescent aggregate of chlorin e6 (interpreted preliminary as a "tetramer"), the anisotropy factor of which exceeds that of its monomer by a factor of 40. An analysis of the experimental data shows that chlorin e6 in a complex with QDs can be either in the monomeric form or in the form of a nonluminescent "tetramer." The interaction with a relatively low-stable luminescent dimer of chlorin e6 with QDs leads to its partial monomerization and formation of complexes where chlorin e6 is in the monomeric form.

  2. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Antibodies in Individuals Without Diagnosed Cancer: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Waterboer, Tim; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Purdue, Mark P.; Holcátová, Ivana; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lagiou, Pagona; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Merletti, Franco; Healy, Claire M.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Conway, David I.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Thomson, Peter; Castellsagué, Xavier; Znaor, Ariana; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Krogh, Vittorio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B(as).; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ekström, Johanna; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Sánchez, María-José; Travis, Ruth C.; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in many developed countries has been attributed to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Recently, HPV16 E6 serology has been identified as a promising early marker for oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, characterization of HPV16 E6 seropositivity among individuals without cancer is warranted. Methods 4,666 controls were pooled from several studies of cancer and HPV seropositivity, all tested within the same laboratory. HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were classified as having i) moderate (mean fluorescent intensity [MFI]≥484 & <1000) or ii) high seroreactivity (MFI≥1000). Associations of moderate and high HPV16 E6 seroreactivity with i) demographic risk factors; and seropositivity for ii) other HPV16 proteins (E1, E2, E4, E7 and L1) and iii) E6 proteins from non-HPV16 types (HPV6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 52) were evaluated. Results Thirty-two (0.7%) HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were identified; 17 (0.4%) with moderate and 15 (0.3%) with high seroreactivity. High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity was associated with former smoking (odds ratio [OR] 5.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]:1.2-51.8]), and seropositivity against HPV16 L1 (OR 4.8, 95%CI:1.3-15.4); E2 (OR 7.7, 95%CI:1.4-29.1); multiple HPV16 proteins (OR 25.3, 95%CI:2.6-119.6 for 3 HPV16 proteins beside E6) and HPV33 E6 (OR 17.7, 95%CI:1.9-81.8). No associations were observed with moderate HPV16 E6 seroreactivity. Conclusions High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity is rare among individuals without diagnosed cancer and was not explained by demographic factors. Impact Some HPV16 E6 seropositive individuals without diagnosed HPV-driven cancer, especially those with seropositivity against other HPV16 proteins, may harbor a biologically relevant HPV16 infection. PMID:25623733

  3. Probing Yukawa unification with K and B mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trine, Stéphanie; Westhoff, Susanne; Wiesenfeldt, Sören

    2009-08-01

    We consider corrections to the unification of down-quark and charged-lepton Yukawa couplings in supersymmetric GUTs, which links the large ντ-νμ mixing angle to b → s transitions. These corrections generically occur in simple grand-unified models with small Higgs representations and affect s → d and b → d transitions via the mixing of the corresponding right-handed superpartners. On the basis of a specific SUSY-SO(10) model, we analyze the constraints from K-bar K and Bd-bar Bd mixing on the additional tilde dR-tilde sR rotation angle θ. We find that epsilonK already sets a stringent bound on θ, θmax ~ Script O(1°), indicating a very specific flavor structure of the correction operators. The impact of the large neutrino mixings on the unitarity triangle analysis is also briefly discussed, as well as their ability to account for the sizeable CP-violating phase observed recently in Bs → J/ψphi decays.

  4. Probing Yukawa Unification with K and B Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Trine, Stephanie; Wiesenfeldt, Soren

    2009-01-01

    We consider corrections to the unification of down-quark and charged-lepton Yukawa couplings in supersymmetric GUTs, which links the large nu_tau-nu_mu mixing angle to b -> s transitions. These corrections generically occur in simple grand-unified models with small Higgs representations and affect s -> d and b -> d transitions via the mixing of the corresponding right-handed superpartners. On the basis of a specific SUSY-SO(10) model, we analyze the constraints from K-Kbar and B-Bbar mixing on the additional \\tilde{d}_R-\\tilde{s}_R rotation angle theta. We find that epsilon_K already sets a stringent bound on theta, theta^{max}=O(1 degree), indicating a very specific flavor structure of the correction operators. The impact of the large neutrino mixings on the unitarity triangle analysis is also briefly discussed, as well as their ability to account for the sizeable CP-violating phase observed recently in B_s -> psi phi decays.

  5. SU(8) Family Unification with Boson Fermion Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2015-03-01

    We formulate an SU(8) family unification model motivated by requiring that the theory should incorporate the graviton, gravitinos, and the fermions and gauge fields of the standard model, with boson.fermion balance. Gauge field SU(8) anomalies cancel between the gravitinos and spin 1/2 fermions. The 56 of scalars breaks SU(8) to SU(3)family×SU(5)×U(1)/Z5, with the fermion representation content needed for "flipped" SU(5) with three families, and with residual scalars in the 10 and overline {10} representations that break flipped SU(5) to the standard model. Dynamical symmetry breaking can account for the generation of 5 representation scalars needed to break the electroweak group. Yukawa couplings of the 56 scalars to the fermions are forbidden by chiral and gauge symmetries, so in the first stage of SU(8) breaking fermions remain massless. In the limit of vanishing gauge coupling, there are N = 1 and N = 8 supersymmetries relating the scalars to the fermions, which restrict the form of scalar self-couplings and should improve the convergence of perturbation theory, if not making the theory finite and "calculable." In an Appendix we give an analysis of symmetry breaking by a Higgs component, such as the (1, 1)(-15) of the SU(8) 56 under SU(8) ⊃ SU(3) × SU(5) × U(1), which has nonzero U(1) generator.

  6. Symmetry Breaking, Unification, and Theories Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-07-31

    A model was constructed in which the supersymmetric fine-tuning problem is solved without extending the Higgs sector at the weak scale. We have demonstrated that the model can avoid all the phenomenological constraints, while avoiding excessive fine-tuning. We have also studied implications of the model on dark matter physics and collider physics. I have proposed in an extremely simple construction for models of gauge mediation. We found that the {mu} problem can be simply and elegantly solved in a class of models where the Higgs fields couple directly to the supersymmetry breaking sector. We proposed a new way of addressing the flavor problem of supersymmetric theories. We have proposed a new framework of constructing theories of grand unification. We constructed a simple and elegant model of dark matter which explains excess flux of electrons/positrons. We constructed a model of dark energy in which evolving quintessence-type dark energy is naturally obtained. We studied if we can find evidence of the multiverse.

  7. Testing Quasar Unification: Radiative Transfer in Clumpy Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, James H; Long, Knox S; Sim, Stuart A; Higginbottom, Nick; Mangham, Sam W

    2016-01-01

    Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to $10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of $\\sim0.01$ moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Ly \\alpha\\ and CIV 1550\\AA\\ at low inclinations. At high ...

  8. Split Sfermion Families, Yukawa Unification and Muon g-2

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaib, M Adeel; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih

    2014-01-01

    We consider two distinct classes of Yukawa unified supersymmetric SO(10) models with non-universal and universal soft supersymmetry breaking (SSB) gaugino masses at M_{\\rm GUT}. In both cases, we assume that the third family SSB sfermion masses at M_{\\rm GUT} are different from the corresponding sfermion masses of the first two families (which are equal). For the SO(10) model with essentially arbitrary (non-universal) gaugino masses at M_{\\rm GUT}, it is shown that t-b-\\tau Yukawa coupling unification is compatible, among other things, with the 125 GeV Higgs boson mass, the WMAP relic dark matter density, and with the resolution of the apparent muon g-2 anomaly. The colored sparticles in this case all turn out to be quite heavy, of order 5 TeV or more, but the sleptons (smuon and stau) can be very light, of order 200 GeV or so. For the SO(10) model with universal gaugino masses and NUHM2 boundary conditions, the muon g-2 anomaly cannot be resolved. However, the gluino in this class of models is not too heavy,...

  9. SU(8) unification with boson-fermion balance

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    We formulate an $SU(8)$ unification model motivated by requiring that the theory should incorporate the graviton, gravitinos, and the fermions and gauge fields of the standard model, with boson--fermion balance. Gauge field $SU(8)$ anomalies cancel between the gravitinos and spin $\\frac {1}{2}$ fermions. The 56 of scalars breaks $SU(8)$ to $SU(3)_{family} \\times SU(5)/Z_5$, with the fermion representation content needed for ``flipped'' $SU(5)$, and with the residual scalars in the representations needed for further gauge symmetry breaking to the standard model. Yukawa couplings of the 56 scalars to the fermions are forbidden by chiral and gauge symmetries. In the limit of vanishing gauge coupling, there are $N=1$ and $N=8$ supersymmetries relating the scalars to the fermions, which restrict the form of scalar self-couplings and should improve the convergence of perturbation theory, if not making the theory finite and ``calculable''. In an Appendix we give an analysis of symmetry breaking by a Higgs component,...

  10. Proton lifetime from SU(5) unification in extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alciati, Maria Laura; Feruglio, Ferruccio E-mail: ferruccio.feruglio@pd.infn.it; Lin Yin; Varagnolo, Alvise

    2005-03-01

    We provide detailed estimates of the proton lifetime in the context of simple supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified models with an extra compact spatial dimension, described by the orbifold S/(Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2}') and by a large compactification scale Mc. We focus on a class of models where the grand unified symmetry is broken by the compactification mechanism and where baryon violation proceeds mainly through gauge vector boson exchange so that the proton lifetime scales as the fourth power of Mc. We carefully compute Mc from a next-to-leading analysis of gauge coupling unification and we find that Mc can only be predicted up to an overall factor one hundred. The simplest model, where the dominant decay mode is ({pi}{sup 0}e+) and has no flavour suppression, is strongly constrained by existing data, but not totally ruled out. We also analyze models where some of the matter fields are localized in the extra space and proton decay is flavour suppressed. In models associated to anarchy in the neutrino sector the preferred decay channel is (K+{l_brace}{nu}-bar{r_brace}) and the lifetime can be within the reach of the next generation of experiments. (author)

  11. Local SU(5) unification from the heterotic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Schmidt, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Luedeling, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-07-15

    We construct a 6D supergravity theorywhich emerges as intermediate step in the compactification of the herterotic string to the supersymmetric standard model in four dimensions. The theory has N=2 supersymmetry and a gravitational sector with one tensor and two hypermultiplets in addition to the supergravity multiplet. Compactification to four dimensions occurs on a T{sup 2}/Z{sub 2} orbifold which has two inequivalent pairs of fixed points with unbroken SU(5) and SU(2) x SU(4) symmetry, respectively. All gauge, gravitational and mixed anomalies are cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. The model has partial 6D gauge-Higgs unification.Two quark-lepton generations are localized at the SU(5) branes, the third family is composed of split bulk hypermultiplets. The top Yukawa coupling is given by the 6D gauge coupling, all other Yukawa couplings are generated by higher-dimensional operators at the SU(5) branes. The presence of the SU(2) x SU(4) brane breaks SU(5) and generates split gauge and Higgs multiplets with N=1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. The third generation is obtained from two split anti 5-plets and two split 10-plets, which together vave the quantum numbers of one anti 5 plet and one 10-plet. This avoids unscuccessful SU(5) predictions for Yukawa couplings of ordinary 4D SU(5) grand unified theories. (orig.)

  12. 750 GeV Diphotons: Implications for Supersymmetric Unification II

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Perturbative supersymmetric gauge coupling unification is possible in six theories where complete SU(5) TeV-scale multiplets of vector matter account for the size of the reported $750~{\\rm GeV}$ diphoton resonance, interpreted as a singlet multiplet $S = (s+ia)/\\sqrt{2}$. One of these has a full generation of vector matter and a unified gauge coupling $\\alpha_G \\sim 1$. The diphoton signal rate is enhanced by loops of vector squarks and sleptons, especially when the trilinear $A$ couplings are large. If the $SH_u H_d$ coupling is absent, both $s$ and $a$ can contribute to the resonance, which may then have a large apparent width if the mass splitting from $s$ and $a$ arises from loops of vector matter. The width depends sensitively on $A$ parameters and phases of the vector squark and slepton masses. Vector quarks and/or squarks are expected to be in reach of the LHC. If the $SH_uH_d$ coupling is present, $a$ leads to a narrow diphoton resonance, while a second resonance with decays $s \\rightarrow hh, W^+ W^-...

  13. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qingwen Wu; Ya-Di Xu; Xinwu Cao

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the relation between black hole mass, bh, and jet power, jet, for a sample of BL Lacs and radio quasars. We find that BL Lacs are separated from radio quasars by the FR I/II dividing line in bh-jet plane, which strongly supports the unification scheme of FR I/BL Lac and FR II/radio quasar. The Eddington ratio distribution of BL Lacs and radio quasars exhibits a bimodal nature with a rough division at bol/Edd ∼ 0.01, which imply that they may have different accretion modes. We calculate the jet power extracted from advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF), and find that it requires dimensionless angular momentum of black hole ≃ 0.9 - 0.99 to reproduce the dividing line between FR I/II or BL Lac/radio quasar if dimensionless accretion rate $\\dot{m} = 0.01$ is adopted, which is required by the above bimodal distribution of Eddington ratios. Our results suggest that black holes in radio galaxies are rapidly spinning.

  14. The Human Papillomavirus E6 PDZ Binding Motif: From Life Cycle to Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Ganti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-causing HPV E6 oncoproteins are characterized by the presence of a PDZ binding motif (PBM at their extreme carboxy terminus. It was long thought that this region of E6 had a sole function to confer interaction with a defined set of cellular substrates. However, more recent studies have shown that the E6 PBM has a complex pattern of regulation, whereby phosphorylation within the PBM can regulate interaction with two classes of cellular proteins: those containing PDZ domains and the members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins. In this review, we explore the roles that the PBM and its ligands play in the virus life cycle, and subsequently how these can inadvertently contribute towards the development of malignancy. We also explore how subtle alterations in cellular signal transduction pathways might result in aberrant E6 phosphorylation, which in turn might contribute towards disease progression.

  15. RNA (E6 and E7) assays versus DNA (E6 and E7) assays for risk evaluation for women infected with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Paola; Siddu, Alessia; D'Onghia, Sara; Marchetti, Simona; Santangelo, Rosaria; Vellone, Valerio G; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Fadda, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    In the majority of cases, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) infections regress spontaneously, with only a small percentage progressing to high-grade lesions. Current screening methods are based on DNA detection. An alternative would be to monitor expression of the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes continuously expressed by malignant phenotypes. In the work reported in this paper, we compared the two methods for a group of women with high-risk HPV infections. Cervical specimens from 400 women, previously found to be HPV DNA positive, were analyzed for HPV DNA by a liquid hybridization assay and typed by multiplex PCR (for types 16, 18, 31, and 33). Identification of HR HPV E6 and E7 RNA transcripts was performed using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays. Results were compared with concurrent cytological data. HR HPVs were found in 61.2% of patients. The most common genotype was HPV type 16 (HPV-16) (47.1%), followed by HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-33. Nine percent of cases involved other genotypes. Among 223 HPV DNA-positive samples, only 118 were positive in the RNA test. Among HPV DNA-positive patients with normal cytology, we detected E6 and E7 RNA transcripts in two cases (18.2%). The rate of detection increased gradually with the grade of the observed lesions, rising from 20% for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to 48.1% for women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 86.3% for those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. These results suggest that testing for HPV E6 and E7 transcripts could be a useful tool for screening and patient management, providing more accurate predictions of risk than those obtained by DNA testing.

  16. HPV16 E6/E7 Negatively Affect Radiosensitivity of Lung Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lu; Qinghui Meng; Ming Cui; Xiaofei Chu; Shuyi Zhao; Huiwen Xiao; Jiali Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lung cancer cells associated with radioresistance are likely to give rise to local recurrence and distant metastatic relapse,but little is known about its underlying mechanisms.In the present paper,the effects of the HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cell lines were investigated.Methods The HPV16 E6 or HPV16 E7 oncoprotein was expressed by a transient transfection with pcDNA3-HPV16 E6 or pcDNA3-HPV16 E7 expression vector.Human lung cancer H2179 cells and mouse lung cancer Lewis cells were exposed to a γ-ray radiation source,cellular survival was evaluated by using a colony formation assay.The expression of HPV16 oncoproteins E6/E7,extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2(ERK1/2) and AKT signaling was determined by Western blot assay.VEGF secretion was determined by ELISA.Results Both HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 significantly decreased radiosensitivity of H2179 cells,associated with a promotion of the ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation.A decrease of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and an increase of VEGF levels were observed in the cells expressing the HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7.Furthermore,a similar reduction of radiosensitivity mediated by the HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 was also observed in a mouse lung cancer Lewis cells.Conclusion The findings indicate that the HPV16 oncoproteins E6 and E7 negatively affects susceptibility of lung cancer cells to radiotherapy via regulation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathway and VEGF expression.

  17. Complete theory of grand unification in five dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2002-10-01

    A fully realistic unified theory is constructed, with SU(5) gauge symmetry and supersymmetry both broken by boundary conditions in a fifth dimension. Despite the resulting explicit breaking of SU(5) locally at a boundary of the dimension, when the size of the extra dimension is taken to be large precise predictions emerge for gauge coupling unification, αs(MZ)=0.118+/-0.003, and for Yukawa coupling unification, mb(MZ)=3.3+/-0.2 GeV. The 5D theory is then valid over a large energy interval from the compactification scale, Mc~=1×1015 GeV, to the scale of strong coupling, Ms~=1×1017 GeV. A complete understanding of the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is given, with explanations for why the Higgs triplets are heavy, why the Higgs doublets are protected from a large tree-level mass, and why the μ and B parameters are naturally generated to be of order the supersymmetry breaking scale. All sources of proton decay from operators of dimension four and five are forbidden, while a new origin for baryon number violating dimension six operators is found to be important. The exchange of the superheavy gauge boson, with a brane-localized kinetic energy interaction, leads to τp~1034 yr, with several branching ratios determined in terms of a single mixing parameter. The theory is only realistic for an essentially unique choice of matter location in the fifth dimension: the ten-plets of the first two generations must lie in the bulk, with all other matter located on the SU(5) preserving boundary. Several aspects of flavor follow from this geometry: only the third generation possesses an SU(5) mass relation, and the lighter two generations have only small mixings with the heaviest generation except for neutrinos. The entire superpartner spectrum is predicted in terms of only two free parameters. The squark and slepton masses have sizes determined by their location in the fifth dimension, allowing a significant experimental test of the detailed

  18. Civil And Arbitration Proceedings Unification In Russia: Relevance, Problems, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia M. Belikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors, by analyzing provisions of the applicable civil and arbitration codes of Russia (hereinafter - the Code of Civil Procedure and the Code of Arbitration Procedure of the Russian Federation justify the relevance of the procedural reform and indicate its future prospects. Considerable attention is paid to the recently adopted Concept of a Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation (hereinafter - the Concept. According to the author's position, now the creation and adoption of a united Code of Civil Procedure is not only relevant, but necessary phenomenon. In connection with this, the subject of analysis of the proposed concept is improved procedure for handling the application for disqualification of a judge, in comparison with the similar provisions of the existing Code of Civil Procedure and of the Code of Arbitration Procedure stand out its advantages. In addition, authors focus on other existing problems of legal regulation of various issues in the current Code of Civil Procedure and of the Code of Arbitration Procedure. Thus, in the view of the author in this article falls consideration of the problems associated with the absentee in civil proceedings, as well as the sole consideration (some provided by the Code of Civil Procedure, and the cases of the Code of Arbitration Procedure appeal against the decision of the trial court. The article also contains a disagreement with the position of the proposed by the concept for the recovery of legal costs for the services of their representatives to the proof in full and invited author's position on this issue. In addition to the analysis of the issues authors also offer some options for their solutions. At the end of the article authors make conclusions regarding the relevance of the Concept, its strengths and weaknesses in the regulation of the studied issues and the prospects of unification of civil and arbitration proceedings in Russia.

  19. Epic Consciousness: A Pertinent New Unification of an Important Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon M Neppe

    2014-11-01

    and output model, applicable to any consciousness models like stimulus-organ-response, dendrite-neuron-axon, or stimulus-brain (central-motor: The four EPIC prongs are always applied together, reflecting the unification of consciousness in its broadest general applications.

  20. Unification of General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jun

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of quantum field theory, instead of using the action principle, we deduce the Einstein equation from purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime. The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation. Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum. In the action of quantum field theory, only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.%In the frame of quantum field theory,instead of using the action principle,we deduce the Einstein equation trom purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime.The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation.Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum.In the action of quantum field theory,only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation.An unified physical theory of all interactions is a long pursued goal for physicists.The unification of electricity and magnetism by Maxwell was a great step in this direction.It is believed that in nature,there are four types of fundamental interactions:the electromagnetic interaction,weak interaction,strong interaction and gravity.Now the electromagnetic,weak and strong interactions are unified using the so-called standard model,[1] based on the Yang-Mills gauge field theory.[2] However,researchers are still not be able to unify gravitation with the other three interactions.

  1. Testing quasar unification: radiative transfer in clumpy winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.; Mangham, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    Various unification schemes interpret the complex phenomenology of quasars and luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in terms of a simple picture involving a central black hole, an accretion disc and an associated outflow. Here, we continue our tests of this paradigm by comparing quasar spectra to synthetic spectra of biconical disc wind models, produced with our state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. Previously, we have shown that we could produce synthetic spectra resembling those of observed broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, but only if the X-ray luminosity was limited to 1043 erg s-1. Here, we introduce a simple treatment of clumping, and find that a filling factor of ˜0.01 moderates the ionization state sufficiently for BAL features to form in the rest-frame UV at more realistic X-ray luminosities. Our fiducial model shows good agreement with AGN X-ray properties and the wind produces strong line emission in, e.g., Lyα and C IV 1550 Å at low inclinations. At high inclinations, the spectra possess prominent LoBAL features. Despite these successes, we cannot reproduce all emission lines seen in quasar spectra with the correct equivalent-width ratios, and we find an angular dependence of emission line equivalent width despite the similarities in the observed emission line properties of BAL and non-BAL quasars. Overall, our work suggests that biconical winds can reproduce much of the qualitative behaviour expected from a unified model, but we cannot yet provide quantitative matches with quasar properties at all viewing angles. Whether disc winds can successfully unify quasars is therefore still an open question.

  2. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Chairmen's PrefaceIn 1984 we obtained a grant from the Nobel Foundation to organize a Nobel Symposium on "Unification of the Fundamental Interactions". In our proposal which we submitted in the fall of 1983 we stated that we wanted to cover the various attempts to unification such as GUT'S, supergravity, Kaluza-Klein theories and superstrings. What has happened in particle physics since then is already history. With the realization that certain superstring theories could be anomaly free, it became clear that these models could encompass earlier attempts to unification as well as solving the fundamental problem of quantum gravity. The excitement that some of us had felt for some time now spread through most of the particle physics community and this excitement certainly was evident during the Symposium. With the international advisory committee we originally chose a list of around 30 invitees which could best represent the various subjects listed above. When it came to the final planning of the programme essentially all talks dealt with superstrings! We were very fortunate that almost all of the invitees managed to come to the Symposium. From the western world only three were unable to participate, André Neveu, Steven Weinberg and Bruno Zumino. We certainly missed them during the meeting. We were particularly happy that Stephen Hawking managed to take part actively. Our real problem was to get participants from the Soviet Union. Out of eight invitations only one came through. We were very happy to have Renata Kallosh, who really did her utmost to enlighten us about not only her own work but also about recent progress in the USSR, However, we were very sorry that in spite of all our letters, telegrammes and endless attempts to get telephone calls through and despite the good relations between the Swedish and Soviet Academies of Sciences we had to miss Ludwig Faddeev, Valodja Gribov, Andrej Linde, Victor Ogievetsky, Sasha Polyakov, Misha Shifman and Arkadij

  3. Ultrasensitive quantitation of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncogene sequences by nested real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Revilla Rubén

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed an ultrasensitive method based on conventional PCR preamplification followed by nested amplification through real time PCR (qPCR in the presence of the DNA intercalating agent EvaGreen. Results Amplification mixtures calibrated with a known number of pHV101 copies carrying a 645 base pair (bp-long insert of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E6 oncogene were used to generate the E6-1 amplicon of 645 bp by conventional PCR and then the E6-2 amplicon of 237 bp by nested qPCR. Direct and nested qPCR mixtures for E6-2 amplification corresponding to 2.5 × 102-2.5 × 106 initial pHV101 copies had threshold cycle (Ct values in the ranges of 18.7-29.0 and 10.0-25.0, respectively. The Ct of qPCR mixtures prepared with 1/50 volumes of preamplified mixtures containing 50 ng of DNA of the SiHa cell line (derived from an invasive cervical cancer with one HPV16 genome per cell was 19.9. Thermal fluorescence extinction profiles of E6-2 amplicons generated from pHV101 and SiHa DNA were identical, with a peak at 85.5°C. Conclusions Our method based on conventional preamplification for 15 cycles increased 10,750 times the sensitivity of nested qPCR for the quantitation of the E6 viral oncogene and confirmed that the SiHa cell line contains one E6-HPV16 copy per cell.

  4. A Higher—Order Unification Algorithm for Inductive Types and Dependent Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭庆平

    1997-01-01

    is paper presents a method to define a set of mutually recursive inductive types,and develops a higher-order unification algorithm for λП∑ extended with inductive types.The algorithm is an extension of Elliott's algorithm for λП∑.The notaiton of normal forms plays a vital role in higher-order unification.The weak head normal forms in the extended type theory is defined to reveal the ultimate “top level structures”of the fully normalized terms and types.Unification transformation rules are designed to deal with inductive types,a recursive operator and its reduction rule.The algorithm can construct recursive functions automatically.

  5. Minimal anomaly-free chiral fermion sets and gauge coupling unification

    CERN Document Server

    Cebola, Luis M; Felipe, R Gonzalez; Simoes, C

    2014-01-01

    We look for minimal chiral sets of fermions beyond the Standard Model that are anomaly-free and, simultaneously, vector-like particles with respect to colour SU(3) and electromagnetic U(1). We then study whether the addition of such particles to the Standard Model particle content allows for the unification of gauge couplings at a high energy scale, above $5.0 \\times 10^{15}$ GeV so as to be safely consistent with proton decay bounds. The possibility to have unification at the string scale is also considered. Inspired in grand unified theories, we also search for minimal chiral fermion sets that belong to SU(5) multiplets. Restricting to representations up to dimension 50, we show that some of these sets can lead to gauge unification at the GUT and/or string scales.

  6. Formalization and Parsing of Typed Unification-Based ID/LP Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Morawietz, F

    1999-01-01

    This paper defines unification based ID/LP grammars based on typed feature structures as nonterminals and proposes a variant of Earley's algorithm to decide whether a given input sentence is a member of the language generated by a particular typed unification ID/LP grammar. A solution to the problem of the nonlocal flow of information in unification ID/LP grammars as discussed in Seiffert (1991) is incorporated into the algorithm. At the same time, it tries to connect this technical work with linguistics by presenting an example of the problem resulting from HPSG approaches to linguistics (Hinrichs and Nakasawa 1994, Richter and Sailer 1995) and with computational linguistics by drawing connections from this approach to systems implementing HPSG, especially the TROLL system, Gerdemann et al. (forthcoming).

  7. Exploring the Use of Enterprise Content Management Systems in Unification Types of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Noreen Izza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to better understand how highly standardized and integrated businesses known as unification types of organizations use Enterprise Content Management Systems (ECMS to support their business processes. Multiple case study approach was used to study the ways two unification organizations use their ECMS in their daily work practices. Arising from these case studies are insights into the differing ways in which ECMS is used to support businesses. Based on the comparisons of the two cases, this study proposed that unification organizations may use ECMS in four ways, for: (1 collaboration, (2 information sharing that supports a standardized process structure, (3 building custom workflows that support integrated and standardized processes, and (4 providing links and access to information systems. These findings may guide organizations that are highly standardized and integrated in fashion, to achieve their intended ECMS-use, to understand reasons for ECMS failures and underutilization and to exploit technologies investments.

  8. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Upregulates APOBEC3B via the TEAD Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Seiichiro; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Yugawa, Takashi; Kiyono, Tohru; Nishina, Hiroshi; Kukimoto, Iwao

    2017-03-15

    The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) underlies the genetic heterogeneity of several human cancers, including cervical cancer, which is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We previously identified a region within the A3B promoter that is activated by the viral protein HPV16 E6 in human keratinocytes. Here, we discovered three sites recognized by the TEAD family of transcription factors within this region of the A3B promoter. Reporter assays in HEK293 cells showed that exogenously expressed TEAD4 induced A3B promoter activation through binding to these sites. Normal immortalized human keratinocytes expressing E6 (NIKS-E6) displayed increased levels of TEAD1/4 protein compared to parental NIKS. A series of E6 mutants revealed that E6-mediated degradation of p53 was important for increasing TEAD4 levels. Knockdown of TEADs in NIKS-E6 significantly reduced A3B mRNA levels, whereas ectopic expression of TEAD4 in NIKS increased A3B mRNA levels. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated increased levels of TEAD4 binding to the A3B promoter in NIKS-E6 compared to NIKS. Collectively, these results indicate that E6 induces upregulation of A3B through increased levels of TEADs, highlighting the importance of the TEAD-A3B axis in carcinogenesis.IMPORTANCE The expression of APOBEC3B (A3B), a cellular DNA cytidine deaminase, is upregulated in various human cancers and leaves characteristic, signature mutations in cancer genomes, suggesting that it plays a prominent role in carcinogenesis. Viral oncoproteins encoded by human papillomavirus (HPV) and polyomavirus have been reported to induce A3B expression, implying the involvement of A3B upregulation in virus-associated carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms causing A3B upregulation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous expression of the cellular transcription factor TEAD activates the A3B promoter. Further, the HPV oncoprotein E6 increases the levels of endogenous TEAD1

  9. Expressions of HPV 16-E6 in Esophageal Carcinoma and its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The role of (Human Papilloma Virus HPV in cancer of certain anatomical location, such as cervix, has been widely recognized. The present study was conducted to explore the association between HPV 16-E6 protein and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: SP immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression of HPV 16-E6 in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 10 cases of normal esophageal squamous cell and 10 cases of adjacent tissue. Results: The expression of HPV 16-E6 was significantly higher in esophageal carcinoma than in normal esophageal mucosa and in adjacent tissue. The expressions of HPV 16-E6 had significant correlation with invasive depth (P<0.05, but not with patient age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size (P>0.05. Conclusion: HPV 16-E6 can promote the growth and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and can be a prognostic factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i4.12970 JCMS Nepal 2014; 10(4:1-5 

  10. Human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins as risk factors for tumorigenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niladri Ganguly; Suraj P Parihar

    2009-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is small, double-stranded DNA virus that infects mucosal and cutaneous epithelial tissue. HPV is sexually transmitted and the viral DNA replicates extrachromosomally. The virus is non-enveloped and has an icosahedral capsid. There are approximately 118 types of HPV, which are characterized as high-risk or low-risk types. High-risk HPVs cause malignant transformation while the low-risk ones cause benign warts and lesions. The expression of E6 and E7 is normally controlled during the normal viral life cycle when viral DNA replicates extrachromosomally. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are overexpressed when the viral genome integrates into the host DNA. Deregulated overexpression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins can cause several changes in cellular pathways and functions leading to malignant transformation of cells and tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on several cellular mechanisms and pathways that are altered in the presence of E6 and E7, the target proteins of E6 and E7 inside the host cell and how they contribute to the development of the transformed phenotype..

  11. Unification of the three families of generalized Apostol type polynomials on the Umbral algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dere, Rahime

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and introduce some new identities related to the unification and generalization of the three families of generalized Apostol type polynomials, which are Apostol-Bernoulli, Apostol-Euler, and Apostol-Genocchi polynomials, on the modern theory of the Umbral calculus and algebra. We also introduce some operators. Recently, Ozden constructed generating function of the unification of the Apostol type polynomials (see Ozden [H. Ozden, AIP Conf. Proc. 1281, (2010), 1125-1227.]). By using this generating function, we derive many properties of these polynomials. We give relations between these polynomials and Stirling numbers.

  12. Quantum Gravity: Unification of Principles and Interactions, and Promises of Spectral Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhelm Booß-Bavnbek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity was born as that branch of modern theoretical physics that tries to unify its guiding principles, i.e., quantum mechanics and general relativity. Nowadays it is providing new insight into the unification of all fundamental interactions, while giving rise to new developments in modern mathematics. It is however unclear whether it will ever become a falsifiable physical theory, since it deals with Planck-scale physics. Reviewing a wide range of spectral geometry from index theory to spectral triples, we hope to dismiss the general opinion that the mere mathematical complexity of the unification programme will obstruct that programme.

  13. Quantum Gravity: Unification of Principles and Interactions, and Promises of Spectral Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booß-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Esposito, Giampiero; Lesch, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    Quantum gravity was born as that branch of modern theoretical physics that tries to unify its guiding principles, i.e., quantum mechanics and general relativity. Nowadays it is providing new insight into the unification of all fundamental interactions, while giving rise to new developments in modern mathematics. It is however unclear whether it will ever become a falsifiable physical theory, since it deals with Planck-scale physics. Reviewing a wide range of spectral geometry from index theory to spectral triples, we hope to dismiss the general opinion that the mere mathematical complexity of the unification programme will obstruct that programme.

  14. SU_L(4) x U(1) model for electroweak unification

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin, A

    2004-01-01

    After some general remarks about SU_L(4) electroweak unification, the model is extended to SU_L(4)xU_X(1) to accomodate fractionally charged quarks. The unification scale is expected to be in TeV region. A right-handed Majorana neutrino along with known lepton are put in the fundamental representation of SU_L(4) with Y_X=0. The see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses and flavor mixing in neutrino sector is a natural feature of the model. The lepton number violating processes can occure through dilepton gauge bosons contained in the model.

  15. Predictions for constrained minimal supersymmetry with bottom-$\\tau$ mass unification

    CERN Document Server

    Kolda, Christopher; Wells, J D; Kane, G L; Chris Kolda; Leszek Roszkowski; James D Wells

    1994-01-01

    We examine the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with an additional requirement of strict b - .tau. unification in the region of small tan(.beta.). We find that the parameter space becomes completely limited below about 1 TeV by physical constraints alone, without a fine-tuning constraint. We study the resulting phenomenological consequences, and point out several ways of falsifying the adopted b - .tau. unification assumption. We also comment on the effect of a constraint from the non-observation of proton decay.

  16. Hepatitis C virus induces E6AP-dependent degradation of the retinoblastoma protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Munakata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive-strand RNA virus that frequently causes persistent infections and is uniquely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. While the mechanism(s by which the virus promotes cancer are poorly defined, previous studies indicate that the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B, forms a complex with the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb, targeting it for degradation, activating E2F-responsive promoters, and stimulating cellular proliferation. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying pRb regulation by HCV and its relevance to HCV infection. We show that the abundance of pRb is strongly downregulated, and its normal nuclear localization altered to include a major cytoplasmic component, following infection of cultured hepatoma cells with either genotype 1a or 2a HCV. We further demonstrate that this is due to NS5B-dependent ubiquitination of pRb and its subsequent degradation via the proteasome. The NS5B-dependent ubiquitination of pRb requires the ubiquitin ligase activity of E6-associated protein (E6AP, as pRb abundance was restored by siRNA knockdown of E6AP or overexpression of a dominant-negative E6AP mutant in cells containing HCV RNA replicons. E6AP also forms a complex with pRb in an NS5B-dependent manner. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of pRb in which the HCV NS5B protein traps pRb in the cytoplasm, and subsequently recruits E6AP to this complex in a process that leads to the ubiquitination of pRb. The disruption of pRb/E2F regulatory pathways in cells infected with HCV is likely to promote hepatocellular proliferation and chromosomal instability, factors important for the development of liver cancer.

  17. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  18. First direct limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with electric charge less than $e/6$

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, H; Nelson, R H; Ogburn, R W; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically-produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than $e$/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between $e$/6 and $e$/200.

  19. Involvement of Novel Multifunction Steroid Hormone Receptor Coactivator, E6-Associated Protein, in Prostate Gland Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    synthesized RhoA G14V protein in NETN buffer (100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 20 mM Tris (pH 8.0), and 0.5% Nonidet P - 40 ) for 2–3 hours at room...to test the effects of loss E6- AP on the normal development of the prostate gland ( 40 , 41). We have also generated E6-AP transgenic mouse line that...expression of p -Akt in all the lobes compared to the wild- type, there was no significant differences between the extents of p -Akt over expression between

  20. Particle physics models of inflation in supergravity and grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Philipp Manuel

    2010-12-03

    production of stable magnetic monopoles at the end of the stage of inflation can be avoided. Finally, we sketch how in tribrid inflation models the concepts discussed in the two parts can be combined to realize inflation via Heisenberg symmetry in local supersymmetric SO(10) grand unification. (orig.)

  1. An Adynamical, Graphical Approach to Quantum Gravity and Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, W. M.; Silberstein, Michael; McDevitt, Timothy

    We use graphical field gradients in an adynamical, background independent fashion to propose a new approach to quantum gravity (QG) and unification. Our proposed reconciliation of general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT) is based on a modification of their graphical instantiations, i.e. Regge calculus and lattice gauge theory (LGT), respectively, which we assume are fundamental to their continuum counterparts. Accordingly, the fundamental structure is a graphical amalgam of space, time, and sources (in parlance of QFT) called a "space-time source element". These are fundamental elements of space, time, and sources, not source elements in space and time. The transition amplitude for a space-time source element is computed using a path integral with discrete graphical action. The action for a space-time source element is constructed from a difference matrix K and source vector J on the graph, as in lattice gauge theory. K is constructed from graphical field gradients so that it contains a non-trivial null space and J is then restricted to the row space of K, so that it is divergence-free and represents a conserved exchange of energy-momentum. This construct of K and J represents an adynamical global constraint (AGC) between sources, the space-time metric, and the energy-momentum content of the element, rather than a dynamical law for time-evolved entities. In this view, one manifestation of quantum gravity becomes evident when, for example, a single space-time source element spans adjoining simplices of the Regge calculus graph. Thus, energy conservation for the space-time source element includes contributions to the deficit angles between simplices. This idea is used to correct proper distance in the Einstein-de Sitter (EdS) cosmology model yielding a fit of the Union2 Compilation supernova data that matches ΛCDM without having to invoke accelerating expansion or dark energy. A similar modification to LGT results in an adynamical account of quantum

  2. Tumor prevention in HPV8 transgenic mice by HPV8-E6 DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Gian Paolo; Awerkiew, Sabine; Hufbauer, Martin; Schädlich, Lysann; Gissmann, Lutz; Eming, Sabine; Pfister, Herbert

    2014-06-01

    The genus beta human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in individuals with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Immunosuppressed transplant recipients are prone to harbor particularly high betapapillomavirus DNA loads, which may contribute to their highly increased risk of SCC. Tumor induction in HPV8 transgenic mice correlates with increased expression of viral oncogenes E6 and E2. In an attempt to prevent skin tumor development, we evaluated an HPV8-E6-DNA vaccine, which was able to stimulate a detectable HPV8-E6-specific cell-mediated immune response in 8/15 immunized mice. When skin of HPV8 transgenic mice was grafted onto non-transgenic littermates, the grafted HPV8 transgenic tissue was not rejected and papillomas started to grow within 14 days all over the transplant of 9/9 non-vaccinated and 7/15 not successfully vaccinated mice. In contrast, no papillomas developed in 6/8 successfully vaccinated mice. In the other two of these eight mice, a large ulcerative lesion developed within the initial papilloma growth or papilloma development was highly delayed. As the vaccine completely or partially prevented papilloma development without rejecting the transplanted HPV8 positive skin, the immune system appears to attack only keratinocytes with increased levels of E6 protein, which would give rise to papillomas.

  3. Anticancer drugs aimed at E6 and E7 activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; de Vries, E G E; van der Zee, A G J; de Jong, S

    2012-02-01

    Standard treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer currently consists of concurrent chemoradiation, leading to a 5-year disease-free survival of 66-79%, indicating that there is still ample room for improvement. Characteristic of cervical cancer is the presence of high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in more than 99% of these tumors. When the HR HPV genome integrates into the host genome, oncogenic E6 and E7 proteins become constitutively expressed. These oncogenes are also active earlier in the infection cycle and hence are available as therapeutic targets at the preneoplastic stages as well. E7 plays an important role in the early stage of carcinogenesis by stimulating proliferation. HR HPV E6-induced proteasomal degradation of p53 hampers p53 functionality in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. As p53 plays a key role in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, current chemoradiation cannot optimally activate this pathway. In this review, we focus on targeted anticancer drugs to eliminate the consequences of HR HPV E6 and E7 activity. Strategies for direct and indirect targeting of HR HPV E6 and E7, including RNA interference, small molecules, proteasome inhibitors, and histone deacetylase inhibitors, are described. In addition, the extrinsic apoptotic pathway as possible alternative therapeutic target for apoptosis induction is reviewed. The rational for implementing recombinant human TRAIL and death receptor agonists and the latest developments on combining these drugs with standard treatment in preclinical settings as well as clinical trials are discussed.

  4. Molecular detection of HPV 16/18 E6 genes from cervical cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Kabuga Auwal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological, clinical and molecular studies have established the link between genital infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer but there is great challenge in establishing early infection by both clinicians and the laboratories. The virus cannot be grown in conventional cell cultures and serology cannot different between active and past infection. Molecular studies remain the goal standard as it detects viral nucleic acid or cellular antigens indicative of oncogenic potential in cytology or biopsy specimen. The study was aimed to molecularly determine the presence of HPV 16/18 and expression of E6 gene in squamous intraepithelial lesions. Methods: Cervical cells were collected from 18 women with positive cytology test results and 32 controls in gynaecology clinic of Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano Nigeria and HPV 16/18 were detected with E6 gene specific PCR primers. Results: Overall, HPV E6 gene was found in 76% of the women, 88.3% of positive cytology specimens and 71.2% controls. Conclusions: There is very high prevalence of HPV infection. The presence of HPV 16/18 E6 genes in cervical intraepithelial lesions may serve as a useful predictor of diagnosis and possible clinical outcome of the disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2232-2236

  5. Detection of E6/E7 HPV oncogene transcripts as biomarker of cervical intaepithelial displasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carcheri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only persistent infection with high risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV HR is a significant risk factor for the development of an invasive squamous cervical cancer. The overexpression of viral oncogenes E6/E7 of HPV is considered a necessary process for incurring in a malignant phenotype.A HPV infection can be identified by detection of HPV DNA in biological samples, but the DNAbased tests cannot delineate between transient or persistent and potentially transforming infection. Instead there is many evidence to suggest that detection of HPV gene expression may constitute a more specific approach to highlight a clinically significant infection. Especially seems that the detection of E6/E7 transcripts can be usefully used for identify the women with a persistent HPV infection that will can induce a future cervical cancer. The aim of our study is to investigate if the detection of oncogenic viral gene activity by detecting transcripts of the E6 and E7 genes can be most usefull of HPV-DNA test in the triage of ASCUS or low grade cervical lesions. Our results confirm that HPV E6/E7 mRNA test can be considered a promising method to stratify HPV positive women for risk of future high-grade cervical lesions or cervical intaepithelial neoplasia.

  6. A{sub 4} family symmetry and quark-lepton unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO16 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sfk@hep.phys.soton.ac.uk; Malinsky, Michal [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO16 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: malinsky@phys.soton.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    We present a model of quark and lepton masses and mixings based on A{sub 4} family symmetry, a discrete subgroup of an SO(3) flavour symmetry, together with Pati-Salam unification. It accommodates tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing via constrained sequential dominance with a particularly simple vacuum alignment mechanism emerging through the effective D-term contributions to the scalar potential.

  7. Building a Larger Tent for Public Health: Implications of the SOPHE-AAHE Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Robert Mark

    2013-01-01

    The unification of the American Association for Health Education (AAHE) and the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) generates a long-desired synergy, a ramping up of our leadership influence in promoting health. It also serves as an ongoing opportunity to reflect on how we synergize the distinct philosophic, scientific, and practical…

  8. Probing grand unification with fermion masses, neutrino oscillations and proton decay

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, Jogesh C

    2002-01-01

    It is noted that a set of facts points to the relevance in four dimensions of conventional supersymmetric unification based on minimally a string-unified G(224)-symmetry, or maximally SO(10). These include: (i) the observed family- structure, (ii) quantization of electric charge, (iii) meeting of the three gauge couplings, (iv) neutrino oscillations [in particular the value of $\\Delta m^2(\

  9. Yukawa coupling unification in SO(10) with positive \\mu\\ and a heavier gluino

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, Anjan S

    2012-01-01

    The t-b-tau unification with positive Higgs mass parameter \\mu\\ in the minimal supersymmetric standard model prefers "just so" Higgs splitting and a light gluino < 500 GeV which appears to be ruled out by the recent LHC searches. We reanalyze constraints on soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in this scenario allowing independent splittings among squarks and Higgs doublets at the grand unification scale and show that it is possible to obtain t-b-tau unification and satisfy experimental constraints on gluino mass without raising supersymmetry breaking scale to very high value ~ 20 TeV. We discuss the origin of independent squark and Higgs splittings in realistic SO(10) models. Just so Higgs splitting can be induced without significantly affecting the t-b-tau unification in SO(10) models containing Higgs fields transforming as 10+\\bar{126}+126+210. This splitting arises in the presence of non-universal boundary conditions from mixing between 10 and other Higgs fields. Similarly, if additional matter field...

  10. Was East German Education a Victim of West German "Colonisation" after Unification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that during German unification reform structures and ideas were not forced on the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Notes that a divided secondary school structure replaced the GDR unified school, but that was by request. Reveals that the East German's well-developed, pre-school education and childcare system was copied by West Germany.…

  11. Assessment of human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogene expression as cervical disease biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Nerea; Basaras, Miren; Hernáez, Silvia; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón

    2016-11-05

    The aims of this study were to detect HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in women with high-risk genotypes (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45) analysing its relationship with tissue pathology and 2) 2-year follow-up of E6/E7 mRNA tested group. Our samples were genotyped and classified by pathologists according to Bethesda system. After RNA extraction, E6/E7 oncogene mRNA detection was performed by NucliSens® EasyQ® HPV v1 Test (bioMérieux). The results of the present study showed that E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was 68.29 % in women tested once and 69.56 % in women tested twice. According to tissue pathology, all samples with high-grade lesions were positive for mRNA. Among women with low-grade lesions varied over the years from 89.28 to 84 % in women tested once and from 77.77 to 70 % in tested twice. Among women without lesion, positivity rate maintained in women tested once (from 50 to 41.38 %) and decreased in tested twice, from 63.63 to 44.44 %. Regarding lesion evolution, mRNA positivity was higher in women with lesion progression (53.13 %) and in women with positive results in two tested samples (83.33 %). HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection may be an effective screening test and biomarker for cervical cancer in women infected with these five genotypes. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to standardize as routine triage test.

  12. A novel function of HPV16-E6/E7 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Suk; Kato, Ikuko; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    2013-06-07

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is among the most important etiological factors in many human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) not associated with alcohol or tobacco use. HPV16-E6 and E7 oncoproteins target intracellular signaling networks, altering key molecular and cellular events during tumor progression. The present study investigates the role of HPV16-E6 and E7 oncogenes on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a cellular process thought to be critical for tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Using the epithelial MDCK cell line as an in vitro model, we show that the stable expression of HPV16-E6 or E7 induces morphological conversion from cobblestone-shaped epithelium to spindle-shaped mesenchyme-like phenotype. Consistent with these morphological changes, both E6 and E7 induce expression of the EMT-activating transcriptional factors Slug, Twist, ZEB1 and ZEB2, especially ZEBs, accompanied with switch from epithelial to mesenchymal markers. Importantly, E6 and E7 expression results in induction of the migratory and invasive potential, a functional hallmark of EMT. When we examined the association between HPV16 and the EMT signature in HNSCC cell lines derived from head and neck cancer patients, we found a correlation between HPV16 positivity and the expression of EMT transcription factor ZEB1. Taken together, our findings suggest HPV16 induces EMT-like processes via induction of the EMT transcription factors which may contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rare human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants reveal significant oncogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasino Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether low prevalence human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants differ from high prevalence types in their functional abilities. We evaluated functions relevant to carcinogenesis for the rarely-detected European variants R8Q, R10G and R48W as compared to the commonly detected L83V. Human immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS stably transduced with the E6 variants were used in most functional assays. Low and high prevalence E6 variants displayed similar abilities in abrogation of growth arrest and inhibition of p53 elevation induced by actinomycin D. Differences were detected in the abilities to dysregulate stratification and differentiation of NIKS in organotypic raft cultures, modulate detachment induced apoptosis (anoikis and hyperactivate Wnt signaling. No distinctive phenotype could be assigned to include all rare variants. Like L83V, raft cultures derived from variants R10G and R48W similarly induced hyperplasia and aberrantly expressed keratin 5 in the suprabasal compartment with significantly lower expression of keratin 10. Unlike L83V, both variants, and particularly R48W, induced increased levels of anoikis upon suspension in semisolid medium. R8Q induced a unique phenotype characterized by thin organotypic raft cultures, low expression of keratin 10, and high expression of keratins 5 and 14 throughout all raft layers. Interestingly, in a reporter based assay R8Q exhibited a higher ability to augment TCF/β-catenin transcription. The data suggests that differences in E6 variant prevalence in cervical carcinoma may not be related to the carcinogenic potential of the E6 protein.

  14. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Histone Blood Jurkat (Clone... E6-1) SRX024361,SRX024357,SRX216366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR hg19 Histone Blood Jurkat (Clone... E6-1) SRX024361,SRX216366,SRX024357 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Jurkat_BRACKETLClone_E6-1BRACKETR.bed ...

  6. Gauge-Higgs unification with broken flavour symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewsky, M.

    2007-05-15

    We study a five-dimensional Gauge-Higgs unification model on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} based on the extended standard model (SM) gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F}. The group SO(3){sub F} is treated as a chiral gauged flavour symmetry. Electroweak-, flavour- and Higgs interactions are unified in one single gauge group SU(7). The unified gauge group SU(7) is broken down to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} by orbifolding and imposing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The compactification scale of the theory is O(1) TeV. Furthermore, the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} is put on a lattice. This setting gives a well-defined staring point for renormalisation group (RG) transformations. As a result of the RG-flow, the bulk is integrated out and the extra dimension will consist of only two points: the orbifold fixed points. The model obtained this way is called an effective bilayered transverse lattice model. Parallel transporters (PT) in the extra dimension become nonunitary as a result of the blockspin transformations. In addition, a Higgs potential V({phi}) emerges naturally. The PTs can be written as a product e{sup A{sub y}}e{sup {eta}}e{sup A{sub y}} of unitary factors e{sup A{sub y}} and a selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. The reduction 48 {yields} 35 + 6 + anti 6 + 1 of the adjoint representation of SU(7) with respect to SU(6) contains SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} leads to three SU(2){sub L} Higgs doublets: one for the first, one for the second and one for the third generation. Their zero modes serve as a substitute for the SM Higgs. When the extended SM gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is spontaneously broken down to U(1){sub em}, an exponential gauge boson mass splitting occurs naturally. At a first step SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is broken to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} by VEVs for the selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. This breaking leads to masses of flavour changing SO(3){sub F

  7. DESENVOLVIMENTO FONOLÓGICO EM CRIANÇAS DOS 3 ANOS E 6 MESES AOS 4 ANOS E 6 MESES DE IDADE NASCIDAS COM MUITO BAIXO PESO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Machado NOGUEIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o objectivo central de avaliar o desenvolvimento fonológico de crianças nascidas com muito baixo peso, contribuindo com evidência empírica para a reflexão sobre o papel das variáveis fonológicas na avaliação do desenvolvimento linguístico infantil. Foi implementado um estudo com 30 crianças na faixa etária dos 3 anos e 6 meses aos 4 anos e 6 meses, sendo que 15 pertenciam à população de crianças nascidas com muito baixo peso e as restantes à de crianças nascidas com peso adequado, emparelhadas por género e idade. Observou-se o desempenho segmental das crianças nos dois grupos em estudo, avaliando-se a relação entre a produção das consoantes do inventário segmental do Português Europeu e a sua distribuição em função das variáveis fonológicas posição na palavra, posição na sílaba e acento de palavra. O objectivo central foi o de testar a eficácia das variáveis fonológicas acima referidas na identificação de diferenças de desenvolvimento fonológico entre os dois grupos de crianças. Através do teste de QuiQuadrado e da comparação frequencial, verificou-se que as crianças nascidas com muito baixo peso apresentavam um desempenho verbal inferior ao das crianças com peso adequado, no que diz respeito às variáveis fonológicas testadas.

  8. LHC signatures and cosmological implications of the E6 inspired SUSY models

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenological implications of the E6 inspired supersymmetric models based on the Standard Model gauge group together with extra U(1)_N gauge symmetry under which right-handed neutrinos have zero charge are examined. In these models single discrete symmetry forbids the tree-level flavour changing processes and the most dangerous operators that violate baryon and lepton numbers. The two-loop renormalisation group flow of the gauge and Yukawa couplings is explored and the qualitative pattern of the Higgs spectrum in the case of the quasi-fixed point scenario is discussed. These E6 inspired models contain two dark-matter candidates. The presence of exotic states in these models gives rise to the nonstandard decays of the lightest Higgs boson which are also considered.

  9. $E_6$ and a 750 GeV Di-photon Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Aniket

    2016-01-01

    The grand unified group $E_6$ is a predictive scheme for physics beyond the standard model (SM). It offers the possibility of extra $Z$ bosons, new vector-like fermions, sterile neutrinos, and neutral scalars in addition to the SM Higgs boson. Some previous discussions of these features are updated and extended. Their relevance to a 750 GeV diphoton enhancement, recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, is noted.

  10. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T.; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18–transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc. PMID:27482104

  11. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-08-16

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18-transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc.

  12. E6, a dominant gene conditioning early flowering and maturity in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emídio Rizzo Bonato

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance was studied in natural variants of the soybean cultivar Paraná, developed under photoperiodic conditions ranging from 13 h 31 min day light, at sowing, to 14 h 23 min, 59 days afterwards. Results indicated that early flowering and maturity are controlled by a single dominant gene. Natural mutations that originated cultivars Paranagoiana and SS-1 occurred at the same locus of cultivar Paraná. It was not possible to determine if the recessive alleles of these mutant cultivars are different. The designation E6 was proposed for the alleles determining earliness in cultivar Paraná, and e6 for the gene determining late flowering and maturity in cultivars Paranagoiana and SS-1, until the individuality of the alleles of Paranagoiana and SS-1 is confirmed.A herança foi estudada em variantes naturais de soja do cultivar Paraná, cultivados sob condições fotoperiódicas que variaram de 13 h 31 min, na data de semeadura, até 14 h 23 min, 59 dias após. Os resultados indicaram que o florescimento e a maturidade precoces são controlados por um gene dominante. As mutações naturais que originaram os cultivares Paranagoiana e SS-1 ocorreram no mesmo loco do cultivar Paraná. Não foi possível determinar se os alelos recessivos desses cultivares mutantes são separados. Foi proposta a designação E6 para os alelos que determinam o florescimento e a maturação precoces no cultivar Paraná, e e6 para os alelos que determinam florescimento e maturação tardios nos cultivares Paranagoiana e SS-1, até que a individualidade dos alelos de Paranagoiana e SS-1 seja confirmada.

  13. Gauge Kinetic Mixing and Leptophobic Z' in $E_6$ and SO(10)

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, T G

    1999-01-01

    We examine the influence of gauge kinetic mixing on the couplings of a TeV scale Z' in both E_6 and SO(10) models. The strength of such mixing, which arises due to the existence of incomplete matter representations at low scale, can be described by a single parameter, $\\delta$. The value of this parameter can significantly influence the ability of both hadron and lepton colliders to detect a Z' using conventional search techniques. In addition, $\\delta \

  14. Tula hantavirus triggers pro-apoptotic signals of ER stress in Vero E6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lankinen, Hilkka; Putkuri, Niina; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti

    2005-03-01

    Tula virus is a member of the Hantavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Viruses of this family have an unusual pattern of intracellular maturation at the ER-Golgi compartment. We recently found that Tula virus, similar to several other hantaviruses, is able to induce apoptosis in cultured cells [Li, X.D., Kukkonen, S., Vapalahti, O., Plyusnin, A., Lankinen, H., Vaheri, A., 2004. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3261-3268.]. However, the cellular mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that the progressive replication of Tula virus in Vero E6 cells initiates several death programs that are intimately associated with ER stress: (1) early activation of ER-resident caspase-12; (2) phosphorylation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target transcriptional factor, c-jun; (3) induction of the pro-apoptotic transcriptional factor, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153, or C/EBP homologous protein (Gadd153/chop); and (4) changes in the ER-membrane protein BAP31 implying cross-talk with the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that a sustained ER stress was induced marked by an increased expression of an ER chaperone Grp78/BiP. Taken together, we have identified involvement of ER stress-mediated death program in Tula virus-infected Vero E6 cells which provides a new approach to understand the mechanisms in hantavirus-induced apoptosis.

  15. Fusion of CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 enhanced the potency of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Gan

    Full Text Available Preventive anti-HPV vaccines are effective against HPV infection but not against existing HPV-associated diseases, including cervical cancer and other malignant diseases. Therefore, the development of therapeutic vaccines is urgently needed. To improve anti-tumor effects of therapeutic vaccine, we fused cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 as a fusion therapeutic DNA vaccine (pCTLA4-E7E6. pCTLA4-E7E6 induced significantly higher anti-E7E6 specific antibodies and relatively stronger specific CTL responses than the nonfusion DNA vaccine pE7E6 in C57BL/6 mice bearing with TC-1 tumors. pCTLA4-E7E6 showed relatively stronger anti-tumor effects than pE7E6 in therapeutic immunization. These results suggest that fusing CTLA-4 with E7E6 is a useful strategy to develop therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. In addition, fusing the C-terminal of E7 with the N-terminal of E6 impaired the functions of both E7 and E6.

  16. The human papillomavirus E6 oncogene dysregulates the cell cycle and contributes to cervical carcinogenesis through two independent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Anny; Brake, Tiffany; Somoza, Chamorro; Lambert, Paul F

    2007-02-15

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death due to cancer among women worldwide. Using transgenic mice to dissect the contributions of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes in cervical cancer, E7 was identified previously to be the dominant oncogene. Specifically, when treated with exogenous estrogen for 6 months, E7 transgenic mice developed cancer throughout the reproductive tract, but E6 transgenic mice did not. E6 contributed to carcinogenesis of the reproductive tract, as E6/E7 double transgenic mice treated for 6 months with estrogen developed larger cancers than E7 transgenic mice. In the current study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone could cooperate with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after an extended estrogen treatment period of 9 months. We found that the E6 oncogene synergizes with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after 9 months, indicating that E6 has a weaker but detectable oncogenic potential in the reproductive tract compared with the E7 oncogene. Using transgenic mice that express mutant forms of HPV16 E6, we determined that the interactions of E6 with cellular alpha-helix and PDZ partners correlate with its ability to induce cervical carcinogenesis. In analyzing the tumors arising in E6 transgenic mice, we learned that E6 induces expression of the E2F-responsive genes, Mcm7 and cyclin E, in the absence of the E7 oncogene. E6 also prevented the expression of p16 in tumors of the reproductive tract through a mechanism mediated by the interaction of E6 with alpha-helix partners.

  17. Equation of state and temperature of first heavy particles arising in the universe at the grand unification scale

    CERN Document Server

    Dymnikova, I G; Dymnikova, I G; Krawczyk, M

    1995-01-01

    We consider first heavy particles with masses M\\sim M_{GUT} which arise in the Universe during phase transitions at the Grand Unification scale. Using statistical mechanics approach we show that they behave like ideal quantum degenerate Bose gas which has the temperature of the Hawking thermal radiation due to presence of the de Sitter event horizon. The equation of state for both scalar and gauge bosons is presented including the coupling constant at the Grand Unification scale.

  18. Solicitation for Opinions on Electric Coal Price Unification:A Boon for Industries of Aluminum and Nonferrous Metals,etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>NDRC is soliciting opinions on the electric coal price unification plan.It is reported that,according to the latest plan,the price of midand long-term electric coal contract after the unification shall be determined by both supplier and user through consultation.It implies that electric coal price will be thoroughly marketized.In addition,direct power purchase of

  19. The unification of powerful quasars and radio galaxies and their relation to other massive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Podigachoski, P; Haas, M; Leipski, C; Wilkes, B

    2015-01-01

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that radio galaxies and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from star-forming galaxies.

  20. Higgs-lepton unification in $\\mathrm{E}_8$-inspired supersymmetric trinification

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo-Molina, José E; Ordell, Astrid; Pasechnik, Roman; Sampaio, Marco O P; Wessén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric (SUSY) model based on trinification $[\\mathrm{SU}(3)]^3$ and family $\\mathrm{SU}(3)_\\mathrm{F}$ symmetries embedded into a maximal subgroup of $\\mathrm{E}_8$ with only five parameters in the superpotential. Besides retaining well-known attractive features of trinification-based theories, the considered model unifies the Higgs and lepton sectors into a single chiral supermultiplet giving rise to a universal Yukawa coupling for chiral fermions at the unification scale. The family symmetry automatically forbids unification-scale masses for the Standard Model (SM) fermions, which are typically unavoidable in trinification-based models without a major fine tuning, while simultaneously ensuring baryon number conservation. With an appropriate hierarchy between the soft SUSY breaking and superpotential terms, one finds an effective non-SUSY left-right symmetric theory originating from the spontaneously broken gauge trinification. The model is found to incorporate realistic SM-like effectiv...

  1. New limits on the low energy predictions for the preon grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichian, M.; Kolmakov, Yu. N.; Nelipa, N. F.

    1989-09-01

    An SU(36) grand unification model for the preons which leads to the standard set of quark-leptons with family replication is proposed. The particle content and the symmetry breaking patterns of the model are also considered. From the analysis of the renormalization group equations it follows that the allowed region of low energy predictions of such a model is larger than the one of usual models of grand unifications for the quarks and leptons. In particular, proton can be practically stable. The problem of absence of exotic states is also discussed. The whole approach is a prototype of the problems which appear if one applies the superstring-type models at the preon level.

  2. Towards the Unification of Gravity and other Interactions: What has been Missed?

    CERN Document Server

    Pavsic, Matej

    2010-01-01

    Faced with the persisting problem of the unification of gravity with other fundamental interactions we investigate the possibility of a new paradigm, according to which the basic space of physics is a multidimensional space ${\\cal C}$ associated with matter configurations. We consider general relativity in ${\\cal C}$. In spacetime, which is a 4-dimensional subspace of ${\\cal C}$, we have not only the 4-dimensional gravity, but also other interactions, just as in Kaluza-Klein theories. We then consider a finite dimensional description of extended objects in terms of the center of mass, area, and volume degrees of freedom, which altogether form a 16-dimensional manifold whose tangent space at any point is Clifford algebra Cl(1,3). The latter algebra is very promising for the unification, and it provides description of fermions.

  3. Neutrino-induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetric SO(10) Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Yoshioka, K; Inoue, Kenzo; Kojima, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    The radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the unification of third-generation Yukawa couplings, and flavor-changing rare decay are investigated in two types of supersymmetric SO(10) scenarios taking into account of the effects of neutrino physics, i.e. the observed large generation mixing and tiny mass scale. The first scenario is minimal, including right-handed neutrinos at intermediate scale with the unification of third-generation Yukawa couplings. Another is the case that the large mixing of atmospheric neutrinos originates from the charged-lepton sector. Under the SO(10)-motivated boundary conditions for supersymmetry-breaking parameters, typical low-energy particle spectrum is discussed and the parameter space is identified which satisfies the conditions for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and the experimental mass bounds of superparticles. In particular, the predictions of the bottom quark mass and the b \\to s gamma branching ratio are fully analyzed. In both two scenarios, new ty...

  4. LHC Accesible t-b-tau Yukawa Unification with mu<0

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Raza, Shabbar; Shafi, Qaisar

    2010-01-01

    We show compatibility with all known experimental constraints of t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification in supersymmetric SU(4)_c X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R which has non-universal gaugino masses and the MSSM parameter mu < 0. In particular, the relic neutralino abundance satisfies the WMAP bounds and Delta(g-2)_mu is in good agreement with the observations. We identify benchmark points for the sparticle spectra which can be tested at the LHC, including those associated with gluino and stau coannihilation channels, mixed bino-Higgsino state and the A-funnel region. We also briefly discuss prospects for testing Yukawa unification with the ongoing and planned direct detection experiments.

  5. THE UNIFICATION OF POWERFUL QUASARS AND RADIO GALAXIES AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER MASSIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podigachoski, Pece; Barthel, Peter [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Haas, Martin [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wilkes, Belinda, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    The unification model for powerful radio galaxies (RGs) and radio-loud quasars postulates that these objects are intrinsically the same but viewed along different angles. Herschel Space Observatory data permit the assessment of that model in the far-infrared spectral window. We analyze photometry from Spitzer and Herschel for the distant 3CR hosts, and find that RGs and quasars have different mid-infrared, but indistinguishable far-infrared colors. Both these properties, the former being orientation dependent and the latter orientation invariant, are in line with expectations from the unification model. Adding powerful radio-quiet active galaxies and typical massive star-forming (SF) galaxies to the analysis, we demonstrate that infrared colors not only provide an orientation indicator, but can also distinguish active from SF galaxies.

  6. Infectious diseases before and after German unification: trends in mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, R; Nolte, E; Shamsul, B; Brand, H; Krämer, A; McKee, M

    2001-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 the former communist countries of central and eastern Europe underwent substantial social and economic changes that had a major impact on health. The situation of the former German Democratic Republic was unique in that its existing institutions were replaced rapidly and it was quickly integrated economically with the West. This study describes recent trends in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in East and West Germany before and after unification using routine data from 1980 onwards. Substantial differences in morbidity and mortality resulting from infectious diseases were observed between East and West Germany. These seem to be the complex result of societal and health system differences in both parts of Germany before unification, differing population dynamics and health behaviours, and an increasing westernisation in the eastern part of Germany during recent years.

  7. The Price of Unification : The Emergence of Health & Welfare Policy in Pre-Bismarckian Prussia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dross, Fritz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to give a concise overview on the health and social welfare politics of the kingdom of Prussia in the 19th century. Considering that Prussia in 19th century was a highly fragmented territory in terms of economical and social structure this is understood as part of unification policy. 19th century social welfare policy was not restricted on enacting poor law but comprised as different fields as industrial codes, municipal codes and sanitary police. At the same time, until the workers' insurance of the 1880ies the state itself did not immediatly contribute to health care provision and poor relief but only set the legislative frame. On the other hand, still workers insurance in the Bismarckian era not mainly intended social balance but the unification of the new "Reich" and was a powerful tool of the internal foundation of the new empire of 1871.

  8. Neutrino masses and b - $\\tau$ unification in the supersymmetric standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Vissani, F

    1994-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There are several indications that the Majorana masses of the right-handed neutrino components, M_R, are at the intermediate scale: M_R\\sim (10^{10}-10^{12}) GeV or even lighter. The renormalization effects due to large Yukawa couplings of neutrinos from region of momenta M_R \\ltap q \\ltap M_G are studied in the supersymmetric standard model. It is shown that neutrino renormalization effect can increase the m_b/m_\\tau ratio up to (10\\div 15)\\%. This strongly disfavours m_b-m_\\tau unification for low values of \\tan\\beta < 10 especially at large values of \\alpha_s. Lower bounds on M_R and \\tan\\beta from the b-\\tau unification condition were found. The implications of the results to the see-saw mechanism of the neutrino mass generation are discussed.

  9. Bottom-Tau Yukawa Unification in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the unification of the bottom quark and tau lepton Yukawa couplings within the framework of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. We compare the allowed regions of the $m_t$-$\\tan \\beta$ plane to those in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and find that over much of the parameter space the deviation between the predictions of two models is small, and nearly always much less than the effect of current theoretical and experimental uncertainties in the bottom quark mass and the strong coupling constant. However over some regions of parameter space top-bottom Yukawa unification cannot be achieved. We also discuss the scaling of the light fermion masses and mixing angles, and show that to within current uncertainties the results of recent texture analyses performed for the minimal model also apply to the next-to-minimal model.

  10. sin$^{2}$($\\vartheta_{W}$)M$_{Z}$ in the MSSM and unification of couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Chankowski, P H

    1994-01-01

    We calculate ~\\sin^2\\theta(M_Z) ~in the MSSM in terms of ~ \\alpha_{EM}, ~G_F, ~m_t, ~\\tan\\beta ~and SUSY mass parameters with the same accuracy as the present calculations of ~\\sin^2\\theta(M_Z) ~in the SM. We compare the results with the standard leading logarithmic approximation used for SUSY threshold corrections and find important differences in the case of light sparticles. We give approximate formulae connecting coupling constants in the SM and in the MSSM and comment on process dependence of such formulae. The obtained values of the MSSM couplings ~\\alpha_i(M_Z) ~are used to investigate gauge coupling unification in the minimal SUSY ~SU(5) ~model. Our non-logarithmic corrections lower the predicted value of the Higgs triplet mass. The interplay between the supersymmetric and GUT thresholds in achieving unification for the coupling constants in the range of the experimentally acceptable values is quantified.

  11. Bottom-Tau Unification in Supersymmetric Model with Anomaly-Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Chigusa, So

    2016-01-01

    We study the Yukawa unification, in particular, the unification of the Yukawa coupling constants of $b$ and $\\tau$, in the framework of supersymmetric (SUSY) model. We concentrate on the model in which the SUSY breaking scalar masses are of the order of the gravitino mass while the gaugino masses originate from the effect of anomaly mediation and hence are one-loop suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. We perform an accurate calculation of the Yukawa coupling constants of $b$ and $\\tau$ at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, including relevant renormalization group effects and threshold corrections. In particular, we study the renormalization group effects, taking into account the mass splittings among sfermions, gauginos, and the standard model particles. We found that the Yukawa coupling constant of $b$ at the GUT scale is about $70\\ \\%$ of that of $\\tau$ if there is no hierarchy between the sfermion masses and the gravitino mass. Our results suggest sizable threshold corrections to the Yukawa coupli...

  12. Silencing of E6/E7 expression in cervical cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyi; McMillan, Nigel; Yu, Chengzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the concept that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the tumor recurrence and metastasis, the two major causes of cancer-related death. Therefore, CSC-targeted cancer therapy is important for the future development of more effective and advanced cancer therapy. One of the approaches is to specifically silence oncogene expression in CSCs and inhibit their growth. The significance of this approach is its specificity and ability to avoid multi-drug resistance of CSCs. In this chapter, we will describe a method of silencing HPV oncogenes E6/E7 in human cervical CSCs using HeLa cells as a model system.

  13. RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Nerea; Nieto, Maria Carmen; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón; Basaras, Miren

    2017-03-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess the relationship between E6/E7 mRNA expression and pathology of patients' lesions and progression. This study included 50 specimens that had been previously genotyped as HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and/or 45. Cervical swabs were extracted with three different RNA extraction methods -Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux), High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) and RNeasy Plus Mini kit (Qiagen)-, and mRNA was detected with NucliSens EasyQ HPV version 1 test (bioMérieux) afterwards. Association of oncogene expression with pathology and lesion progression was analyzed for each extraction method. E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was higher in samples analyzed with bioMérieux (62%), followed by Roche (24%) and Qiagen (6%). Women with lesions and lesion progression showed a higher prevalence of viral RNA expression than women that had not lesions or with lesion persistence. While bioMérieux revealed a higher sensitivity (77.27%), Roche presented a higher PPV (75%) and an increased specificity (89.28%). Extraction methods based on magnetic beads provided better RNA yield than those based in columns. Both Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux) and High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) seemed to be adequate for E6/E7 mRNA detection. However, none of them revealed both high sensitivity and specificity values. Further studies are needed to obtain and validate a standard gold method for RNA expression detection, to be included as part of the routine cervical screening program.

  14. Towards Unification of Methods for Speech, Audio, Picture and Multimedia Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, S.; Rumsey, F.; Bech, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the need to develop unified methods for subjective and objective quality assessment across speech, audio, picture, and multimedia applications. Commonalities and differences between the currently used standards are overviewed. Examples of the already undertaken research...... attempting to “bridge the gap” between the quality assessment methods used in various disciplines are indicated. Prospective challenges faced by researchers in the unification process are outlined. They include development of unified scales, defining unified anchors, integration of objective models...

  15. With grand unification signals in, can proton decay be far behind?

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, Jogesh C

    2001-01-01

    It is noted that one is now in possession of a set of facts, which may be viewed as the matching pieces of a puzzle ; in that all of them can be resolved by just one idea - that is grand unification. These include : (i) the observed family-structure, (ii) quantization of electric charge, (iii) meeting of the three gauge couplings, (iv) neutrino oscillations; in particular the mass of $\

  16. The question of unification in China – Taiwan relations, 1995–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Razumaitė, Justina

    2010-01-01

    During the period of 1995–2008, Sino–Taiwanese relations became of significant importance in East Asia. From the very beginning, China and Taiwan tried to find ways how to balance their interests, because it became clear, that both sides seek for different goals and the question of unification is differently understood. Taiwan tried to find a positive-symmetrical balance, whereas mainlanders constructed their rules of the game based on positive-asymmetrical relations. Positive position can be...

  17. The future of the ROK-US alliance in the context of Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-Joo

    2000-01-01

    After the Korean War, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States signed a Mutual Defense Treaty on October 1, 1953. There were many conflicts and challenges between the ROK and the United States in keeping the relationship strong. Nevertheless, the ROK-US alliance has successfully defended South Korea from the volatile threat of North Korea and maintained stability and peace in Northeast Asia. After the historical North-South Summit talks in June 2000, Korean unification is more likely...

  18. Squark and slepton masses as probes of supersymmetric SO(10) unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian Ananthanarayan; P. N. Pandita

    2003-09-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the non-universal supersymmetry breaking scalar masses arising in SO(10) supersymmetric unification. By considering patterns of squark and slepton masses, we show that a set of sum rules for the sfermion masses is independent of the manner in which SO(10) breaks. We discuss the reasons for this remarkable result. The phenomenology arising from such non-universality is shown to be practically unaffected by the symmetry breaking pattern.

  19. Discourse, Ideology and Violence Between Young People of Different Nationalities in Germany During the Unification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arim Soares do Bem

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The thematic focus of this paper is the process of constitution of identity between East and West German youth and young people of foreign origin who were born in Berlin before, during and after the unification. Interviews achieved between 1989 and 1994 were made to analyze the cultural processes of inclusion and exclusion, beyond experiences, dynamics and discursive practices during the moment of the “asylum debate”.

  20. Some features of the detonation of plane charges of Uglenit E-6 with applications to explosive welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogolikhin, V.M.

    1983-09-01

    This article investigates the possibility of using Uglenit E-6 GOST, a permissible explosive employed in mines, etc., with gas or dust risks, for explosive welding purposes. The detonation velocity of Uglenit E-6 was measured using contact wires. For explosive welding it is desirable that the detonation velocity be less than the speed of sound in the materials being welded. It is determined that the constancy of the detonation velocity with increase in charge thickness above 30 mm is a great advantage of Uglenit E-6 as compared with loose-packed AN explosives. The results indicate that Uglenit E-6 can be used for explosive welding.

  1. Human papillomavirus 16E6 and NFX1-123 potentiate notch signaling and differentiation without activating cellular arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet-Gregg, Portia A.; Hamilton, Jennifer R. [Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Ave., Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A., E-mail: rkatzen@uw.edu [Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Ave., Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) oncoproteins bind host cell proteins to dysregulate and uncouple apoptosis, senescence, differentiation, and growth. These pathways are important for both the viral life cycle and cancer development. HR HPV16 E6 (16E6) interacts with the cellular protein NFX1-123, and they collaboratively increase the growth and differentiation master regulator, Notch1. In 16E6 expressing keratinocytes (16E6 HFKs), the Notch canonical pathway genes Hes1 and Hes5 were increased with overexpression of NFX1-123, and their expression was directly linked to the activation or blockade of the Notch1 receptor. Keratinocyte differentiation genes Keratin 1 and Keratin 10 were also increased, but in contrast their upregulation was only indirectly associated with Notch1 receptor stimulation and was fully unlinked to growth arrest, increased p21{sup Waf1/CIP1}, or decreased proliferative factor Ki67. This leads to a model of 16E6, NFX1-123, and Notch1 differently regulating canonical and differentiation pathways and entirely uncoupling cellular arrest from increased differentiation. - Highlights: • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the Notch canonical pathway through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the differentiation pathway indirectly through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased differentiation gene expression without growth arrest. • Increased NFX1-123 with 16E6 may create an ideal cellular phenotype for HPV.

  2. 9.7 um Silicate Features in AGNs: New Insights into Unification Models

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Y; Hines, D C; Gorjian, V; Werner, M W; Cleary, K; Low, F J; Smith, P S; Bouwman, J

    2006-01-01

    We describe observations of 9.7 um silicate features in 97 AGNs, exhibiting a wide range of AGN types and of X-ray extinction toward the central nuclei. We find that the strength of the silicate feature correlates with the HI column density estimated from fitting the X-ray data, such that low HI columns correspond to silicate emission while high columns correspond to silicate absorption. The behavior is generally consistent with unification models where the large diversity in AGN properties is caused by viewing-angle-dependent obscuration of the nucleus. Radio-loud AGNs and radio-quiet quasars follow roughly the correlation between HI columns and the strength of the silicate feature defined by Seyfert galaxies. The agreement among AGN types suggests a high-level unification with similar characteristics for the structure of the obscuring material. We demonstrate the implications for unification models qualitatively with a conceptual disk model. The model includes an inner accretion disk (< 0.1 pc in radius)...

  3. A set-theoretic approach to linguistic feature structures and unification algorithms (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Curteanu

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes formal inductive definitions for linguistic feature structures (FSs taking values within a class of value types or sorts: single, disjunctive, (ordered lists, multisets (or bags, po-multisets (multisets embedded into a partially ordered set, and indexed (re-entrance values. The linguistic realization (semantics of the considered sorts is proposed. The FSs having these multi-sort values are organized as (rooted directed acyclic graphs. The concrete model of the FSs we had in mind for our set-theoretic definitions are the FSs used within the well-known HPSG linguistic theory. Set-theoretic general definitions for the proposed multi-sort FSs are defined. These constructive definitions start from atomic values and build recurrently multi-sorted values and structures, providing naturally a fixed-point semantics of the obtained FSs as a counterpart to the large class of logical semantics models on FSs. The linguistic unification algorithm based on tableau-subsumption is outlined. The Prolog code of the unification algorithm is provided and results of running it on some of the main multi-sort FSs is enclosed in the appendices. We consider the proposed formal approach to FS definitions and unification as necessary steps to set-theoretical implementations of natural language processing systems.

  4. A set-theoretic approach to linguistic feature structures and unification algorithms (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Curteanu

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes formal inductive definitions for linguistic feature structures (FSs taking values within a class of value types or sorts: single, disjunctive, (ordered lists, multisets (or bags, po-multisets (multisets embedded into a partially ordered set, and indexed (re-entrance values. The linguistic realization (semantics of the considered sorts is proposed. The FSs having these multi-sort values are organized as (rooted directed acyclic graphs. The concrete model of the FSs we had in mind for our set-theoretic definitions are the FSs used within the well-known HPSG linguistic theory. Set-theoretic general definitions for the proposed multi-sort FSs are defined. These constructive definitions start from atomic values and build recurrent multi-sorted values and structures, providing naturally a fixed-point semantics of the obtained FSs as a counterpart to the large class of logical semantics models on FSs. The linguistic unification algorithm based on tableau-subsumption is outlined. The Prolog code of the unification algorithm is provided and results of running it on some of the main multi-sort FSs is enclosed in the appendices. We consider the proposed formal approach to FSs definitions and unification as necessary steps to set-theoretical implementations of natural language processing systems.

  5. Links between neutrino oscillations, leptogenesis, and proton decay within supersymmetric grand unification

    CERN Document Server

    Pati, J C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence in favor of supersymmetric grand unification including that based on the observed family multiplet-structure, gauge coupling unification, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, and certain intriguing features of quark-lepton masses and mixings is noted. It is argued that attempts to understand (a) the tiny neutrino masses (especially Delta m^2 (nu_2 -nu_3)), (b) the baryon asymmetry of the universe (which seems to need leptogenesis), and (c) the observed features of fermion masses such as the ratio m_b/m_tau, the smallness of V_cb and the maximality of theta_{nu_mu-nu_tau}, seem to select out the route to higher unification based on an effective string-unified G(224) = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x SU(4)^c or SO(10)-symmetry, operative in 4D, as opposed to other alternatives. A predictive framework based on an effective SO(10) or G(224) symmetry possessing supersymmetry is presented that successfully describes the masses and mixings of all fermions including neutrinos. It also accounts for the observed baryon as...

  6. Molecular Probing of the HPV-16 E6 Protein Alpha Helix Binding Groove with Small Molecule Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rietz

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV HPV E6 protein has emerged as a central oncoprotein in HPV-associated cancers in which sustained expression is required for tumor progression. A majority of the E6 protein interactions within the human proteome use an alpha-helix groove interface for binding. The UBE3A/E6AP HECT domain ubiquitin ligase binds E6 at this helix-groove interface. This enables formation of a trimeric complex with p53, resulting in destruction of this tumor suppressor. While recent x-ray crystal structures are useful, examples of small molecule probes that can modulate protein interactions at this interface are limited. To develop insights useful for potential structure-based design of ligands for HPV E6, a series of 2,6-disubstituted benzopyranones were prepared and tested as competitive antagonists of E6-E6AP helix-groove interactions. These small molecule probes were used in both binding and functional assays to evaluate recognition features of the E6 protein. Evidence for an ionic functional group interaction within the helix groove was implicated by the structure-activity among the highest affinity ligands. The molecular topographies of these protein-ligand interactions were evaluated by comparing the binding and activities of single amino acid E6 mutants with the results of molecular dynamic simulations. A group of arginine residues that form a rim-cap over the E6 helix groove offer compensatory roles in binding and recognition of the small molecule probes. The flexibility and impact on the overall helix-groove shape dictated by these residues offer new insights for structure-based targeting of HPV E6.

  7. Confronting the Conventional Ideas of Grand Unification with Fermion Masses, Neutrino Oscillations and Proton Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    2002-05-10

    It is noted that one is now in possession of a set of facts, which may be viewed as the matching pieces of a puzzle; in that all of them can be resolved by just one idea--that is grand unification. These include (i) the observed family-structure, (ii) quantization of electric charge, (iii) the meeting of the three gauge couplings, (iv) neutrino oscillations [in particular the value {Delta}m{sup 2}({nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub {tau}}), suggested by SuperK], (v) the intricate pattern of the masses and mixings of the fermions, including the smallness of V{sub cb} and the largeness of {theta}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}{nu}{sub {tau}}}{sup osc}, and (vi) the need for B-L as a generator to implement baryogenesis (via leptogenesis). All these pieces fit beautifully together within a single puzzle board framed by supersymmetric unification, based on either SO(10) or a string-unified G(224)-symmetry. The two notable pieces of the puzzle still missing, however, are proton decay and supersymmetry. A concrete proposal is presented within a predictive SO(10)/G(224)-framework that successfully describes the masses and mixings of all fermions, including the neutrinos--with eight predictions, all in agreement with observation. Within this framework, a systematic study of proton decay is carried out, which (a) pays special attention to its dependence on the fermion masses, and (b) limits the threshold corrections so as to preserve natural coupling unification. The study updates prior work by Babu, Pati and Wilczek, in the context of both MSSM and its (interesting) variant, the so-called ESSM, by allowing for improved values of the matrix elements and of the short- and long-distance renormalization effects. It shows that a conservative upper limit on the proton lifetime is about (1/3-2) x 10{sup 34} years, with {bar {nu}}K{sup +} being the dominant decay mode, and quite possibly {mu}{sup +}K{sup 0} and e{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} being prominent. This in turn strongly suggests that an improvement in the

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. [Profiles of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mouse epithelial regeneration model K6b-E6/E7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Sierra Martínez, Mónica; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Gariglio-Vidal, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Mammals have limited epithelial regeneration capacity. The K6b-E6/E7 mice model has been described as useful for the study of epithelial regeneration. The objective of this study is to compare the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes with those of cell proliferation and apoptosis during epithelization. The hypothesis of this study is that alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis in K6b-E6/E7 mice will only occur during epithelization. Deep 2 mm punches were performed in the middle of transgenic and control mice's ears. A biopsy was collected from the epithelization zone 72 hours and 2 weeks post-injury. Assays for cell proliferation and apoptosis were carried out by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL techniques, respectively. RT-PCR in situ was performed to compare E6/E7 expressions in the areas studied. Transgenic strain K6b-E6/E7 presented more proliferative cells and less apoptotic cells in epithelizated zones. This effect was limited to suprabasal stratum only, and correlates with E6/E7 oncogenes expression. Two weeks post-injury, cell proliferation and apoptosis were similar in both samples as the E6/E7 expression went down. K6b-E6/E7 mouse model is useful for epithelial regeneration. Its mechanisms should be considered for the treatment of deep wounds.

  16. A Non-oncogenic HPV 16 E6/E7 Vaccine Enhances Treatment of HPV Expressing Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieking, Bryant G.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Spanos, William C.; Lee, Kimberly M.; Vermeer, Paola; Lee, Walter T.; Xu, Younong; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balcaitis, Stephanie; Balint, Joseph P.; Jones, Frank R.; Lee, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative factor for greater than 90% of cervical cancers and 25% of head and neck cancers. The incidence of HPV positive (+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) has greatly increased in the last 30 years. E6 and E7 are the two key viral oncoproteins that induce and propagate cellular transformation. An immune response generated during cisplatin/radiation therapy improves tumor clearance of HPV(+) cancers. Augmenting this induced response during therapy with an adenoviral HPV16 E6/E7 vaccine improves long term survival in preclinical models. Here we describe the generation of an HPV16 E6/E7 construct, which contains mutations that render E6/E7 non-oncogenic, while preserving antigenicity. These mutations do not allow E6/E7 to degrade p53, pRb, PTPN13, or activate telomerase. Non-oncogenic E6/E7 (E6Δ/E7Δ) expressed as a stable integrant, or in the [E1-, E2b-] adenovirus, lacks the ability to transform human cells while retaining the ability to induce an HPV specific immune response. Moreover, E6Δ/E7Δ plus chemotherapy/radiation statistically enhances clearance of established HPV(+) cancer in vivo. PMID:22918471

  17. Opposing effects of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 and E7 genes on Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Hua; Zhou, You; Androphy, Elliot J; Chen, Jason J

    2005-06-02

    Programmed cell death (PCD), best exemplified by apoptosis, is a genetically programmed process of cellular destruction that is indispensable for normal development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and related cytokines are employed by host defenses to eliminate virally infected cells through induction of apoptosis. Many viruses have evolved specific gene products to modulate this process. We have recently shown that the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 and E7 genes independently sensitize mouse cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the effect of E6 and E7 expression on Fas-mediated apoptosis. In contrast to TNF-mediated apoptosis, E6 and E7 demonstrated opposite effects: while E7 potentiated apoptosis triggered by an agonistic Fas antibody, E6 attenuated the effect. The mitochondrial pathway leading to the activation of caspases appears to be involved in Fas-mediated apoptosis in C127 cells. To further explore the mechanisms by which E6 and E7 modulate Fas-mediated apoptosis, we examined the surface expression of Fas in cells expressing E6 and E7. Significantly, levels of surface Fas expression correlated with the opposing effects of E6 and E7 on Fas-mediated apoptosis. Specifically, while E7 increased the surface expression of Fas, E6 reduced surface Fas expression. Mutational analysis demonstrated a correlation of E6's ability to downregulate surface Fas expression and apoptosis. Since the tumor suppressor p53 can be targeted for degradation by human papillomavirus and has been shown to induce apoptosis by upregulating surface Fas expression, we investigated the role of p53 in BPV-1 E6 and E7 modulation of Fas-mediated apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that the modulatory effects by E6 and E7 could occur in the absence of p53. Interestingly, the reduced Fas protein level on the cell surface is not accompanied by a decrease in total Fas levels in E6-expressing cells. Instead

  18. HPV16E6-Dependent c-Fos Expression Contributes to AP-1 Complex Formation in SiHa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixin Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the major role of HPV16E6 in cancer has been considered to be its ability to inhibit the p53 tumor-suppressor protein, thereby thwarting p53-mediated cytotoxic responses to cellular stress signals. Here, we show that HPV16E6-dependent c-fos oncogenic protein expression contributes to AP-1 complex formation under oxidative stress in SiHa cells (HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. In addition, we examined the role of HPV16E6 in TGF-α-induced c-fos expression and found that the c-fos protein expression induced by TGF-α is HPV16E6 dependent. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that HPV16E6 contributes to AP-1 complex formation after both ligand-dependent and independent EGFR activation, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of HPV-associated tumors.

  19. Effect of simultaneous silencing of HPV-18 E6 and E7 on inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zongli; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Bao; Li, Yan; Liu, Junxiao; Chen, Songjian; Chen, Gangjian; Huo, Xia

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine if simultaneous silencing of the human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E6 and E7 oncogenes using RNA interference (RNAi) would be a potential therapeutic approach against the carcinogenic activity of this virus. Two synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotides, encoding short hairpin transcripts corresponding to HPV-18 E6 and E7 genes, were cloned into pGenesilence (pGS) 1.0 vectors to produce pGS-E6, pGS-E7, and pGS-(E6+E7), respectively. Our results showed that the expression of HPV-18 E6 class 1 and HPV-18 E7 in HeLa cells was markedly decreased after being transfected with pGS-E6, pGS-E7, and pGS-(E6+E7) vectors. Of the three vectors, pGS-(E6+E7) had a greater ability to decrease the growth rate of HeLa cells, inhibit colony formation in soft agar, and significantly reduce tumor growth in nude mice. We also found that depletion of HPV-18 E6 and E7 in this manner promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. Our data showed that simultaneously decreasing HPV-18 E6 and E7 gene expression in HeLa cells by RNAi could significantly inhibit tumor growth under in vitro conditions and in nude mice. These data suggest that gene therapy may be a possible therapeutic approach for HPV-positive cervical cancers.

  20. Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein with Sorting Nexin 27 Modulates Endocytic Cargo Transport Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Ganti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A subset of high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are the causative agents of a large number of human cancers, of which cervical is the most common. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, contribute directly towards the development and maintenance of malignancy. A characteristic feature of the E6 oncoproteins from cancer-causing HPV types is the presence of a PDZ binding motif (PBM at its C-terminus, which confers interaction with cellular proteins harbouring PDZ domains. Here we show that this motif allows E6 interaction with Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27, an essential component of endosomal recycling pathways. This interaction is highly conserved across E6 proteins from multiple high-risk HPV types and is mediated by a classical PBM-PDZ interaction but unlike many E6 targets, SNX27 is not targeted for degradation by E6. Rather, in HPV-18 positive cell lines the association of SNX27 with components of the retromer complex and the endocytic transport machinery is altered in an E6 PBM-dependent manner. Analysis of a SNX27 cargo, the glucose transporter GLUT1, reveals an E6-dependent maintenance of GLUT1 expression and alteration in its association with components of the endocytic transport machinery. Furthermore, knockdown of E6 in HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells phenocopies the loss of SNX27, both in terms of GLUT1 expression levels and its vesicular localization, with a concomitant marked reduction in glucose uptake, whilst loss of SNX27 results in slower cell proliferation in low nutrient conditions. These results demonstrate that E6 interaction with SNX27 can alter the recycling of cargo molecules, one consequence of which is modulation of nutrient availability in HPV transformed tumour cells.

  1. $E_6$ Inspired SUSY Benchmarks, Dark Matter Relic Density and a 125 GeV Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Athron, P; Nevzorov, R; Williams, A G

    2015-01-01

    We explore the relic density of dark matter and the particle spectrum within a constrained version of an $E_6$ inspired SUSY model with an extra $U(1)_N$ gauge symmetry. In this model a single exact custodial symmetry forbids tree-level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present a set of benchmark points showing scenarios that have a SM-like Higgs mass of 125 GeV and sparticle masses above the LHC limits. They lead to striking new physics signatures which may be observed during run II of the LHC and can distinguish this model from the simplest SUSY extensions of the SM. At the same time these benchmark scenarios are consistent with the measured dark matter abundance and necessarily lead to large dark matter direct detection cross sections close to current limits and observable soon at the XENON1T experiment.

  2. Assessment of anticancer effect of chlorin e6 dimethyl ether for photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kaplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the study for anticancer efficacy of photodynamic therapy with chlorin e6 dimethyl ether for treatment of outbread rats with sarcoma M-1 are represented. The drug was given intravenously or intraperitonealy at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg body weight (light dose – 300 J/cm2 or 2,5 mg/kg body weight (light dose – 150 J/cm2. The spectrometry showed that maximal drug accumulation in tumor was in 2 h after intravenous injection or 3 h after intraperitoneal injection of photosensitizer, thus, sensitized tumors were irradiated according to these time intervals. Intraperitoneal injection of chlorin е6 dimethyl ether at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg body weight with treatment session in 3 h and light dose of 300 J/cm2 was the most effective (the complete response in animals – 86%.

  3. Disposition of PUREX facility tanks D5 and E6 uranium and plutonium solutions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, D.P.

    1993-12-01

    Approximately 9 kilograms of plutonium and 5 metric tons of uranium in a 1 molar nitric acid solution are being stored in two PUREX facility vessels, tanks D5 and E6. The plutonium was accumulated during cleanup activities of the plutonium product area of the PUREX facility. Personnel at PUREX recently completed a formal presentation to the Surplus Materials Peer Panel (SMPP) regarding disposition of the material currently in these tanks. The peer panel is a group of complex-wide experts who have been chartered by EM-64 (Office of Site and Facility Transfer) to provide a third party independent review of disposition decisions. The information presented to the peer panel is provided in the first section of this report. The panel was generally receptive to the information provided at that time and the recommendations which were identified.

  4. E6 inspired SUSY benchmarks, dark matter relic density and a 125 GeV Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, Peter; Harries, Dylan; Nevzorov, Roman; Williams, Anthony G.

    2016-09-01

    We explore the relic density of dark matter and the particle spectrum within a constrained version of an E6 inspired SUSY model with an extra U(1)N gauge symmetry. In this model a single exact custodial symmetry forbids tree-level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We present a set of benchmark points showing scenarios that have a SM-like Higgs mass of 125 GeV and sparticle masses above the LHC limits. They lead to striking new physics signatures which may be observed during run II of the LHC and can distinguish this model from the simplest SUSY extensions of the SM. At the same time these benchmark scenarios are consistent with the measured dark matter abundance and necessarily lead to large dark matter direct detection cross sections close to current limits and observable soon at the XENON1T experiment.

  5. Reference unification and reference linking:Concept,functionalities and inhibiting elements.A case study of Chinese Science Citation Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG; Yan; LIU; Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    In comparing reference unification to reference linking,the authors found that reference linking yield similar result as that of reference unification.An investigative study was conducted by these authors at Chinese Science Citation Database(CSCD)of National Science Library(NSL)of the ChineseAcademy of Sciences(CAS),it was found that there were three inhibiting elements in invoking a reference unification solution and the same is true for a reference linking solution.Firstly,it was difficult to define a minimum set of data elements for matching.Secondly,it had a problem of data inaccuracy and/or data incompleteness.Thirdly,it was hard to determine an appropriate linking result that produced the desired document for the user.Thus these authors suggest that getting Digital Object Identifier(DOI)for each journal article is a good way to bring about reference unification and also to improve metadata quality simultaneously at the same time.Therefore,DOI has a pivotal role to play in terms of bringing about reference unification and/or a reference linking.

  6. Infrared fixed points and fixed lines in the top-bottom-$\\tau$ sector in supersymmetric grand unification

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempp, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The two-loop ``top-down'' renormalization group flow for the top, bottom and tau Yukawa couplings is explored in the framework of supersymmetric grand unification; reproduction of the physical bottom and tau masses is required. Instead of following the recent trend of implementing exact Yukawa coupling unification i) a search for infrared (IR) fixed lines and fixed points in the m(top)-tan(beta) plane is performed and ii) the extent to which these imply approximate Yukawa unification is determined. Two IR fixed lines, intersecting in an IR fixed point, are located. The more attractive fixed line has a branch of almost constant top mass, 168-180 GeV, close to the experimental value, for the large interval 2.5unification at MGUT approximately. The fixed point at m(top)= 170 GeV, tan(beta)=55 implements approximate top-bottom Yukawa unification at all scales. The fixed point and lines are distinct from the much quoted effective IR fixed point m(top)=O(200)GeV si...

  7. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A NOVEL HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 L1/E6-E7 CHIMERIC RECOMBINANT DNA VACCINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑾; 马军; 张福萍; 杨筱凤; 董小平; 司履生; 王一理

    2004-01-01

    Objective Preparations of HPV16 L1/E6 and L1/E7 prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines. Methods The nucleotides within HPV16 E6 and E7 genes, which are responsible for viral transforming activity, were mutated by mage primer site-directed mutagenesis method. The correctly mutated E6 and E7 fragments were separately cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1, together with HPV16 L1 gene, generating chimeric recombinants plasmids 1MpVAX1-L1E6, 2MpVAX1-L1E6, 1MpVAX1-L1E7, 2MpVAX1-L1E7 and 3MpVAX1-L1E7. CHO cells were transiently transfected with the individual DNA vaccines by calcium phosphate method. Target protein expressions in the extracts of the transfected cell lines were measured by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, with HPV16 L1 and E6 specific monoclonal antibodies. Results ELISA assays showed the P/N ratios in the cell extracts transfected with L1E6 and L1E7 plasmids were more than 2.1. Immunohistochemistry revealed brownish precipitant signal in cytoplasm and nuclei of the transfected cells. Conclusion Successful constructions of prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccine plasmids lay solid foundation for future animal experiment and clinical trial.

  8. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase promotes cervical cancer tumorigenesis through human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjun; Kim, Yoon Sook; Kim, Hwajin; Kang, Min Young; Park, Jeongsook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Park, Ji Kwon; Cho, Jin Won; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Wan Sung

    2016-07-12

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) increases O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation), and transcriptional co-regulator host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) is one of OGT targets. High-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) encode E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which promote cervical cancer. Here, we tested whether O-GlcNAc modification of HCF-1 affects HPV E6 and E7 expressions and tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. We found that depleting OGT with OGT-specific shRNA significantly decreased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, while OGT overexpression greatly increased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Notably, OGT overexpression caused dose-dependent increases in the transcriptional activity of E6 and E7, and this activity was decreased when HCF-1 was depleted with HCF-1-specific siRNA. Moreover, OGT depletion reduced proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in cervical cancer cells. Further, high glucose enhanced the interaction between OGT and HCF-1, paralleling increased levels of E6 and E7 in cervical cancer cells. Most importantly, we found that reducing OGT in HeLa cells caused decreased tumor growth in vivo. These findings identify OGT as a novel cellular factor involved in E6 and E7 expressions and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, suggesting that targeting OGT in cervical cancer may have potential therapeutic benefit.

  9. Development of anti-E6 pegylated lipoplexes for mucosal application in the context of cervical preneoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechanteur, Anna; Furst, Tania; Evrard, Brigitte; Delvenne, Philippe; Hubert, Pascale; Piel, Géraldine

    2015-04-10

    Cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the fourth highest mortality causing cancer in women despite the use of prophylactic vaccines. E6 targeting represents an attractive strategy to treat this cancer. Indeed, oncoprotein E6 is produced by keratinocytes infected by HPV and is partially responsible for carcinogenesis. E6 interferes with the apoptosis process in stressed cells by degradation of p53 tumor suppressor gene. Our strategy consists in using E6 siRNA complexed with pegylated lipoplexes. The addition of hydrophilic polymer around the nanoparticles is crucial to use them by vaginal application on account of cervicovaginal mucus. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated and in vitro assays were performed to evaluate transfection potential, E6 mRNA extinction and p53 re-expression. Cationic liposomes DOTAP/Cholesterol/DOPE 1/0.75/0.5 (N/P 2.5) with or without 50% DSPE-PEG2000 and associated with siE6 have demonstrated good physicochemical characteristics in terms of complexation, size, surface charge and stability. Both lipoplexes have been tested on CaSki cell line (HPV 16+) with 50 nM and 100 nM of siE6. Lipoplexes formulations induce 30-40% of E6 mRNA extinction and induce the re-expression of p53. In conclusion, pegylated anti-E6 lipoplexes have demonstrated their efficiency to cross the cellular membrane and to release siRNA into the cytoplasm confirmed by final p53 protein production.

  10. Energy transfer in complexes of water-soluble quantum dots and chlorin e6 molecules in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, Irina V; Orlova, Anna O; Maslov, Vladimir G; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Artemyev, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    The photoexcitation energy transfer is found and investigated in complexes of CdSe/ZnS cationic quantum dots and chlorin e6 molecules formed by covalent bonding and electrostatic interaction in aqueous solution and in porous track membranes. The quantum dots and chlorin e6 molecules form stable complexes that exhibit Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from quantum dots to chlorin e6 regardless of complex formation conditions. Competitive channels of photoexcitation energy dissipation in the complexes, which hamper the FRET process, were found and discussed.

  11. Atomic basis for the species-specific inhibition of αV integrins by monoclonal antibody 17E6 is revealed by the crystal structure of αVβ3 ectodomain-17E6 Fab complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Bhuvaneshwari; Van Agthoven, Johannes F; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Alonso, José Luis; Adair, Brian D; Rui, Xianliang; Anand, Saurabh; Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Mohammad R K; Burger, Christa; Goodman, Simon L; Arnaout, M Amin

    2014-05-16

    The function-blocking, non-RGD-containing, and primate-specific mouse monoclonal antibody 17E6 binds the αV subfamily of integrins. 17E6 is currently in phase II clinical trials for treating cancer. To elucidate the structural basis of recognition and the molecular mechanism of inhibition, we crystallized αVβ3 ectodomain in complex with the Fab fragment of 17E6. Protein crystals grew in presence of the activating cation Mn(2+). The integrin in the complex and in solution assumed the genuflected conformation. 17E6 Fab bound exclusively to the Propeller domain of the αV subunit. At the core of αV-Fab interface were interactions involving Propeller residues Lys-203 and Gln-145, with the latter accounting for primate specificity. The Propeller residue Asp-150, which normally coordinates Arg of the ligand Arg-Gly-Asp motif, formed contacts with Arg-54 of the Fab that were expected to reduce soluble FN10 binding to cellular αVβ3 complexed with 17E6. This was confirmed in direct binding studies, suggesting that 17E6 is an allosteric inhibitor of αV integrins.

  12. Predicting neutrino parameters from SO(3) family symmetry and quark-lepton unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    We show how the neutrino mixing angles and oscillation phase can be predicted from tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing, corrected by charged lepton mixing angles which are related to quark mixing angles via quark-lepton unification. The tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing can naturally originate from the see-saw mechanism via constrained sequential dominance (CSD), where CSD can result from the vacuum alignment of a non-abelian family symmetry such as SO(3). We construct a realistic model of quark and lepton masses and mixings based on SO(3) family symmetry with quark-lepton unification based on the Pati-Salam gauge group. The atmospheric angle is predicted to be approximately maximal {theta}{sub 23} = 45{sup 0}, corrected by the quark mixing angle {theta}{sub 23}{sup CKM} {approx} 2.4 deg., with the correction controlled by an undetermined phase in the quark sector. The solar angle is predicted by the tri-bimaximal complementarity relation: {theta}{sub 12}+(1/2{sup 1/2})({theta}{sub C}/3)cos ({delta}-{pi}) {approx} 35.26 deg., where {theta}{sub C} is the Cabibbo angle and {delta} is the neutrino oscillation phase. The reactor angle is predicted to be {theta}{sub 13} {approx} (1/2{sup 1/2})({theta}{sub C}/3) {approx} 3.06 deg. The MNS neutrino oscillation phase {delta} is predicted in terms of the solar angle to be cos ({delta}-{pi}) {approx} (35.26 deg.-{theta}{sub 12}{sup 0})/3.06 deg. These predictions can all be tested by future high precision neutrino oscillation experiments, thereby probing the nature of high energy quark-lepton unification.

  13. Links between neutrino oscillations, leptogenesis, and proton decay within supersymmetric grand unification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jogesh C Pati

    2004-02-01

    Evidence in favor of supersymmetric grand unification including, that based on the observed family multiplet-structure, gauge coupling unification, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, and certain intriguing features of quark-lepton masses and mixings is noted. It is argued that attempts to understand (a) the tiny neutrino masses (especially $ m^{2}(_{2}-_{3})$), (b) the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (which seems to need leptogenesis), and (c) the observed features of fermion masses such as the ratio $m_{b}/m_{}$, the smallness of $_{cb}$ and the maximality of $^{\\text{osc}}_{_{}_{}}$, seem to select out the route to higher unification based on an effective string-unified $G(224)=SU(2)_{\\text{L}}× SU(2)_{\\text{R}}× SU(4)^{\\text{c}}$ or $SO(10)$-symmetry that should be operative in 4D, as opposed to other alternatives. A predictive $SO(10)/G(224)$-framework possessing supersymmetry is presented that successfully describes the masses and mixings of all fermions including neutrinos. It also accounts for the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe by utilizing the process of leptogenesis, which is natural to this framework. It is argued that a conservative upper limit on the proton lifetime within this $SO(10)/G(224)$-framework, which is so far most successful, is given by $(\\frac{1}{3}-2)× 10^{34}$ years. This in turn strongly suggests that an improvement in the current sensitivity by a factor of five to ten (compared to SuperK) ought to reveal proton decay. Implications of this prediction for the next-generation nucleon decay and neutrino-detector are noted.

  14. Squark and slepton masses as probes of supersymmetric SO(10) unification

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthanarayan, B

    2004-01-01

    We carry out an analysis of the non-universal supersymmetry breaking scalar masses arising in SO(10) supersymmetric unification. By considering patterns of squark and slepton masses, we derive a set of sum rules for the sfermion masses which are independent of the manner in which SO(10) breaks to the Standard Model gauge group via its SU(5) subgroups. The phenomenology arising from such non-universality is unaffected by the symmetry breaking pattern, so long as the breaking occurs via any of the SU(5) subgroups of the SO(10) group.

  15. Equation of State for Particles Arising at the Universe at Grand Unification Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dymnikova, I G

    1994-01-01

    First postinflationary stage of the Universe evolution is considered in more detail. It is shown that heavy particles with mass $M_{H}\\sim M_{GUT}$ arising at the Universe at phase transitions at Grand Unification Energies behave like ideal quantum degenerate Bose gas. The equation of state for both scalar and gauge bosons is presented including the coupling constant and vacuum expectation value at $E_{GUT}$. One possible way is proposed to connect cosmological observational data with parameters of Grand Unified Theories.

  16. Supersymmetric QCD effects on neutralino dark matter annihilation beyond scalar or gaugino mass unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Björn; Klasen, Michael; Kovařík, Karol

    2009-10-01

    We describe in detail our calculation of the full supersymmetric QCD corrections to neutralino annihilation into heavy quarks and extend our numerical analysis of the resulting dark matter relic density to scenarios without scalar or gaugino mass unification. In these scenarios, the final state is often composed of top quarks and the annihilation proceeds through Z0-boson or scalar top-quark exchanges. The impact of the corrections is again shown to be sizable, so that they must be taken into account systematically in global analyses of the supersymmetry parameter space.

  17. SUSY-QCD effects on neutralino dark matter annihilation beyond scalar or gaugino mass unification

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Bjorn; Kovarik, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We describe in detail our calculation of the full supersymmetric (SUSY) QCD corrections to neutralino annihilation into heavy quarks and extend our numerical analysis of the resulting dark matter relic density to scenarios without scalar or gaugino mass unification. In these scenarios, the final state is often composed of top quarks and the annihilation proceeds through Z^0-boson or scalar top-quark exchanges. The impact of the corrections is again shown to be sizable, so that they must be taken into account systematically in global analyses of the supersymmetry parameter space.

  18. Orbifold Grand Unification: A Solution to the Doublet-Triplet Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Bei

    2014-01-01

    To solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem in SU(5) grand unified theories, we propose a four dimensional orbifold grand unified theory by acting Z2 on the SU(5) gauge group. Without an adjoint Higgs, the orbifold procedure breaks the SU(5) gauge symmetry down to the standard model gauge group, and removes the triplet component of the fundamental SU(5) Higgs. In the supersymmetric framework, we show that the orbifold procedure removes two triplet superfields of the Higgs multiplets and leaves us with the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which also solves the hierarchy problem and realizes gauge coupling unification. We also discuss possible UV completions of the orbifold theories.

  19. Sparticle Spectroscopy with Neutralino Dark matter from t-b-tau Quasi-Yukawa Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Shahida; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih

    2011-01-01

    We consider two classes of t-b-tau quasi-Yukawa unification scenarios which can arise from realistic supersymmetric SO(10) and SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R models. We show that these scenarios can be successfully implemented in the CMSSM and NUHM1 frameworks, and yields a variety of sparticle spectra with WMAP compatible neutralino dark matter. In NUHM1 we find bino-higgsino dark matter as well as the stau coannihilation and A-funnel solutions. The CMSSM case yields the stau coannihilation and A-funnel solutions. The gluino and squark masses are found to lie in the TeV range.

  20. Lines of Constant Physics in a Five-Dimensional Gauge-Higgs Unification Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Alberti, Maurizio; Knechtli, Francesco; Moir, Graham

    2016-01-01

    We report on the progress in the study of a five-dimensional SU(2) Gauge-Higgs Unification model. In this non-perturbative study, the Higgs mechanism is triggered by the spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the same region of the phase diagram, we observe both dimensional reduction and the ratio of Higgs and Z boson masses to take the value known from experiment. We present the first results on the construction of a line of constant physics in this region, including the prediction for the mass scale of the first excited states of the Higgs and gauge bosons.

  1. AGN Unification at z ~ 1: u - R Colors and Gradients in X-ray AGN Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Koo, David C; Dutton, Aaron A; Melbourne, Jason; Max, Claire E; Mozena, Mark; Kocevski, Dale D; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Bouwens, Rychard J; Magee, Daniel K

    2011-01-01

    We present uncontaminated rest-frame u - R colors of 78 X-ray-selected AGN hosts at 0.5 1.1 kpc. These three observations imply that AGN obscuration is uncorrelated with the star formation rate beyond ~1 kpc. These observations favor a unification scenario for intermediate-luminosity AGNs in which obscuration is determined geometrically. Scenarios in which the majority of intermediate-luminosity AGN at z ~ 1 are undergoing rapid, galaxy-wide quenching due to AGN-driven feedback processes are disfavored.

  2. Sonoporation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Affected with E6-Oncoprotein for the Treatment of Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Laura; Lee, Kyle; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer has been identified as the third leading cause of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer. Since essentially all cervical cancers contain copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, we propose a treatment that targets HPV-infected cells using strategies that re-introduce normal functions into the infected cells while sparing healthy cells. We propose the use of focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles as means to deliver antibodies against the E6 protein present only in HPV positive cells. We conducted in vitro studies with cell cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma cells seeded into Opticell™ chambers. An in-house ultrasound excitation apparatus was used to control and explore the optimal acoustic parameters in order to maximize delivery. We first validated the possibility of delivering the EX-EGFP-M02 vector (Genecopoeia) into the cells; 1.2 μL of activated microbubbles (Definity®) and 50 μg of the vector were mixed in media and then injected into the Opticell™ chamber. We used 32 μs pulses at a central frequency of 930 KHz with a repetition frequency of 1.5 kHz and total exposure duration of 30 s; six pressure values were tested (0 to 1 MPa). Fluorescence imaging was used to determine the levels of intracellular proteins and assess delivery. The delivery of an anti-α-Tubulin antibody was next tested and confirmed that the delivery into HPV16 positive cells was successful.

  3. The cylindrospermopsin gene cluster of Aphanizomenon sp. strain 10E6: organization and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüken, Anke; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2010-08-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent hepatoxin, occurs in freshwaters worldwide. Several cyanobacterial species produce the toxin, but the producing species vary between geographical regions. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a common algae species in temperate fresh and brackish waters, is one of the three well-documented CYN producers in European waters. So far, no genetic information on the CYN genes of this species has been available. Here, we describe the complete CYN gene cluster, including flanking regions from the German Aphanizomenon sp. strain 10E6 using a full genome sequencing approach by 454 pyrosequencing and bioinformatic identification of the gene cluster. In addition, we have sequenced a approximately 7 kb fragment covering the genes cyrC (partially), cyrA and cyrB (partially) of the same gene cluster in the CYN-producing Aphanizomenon sp. strains 10E9 and 22D11. Comparisons with the orthologous gene clusters of the Australian Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains AWT205 and CS505 and the partial gene cluster of the Israeli Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strain ILC-146 revealed a high gene sequence similarity, but also extensive rearrangements of gene order. The high sequence similarity (generally higher than that of 16S rRNA gene fragments from the same strains), atypical GC-content and signs of transposase activities support the suggestion that the CYN genes have been horizontally transferred.

  4. A new proposal for diphoton resonance from $E_6$ motivated extra $U(1)$

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Kasinath; Nandi, S; Rai, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the diphoton resonance signal indicated by the recent LHC data might also arise from the pair productions of vector-like heavy down-type quarks with mass around $750$ GeV and above. The vector-like quark decays into an ordinary light quark and a Standard Model singlet scalar. The subsequent decay of scalar singlet produces the diphoton excess. Both the vector-like quark and singlet scalars appear naturally in the $E_6$, and their masses can be in the TeV scale with a suitable choice of symmetry breaking pattern. The prediction of such a proposal would be to see an accompanying dijet signal at the same mass with similar cross section in the $2\\gamma + 2j$ final state and two dijet resonances at the same mass for a $4j$ final state with a cross section, about 100 times larger. Both predictions can be tested easily as the luminosity accumulates in the upcoming runs of the LHC.

  5. Chlorin e6 Conjugated Interleukin-6 Receptor Aptamers Selectively Kill Target Cells Upon Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kruspe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT uses the therapeutic properties of light in combination with certain chemicals, called photosensitizers, to successfully treat brain, breast, prostate, and skin cancers. To improve PDT, current research focuses on the development of photosensitizers to specifically target cancer cells. In the past few years, aptamers have been developed to directly deliver cargo molecules into target cells. We conjugated the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (ce6 with a human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R binding RNA aptamer, AIR-3A yielding AIR-3A-ce6 for application in high efficient PDT. AIR-3A-ce6 was rapidly and specifically internalized by IL-6R presenting (IL-6R+ cells. Upon light irradiation, targeted cells were selectively killed, while free ce6 did not show any toxic effect. Cells lacking the IL-6R were also not affected by AIR-3A-ce6. With this approach, we improved the target specificity of ce6-mediated PDT. In the future, other tumor-specific aptamers might be used to selectively localize photosensitizers into cells of interest and improve the efficacy and specificity of PDT in cancer and other diseases.

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 variants in France and risk of viral persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornet Iris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a small portion of HPV 16 infections persist and can lead to cervical intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Factors that favour HPV persistence versus clearance are still poorly understood, but several studies have suggested that HPV intra-type variants may influence persistence and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between HPV 16 variants and the risk for viral persistence in the general population of France. Methods One hundred and forty two women infected with HPV 16 with normal cytology, without previous treatment for cervical lesions, and with a valid second follow-up visit 4 to 16 months later, were selected from patients participating in routine cervical cancer screening in the Reims HPV Primary Screening Cohort Study. HPV intra-type variants were determined by sequencing the HPV 16 E6 open reading frame, and were compared for viral persistence at the second visit using odds ratios (OR to estimate relative risk. Results Although no statistically significant differences in risk for persistence were observed by the HPV 16 variant lineage, European variants containing the polymorphism 350 T (EUR-350 T appeared to persist more often than those containing 350 G (EUR-350 G (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.8-3.4. Conclusions No strong differences were observed in the risk of viral persistence for the HPV 16 variants that predominate in France.

  7. Chlorin e6 mediated photodynamic inactivation for multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis in mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Feng; Deichelbohrer, Mona; Tschernig, Thomas; Laschke, Matthias W.; Szentmáry, Nóra; Hüttenberger, Dirk; Foth, Hans-Jochen; Seitz, Berthold; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Following corneal epithelium scratches, mouse corneas were infected with the multidrug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa strain PA54. 24 hours later, 0% (for control group), 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a second generation photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll, was combined with red light, for photodynamic inactivation (PDI). 1 hour or 2 days later, entire mouse eyes were enucleated and homogenized for counting colony forming units (CFU) of P. aeruginosa. For comparison, 0.1% Ce6 mediated PDI was started at 12 hours post infection, and 0.005% methylene blue mediated PDI 24 hours post infection. Clinical scores of corneal manifestation were recorded daily. Compared to the control, CFU 1 hour after PDI started 24 hours post infection in the 0.01% Ce6 and 0.05% Ce6 groups were significantly lower (more than one log10 reduction), the CFU 2 days post PDI higher in the 0.1% Ce6 group, clinical score lower in the 0.1% Ce6 group at 1 day post PDI. These findings suggest that PDI with Ce6 and red light has a transient efficacy in killing MDR-PA in vivo, and repetitive PDI treatments are required to fully resolve the infection. Before its clinical application, the paradoxical bacterial regrowth post PDI has to be further studied. PMID:28295043

  8. On the instanton contributions to the masses and couplings of E$_{6}$ singlets

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, P; De la Ossa, X C; Derrick, E; Distler, Jacques; Hübsch, T

    1995-01-01

    We consider the gauge neutral matter in the low--energy effective action for string theory compactification on a \\cym\\ with (2,2) world--sheet supersymmetry. At the classical level these states (the \\sing's of E_6) correspond to the cohomology group H^1(\\M,{\\rm End}\\>T). We examine the first order contribution of instantons to the mass matrix of these particles. In principle, these corrections depend on the \\K\\ parameters t_i through factors of the form e^{2\\p i t_i} and also depend on the complex structure parameters. For simplicity we consider in greatest detail the quintic threefold \\cp4[5]. It follows on general grounds that the total mass is often, and perhaps always, zero. The contribution of individual instantons is however nonzero and the contribution of a given instanton may develop poles associated with instantons coalescing for certain values of the complex structure. This can happen when the underlying \\cym\\ is smooth. Hence these poles must cancel between the coalescing instantons in order that t...

  9. Chlorin e6 conjugated copper sulfide nanoparticles for photodynamic combined photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Moorthy, Madhappan Santha; Bui, Nhat Quang; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-09-01

    The photo-based therapeutic approaches have attracted tremendous attention in recent years especially in treatment and management of tumors. Photodynamic and photothermal are two major therapeutic modalities which are being applied in clinical therapy. The development of nanomaterials for photodynamic combined with photothermal therapy has gained significant attention for its treatment efficacy. In the present study, we designed chlorin e6 (Ce6) conjugated copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (CuS-Ce6 NPs) through amine functionalization and the synthesized nanoparticles act as a dual-model agent for photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy. CuS-Ce6 NPs showed enhanced photodynamic effect through generation of singlet oxygen upon 670nm laser illumination. The same nanoparticles exerted thermal response under an 808nm laser at 2W/cm(2). The fabricated nanoparticles did not show any cytotoxic effect toward breast cancer cells in the absence of light. In vitro cell viability assay showed a potent cytotoxicity in photothermal and photodynamic treatment. Rather than singular treatment, the photodynamic combined photothermal treatment showed an enhanced cytotoxic effect on treated cells. In addition, the CuS-Ce6 NPs exert a photoacoustic signal for non-invasive imaging of treated cells in tissue-mimicking phantom. In conclusion the CuS-Ce6 NPs act as multimodal agent for photo based imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chlorin e6 Functionalized Theranostic Multistage Nanovectors Transported by Stem Cells for Effective Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näkki, Simo; Martinez, Jonathan O; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Xu, Wujun; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-07-19

    Approaches to achieve site-specific and targeted delivery that provide an effective solution to reduce adverse, off target side effects are urgently needed for cancer therapy. Here, we utilized a Trojan-horse-like strategy to carry photosensitizer Chlorin e6 conjugated porous silicon multistage nanovectors with tumor homing mesenchymal stem cells for targeted photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. The inherent versatility of multistage nanovectors permitted the conjugation of photosensitizers to enable precise cell death induction (60%) upon photodynamic therapy, while simultaneously retaining the loading capacity to load various payloads, such as antitumor drugs and diagnostic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the mesenchymal stem cells that internalized the multistage nanovectors conserved their proliferation patterns and in vitro affinity to migrate and infiltrate breast cancer cells. In vivo administration of the mesenchymal stem cells carrying photosensitizer-conjugated multistage nanovectors in mice bearing a primary breast tumor confirmed their tropism toward cancer sites exhibiting similar targeting kinetics to control cells. In addition, this approach yielded in a > 70% decrease in local tumor cell viability after in vivo photodynamic therapy. In summary, these results show the proof-of-concept of how photosensitizer conjugated multistage nanovectors transported by stem cells can target tumors and be used for effective site-specific cancer therapy while potentially minimizing potential negative side effects.

  11. New variants of E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus type 31 identified in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Bárbara S; Batista, Marcus V A; Guimarães, Vilma; Balbino, Valdir Q; Crovella, Sergio; Freitas, Antonio C

    2011-11-01

    We sought to characterize E6 and E7 oncogenes genetic variability of HPV-31 isolated from cervical scraping samples of Northeastern Brazilian women. E6 and E7 were amplified with specific primers, cloned and sequenced. The sequences obtained were aligned with the GenBank reference sequences with the aim of evaluating the possible genetic variants. We identified several genetic variants in E6 and E7 sequences from HPV-31 positive women. Three nucleotide changes in E6 were described for the first time in this study. Some nucleotide changes were non-synonymous substitutions. The knowledge of region/country HPV specific genetic variations is relevant to understand the epidemiology and the development of effective vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sonoporation delivery of monoclonal antibodies against human papillomavirus 16 E6 restores p53 expression in transformed cervical keratinocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Togtema, Melissa; Pichardo, Samuel; Jackson, Robert; Lambert, Paul F; Curiel, Laura; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    .... Therapies targeted at blocking the HPV16 E6 protein and its deleterious effects on the tumour suppressor pathways of the cell can reverse the malignant phenotype of affected keratinocytes while sparing uninfected cells...

  13. Hantavirus infection induces apoptosis in Vero E6cells via mitochondria pathway%汉坦病毒通过线粒体途径诱导Vero E6细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏飞; 于建武; 刘伟; 颜炳柱; 孙丽杰; 康鹏; 赵勇华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the apoptosis of Vero E6 cells infected with hantavirus. Methods N protein of hantavirus was detected in the lysates of Vero E6 cells infected with hantavirus by Western blot. The apoptosis of Vero E6 cells induced by hantavirus was detected by flow cytometry and DNA-ladder assays. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Cyt-c and activated Caspase-3 were assessed by Western blot. Results Hantavirus N protein was found in cell ly sates following hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells by western blot. DNA electrophoresis showed typical DNA laddering and apoptosis peak was detected by flow cytometry. The expres sion levels of Cyt-c and activated Caspase-3 were increased while Bcl-2 decreased as the infec tion sustained. Conclusion Hantavirus infection induces apoptosis in Vero E6 cells via mito chondria pathway.%目的 探讨汉坦病毒诱导非洲绿猴肾细胞Vero E6凋亡的机制.方法 汉坦病毒感染VeroE6细胞后应用Western blot检测胞浆内汉坦病毒核心蛋白(N蛋白)的表达情况,应用DNA-ladder和流式细胞术检测汉坦病毒感染Veto E6细胞诱导凋亡的发生,用Western blot方法检测凋亡相关蛋白Bcl -2、Cyt-c及Caspase-3的表达情况.结果 汉坦病毒感染Vero E6细胞后,在胞浆内检测出汉坦病毒N蛋白.流式细胞仪检测到凋亡峰,DNA电泳可见典型的DNA梯带.Western blot显示随着感染时间的延长,Cyt-c蛋白及Caspase-3酶原活化片段表达增加,Bcl-2蛋白表达减少.结论 汉坦病毒通过线粒体途径诱导Vero E6细胞凋亡.

  14. Cdc6 expression is induced by HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes and represses E-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihloo, E; Sadeghizadeh, M; Shahmahmoodi, S; Mokhtari-Azad, T

    2016-11-11

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, and its development is related to two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papillomaviruses. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and it is frequently seen in cervical cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in E-cadherin suppression in cervical cancer are not clear. We studied the effects of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 on E-cadherin and Cdc6 (cell division cycle 6) expression in the HCT-116 cell line. We also assessed the relationship between Cdc6 and E-cadherin expression in cells expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins. The results showed that HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins reduce E-cadherin expression, and HPV16 E6-expressing cells undergo a more profound suppression of E-cadherin compared with cells expressing HPV16 E7. Our results also revealed that HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins induce Cdc6 expression, whereas suppression of Cdc6 protein by short hairpin RNA restores E-cadherin expression. Induction of Cdc6 expression in HCT-116 cells was greater with E6 than with E7, a finding that was consistent with the corresponding changes in E-cadherin expression. These observations suggest that Cdc6 overexpression is an important factor for E-cadherin reduction in cells expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins and may have an important role in the metastasis of HPV-associated cancers.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 11 November 2016; doi:10.1038/cgt.2016.51.

  15. Synthesis and Resonance Energy Transfer in Conjugates of Luminescent Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots and Chlorin e6 Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosyuk, A. A.; Artemyev, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    We synthesized a new type of conjugates of highly luminescent water soluble CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots covalently bound to Chlorin e6 dye molecules. We observed a resonance energy transfer from quantum dots emitting at 660 nm to Chlorine e6 molecules in our conjugates which can be utilized for phototherapy. Contrary to that quantum dots emitting at 588 nm show non-resonance quenching of excitonic luminescence without the energy transfer to dye molecules.

  16. Reinventing Consumption Traditions through the Process of Unification of a Country: Understanding “Good Bye Lenin!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ceren Engür

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the change of consumption traditions in terms of re-unification of a country. The discussion bases on the movie, “Good Bye Lenin!”(2003 and chases the transformations on consumption trends in order to understand how the re-unification of East and West Germany influences the practices of everyday life after a four decade long segregation. The movie displays the 1990’s Germany during the times when the Berlin Wall falls and frames a family portrait which is dominated by an idealist and traditional mother character in the last days of her life.

  17. DETECTION OF E6, E7 AND CELL-TYPE SPECIFIC ENHANCER OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qian; CHU Yong-lie; JIA Xiao-li; ZHANG Shu-qun; LIU Wen-kang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To detect HPV16 E6, E7 genes and cell-type specific enhancer (CTSE) of long control region (LCR) in breast carcinoma (BC).Methods HPV16 E6,E7 genes and CTSE were detected in 40 BCs and 20 normal breast tissue (NBT) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results The positive rates of HPV16 E6, E7genes and CTSE were 60% (24/40),55% (22/40) and 67.5%(27/40)respectively in BCs, whereas only 5% (1/20), 5%(1/20) and 15% (3/20) in NBTs (P<0.05). There exited significant correlation between E6 gene and CTSE in BCs (P<0.05), as well as E7 gene and CTSE. The infection of HPV16 E6, E7 and CTSE had no statistic relationship with pathological features.Conclusion There were HPV16 E6, E7 genes and CTSE together in BCs and CTSE may play an important role in pathogenesis of BC.

  18. Novel E6 and E7 oncogenes variants of human papillomavirus type 31 in Brazilian women with abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Bárbara Simas; Batista, Marcus Vinicius de Aragão; Crovella, Sergio; Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Serra, Ivi Gonçalves Soares Santos; Amaral, Carolina Maria Medeiros; Balbino, Valdir Queiroz; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2013-06-01

    HPV-31 has been widely described as an important oncogenic type, showing high incidence in worldwide and especially in Northeastern Brazil. We sought to identify the presence of specific mutations in HPV-31 E6 and E7 oncogenes in women with abnormal cervical smear. We enrolled 150 gynecological patients from Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil. HPV screening was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (MY09/11). E6 and E7 oncogenes were amplified with specific primers and sequenced. The sequences obtained were aligned with the GenBank reference sequences in order to search for genetic variants. We identified genetic variants in E6 and E7 sequences from HPV-31. Two new nucleotide changes in E6 and E7 were described for the first time in this study. A novel mutation in E6 resulted in amino acid change in a site belonging to T-cell epitope with MHC II binding activity. There was no significant difference in the distribution of HPV-31 E6 and E7 variants when compared to all selected clinical/epidemiological characteristics. HPV-31 isolates have been clustered into three main groups called lineages A, B and C. We describe new HPV-31 variants in Brazil, contributing to better understand the genomic diversity of these viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of RNA aptamers that internalize into HPV-16 E6/E7 transformed tonsillar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourronc, Francoise A; Rockey, William M; Thiel, William H; Giangrande, Paloma H; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) associated oropharyngeal cancers are on a significant increase and better therapeutic strategies are needed. The HPV-16 oncogenes E6 and E7 are expressed in HPV-associated cancers and are able to transform human tonsillar epithelial cells (HTECs). We used cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) to select for RNA aptamers that entered into HPV-16 E6/E7-HTECs. After 12 rounds of cell-SELEX, a pool of aptamers was obtained that had significantly greater internalization capacity (~5-fold) into E6/E7-HTECs as compared to primary HTECs or fibroblasts. Analysis of individual aptamers from the pool indicated variable internalization into E6/E7-HTECs (1-8-fold as compared to a negative control). Most of the individual aptamers internalized into E6/E7 and primary HTECs with similar efficiency, while one aptamer exhibited ~3-fold better internalization into E6/E7-HTECs. Aptamers that internalize into cells may be useful for delivering therapeutic agents to HPV-16 associated malignancies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro studies of chlorin e6-assisted photodynamic inactivation of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C.; Mohrbacher, C.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bauer-Marschall, Ina; Krickhahn, C.; Stachon, A.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP), a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium located in gastric mucosa, plays an im- portant role in gastro carcinogenesis. Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance, photodynamic inactivation of bacteria presents a new approach to treat bacterial infections, like HP. In vitro experiments were performed to determine the irradiation conditions for a complete inactivation of HP with the photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The HP strain CCUG 38770 (Culture Collection, University of Gothenburg, Sweden) was routinely cultured under microaerophilic conditions, suspended in sodium chloride, incubated with Ce6 and irradiated briefly with red light of the appropriate wavelength of λ = 660 nm. Series of measurements of different Ce6-concentrations (0.1 μM - 100 μM) were carried out, whereby the incubation time was kept constant at 1 min. The absorbed energy dose has been selected in varying the irradiation time (1 s - 300 s) and the power density (4.5 mW/cm2 - 31 mW/cm2 ). Quantification of inactivation was performed by enumeration of the grown colonies. In addition, the accumulation of Ce6 in HP cells was studied more precisely by uorescence spectroscopy. With a Ce6 concentration of 100 μM and a power density of 9 mW cm2 , a 6-log10 reduction in the survival rate of HP was achieved within 30 seconds of irradiation. In conclusion the most relevant factor for the inactivation of HP is the exposure time of irradiation, followed by the concentration of Ce6 and the light intensity. Further studies with HP strains obtained from patient specimens are under current investigation.

  1. HPV 5 and 8 E6 abrogate ATR activity resulting in increased persistence of UVB induced DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Wallace

    Full Text Available The role of the E6 oncoprotein from high-risk members of the α human papillomavirus genus in anogenital cancer has been well established. However, far less is known about the E6 protein from the β human papillomavirus genus (β-HPVs. Some β-HPVs potentially play a role in non-melanoma skin cancer development, although they are not required for tumor maintenance. Instead, they may act as a co-factor that enhances the carcinogenic potential of UV damage. Indeed, the E6 protein from certain β-HPVs (HPV 5 and 8 promotes the degradation of p300, a histone acetyl transferase involved in UV damage repair. Here, we show that the expression of HPV 5 and 8 E6 increases thymine dimer persistence as well as the likelihood of a UVB induced double strand break (DSB. Importantly, we provide a mechanism for the increased DNA damage by showing that both extended thymine dimer persistence as well as elevated DSB levels are dependent on the ability of HPV 8 E6 to promote p300 degradation. We further demonstrate that HPV 5 and 8 E6 expression reduces the mRNA and protein levels of ATR, a PI3 kinase family member that plays a key role in UV damage signaling, but that these levels remain unperturbed in cells expressing a mutated HPV 8 E6 incapable of promoting p300 degradation. We confirm that the degradation of p300 leads to a reduction in ATR protein levels, by showing that ATR levels rebound when a p300 mutant resistant to HPV 8 mediated degradation and HPV 8 E6 are co-transfected. Conversely, we show that ATR protein levels are reduced when p300 is targeted for degradation by siRNA. Moreover, we show the reduced ATR levels in HPV 5 and 8 E6 expressing cells results in delayed ATR activation and an attenuated ability of cells to phosphorylate, and as a result accumulate, p53 in response to UVB exposure, leading to significantly reduced cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that β-HPV E6 expression can enhance the carcinogenic potential of

  2. Gene expression profile of cervical and skin tissues from human papillomavirus type 16 E6 transgenic mice

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    Lambert PF

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although K14E6 transgenic mice develop spontaneous tumors of the skin epithelium, no spontaneous reproductive tract malignancies arise, unless the transgenic mice were treated chronically with 17β-estradiol. These findings suggest that E6 performs critical functions in normal adult cervix and skin, highlighting the need to define E6-controlled transcriptional programs in these tissues. Methods We evaluated the expression profile of 14,000 genes in skin or cervix from young K14E6 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic. To identify differentially expressed genes a linear model was implemented using R and the LIMMA package. Two criteria were used to select the set of relevant genes. First a set of genes with a Log-odds ≥ 3 were selected. Then, a hierarchical search of genes was based on Log Fold Changes. Results Microarray analysis identified a total of 676 and 1154 genes that were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in skin from K14E6 transgenic mice. On the other hand, in the cervix from K14E6 transgenic mice we found that only 97 and 252 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively. One of the most affected processes in the skin from K14E6 transgenic mice was the cell cycle. We also found that skin from transgenic mice showed down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and genes related to the immune response. In the cervix of K14E6 transgenic mice, we could not find affected any gene related to the cell cycle and apoptosis pathways but did observe alterations in the expression of immune response genes. Pathways such as angiogenesis, cell junction and epidermis development, also were altered in their gene expression profiles in both tissues. Conclusion Expression of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein in our model alters expression of genes that fell into several functional groups providing insights into pathways by which E6 deregulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis, the host resistance to infection

  3. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan; Howley, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the

  4. Post-translational control of IL-1β via the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncoprotein: a novel mechanism of innate immune escape mediated by the E3-ubiquitin ligase E6-AP and p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Niebler

    Full Text Available Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs are causally involved in the development of anogenital cancer. HPVs apparently evade the innate immune response of their host cells by dysregulating immunomodulatory factors such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby creating a microenvironment that favors malignancy. One central key player in the immune surveillance interactome is interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β which not only mediates inflammation, but also links innate and adaptive immunity. Because of its pleiotropic physiological effects, IL-1β production is tightly controlled on transcriptional, post-translational and secretory levels. Here, we describe a novel mechanism how the high-risk HPV16 E6 oncoprotein abrogates IL-1β processing and secretion in a NALP3 inflammasome-independent manner. We analyzed IL-1β regulation in immortalized keratinocytes that harbor the HPV16 E6 and/or E7 oncogenes as well as HPV-positive cervical tumor cells. While in primary and in E7-immortalized human keratinocytes the secretion of IL-1β was highly inducible upon inflammasome activation, E6-positive cells did not respond. Western blot analyses revealed a strong reduction of basal intracellular levels of pro-IL-1β that was independent of dysregulation of the NALP3 inflammasome, autophagy or lysosomal activity. Instead, we demonstrate that pro-IL-1β is degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner in E6-positive cells which is mediated via the ubiquitin ligase E6-AP and p53. Conversely, in E6- and E6/E7-immortalized cells pro-IL-1β levels were restored by siRNA knock-down of E6-AP and simultaneous recovery of functional p53. In the context of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, these data suggest a novel post-translational mechanism of pro-IL-1β regulation which ultimately inhibits the secretion of IL-1β in virus-infected keratinocytes. The clinical relevance of our results was further confirmed in HPV-positive tissue samples, where a gradual decrease of IL-1

  5. Post-Translational Control of IL-1β via the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein: A Novel Mechanism of Innate Immune Escape Mediated by the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase E6-AP and p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebler, Martina; Qian, Xu; Höfler, Daniela; Kogosov, Vlada; Kaewprag, Jittranan; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Ly, Regina; Böhmer, Gerd; Zawatzky, Rainer; Rösl, Frank; Rincon-Orozco, Bladimiro

    2013-01-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of anogenital cancer. HPVs apparently evade the innate immune response of their host cells by dysregulating immunomodulatory factors such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby creating a microenvironment that favors malignancy. One central key player in the immune surveillance interactome is interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) which not only mediates inflammation, but also links innate and adaptive immunity. Because of its pleiotropic physiological effects, IL-1β production is tightly controlled on transcriptional, post-translational and secretory levels. Here, we describe a novel mechanism how the high-risk HPV16 E6 oncoprotein abrogates IL-1β processing and secretion in a NALP3 inflammasome-independent manner. We analyzed IL-1β regulation in immortalized keratinocytes that harbor the HPV16 E6 and/or E7 oncogenes as well as HPV-positive cervical tumor cells. While in primary and in E7-immortalized human keratinocytes the secretion of IL-1β was highly inducible upon inflammasome activation, E6-positive cells did not respond. Western blot analyses revealed a strong reduction of basal intracellular levels of pro-IL-1β that was independent of dysregulation of the NALP3 inflammasome, autophagy or lysosomal activity. Instead, we demonstrate that pro-IL-1β is degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner in E6-positive cells which is mediated via the ubiquitin ligase E6-AP and p53. Conversely, in E6- and E6/E7-immortalized cells pro-IL-1β levels were restored by siRNA knock-down of E6-AP and simultaneous recovery of functional p53. In the context of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, these data suggest a novel post-translational mechanism of pro-IL-1β regulation which ultimately inhibits the secretion of IL-1β in virus-infected keratinocytes. The clinical relevance of our results was further confirmed in HPV-positive tissue samples, where a gradual decrease of IL-1β towards cervical

  6. Metric-Independent Spacetime Volume-Forms and Dark Energy/Dark Matter Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The method of non-Riemannian (metric-independent) spacetime volume-forms (alternative generally-covariant integration measure densities) is applied to construct a modified model of gravity coupled to a single scalar field providing an explicit unification of dark energy (as a dynamically generated cosmological constant) and dust fluid dark matter flowing along geodesics as an exact sum of two separate terms in the scalar field energy-momentum tensor. The fundamental reason for the dark species unification is the presence of a non-Riemannian volume-form in the scalar field action which both triggers the dynamical generation of the cosmological constant as well as gives rise to a hidden nonlinear Noether symmetry underlying the dust dark matter fluid nature. Upon adding appropriate perturbation breaking the hidden "dust" Noether symmetry we preserve the geodesic flow property of the dark matter while we suggest a way to get growing dark energy in the present universe' epoch free of evolution pathologies. Also, ...

  7. Proton decay prediction from a gauge-Higgs unification scenario in five dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2016-10-01

    The Higgs boson mass and top quark mass imply that the Higgs quartic coupling vanishes around the scale of 109- 1013 GeV , depending on the precise value of the top quark mass. The vanishing quartic coupling can be naturally addressed if the Higgs field originates from a five-dimensional gauge field and the fifth dimension is compactified at the scale of the vanishing Higgs quartic coupling, which is a scenario based on gauge-Higgs unification. We present a general prediction of the scenario on the proton decay process p →π0e+. In many gauge-Higgs unification models, the first-generation fermions are localized towards an orbifold fixed point in order to realize the realistic Yukawa couplings. Hence, four-fermion operators responsible for the proton decay can appear with a suppression of the five-dimensional Planck scale (not the four-dimensional Planck scale). Since the five-dimensional Planck scale is connected to the compactification scale, we have a correlation between the proton partial decay width and the top quark mass. We show that the future Hyper-Kamiokande experiment may discover the proton decay if the top quark pole mass is larger than about 172.5 GeV.

  8. Low-luminosity Blazars in Wise: A Mid-infrared View of Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, S.; Shemmer, O.; Wu, J.

    2012-01-01

    We use the preliminary data release from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform the first statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ( 102) of BL Lac objects -- low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and the shape of their SEDs in the IR correlates well with SED peak frequency. In other BL Lac objects, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN, and we do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. While at odds with simple unification, the missing torus is consistent with recent suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion flows. We discuss implications on the ``nature vs. nurture" debate for FR I and FR II galaxies, and also on the standard orientation-based AGN unification model.

  9. D^0-\\bar D^0 Mixing in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Lim, C S; Maru, Nobuhito

    2011-01-01

    We discuss flavor mixing and resulting Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) in the SU(3) \\otimes SU(3)_color gauge-Higgs unification. As the FCNC process we calculate the rate of D^0-\\bar D^0 mixing due to the exchange of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gluons at the tree level. Flavor mixing is argued to be realized by the interplay between bulk masses and brane-localized masses. Similarly to the well-known GIM mechanism, the amplitude of the FCNC process is handled by the squared mass differences of quarks. By comparing our prediction on the mass difference of neutral D meson with the recent experimental data we obtain a lower bound on the compactification scale of order O(TeV). The obtained bound is much milder than what we naively expect assuming only the decoupling of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gluons. The reason is attributed to the automatic suppression mechanism of FCNC for light quarks, specific to the gauge-Higgs unification model. We point out that there are two types of suppression mechanism, one of which real...

  10. Quasi Yukawa Unification and Fine-Tuning in U(1) Extended SSM

    CERN Document Server

    Hicyilmaz, Yasar; Altas, Asli; Solmaz, Levent; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We consider the low scale implications in the U(1)' extended MSSM (UMSSM). We restrict the parameter space such that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is always the lightest neutralino. In addition, we impose quasi Yukawa unification (QYU) at the grand unification scale (M_GUT). QYU strictly requires the ratios among the yukawa couplings as y_t/y_b ~ 1.2, y_tau/y_b ~ 1.4, and y_t/y_tau ~ 0.8. We find that the need of fine-tuning over the fundamental parameter space of QYU is in the acceptable range (Delta_EW ~ 2.5 TeV), gluinos (m_gluino >~ 2 TeV), and squarks from the first two families (m_squarks >~ 4 TeV). Similarly the stau mass is bounded from below at about 1.5 TeV. Despite this heavy spectrum, we find Delta_EW >~ 300, which is much lower than that needed for the minimal supersymmetric models. In addition, UMSSM yield relatively small mu-term, and the LSP neutralio is mostly form by the Higgsinos of mass >~ 700 GeV. We obtain also bino-like dark matter (DM) of mass about 400 GeV. Wino is usuall...

  11. NLSP Gluino and NLSP Stop Scenarios from b-tau Yukawa Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Shabbar; Ün, Cem Salih

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of b-tau Yukawa unified supersymmetric SU(4)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R model (with mu > 0), which predicts the existence of gluino - neutralino and stop - neutralino coannihilation scenarios compatible with the desired relic LSP neutralino dark matter abundance and other collider constraints. The NLSP gluino or NLSP stop masses vary between 400 GeV to ~ 1 TeV. The NLSP gluinos will be accessible at the 14 TeV LHC, while we hope that the NSLP stop solutions will be probed in future LHC searches. We also identify regions of the parameter space in which the gluino and the lighter stop are closely degenerate in mass, interchangeably playing the role of NLSP and NNLSP. We also update a previous study of t-b-tau Yukawa unification and show that NLSP gluino of mass ~ 1 TeV, with a mass difference between the gluino and neutralino of less than 80 GeV, can be realized consistent with the current collider and astrophysical constraints. We present benchmark points for b-tau and t-b-tau Yukawa unification ...

  12. Testing the AGN unification model in the infrared. First results with GTC/CanariCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Almeida, C.

    2015-05-01

    The unified model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) accounts for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry alone. However, from the fitting of high spatial resolution infrared (IR) data with clumpy torus models, it has been hinted that the immediate dusty surroundings of Type-1 and 2 Seyfert nuclei might be intrinsically different in terms of covering factor (torus width and number of clouds). Moreover, these torus covering factors also showed variations among objects belonging to the same type, in contradiction with simple unification. Interestingly, these intrinsic differences in Seyfert tori could explain, for example, the lack of broad optical lines in the polarized spectra of about half of the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. On the other hand, recent IR interferometry studies have revealed that, in at least four Seyfert galaxies, the mid-IR emission is elongated in the polar direction. These results are difficult to reconcile with unified models, which claim that the bulk of the mid-IR emission comes from the torus. In this invited contribution I summarize the latest results on high angular resolution IR studies of AGN, which constitute a crucial test for AGN unification. These results include those from the mid-infrared instrument CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), which are starting to be published by the CanariCam AGN team, Los Piratas (https://sites.google.com/site/piratasrelatedpublications).

  13. The Bottom Mass Prediction in Supersymmetric Grand Unification; Uncertainties and Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Langacker, P; Langacker, Paul; Polonsky, Nir

    1994-01-01

    Grand unified theories often predict unification of Yukawa couplings (e.g., $h_{b} = h_{\\tau}$), and thus certain relations among fermion masses. The latter can distinguish these from models that predict only coupling constant unification. The implications of Yukawa couplings of the heavy-family in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model (when embedded in a GUT) are discussed. In particular, uncertainties associated with $m_{t}$ and $m_{b}$, threshold corrections at the low-scale, and threshold and nonrenormalizable-operator corrections associated with a grand-unified sector at the high-scale are parametrized and estimated. The implication of these and of the correlation between $m_{t}$ and the prediction for $\\alpha_{s}$ are discussed. Constraints on the $\\tan\\beta$ range in such models and an upper bound on the $t$-quark pole mass are given and are shown to be affected by the $\\alpha_{s}-m_{t}$ correlation. Constraints on the low-scale thresholds are found to be weakened by uncertainties associat...

  14. Hierarchy problem, gauge coupling unification at the Planck scale, and vaccum stability

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Regarding to the gauge hierarchy problem, an intermediate scale, such as a grand unification scale of ${\\cal O}(10^{16})\\,{\\rm GeV}$, is disfavored, and allowed mass scale is only TeV scale. For this motivation, we explore possibilities of gauge coupling unification (GCU) at the Planck scale ($M_{Pl} = 2.4 \\times 10^{18}\\,{\\rm GeV}$) by adding a few extra particles with TeV scale mass into the standard model. We find that, when all extra particles have the same mass, the GCU at the Planck scale cannot be realized only by extra fermions, but can be done by extra particles including some scalars. On the other hand, when extra fermions have different masses, the GCU can be realized around $\\sqrt{8 \\pi} M_{Pl}$ only by themselves. By this extension, a vacuum becomes stable up to the Planck scale as well as a proton lifetime is much longer than an experimental lower bound.

  15. Strings: A possible alternative explanation for the Unification of Gravitation Field and Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Susana

    Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters

  16. Bioaugmentation with endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii enhances metal rhizoaccumulation in host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of hyperaccumulator–endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn and Pb. Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn ˃ Cd ˃ Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants.

  17. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Kwon, Hyockman

    2011-08-26

    Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher-order chromatin structure or nuclear motor activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaugmentation with Endophytic Bacterium E6S Homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii Enhances Metal Rhizoaccumulation in Host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Application of hyperaccumulator-endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil, and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb). Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn > Cd >Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants. PMID:26870079

  19. E6-Associated Protein Dependent Estrogen Receptor Regulation of Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit R2A Expression in Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jean-Pierre; Zeidan, Youssef H; Zafar, Nawal; El Hokayem, Jimmy

    2017-02-18

    E6ap is a known transcriptional coregulator for estrogen receptor alpha (Er, Erα) in the presence of estrogen. Protein kinase A (PKA) contains two regulatory subunits derived from four genes. Recent evidence demonstrates that PKA regulates E6ap activity. Data generated in our lab indicated estrogen dependent regulation of Pkar2a levels. Our project sets to investigate a possible feedback mechanism constituting of Erα and E6ap transcriptional regulation of Pkar2a expression. Western blot evaluated protein regulation correlations with E2 in mouse neuroblastoma lines. Bioinformatics detected estrogen response element (ERE) sequences. quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the western blot results. ERE oligonucleotides were synthesized. Reporter gene transcriptional activity was evaluated via Luciferase assay output. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA) assessed direct binding between Erα relevant sequences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Re-ChIP were conducted in quantifying protein complex recruitment levels. Pkar2a protein expression directly correlated with E2, and four putative ERE sequences were identified. Pkar2a mRNA expression reverted to baseline with either E2 or E6ap absent. In the presence of E2, ERE-1 and ERE-4 possessed Luciferase reporter gene transcriptional capabilities. ERE-1 portrayed band shifts, representing direct binding to Erα with E2 supplementation. With E2, ERE-1 significantly enhanced Erα and E6ap recruitment levels to the Pkar2a promoter. Pkar2a is directly regulated by Erα and E6ap in the presence of estrogen stimulus. This work indicates a feedback mechanism in the interplay between PKA and E6ap, which may prove crucial for the role of both proteins in cancers and neurogenetic diseases like Angelman syndrome.

  20. 金雀异黄素诱导人白血病Jurkat E6-1细胞凋亡作用%Induction of apoptosis by genistein in human leukemia cell line Jurkat E6-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素芳; 何坚; 杨静静; 李万里

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and its mechanism of genistein (Gen) on human leukemia cell line Jurkat E6-1. Methods Jurkat E6-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of Gen. Inhibitive effect of Gen on cell growth was determined with methy thiazoly tetazolium(MTT) test. DNA-ladder was used to measure the effect of Gen on apoptosis of Jurkat E6-1 cells. Alternative of bcl-2 and bax genes were detected with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results At a concentration of higher than 0. 5 μmol / L,Gen could inhibit the growth of Jurkat E6-1 cells. After 24 hours, the inhibition ratio was 5.9% compared with that of the control group, with a significant difference (P < 0.01 ) in a time-does-dependent manner( P < 0. 01 ). After 72 hours, the inhibition ratio was 24.9%, with a significant difference compared to that of at 24 hours(P <0. 01 ). The expression rate of bcl-2 decreased after the treatment with the increasing concentration of Gen. However, the expression rate of bax increased after the treatment with the decreased concentrations of Gen. Conclusion Gen can significantly inhibit the growth of human leukemia line Jurkat E6-1. Its mechanism is up-regulation of the bax expression and down-regulation of the bcl-2 expression.%目的 探讨金雀异黄素(genistein,Gen)诱导人白血病Jurkat E6-1细胞凋亡机制.方法 以不同浓度Gem作用于Jurkat E6-1细胞,采用四甲基偶氮噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测Gen对Jurkat E6-1细胞增殖抑制作用;采用DNA-ladder检测Gen对细胞凋亡影响;采用实时定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测凋亡相关基因bax、bcl-2表达水平.结果与对照组比较,P>0.5 μmol/L浓度的Gen明显抑制Jurkat E6-1细胞增殖,培养24 h,10 μmoL/L Gen组抑制率为5.9%,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),随Gen浓度增加和培养时间延长,抑制作用逐渐增强,72 h后,10μmol/L Gen组抑制率为24.9%;Gen使Jurkat E6-1细胞Bax表达上调,Bcl-2表达下调,

  1. Polymer-bound meso-chlorin e6 for PDT (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinick, Nancy L.; Sun, Ying; Joyner, D. A.; Reed, R.; Spikes, John D.; Straight, Richard C.; Kopecek, Jindrich

    1992-06-01

    Two types of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer containing meso- chlorin e6 monoethylene diamine disodium salt (Mce6) were synthesized. The Mce6 was bound via pendant enzymatically degradable oligopeptide side chains (G-F-L-G) in one copolymer and was attached through noncleavable side chains (G) in the other. Preliminary experiments have been undertaken to compare their localization/retention behavior and their tumorcidal activity in vivo (A/J mice; C1300 neuroblastoma). Results of localization/retention experiments indicated that the Mce6 bound to the noncleavable copolymer was retained in the tumor and other tissues for a prolonged time period compared with free Mce6 or the Mce6 bound to the cleavable copolymer. Light activation of the Mce6 from the cleavable copolymer rendered a substantially more potent biological response in vivo than did the permanently bound Mce6. It is hypothesized and indirectly supported by photophysical data that both of the polymer-photosensitizer complexes are aggregated (or conformationally altered) under physiological conditions due to their hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties. In buffer at pH 7.4, the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation by free Mce6 is three-fold higher than by the Mce6 bound to a noncleavable copolymer; adding detergent (CTAB), increased the quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation to a value consistent with that of the free Mce6. In vivo, if a sufficient time lag is allowed after drug administration for tumor cell lysosomal enzymes to cleave the Mce6 from the polymer containing degradable side chains, the Mce6 would be released in free form and behave with properties akin to the free drug. Due to the difference in cellular uptake mechanisms for free and bound drugs (and the targeting potential of the copolymer), a much higher local concentration in the tumor compared with surrounding tissue can be achieved with the polymer bound drug than the free photosensitizer. Side effects

  2. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yunhee Kim [Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science and Department of Biology, Kyunghee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyockman, E-mail: hmkwon@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Integration of HPV into host genome critical for activation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. {yields} BAF53 is essential for higher-order chromatin structure. {yields} BAF53 knockdown suppresses E6 and E7 from HPV integrants, but not from episomal HPVs. {yields} BAF53 knockdown decreases H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18. {yields} BAF53 knockdown restores the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. -- Abstract: Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher-order chromatin

  3. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-05-05

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized "homemade" particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  4. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized “homemade” particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164. The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  5. Human papilloma virus early proteins E6 (HPV16/18-E6) and the cell cycle marker P16 (INK4a) are useful prognostic markers in uterine cervical carcinomas in Qassim Region--Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, O M; AlSheeha, M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common and an important public health problem for adult women in developing countries. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence is low in Saudi Arabia. High-risk types of human papilloma viruses (HPV16 and HPV18) are the most significant risk factors for cervical cancer. HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein is associated with HPV etiology, viral persistence and epithelial transformation. Cell cycle protein p16 INK4a (p16) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical carcinomas. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of HPV16/18-E6 and p16 in uterine cervical carcinomas in Qassim Region--Saudi Arabia, and to relate the results to the established clinicopathological prognostic parameters (age of the patient, educational level, birth control methods, number of pregnancy, smoking status, degree of histological differentiation, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis) The study included 40 specimens of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas diagnosed and confirmed by biopsy. Histopathological classification of cervical tumors cases was performed according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Immunohistochemical analysis for HPV16/18-E6 and p16 were carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of cervical tissues using avidin-biotin peroxidase method. There was a significant statistical correlation between HPV16/18-E6 expression in cervical carcinoma and nationality, smoking status and size of the tumor. HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein expression in normal lymphocytes and endothelial cells in the tumor tissues and the adjacent normal cervical tissues suggest the possibility that HPV infection might spread to other organs through blood circulation. P16 expression has been correlated with high grade, stage of cervical SCC and HPV16/18-E6 expression. The current study supports the critical function of p16 and HPV16/18-E6 as specific markers for cervical carcinoma. However the potential for usage

  6. Ten years after the unification : East Germany and the relevance of modern theories of trade, location and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S.; Schramm, M.; Garretsen, Harry

    2000-01-01

    In the paper we analyse, ten years after the German unification, the relevance of modern theoretical developments on trade, location and growth for East Germany using sectoral and regional data. Given our discussion of stylized facts about industry growth, economies of scale and differences in

  7. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  8. E6AP inhibits G-CSFR turnover and functions by promoting its ubiquitin-dependent proteasome degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Stuti; Kumar, Yogesh; Thacker, Gatha; Kapoor, Isha; Lochab, Savita; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhatt, Madan L B; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Trivedi, Arun Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) plays a crucial role in regulating myeloid cell survival, proliferation, and neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells maturation. Previously, we demonstrated that Fbw7α negatively regulates G-CSFR and its downstream signaling through ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation. However, whether additional ubiquitin ligases for G-CSFR exist is not known. Identifying multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases for G-CSFR shall improve our understanding of activation and subsequent attenuation of G-CSFR signaling required for differentiation and proliferation. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6 associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase physically associates with G-CSFR and targets it for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and thereby attenuates its functions. We further show that E6AP promoted G-CSFR degradation leads to reduced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) which is required for G-CSF dependent granulocytic differentiation. More importantly, our finding shows that E6AP also targets mutant form of G-SCFR (G-CSFR-T718), frequently observed in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) patients that very often culminate to AML, however, at a quite slower rate than wild type G-CSFR. In addition, our data showed that knockdown of E6AP restores G-CSFR and its signaling thereby promoting granulocytic differentiation. Collectively, our data demonstrates that E6AP facilitates ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of G-CSFR leading to attenuation of its downstream signaling and inhibition of granulocytic differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human papillomavirus type 18 E6 and E7 genes integrate into human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianzhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Shuyan; Zhu, Ningxia; Wen, Lifeng; Yuan, Yan; Lv, Leili; Chen, Xiancai; Huang, Jianmin; Chen, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses have been linked causally to some human cancers such as cervical carcinoma, but there is very little research addressing the effect of HPV infection on human liver cells. We chose the human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2 to investigate whether HPV gene integration took place in liver cells as well. We applied PCR to detect the possible integration of HPV genes in Hep G2 cells. We also investigated the expression of the integrated E6 and E7 genes by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Then, we silenced E6 and E7 expression and checked the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the potential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory pathways. Finally, we used in situ hybridization to detect HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Hep G2 cell line contains integrated HPV 18 DNA, leading to the expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Knockdown of the E7 and E6 genes expression reduced cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and increased apoptosis. The human cell cycle and apoptosis real-time PCR arrays analysis demonstrated E6 and E7-mediated regulation of some genes such as Cyclin H, UBA1, E2F4, p53, p107, FASLG, NOL3 and CASP14. HPV16/18 was found in only 9% (9/100) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Our investigations showed that HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes can be integrated into the Hep G2, and we observed a low prevalence of HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. However, the precise risk of HPV as causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma needs further study.

  10. The GBVP approach for vertical datum unification: recent results in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadiparvar, B.; Rangelova, E.; Sideris, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Two levelling-based vertical datums have been used in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico. Although the two datums will be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum in a few years, their connection and unification are of great interest to the scientific and user communities. In this paper, the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach is studied as a rigorous method for connecting two or more vertical datums through computed datum offsets from a global equipotential surface defined by a GOCE-based geoid. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the geodetic data errors on the datum unification are four important factors affecting the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in gravimetric geoid computations. The omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the linear system of equations for the estimation of the datum offset(s). Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along the Canadian and US coastal areas. Using GNSS-levelling stations in the US coastal regions, the mean datum offset can be estimated with a 1 cm standard deviation if the GOCE geoid omission error is taken into account by means of the local gravity and topographic information. In the Canadian Atlantic and Pacific regions, the datum offsets can be estimated with 2.3 and 3.5 cm standard deviation, respectively, using GNSS-levelling stations. However, due to the low number of tide gauge stations, the standard deviation of the CGVD28 and NAVD88 datum

  11. Molecular interactions of ‘high risk’ human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 oncoproteins: implications for tumour progression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oishee Chakrabarti; Sudhir Krishna

    2003-04-01

    The aetiology of cervical cancer has been primarily attributed to human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These are characterized by the persistent expression of the two oncogenes, E6 and E7. Experimental studies show that E6 and E7 genes of the high risk HPVs deregulate key cell cycle controls. Recent work has uncovered new cellular partners for these proteins that throw light on many of the pathways and processes in which these viral proteins intervene. This review focuses on the regulation of host proteins by the viral oncoproteins and consequence of such interactions on cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

  12. Biodistribution of Amine-Amide Chlorin e6 Derivative Conjugate with a Boron Nanoparticle for Boron Neutron-Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    А.B. Volovetsky; N.Y. Shilyagina; V.V. Dudenkova; S.О. Pasynkova; М.А. Grin; А.F. Mironov; А.V. Feofanov; I.V. Balalaeva; А.V. Maslennikova

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the biodistribution of amino-amide chlorin e6 derivative conjugate with cobalt bis-dicarbollide as a potential boron transporter for the tasks of boron neutron-capture therapy. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on Balb/c mice with induced murine colon carcinoma CT-26. Amino-amide chlorin e6 derivative conjugate with cobalt bis-dicarbollide was administered intravenously, the dose being 5 and 10 mg/kg body mass. The sampling for m...

  13. 8e6科技2007年最新上网行为管理产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8e6科技近期在北京国际网络安全技术与应用展览会上宣布推出全新的上网行为管理产品组合,包括8e6 Mobile Client移动设备上网行为管理系统,Enterprise Reporter 4.0上网行为审计系统、Threat Analysis1.0实时威胁分析系统和E-Police上网内容审计系统。

  14. THE HUMORAL AND CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES INDUCED BY HPV18L1-E6/E7 DNA VACCINES IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most commoncancer in woman,particularly in developing coun-tries.In the past t wo decades,epidemiologic andvirological data have identified a clear and consistentassociation of human papilomavirus(HPV)infec-tion withthe development of cervical cancer[1].Theexpression of the E6and E7genes from high-riskHPV16and HPV18is crucial for development,i m-mortalization and maintenance of the malignantphenotype of cervical carcinoma.Therefore,E6andE7genes are i mportant targets for the de...

  15. Il turismo della memoria e i luoghi dell’Unità d’Italia / Tourism, memory and the places of the unification of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnani, Elisa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unification of Italy may be celebrated with modern forms of pilgrimage in the places where the Unification was built, places of the collective cultural heritage of our country, connected to the recovery of memory of this past event. In this paper we will analyse the existing literature on the issues of memory and tourism and on the role of tourism in shaping the collective memory and the national identity of a population and we will discuss how the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the unification of Italy are promoting the cultural heritage, both material and immaterial, it has produced.

  16. Characterization of a cluster of oncogenic mutations in E6 of a human papillomavirus 83 variant isolated from a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, Isabelle; Benchetrit, Maxime; Loubatier, Céline; Michel, Gregory; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2011-10-01

    We previously isolated human papillomavirus 83 (HPV83m) from a cervical smear. Sequence analysis of E6 and E7 proteins highlighted five mutations located in the second putative zinc-finger region of E6 (E6m), an important domain for protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Here, we show that E6m of HPV83m can trigger human primary cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth properties, similarly to E6 of HPV16, a high-risk HPV (HR-HPV). Interestingly, we demonstrate that, in contrast to E6 of HPV16, E6m corrupts neither p53 stability nor telomerase activity, but acts as a specific modulator of the transcriptional machinery. By studying E6m reversion mutants, we confirmed the importance of the second zinc-finger domain in triggering the observed upregulation of cell growth and of the transcriptional machinery. Reversion of these mutations in E6m (to yield strain E6r) fully abolished the oncogenic potential of E6m, transforming the phenotype of E6 from a high-risk to a low-risk phenotype. Importantly, our data define the importance of a cluster of mutations in the second zinc finger of E6m in increasing the oncogenic potential of HPV83.

  17. Mutations in the E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 from cervical cancer tissue%宫颈癌组织中HPV16型E6/E7序列突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志珊; 庄建良; 李爱禄; 蒋燕成

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析泉州地区宫颈癌患者HPV16型E6/E7序列突变情况,探讨其与宫颈癌发生的相关性.方法 取35例HPV16阳性的宫颈癌组织标本,采用PCR法扩增E6、E7全长基因.PCR产物直接测序,并与野生型序列进行比对.分析E6、E7基因的变异情况.结果 E6、E7基因的突变率分别为91.4%和89.2%.E6基因中有10个位点为错义突变,2个位点为无义突变.氨基酸突变频率最高的是D25E(77.1%).E7基因中共发现5个突变位点,有2个位点为错义突变,3个位点为无义突变,突变频率最高是N29S和无义突变T846C(均为75.0%).结论 HPV16 E6、E7基因中最常见突变位点D25E、N29S和T846C可能与宫颈癌的发生密切相关,可为研究针对中国人群的HPV疫苗提供一定的线索.%To investigate mutations in E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) in patients with cervical cancer in Quanzhou area and explore the potential association between the mutations and cervical cancer, 35 cervical cancer tissue with HPV 16 positive were collected in this study. DNA samples were amplified by polymerase chain reation (PCR), then the products were directly sequenced and the results were compared with the prototype sequence. It was found that the prevalences of HPV 16 E6 and E7 variants were 91. 4% and 89. 2% respectively. Ten mis-sense variantions and 2 silent variantions were identified in E6. The hot spot of E6 nucleotide mutation was D25E, with a frequency of 77. 1%. A total of 5 mutation spots was found in E7, including 2 mis-sense and 3 silent variations. Both N29S and T846C were the most common mutations, with the same ratio of 75. 0%. It is suggested that the mutation of D25E, N29S and T846C are likely to be associated with ontogenesis of cervical cancer. This founding might provide valuable information for HPV vaccine development in China.

  18. 产细菌素屎肠球菌E6的特性分析及发酵条件优化%Characteristics and optimization of fermentative condition for bacteriocin producing Enterococcus Faecium E6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶瑜; 常伟; 唐洁; 李明元

    2013-01-01

    研究了屎肠球菌E6抑菌活性的生物学特性,并通过响应面法优化其发酵条件.结果表明,屎肠球菌E6产蛋白质类细菌素,能够抑制单增李斯特氏菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和枯草芽孢杆菌生长,在pH3.0~7.0条件下有明显抑菌活性,60~121℃热处理20min后仍具有抑菌活性.通过Box-Behnken实验设计优化屎肠球菌E6发酵条件为培养时间36.0h,培养温度31.0℃,培养基pH5.1.在此条件下,发酵上清液抑菌圈直径可达20.17mm,较优化前提高了27.2%.%The characteristics of antimicrobial activity and the fermentative condition of Enterococcus Faecium E6 were discussed.Proteinic bacteriocin produced by E6 showed inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. It showed obviously activity under pH3.0 ~ 7.0 condition.lt was also active when heated at 60~121℃ for 20min. The fermentative condition, optimized by Box-Behnken design,was cultured at pH 5.1,temperature of 31.0℃ for 36.0h.Under this condition,the diameter of inhibition zone reached up to 20.17mm,which increased by 27.2% than optimization before.

  19. $H\\to Z\\gamma$ in the gauge-Higgs unification

    CERN Document Server

    Funatsu, Shuichiro; Hosotani, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The decay rate of the Higgs decay $H \\to Z \\gamma$ is evaluated at the one-loop level in the $SO(5)\\times U(1)$ gauge-Higgs unification. Although an infinite number of loops with Kaluza-Klein states contribute to the decay amplitude, there appears the cancellation among the loops, and the decay rate is found to be finite and non-zero. It is found that the decay rate is well approximated by the decay rate in the standard model multiplied by $\\cos^2\\theta_H$, where $\\theta_H$ is the Aharonov-Bohm phase induced by the vacuum expectation value of an extra-dimensional component of the gauge field.

  20. Hierarchy problem, gauge coupling unification at the Planck scale, and vacuum stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Haba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of the gauge hierarchy problem, introducing an intermediate scale in addition to TeV scale and the Planck scale (MPl=2.4×1018 GeV is unfavorable. In that way, a gauge coupling unification (GCU is expected to be realized at MPl. We explore possibilities of GCU at MPl by adding a few extra particles with TeV scale mass into the standard model (SM. When extra particles are fermions and scalars (only fermions with the same mass, the GCU at MPl can (not be realized. On the other hand, when extra fermions have different masses, the GCU can be realized around 8πMPl without extra scalars. This simple SM extension has two advantages that a vacuum becomes stable up to MPl (8πMPl and a proton lifetime becomes much longer than an experimental bound.

  1. Unification and mechanistic detail as drivers of model construction: models of networks in economics and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant.

  2. Unification of catalytic water oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions: amorphous beat crystalline cobalt iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, Arindam; Menezes, Prashanth W; Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Bergmann, Arno; Das, Chittaranjan; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter; Strasser, Peter; Driess, Matthias

    2014-12-17

    Catalytic water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is considered as one of the convenient routes for the sustainable energy conversion. Bifunctional catalysts for the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are pivotal for the energy conversion and storage, and alternatively, the photochemical water oxidation in biomimetic fashion is also considered as the most useful way to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Here we present a facile solvothermal route to control the synthesis of amorphous and crystalline cobalt iron oxides by controlling the crystallinity of the materials with changing solvent and reaction time and further utilize these materials as multifunctional catalysts for the unification of photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation as well as for the oxygen reduction reaction. Notably, the amorphous cobalt iron oxide produces superior catalytic activity over the crystalline one under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation and oxygen reduction conditions.

  3. Minimal Supersymmetric SU(5) and Gauge Coupling Unification at Three Loops

    CERN Document Server

    ~Martens, W; ~Salomon, J; ~Steinhauser, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the relations between the gauge couplings at the electroweak scale and the high scale where unification of the three gauge couplings is expected. Threshold corrections are incorporated both at the supersymmetric and at the grand unified scale and, where available three-loop running and two-loop decoupling are employed. We study the impact of the current experimental uncertainties of the coupling constants and the supersymmetric mass spectrum on the prediction of the super-heavy masses within the so-called minimal supersymmetric SU(5). As a main result of the three-loop analysis one can conclude that minimal supersymmetric SU(5) cannot be ruled out by the current experimental data on proton decay rates.

  4. Higgs as a Probe of Supersymmetric Grand Unification with the Hosotani Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    The supersymmetric grand unified theory where the SU(5) gauge symmetry is broken by the Hosotani mechanism predicts the existence of adjoint chiral superfields whose masses are at the supersymmetry breaking scale. The Higgs sector is extended with the SU(2)_L triplet with hypercharge zero and neutral singlet chiral multiplets from that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Since the triplet and singlet chiral multiplets originate from a higher-dimensional vector multiplet, this model is highly predictive. Properties of the particles in the Higgs sector are characteristic and can be different from those in the Standard Model and other models. We evaluate deviations in coupling constants of the standard model-like Higgs boson and the mass spectrum of the additional Higgs bosons. We find that our model is discriminative from the others by precision measurements of these coupling constants and masses of the additional Higgs bosons. This model can be a good example of grand unification that is testable at ...

  5. Higgs as a probe of supersymmetric grand unification with the Hosotani mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, T

    2015-01-01

    The supersymmetric grand unified theory where the $SU(5)$ gauge symmetry is broken by the Hosotani mechanism provides a natural solution to the so-called doublet-triplet splitting problem. At the same time, this model derives a general and distinctive prediction that is testable at TeV scale collider experiments. To be more concrete, adjoint chiral supermultiplets with masses around TeV scale appear. Since these additional fields originate from a higher-dimensional gauge supermultiplet, our model is highly predictive. We study especially the Higgs sector and show that our model is discriminative from the others by precision measurements of the couplings and masses. Namely, we may get a hint of the breaking mechanism of the grand unification at future collider experiments.

  6. Unification of gravity and quantum field theory from extended noncommutative geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hefu; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2017-02-01

    We make biframe and quaternion extensions on the noncommutative geometry, and construct the biframe spacetime for the unification of gravity and quantum field theory (QFT). The extended geometry distinguishes between the ordinary spacetime based on the frame bundle and an extra non-coordinate spacetime based on the biframe bundle constructed by our extensions. The ordinary spacetime frame is globally flat and plays the role as the spacetime frame in which the fields of the Standard Model are defined. The non-coordinate frame is locally flat and is the gravity spacetime frame. The field defined in both frames of such “flat” biframe spacetime can be quantized and plays the role as the gravity field which couples with all the fields to connect the gravity effect with the Standard Model. Thus, we provide a geometric paradigm in which gravity and QFT can be unified.

  7. Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and modern medicine promotes the unification of human medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are two mutually supportive systems in medical profession: modern medicines and traditional medicine. The current status is that although the modern medicine occupies the major position in healthcare system, the therapeutic effect of traditional medicines should not be omitted. If all of them merged and unified as one, it will be beneficial to the development of human medicine. In this paper, the integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and modern medicine was exemplified to elucidate the mutual complements, mutual benefits of traditional medicines and modern medicine to maintain the unification of human medicine via the development of molecular biology, cytology etc. We believed that TCM theory may share the same mechanism with western medicine at some extent which need to be explored in the future research. In our point of view, although the road may twist and turn, the results are promising.

  8. Towards a Spin-foam unification of gravity, Yang-Mills interactions and matter fields

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephon; Tacchi, Ruggero Altair

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method of unifying gravity and the Standard Model by introducing a spin-foam model. We realize a unification between an SU(2) Yang-Mills interaction and 3D general relativity by considering a Spin(4) Plebanski action. The theory is quantized a la spin-foam by implementing the analogue of the simplicial constraints for the broken phase of the Spin(4) symmetry. A natural 4D extension of the theory is shown. We also present a way to recover 2-point correlation functions between the connections as a first way to implement scattering amplitudes between particle states, aiming to connect Loop Quantum Gravity to new physical predictions.

  9. Unification of Field Theory and Maximum Entropy Methods for Learning Probability Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, Justin B

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian field theory and maximum entropy are two methods for learning smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data. Both methods were inspired by statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I show that Bayesian field theory subsumes maximum entropy density estimation. In particular, the most common maximum entropy methods are shown to be limiting cases of Bayesian inference using field theory priors that impose no boundary conditions on candidate densities. This unification provides a natural way to test the validity of the maximum entropy assumption on one's data. It also provides a better-fitting nonparametric density estimate when the maximum entropy assumption is rejected.

  10. Gauge Symmetry Breaking Patterns in an SU(5) Grand Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kentaro; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    We study gauge symmetry breaking patterns of the five-dimensional $SU(5)$ grand gauge-Higgs unification compactified on an orbifold $S^1/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ with the Hosotani mechanism in the framework of the diagonal embedding method. We find matter contents that lead to the $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ gauge symmetry on the global minimum of the effective potential and also present examples of matter content for which each regular subgroup of $SU(5)$ is realized as vacuum configuration. The finite temperature phase transitions for the models with the gauge symmetry of the standard model at zero temperature and also for supersymmetric models are studied. We show in a certain model with supersymmetry that the vacuum of the standard model selected dynamically before the inflation continues to stay there up to the present.

  11. H →Z γ in the gauge-Higgs unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Shuichiro; Hatanaka, Hisaki; Hosotani, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    The decay rate of the Higgs decay H →Z γ is evaluated at the one-loop level in the S O (5 )×U (1 ) gauge-Higgs unification. Although an infinite number of loops with Kaluza-Klein states contribute to the decay amplitude, there appears the cancellation among the loops, and the decay rate is found to be finite and nonzero. It is found that the decay rate is well approximated by the decay rate in the standard model multiplied by cos2θH, where θH is the Aharonov-Bohm phase induced by the vacuum expectation value of an extra-dimensional component of the gauge field.

  12. PROCESS UNIFICATION AND FRAME PREPARATION OF MACHINING PARAMETRES FOR ROTATIONAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan ASLAN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Any traditional or computerized metal removal process needs a prototype, a technical drawing and a database for production of a part. Design, process planning and manufacturing problems such as modeling, the necessity data extraction from standard data exchange formats, and part programme preparation for machine tools can be solved by the operators or experts as soon as possible while they occurred in the traditonal approach. In circumstances of the production efforts spent by the computer, all experiences of expert can be saved in a database for foresight of the possible problems. This data can be used at any stage in the product cycle. In this paper, it is presented the results of research efforts which aimed to extract information from the defacto industry standard DXF files to determine features existing on rotational parts to be machined on horizontal machining centers. After process extraction and definition, process unifications and frame preparation for machining parameters of the part are introduced.

  13. GOCE++ Dynamical Coastal Topography and tide gauge unification using altimetry and GOCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Nielsen, Karina

    points in the ocean. However, close to the coast the determination of the MDT is problematic due to i.e., the altimeter footprint, land motion or parameterization/modelling of coastal currents. The objective of this activity is to perform a consolidated and improved understanding and modelling of coastal......ESA has recently released a study on the potential of ocean levelling as a novel approach to the study of height system unification taking the recent development in geoid accuracy trough GOCE data into account. The suggested investigation involves the use of measurements and modelling to estimate...... Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) of the ocean along a coastline which contributes/requires reconciling altimetry, tide gauge and vertical land motion. The fundamental use of the MDT computed using altimetry, ocean models or through the use of tide gauges has values of between -2 and +1 meters at different...

  14. Unification of the inflation with late-time acceleration in Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, Andrey N

    2014-01-01

    We study accelerating dynamics from Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity in a simplified conformal approach without matter. In our work (A.N. Makarenko, S. Odintsov, G.J. Olmo, Phys.Lett. B734 (2014) 36, [arXiv:1403.2850]) it was derived eventually any Dark Energy cosmology from above theory. In this Letter we apply the technique of (arXiv:1403.2850) to show that Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity may describe very realistic universe admitting the unification of early-time inflation with late-time acceleration. Specifically, the evolution with periodic as well as non-periodic behavior is considered with possibility to cross the phantom-divide at early or late-times.

  15. B^0-\\bar B^0 Mixing in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Maru, Nobuhito; Tanabe, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    We discuss flavor mixing and resulting Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) in a five dimensional SU(3)_color \\otimes SU(3) \\otimes U'(1) gauge-Higgs unification. Flavor mixing is realized by the fact that the bulk and brane localized mass terms are not diagonalized simultaneously. As the concrete FCNC processes, we calculate the rate of B^0_d-\\bar B^0_d mixing and B^0_s-\\bar B^0_s mixing due to the exchange of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gluons at the tree level. We obtain a lower bound on the compactification scale of order \\cal O(TeV) by comparing our prediction on the mass difference of neutral B meson with the recent experimental data.

  16. Anomalies, Beta Functions and Supersymmetric Unification with Multi-Dimensional Higgs Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Alfredo; Rojas, Alma D

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories, the minimal Higgs sector is often extended by introducing multi-dimensional Higgs representations in order to obtain realistic models. However these constructions should remain anomaly-free, which constraints significantly their structure. We review the necessary conditions for the cancellation of anomalies in general and discuss in detail the different possibilities for SUSY SU(5) models. Alternative anomaly free combinations of Higgs representations, beyond the usual vector-like choice, are identified, and it is shown that their corresponding beta functions are not equivalent. Although the unification of gauge couplings is not affected, the introduction of multi-dimensional representations leads to different scenarios for the perturbative validity of the theory up to the Planck scale.

  17. Consistency tests of the stability of fundamental couplings and unification scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, M C; Martins, C J A P; Monteiro, A M R V L; Solà, J

    2014-01-01

    We test the consistency of several independent astrophysical measurements of fundamental dimensionless constants. In particular, we compare direct measurements of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ and the proton-to-electron mass ratio $\\mu=m_p/m_e$ (mostly in the optical/ultraviolet) with combined measurements of $\\alpha$, $\\mu$ and the proton gyromagnetic ratio $g_p$ (mostly in the radio band). We point out some apparent inconsistencies, which suggest that hidden systematics may be affecting some of the measurements. These findings demonstrate the importance of future more precise measurements with ALMA, ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES. We also highlight some of the implications of the currently available measurements for fundamental physics, specifically for unification scenarios.

  18. 125 GeV Higgs Boson from t-b-tau Yukawa Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Ün, Cem Salih

    2012-01-01

    We identify a class of supersymmetric SU(4)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R models in which imposing essentially perfect t-b-tau Yukawa coupling unification at M_GUT yields a mass close to 122-126 GeV for the lightest CP-even (SM-like) Higgs boson. The squark and gluino masses in these models exceed 3 TeV, but the stau and charginos in some cases can be considerably lighter. We display some benchmark points corresponding to neutralino-stau and bino-wino coannihilations as well as A-resonance. The well-known MSSM parameter tan beta is around 46-52.

  19. An Extensible Dialogue Script for a Robot Based on Unification of State-Transition Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Matsusaka

    2010-01-01

    development of communication function of the robot. Compared to previous extension-by-connection method used in behavior-based communication robot developments, the extension-by-unification method has the ability to decompose the script into components. The decomposed components can be recomposed to build a new application easily. In this paper, first we, explain a reformulation we have applied to the conventional state-transition model. Second, we explain a set of algorithms to decompose, recompose, and detect the conflict of each component. Third, we explain a dialogue engine and a script management server we have developed. The script management server has a function to propose reusable components to the developer in real time by implementing the conflict detection algorithm. The dialogue engine SEAT (Speech Event-Action Translator has flexible adapter mechanism to enable quick integration to robotic systems. We have confirmed that by the application of three robots, development efficiency has improved by 30%.

  20. The unification of inflation and late-time acceleration in the frame of k-essence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Rio [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    By using the formulation of the reconstruction, we explicitly construct models of k-essence, which unify the inflation in the early universe and the late accelerating expansion of the present universe by a single scalar field. Due to the higher derivative terms, the solution describing the unification can be stable in the space of solutions, which makes the restriction for the initial condition relaxed. The higher derivative terms also eliminate tachyon. Therefore we can construct a model describing the time development, which cannot be realized by a usual inflaton or quintessence models of the canonical scalar field due to the instability or the existence of tachyon. We also propose a mechanism of the reheating by the quantum effects coming from the variation of the energy density of the scalar field. (orig.)

  1. The CKM matrix from anti-SU(7 unification of GUT families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihn E. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CKM matrix elements in the recently proposed minimal model, anti-SU(7 GUT for the family unification, [3]+2[2]+8[1¯]+(singlets. It is shown that the real angles of the right-handed unitary matrix diagonalizing the mass matrix can be determined to fit the Particle Data Group data. However, the phase in the right-handed unitary matrix is not constrained very much. At present, there are three classes of possible CKM parametrizations, δCKM=α,β, or γ of the unitarity triangle. For the choice of δCKM=α, it is easy to show that the phase is close to a maximal one, which has a parametrization-independent meaning.

  2. Unification of two dimensional special and general relativity by means of hypercomplex numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-10-01

    An extension of complex numbers and functions of complex variable is proposed through the properties of the related finite and infinite Lie groups. This is accomplished by hypercomplex number systems following the elementary algebra rules. More precisely, the functions of such systems define and infinite Lie group. The functional transformations of a particular two dimensional hypercomplex number system, holding the wave equation invariant (and then, the speed of light constant) are considered as a generalization of Lorentz group describing accelerated frames. According to General Relativity, such frames can represent physical fields. A physical interpretation of a theorem due to Bianchi, by which hypercomplex number systems are related to flat Riemann spaces, is shown to connect these systems to General Relativity. The investigations by generalized Special Relativity and by General Relativity give the same expected results allowing to speak of unification.

  3. Accidental permutation symmetries as a test for Grand Unification: the supersymmetric $SU(5)$ case

    CERN Document Server

    Fichet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Unification of matter fields implies the existence of accidental permutation symmetries, which potentially remain immune to large quantum corrections up to the TeV scale. We investigate the case of a supersymmetric $SU(5)$ grand unified theory, where such a permutation symmetry is present in the up-type squark sector. We present a variety of tests allowing to challenge the $SU(5)$ hypothesis based on the observation of squarks at the LHC. These tests appear as relations among observables involving flavour-violating or chirality-flipping decays of squarks. Moreover, they rely on top-polarimetry and charm-tagging. As an example, we discuss the application to the scenario of Natural Supersymmetry, while more examples can be found in the related journal publications.

  4. [Discussion about the divided methods and unification on the location of scalp acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bao-zhen

    2009-06-01

    Two kinds of divided methods currently used in clinic and their unified new method on the scalp acupuncture were discussed. Through comparing with the nomination and selecting methods on the stimulating location, the characteristics of the two kinds of divided methods on the location of scalp acupuncture were pointed out respectively. The advantage of the method with scalp projection areas is that the nomination is easy to associate and remember, however its disadvantage is that the measurement on point-selecting is less reasonable. For the method with standard treatment lines, its measurement is more reasonable, but its nomination on the location is sophisticated and difficult to be associated and remembered, especially having more repeated lines. The new divided method of scalp acupuncture combines the advantages of the two methods in order to easily remember and freely apply through their unification, which is worth being popularized.

  5. The CKM matrix from anti-SU(7) unification of GUT families

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E; Seo, Min-Seok

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the CKM matrix elements in the recently proposed minimal model, anti-SU(7) GUT for the family unification, $[\\,3\\,]+2\\,[\\,2\\,]+8\\,[\\,\\bar{1}\\,]$+\\,(singlets). It is shown that the real angles of the right-handed unitary matrix diagonalizing the mass matrix can be determined to fit the Particle Data Group data. However, the phase in the right-handed unitary matrix is not constrained very much. We also includes an argument about allocating the Jarlskog phase in the CKM matrix. Phenomenologically, there are three classes of possible parametrizations, $\\delq=\\alpha,\\beta,$ or $\\gamma$ of the unitarity triangle. For the choice of $\\delq=\\alpha$, the phase is close to a maximal one.

  6. Upper bound on hot dark matter density from SO(10) Yukawa unification

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, A; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Andrea Brignole; Hitoshi Murayama; Riccardo Rattazzi

    1994-01-01

    We study low-energy consequences of supersymmetric SO(10) models with Yukawa unification h_t = h_N and h_b = h_\\tau. We find that it is difficult to reproduce the observed m_b/m_\\tau ratio when the third-generation right-handed neutrino is at an intermediate scale, especially for small \\tan \\beta. We obtain a conservative lower bound on the mass of the right-handed neutrino M_N > 6 \\times 10^{13}~GeV for \\tan \\beta < 10. This bound translates into an upper bound on the \\tau-neutrino mass, and therefore on its contribution to the hot dark matter density of the present universe, \\Omega_\

  7. Constraints on SUSY-GUT unification from b --> s$\\gamma$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Ohmann, P; Phillips, R J N

    1995-01-01

    The top-quark Yukawa infrared fixed-point solution of the renormalization group equations, with minimal supersymmetry and GUT unification, defines a low-energy spectrum of supersymmetric particle masses in terms of a few GUT-scale parameters assuming universal boundary conditions. We give predictions in this model for the inclusive b\\to s\\gamma branching fraction and investigate the impact of non-universal scalar mass boundary conditions. We find our results do not depend significantly on the value of the GUT-scale trilinear coupling A^G. The small \\tan \\beta region favors predictions for the inclusive b\\to s\\gamma branching fraction close to that of the Standard Model value. Nevertheless forthcoming experimental results can eliminate some regions of the GUT parameter space.

  8. The CKM matrix from anti-SU(7) unification of GUT families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihn E.; Mo, Doh Young; Seo, Min-Seok

    2015-10-01

    We estimate the CKM matrix elements in the recently proposed minimal model, anti-SU(7) GUT for the family unification, [ 3 ] + 2 [ 2 ] + 8 [ 1 bar ] +(singlets). It is shown that the real angles of the right-handed unitary matrix diagonalizing the mass matrix can be determined to fit the Particle Data Group data. However, the phase in the right-handed unitary matrix is not constrained very much. At present, there are three classes of possible CKM parametrizations, δCKM = α , β, or γ of the unitarity triangle. For the choice of δCKM = α, it is easy to show that the phase is close to a maximal one, which has a parametrization-independent meaning.

  9. Lie-Santilli isoapproach to the unification of gravity and electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Animalu, A.O.E. [Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)]|[Istituto per la Ricerca di Base, Monteroduni (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    The author reviews the problem of Einstein`s original proposal for the unification of gravity and electromagnetism in space-time differential geometry along the lines of the recent contributions by A.A. Logunov, R.M. Santilli, D.F. Lopez and others. The author presents a new method of unification based on the Lie-Santilli isotopic theory whereby the unified field tensor g = (g{sub {mu}{nu}}) is constructed from the symmetric Riemannian gravitational tensor, g = (g{mu}{nu}), and the antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor F = (F{sub {mu}{nu}}) via an isotopic lifting g {yields} {cflx g} = Fg of the type of Lax pairing, where det F {ne} 0, the unified field {cflx g} satisfies Logunov-Santilli equations while g and F are treated as Lax pair. Because of Santilli`s isotopic equivalence between Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, the author infers that in the Minkowskian limit F = f, g = {eta}, the metric {eta} satisfies Lax`s equation of motion {partial_derivative}{eta}/{partial_derivative}t = f{eta} {minus} {eta}f which insures the conservation of the eigenvalues of g. The invariance of the electromagnetic group of transformations (F) in Minkowski space is determined by the eigenvalue equations, det (F{sub {mu}{nu}}){minus}{lambda}{eta}{sub {mu}{nu}} = 0, from which the author deduces a Lie-isotopic {open_quotes}extended{close_quotes} relativity principle. A wave equation for a spin-2 particle in the unified field is derived, and the experimental consequences of the theory are discussed.

  10. Quasar emission lines as probes of orientation: implications for disc wind geometries and unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar samples is often interpreted in the context of a geometric unification model consisting of an accretion disc and an associated outflow. We use the the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar sample to test this model by examining the equivalent widths (EWs) of C IV 1550 Å, Mg II 2800 Å, [O III] 5007 Å and C III] 1909 Å. We find that the emission line EW distributions in BAL and non-BAL quasars are remarkably similar - a property that is inconsistent with scenarios in which a BAL outflow rises equatorially from a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disc. We construct simple models to predict the distributions from various geometries; these models confirm the above finding and disfavour equatorial geometries. We show that obscuration, line anisotropy and general relativistic effects on the disc continuum are unlikely to hide an EW inclination dependence. We carefully examine the radio and polarisation properties of BAL quasars. Both suggest that they are most likely viewed (on average) from intermediate inclinations, between type 1 and type 2 AGN. We also find that the low-ionization BAL quasars in our sample are not confined to one region of `Eigenvector I' parameter space. Overall, our work leads to one of the following conclusions, or some combination thereof: (i) the continuum does not emit like a geometrically thin, optically thick disc; (ii) BAL quasars are viewed from similar angles to non-BAL quasars, i.e. low inclinations; (iii) geometric unification does not explain the fraction of BALs in quasar samples.

  11. Influence of metronidazole and some electron acceptors on the chlorin e6 photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulayev, V.; Shevchuk, Igor; Mihkelsoo, Virgo T.; Kallikorm, A. P.

    1992-06-01

    A decrease in the effectiveness of photosensitized killing of neoplasm cells was observed in the presence of chlorin-e6 at a reduced concentration of oxygen. But when metronidazole (MZ) was injected in vitro as well as in vivo, a significant increase in the photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells by chlorin-e6 was observed. Moreover, contrary to the hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), MZ increases the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using chlorin-e6 not only in the hypoxic but also in the aerobic conditions. The interaction between MZ and the excited photosensitizer may account for an increased phototoxicity of chlorin-e6. The formation of cytotoxic nitroimidazole radicals as a result of photochemical processes of type 1 is discussed. This property of the photosensitizer may be successfully used in working out a method of potentiating PDT in combination not only with nitroimidazoles, but also with other electron acceptor compounds (EACp), e.g., quinone antitumor antibiotics.

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin–proteasome system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, K; Shin, S; Jeong, S; Kim, S; Song, K-S; Park, J-H; Heo, J-Y; Seo, K-S; Park, S-K; Kweon, G-R; Wu, T; Park, J-I; Lim, K

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors. PMID:25393480

  13. E6/E7 oncogenes in epithelial suprabasal layers and estradiol promote cervical growth and ear regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, C; Hernández-García, D; Valencia, C; Rojo-León, V; Pérez-Estrada, J-R; Werner, M; Covarrubias, L

    2017-08-28

    Tissue growth is a common characteristic of carcinogenesis and regeneration. Here we show that suprabasal expression of human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6/E7 oncogenes in Tg(K6b-E6/E7) mice, similar to that observed in HPV-infected human tissue, and estradiol increased cervical epithelium growth and ear-hole closure efficiency. Oncogenes in combination with estradiol had a significant contribution to the proliferation of suprabasal cells of cervical epithelium that correlated with an increased expression of keratin genes. Remarkably, long-term treatments with estradiol resulted in evident cellular and tissue abnormalities indicative of a precancerous phenotype. Regenerating ear epithelium of transgenic mice also showed increased suprabasal cell proliferation and expression of keratin genes. Unexpectedly, we observed higher ear regeneration efficiency in adult than in young female mice, which was further increased by E6/E7 oncogenes. Supporting a role of estradiol in this phenomenon, ovariectomy and treatment with an estrogen receptor inhibitor caused a significant reduction in regenerative capacity. Our data suggest that Tg(K6b-E6/E7) mice are unique to mimic the initial stages of HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis, and ear regeneration could facilitate the elucidation of mechanisms involved.

  14. Identification of cellular targets for the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes by RNA interference and transcriptome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuner, Ruprecht; Vogt, Markus; Sultmann, Holger; Buness, Andreas; Dymalla, Susanne; Bulkescher, Julia; Fellmann, Mark; Butz, Karin; Poustka, Annemarie; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2007-11-01

    Specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer, the second most common tumor in women worldwide. Both cellular transformation and the maintenance of the oncogenic phenotype of HPV-positive tumor cells are linked to the expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. To identify downstream cellular target genes for the viral oncogenes, we silenced endogenous E6 and E7 expression in HPV-positive HeLa cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Subsequently, we assessed changes of the cellular transcriptome by genome-wide microarray analysis. We identified 648 genes, which were either downregulated (360 genes) or upregulated (288 genes), upon inhibition of E6/E7 expression. A large fraction of these genes is involved in tumor-relevant processes, such as apoptosis control, cell cycle regulation, or spindle formation. Others may represent novel cellular targets for the HPV oncogenes, such as a large group of C-MYC-associated genes involved in RNA processing and splicing. Comparison with published microarray data revealed a substantial concordance between the genes repressed by RNAi-mediated E6/E7 silencing in HeLa cells and genes reported to be upregulated in HPV-positive cervical cancer biopsies.

  15. 78 FR 42530 - Prospective Grant of an Exclusive License: Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 and E6 Peptides for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Papillomavirus 16 E2 and E6 Peptides for Cervical Cancer Vaccine Development AGENCY: National Institutes of... contemplated exclusive license may be in a field of use directed to cervical cancer vaccines. DATES: Only... potentially prophylactic or therapeutic for cervical cancer, other genital cancers, head and neck cancers,...

  16. In silico Structural Prediction of E6 and E7 Proteins of Human Papillomavirus Strains by Comparative Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 200 different types of Human papillomavirus (HPV are identified, 40 transmit extensively through sexual contacts affecting the genital tract. HPV strains have been etiologically linked to vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, oral and cervical cancer (99.7% as a result of mutations leading to cell transformations due to interference of E6 and E7 oncoproteins with p53 and pRB tumor suppressor genes respectively, besides other cellular proteins. As structures of E6 and E7 proteins are not available, the simultaneous structural analysis of E6 and E7 proteins of 50 different HPV strains was carried out in detail for prediction and validation, using bioinformatics tools. E6 and E7 proteins sequences were retrieved in FASTA format from NCBI and their structures predicted by comparative modeling using modeller9v6 software. Further, most of the HPV strains showed good stereochemistry results in most favored regions when subjected to PROCHECK analysis and subsequently each protein was validated using ProSA-web tool. The work carried out on comparing and exploring the structural variations in these oncogenic proteins might help in genome based drugs and vaccines designing, beyond their limitations.

  17. E6 and e7 gene silencing and transformed phenotype of human papillomavirus 16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampias, Theodore; Sasaki, Clarence; Weinberger, Paul; Psyrri, Amanda

    2009-03-18

    The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) encode oncoproteins that bind and degrade p53 and retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressors, respectively. We examined the effects of repressing E6 and E7 oncogene expression on the transformed phenotype of HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines. Human oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer 147T and 090 (harboring integrated HPV16 DNA) and 040T (HPV DNA-negative) cells were infected with retroviruses that expressed a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes or a scrambled-sequence control shRNA. Flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay, and immunoblotting for annexin V were used to assess apoptosis in shRNA-infected cell lines. Biochemical analysis involved quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of p53- and pRb-target gene expression and immunoblotting for p53 and pRb protein expression. In 147T and 090 cells, shRNA-mediated inhibition of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 85% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in restoration of p53 and pRB protein expression, increased expression of p53-target genes (p21 and FAS), decreased expression of genes whose expression is increased in the absence of functional pRb (DEK and B-MYB), and induced substantial apoptosis in 147T and 090 cells compared with the control shRNA-infected cells (from 13.4% in uninfected to 84.3% in infected 147T cells and from 3.3% in uninfected to 71.2% in infected 090 cells). Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes results in restoration of p53 and pRb suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer cell lines.

  18. Genetic variability in E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus Type 16 from Congolese cervical cancer isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumba, Luc Magloire Anicet; Assoumou, Samira Zoa; Hilali, Lahoucine; Mambou, Jean Victor; Moukassa, Donatien; Ennaji, Mustapha Moulay

    2015-01-01

    The molecular epidemiological studies showed that some variants of HPV-16, distributed geographically, would present a higher risk of causing cervical cancer. This study aimed to analyze nucleotide changes of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genomic regions from infected Southwestern Congolese women. DNA of twenty HPV-16 isolates was analyzed by amplifying the E6 and E7 genes using type-specific primers PCR and direct sequencing. The sequences obtained were aligned with the HPV-16 GenBank reference sequences. Thirteen (65.0%) out of 20 DNA-samples were successfully amplified. Genetic analysis revealed 18 and 4 nucleotide changes in E6 and E7 genomic regions respectively. The most frequently observed nucleotide variations were the missense C143G, G145T and C335T in E6 (100%), leading to the non-synonymous amino acid variation Q14D and H78Y. E7 genomic region was found to be highly conserved with two most common T789C and T795G (100%) silent variations. All HPV-16 variants identified belonged to the African lineage: 7 (53.8%) belonged to Af-1 lineage and 6 (46.1%) to Af-2 lineage. The missense mutation G622A (D21N) in the E7 region seems to be described for the first time in this study. This study reported for the first time the distribution of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genetic variants in infected women from southwest Congo. The findings confirmed almost ascendancy of the African lineage in our study population.

  19. Transcriptional gene silencing of HPV16 E6/E7 induces growth inhibition via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiansong; Peng, Chanjuan; Li, Baohua; Wang, Fenfen; Zhou, Caiyun; Hong, Die; Ye, Feng; Cheng, Xiaodong; Lü, Weiguo; Xie, Xing

    2012-02-01

    Transcriptional silencing of HPV oncogenes using short interfering RNA (siRNA) blocks E6/E7 expression. Our objective was to estimate the effective value of E6/E7 specific siRNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing as a potential therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer. In vitro studies were performed by employing two categories of siRNA targeting promoter of E6/E7 gene and E7 transcript, respectively, and inhibitory effect of both siRNAs was further observed in vitro and on xenograft in BALB/c mice that were inoculated with siRNA transfected SiHa cells and parental SiHa cells followed by siRNA intratumoral injection in vivo. Tumor volume and growth curves were assessed. Furthermore, cellular proliferation and apoptosis of inoculated tumors were determined by immunohistochemistry staining and TUNEL assay. The two most active siRNA sequences specifically knockdown E6/E7 expressions at mRNA level in HPV16 positive Siha cells, increased p53 and decreased p16 expressions at protein level, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, both siRNAs effectively inhibited tumor formation and growth no matter in mice with siRNA transfected cells in vitro or with siRNA intratumoral injection in vivo. TUNEL staining and FCM assay consistently showed that tumor retardation was through induction of cellular apoptosis. RNAi targeting the promoter of HPV16 E6/E7 acts effectively in vitro and in vivo, especially through intratumoral delivery, and may be a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF HPV16 L1, E6 AND E7 SEROPOSITIVITY AND ORAL HPV16 INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Viscidi, Raphael; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Minkoff, Howard; Strickler, Howard D.; Cranston, Ross D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Reddy, Susheel; Gillison, Maura L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with HPV infections can develop IgG antibodies to HPV proteins including the L1 capsid and E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Evidence on whether L1 antibodies reduce the risk of cervical HPV infection is mixed, but this has not been explored for oral HPV infections. Antibodies to HPV16’s E6 oncoprotein have been detected in some oropharyngeal cancer cases years prior to cancer diagnosis, but it is unknown if these antibodies are associated with oral HPV16 DNA. Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays tested for serum antibodies to HPV16’s L1 capsid in 463 HIV-infected and 293 HIV-uninfected adults, and for antibodies to recombinantly expressed E6 and E7 oncoproteins to HPV16 in 195 HIV-infected and 69 HIV-uninfected cancer-free participants at baseline. Oral rinse samples were collected semi-annually for up to three years and tested for HPV DNA using PGMY 09/11 primers. Adjusted Poisson, logistic, and Wei-Lin-Weissfeld regression models were utilized. Results HPV16 L1 seroreactivity did not reduce the subsequent risk of incident oral HPV16 infection in unadjusted (HR=1.4, 95%CI=0.59–3.3) or adjusted (aHR=1.1, 95%CI=0.41–3.0) analysis. Antibodies to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins were detected in 7.6% and 3.4% of participants respectively, but they were not associated with baseline oral HPV16 DNA prevalence or oral HPV16 persistence (each p-value>0.40). Conclusions Naturally acquired HPV16 L1 antibodies did not reduce the risk of subsequent oral HPV16 infection. HPV16 E6 and E7 seropositivity was not a marker for oral HPV16 infection in this population without HPV-related cancer. PMID:25585068

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  9. Human Papilloma Virus 16 E6 RNA Interference Enhances Cisplatin and Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Shinta; Hougardy, Brigitte M. T.; Meersma, Gert J.; Schaap, Bessel; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; de Jong, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In cervical cancer, the p53 and retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor pathways are disrupted by the human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, because E6 targets p53 and E7 targets pRb for rapid proteasome-mediated degradation. We have investigated whether E6 suppression with small interfer

  10. Correlation between high risk type human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA and cervical cancer%高危型HPV E6/E7 mRNA与宫颈癌相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红; 钱艺美; 缪铃; 乐瑶; 杜娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the positive rate of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA E6/E7 and cervical cancer,and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.Methods A total of 100 cervical cancer cases and 100 healthy controls were selected in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015.The fluorescence quantitative PCR and pathological examination on HPV E6/E7 mRNA were carried out.The correlation between HPV E6/E7 mRNA and cervical squamous epithelial lesions were analyzed.Results In case group,the positive rate ofHPV E6/E7 mRNA was 76.0% (76/100).In control group,the positive rate was 13.0% (13/100).The positive rate in case group was significantly higher than that in control group,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=24.522,P<0.001).The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the two groups were compared,and the difference was not significant (P>0.05).The positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was significantly higher than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) rate (26.1%),low-grade SIL rate (17.6%) and atypical squamous cell hyperplasia rate (6.7%),the difference was statistically significant (x2=7.615,P=0.001;x2=9.114,P=0.001;x2=18.241,P<0.001).Conclusions The detection rate ofHPV E6/E7 mRNA in cervical cancer patients was high.And with the increased severity of cervical squamous epithelial lesions,the positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased.%目的 探讨高危型HPV E6/E7 mRNA检出率与宫颈癌的相关性,为临床防治宫颈癌提供依据.方法 选择2015年收治的100例宫颈癌患者为A组,同期100例健康体检者为B组,采用荧光定量PCR检测入组患者高危型HPV E6/E7 mRNA和病理学检查,比较两组患者HPV E6/E7感染率和荧光定量PCR检查效率,分析HPV E6/E7感染与宫颈鳞状上皮病变的相关性.结果 A组阳性76例,阳性率为76.0%;B组阳性13例,阳性率为13.0%;A组阳性率高于B

  11. Searching the Future for the Legal Regime of Space Activities: the Need for Unification of National Space Legislation' Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoda, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    space activities. For the future legal regime of space activities it is vital to preserve the existed principles and main provisions of the international space law. related legislations are developing rapidly. They become serious instrument for legal regulation of space activities. those projects with a foreign party involvement. Quite often partners in international space projects agree to choice a domestic law of one of them. They do this for defining a certain organizational and/or contractual issue (disputes settlement, for example) of the project. that such practice will spread widely. could help to preserve the existed important provisions of international space law (responsibility of states for their national activities, for instance). development of international space private law. We believe that solely special laws and regulations of national legislations could not regulate modern space activities. Being more and more commercial, space activities are becoming a real part of "downed to Earth" commercial activities. Therefore, in many countries provisions of civil, commercial, investment and other branches of national law are applied to such activities. which could low possible risks of such activities and to control them. Such unification seems to be suitable in the following fields: 1)implementation of provisions of international space law in national space laws; 2)definition of unified terminology, accepted by national laws of all parties; 3)unification in national legislations of a certain standards (insurance rates and rules, for instance); 4)unification in national laws of issues related to liability (for instance, a mutual wave of liability in certain types of 5)implementation in national laws of unified rules and procedures of space-related commercial disputes settlement; 6)unification of mechanisms for protection of space-related intellectual property. unification of their provisions. Special attention is paid to provisions of private law

  12. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Kiyono, Tohru; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-09-09

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant.

  13. Phycobilisomes Coupled Chlorin e6 Sensitized Solar Cells%藻胆体耦合Chlorin e6染料敏化太阳能电池的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于道永; 张建; 朱国良; 葛保胜; 黄方

    2010-01-01

    采用超声波破碎结合蔗糖密度梯度离心的方法从钝顶螺旋藻中分离出纯度较高的完整藻胆体,探讨了具有超大分子结构的藻胆体作为染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC)敏化荆的可行性,考察了藻胆体与Chlorin e6在纳米TiO2电极上的耦合敏化作用.研究发现,藻胆体可以组装在纳米TiO2电极上作为DSSC的敏化剂,藻胆体DSSC的开路电压0.55 V,短路电流0.50 mA/cm2,光电转化效率0.19%;藻胆体与Chlorin e6耦合敏化可以增大DSSC的短路电流,提高光电转化效率,且高于藻胆体和Chlorin e6单独敏化的加和,表现出明显的耦合效应,为进一步探讨光合膜蛋白在光电材料中的应用奠定了基础.

  14. Energy Transfer in Ce0.85Tb0.15F3 Nanoparticles-CTAB Shell-Chlorin e6 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu; Kuzmenko, Liliia V; Shcherbakov, Oleksandr B; Gamaleia, Nikolai F; Marynin, Andrii I; Yashchuk, Valeriy M

    2017-12-01

    Formation and electronic excitation energy transfer process in the nanosystem consisting of Ce0.85Tb0.15F3 nanoparticles, cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant, and chlorin e6 photosensitizer were studied. It was shown that chlorin e6 molecules bind to Ce0.85Tb0.15F3 NP in the presence of CTAB forming thus Ce0.85Tb0.15F3 NP-CTAB-chlorin e6 nanosystem. We consider that binding occurs via chlorin e6 embedding in the shell of CTAB molecules, formed around NP. In the Ce0.85Tb0.15F3 NP-CTAB-chlorin e6 nanosystem, electronic excitation energy transfer from Ce(3+) to chlorin e6 takes place both directly (with the 0.33 efficiency for 2 μM chlorin e6) and via Tb(3+).

  15. Expression and In Silico Analysis of the Recombinant Bovine Papillomavirus E6 Protein as a Model for Viral Oncoproteins Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins.

  16. In-vivo optical detection of cancer using chlorin e6 – polyvinylpyrrolidone induced fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Khee; Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy; Thong Patricia SP; Chin William WL; Heng Paul WS; Olivo Malini

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Photosensitizer based fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is fast becoming a promising approach for cancer detection. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) formulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a potential exogenous fluorophore for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopic detection of human cancer tissue xenografted in preclinical models as well as in a patient. Methods Fluorescence imaging was performed on MGH human...

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants in tonsillar cancer in comparison to those in cervical cancer in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV16, is associated with the development of both cervical and tonsillar cancer and intratype variants in the amino acid sequence of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein have been demonstrated to be associated with viral persistence and cancer lesions. For this reason the presence of HPV16 E6 variants in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC in cervical cancer (CC, as well as in cervical samples (CS, were explored. METHODS: HPV16 E6 was sequenced in 108 TSCC and 52 CC samples from patients diagnosed 2000-2008 in the County of Stockholm, and in 51 CS from young women attending a youth health center in Stockholm. RESULTS: The rare E6 variant R10G was relatively frequent (19% in TSCC, absent in CC and infrequent (4% in CS, while the well-known L83V variant was common in TSCC (40%, CC (31%, and CS (29%. The difference for R10G was significant between TSCC and CC (p = 0.0003, as well as between TSCC and CS (p = 0.009. The HPV16 European phylogenetic lineage and its derivatives dominated in all samples (>90%. CONCLUSION: The relatively high frequency of the R10G variant in TSCC, as compared to what has been found in CC both in the present study as well as in several other studies in different countries, may indicate a difference between TSCC and CC with regard to tumor induction and development. Alternatively, there could be differences with regard to the oral and cervical prevalence of this variant that need to be explored further.

  18. E6/E7 oncogenes increase and tumor suppressors decrease the proportion of self-renewing neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltti, K; Kerosuo, L; Hakanen, J; Eriksson, M; Angers-Loustau, A; Leppä, S; Salminen, M; Sariola, H; Wartiovaara, K

    2006-08-10

    Many if not most tissues need a controlled number of stem cells to maintain normal function. Cancer can be seen as a process of disturbed tissue homeostasis, in which too many cells have or acquire too primitive identity. Here we measured how oncogenes and tumour suppressors affect the differentiation capacity, proportion and characteristics of progenitor cells in a model tissue. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were exposed to human papilloma virus E6, E7 or E6/E7 oncogenes, which degrade tumour suppressors p53 and pRb family members, respectively. E6/E7-expressing or p53-/- NPCs were able to differentiate, but simultaneously retained high capacity for self-renewal, proliferation, ability to remain multipotent in conditions promoting differentiation and showed delayed cell cycle exit. These functions were mediated through p53 and pRb family, and involved MEK-ERK signalling. Decreased amount of p53 increased self-renewal and proliferation, whereas pRb affected only proliferation. Our results suggest that the oncogenes increase whereas p53 and pRb family tumour suppressors decrease the number and proportion of progenitor cells. These findings provide one explanation how oncogenes and tumour suppressors control tissue homeostasis and highlight their importance in stem cell self- renewal, linked both to cancer and life-long tissue turnover.

  19. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, Thomas G; Almstead, Laura L; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G; Santin, Alessandro D; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic investigation in A549 lung cell line stably infected by HPV16E6/E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotti, Marco; Marzano, Valeria; Giuliani, Laura; Nuccetelli, Marzia; D'Aguanno, Simona; Azzimonti, Barbara; Bernardini, Sergio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Urbani, Andrea; Favalli, Cartesio; Federici, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Data have accumulated implicating the involvement of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in bronchial carcinogenesis. We recently described the presence of oncogenic HPV transcripts in non-small cell lung cancers. To investigate the role of oncogenic HPVs in lung carcinogenesis. The lung cell line A549 stably infected with HPV16E6, HPV16E7 and HPVE6/E7 constructs was used to investigate the protein profile changes associated with the expression of these oncogenes. Replicated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gels from uninfected and stably HPV16E6-, E7-, and E6/E7-infected A549 cells were compared for changes in protein profile. Protein identification was achieved by peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS and nLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS peptide ladder sequencing. We identified 17 different polypeptides whose average normalized spot intensity was statistically significant (p < 0.05) and differed by 2-fold. Relationships between differentially expressed proteins and the HPV-induced infection mechanism have been clustered by knowledge-base database functional association network analysis. The impact of Hsp27, annexin III, annexin IV, Gp96 and TPT1 on the cellular response mechanism to HPV infection is presented and discussed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.