WorldWideScience

Sample records for superstition witchcraft monastic

  1. Worshipping Satan: Witchcraft and Folk Superstitions in Massachusetts and New France 1692 to 1760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…

  2. Worshipping Satan: Witchcraft and Folk Superstitions in Massachusetts and New France 1692 to 1760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…

  3. Superstition, witchcraft and HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Gyimah, Stephen O; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Adjei, Jones

    2011-10-01

    Belief in superstition and witchcraft is central to many African conceptions of illness, disease causation and etiology. While a number of anthropological studies have alluded to a theoretical link between such beliefs and HIV prevention in particular, there is limited empirical assessment of the association. Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying random-effects logit models, we investigate whether the belief that AIDS can spread through witchcraft associates with the sexual decision making of never-married men and women. The results show that men who believed AIDS can spread through witchcraft and other supernatural means were less likely to have used condoms at last sexual intercourse, controlling for other socioeconomic and cultural variables. Women with similar beliefs were more likely to have experienced sexual intercourse but less likely to have used condoms at last sex. For women, however, the relationship between such superstitious beliefs and condom use was somewhat attenuated after controlling for ethnicity and region of residence. From a policy perspective, the findings suggest that local beliefs regarding AIDS causation must be considered in designing HIV/AIDS programmes and interventions.

  4. Superstitions of George Bartisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2005-01-01

    George Bartisch was a 16th century German ophthalmologist who published the first ophthalmology textbook in the vernacular for laymen and non-university-trained practitioners. His treatments and understanding of diseases rested firmly on Greek tradition, but he also was very involved in the superstitions of the day. This essay looks at the man and his mores. Bartisch believed that much of the suffering of patients had to do with sins they had committed, and that the devil was the active force in the world inflicting this punishment. Often, he believed, witches would carry out the devil's hexes, in the form of either hot or cold witchcraft. Bartisch also felt that astrology played a major role in the outcome of surgery. Because of that he practiced only during certain astrological signs, and in the proper waxing and waning phases of the moon. He also linked many common problems to sins. For example, presbyopia was presented as due to excessive use of alcohol. Glasses were to be avoided because he felt they destroyed vision in themselves. Despite these superstitions and misconceptions, Bartisch was an honorable professional and his books give insight into the making of a good ophthalmologist.

  5. Superstitions among perioperative nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David L; Claypool, Margie L; Kay, David J

    2005-05-01

    A descriptive study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire to determine the prevalence of work-related superstitions among perioperative nurses. Data analysis included the two-sample t test for continuous data and the two-sided Fisher's exact test for binary data. Study results indicate that although only 23% of respondents view themselves as "generally superstitious," specific work-related superstitions are widespread. Belief in specific superstitions was not statistically related to age or number of years as a perioperative nurse. An analysis of the literature on medical workplace superstitions helps to elucidate possible underlying explanations for the phenomenon of nursing superstitions.

  6. Superstition in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, C. Jane; Petrie, Brian M.

    The introduction of this investigation into superstitions of athletes reviews past research on the subject. It is stated, though, that general research on superstitions mentions little directly related to sports; so, by necessity, recourse is made to sports stories and newspaper and magazine articles. The main body of this paper presents results…

  7. Witchcraft, genealogy, Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper is a genealogical reflection on both the historiography of European witchcraft and the dynamics of witchcraft trials. I argue that traditional scholarly assumptions about the 'unsophisticated' nature of early modern European mentalities result in inadequate representations of accused witches and of the social contexts and processes of the trials. Genealogy, by contrast, problematizes fundamental notions such as reason, order, power and progress in ways that not only provide a different range of effective tools for the analysis of belief in witchcraft, but also underline its crucial significance for social theory. In the final section, an analysis of a typical trial is undertaken employing key genealogical insights into confession, torture, truth, governmentality, power, pleasure and pain.

  8. Medieval monastic mortality: hazard analysis of mortality differences between monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Boulware, Jessica C; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2013-11-01

    Scholarship on life in medieval European monasteries has revealed a variety of factors that potentially affected mortality in these communities. Though there is some evidence based on age-at-death distributions from England that monastic males lived longer than members of the general public, what is missing from the literature is an explicit examination of how the risks of mortality within medieval monastic settings differed from those within contemporaneous lay populations. This study examines differences in the hazard of mortality for adult males between monastic cemeteries (n = 528) and non-monastic cemeteries (n = 368) from London, all of which date to between AD 1050 and 1540. Age-at-death data from all cemeteries are pooled to estimate the Gompertz hazard of mortality, and "monastic" (i.e., buried in a monastic cemetery) is modeled as a covariate affecting this baseline hazard. The estimated effect of the monastic covariate is negative, suggesting that individuals in the monastic communities faced reduced risks of dying compared to their peers in the lay communities. These results suggest better diets, the positive health benefits of religious behavior, better living conditions in general in monasteries, or selective recruitment of healthy or higher socioeconomic status individuals.

  9. African witchcraft in theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.W.C. van Wyk

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theological contribution aimed at creating an understanding of the phenomenon of witchcraft in South Africa. Witchcraft still causes major social problems in this country. The article argues that the development of a culture of human rights and the improvement of the judicial process alone will not solve this problem. Witchcraft is a too deeply rooted religious phenomenon. The phenomenon is described in its religious complexity and diversity. Witchcraft is discussed within the framework of the African theodicy.

  10. SUPERSTITION WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.; Jinks, Jimmie E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with aligned magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  11. Vitalism, purpose and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke

    2007-02-01

    Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.

  12. Superstitions between Usefulness and Strife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilauca Monica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates one of the forms of expression and manifestation belonging to popular religiosity, the superstitions, practices through which people get into disagreement with their self and with the ideology advanced by institutions whose declared mission is to investigate and overcome man’s spiritual condition, the Church. There will be looked into, on the one hand, the major types of superstitions that the Romanians have according to a number of variables (ages, gender, education and, on the other hand, the categories of conflict generated by the superstitious behaviour.

  13. Witchcraft in the Anglo-American Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Mary Beth

    2003-01-01

    Explains that teachers should educate their students about images of witchcraft using sources other than those from popular culture. Reviews literature published on the topic of witchcraft including books on the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Includes a bibliography of resources. (CMK)

  14. [Clinical aspects of witchcraft delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkovskiĭ, V E

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish clinical variants and to specify nosologic entity of witchcraft delusions, 69 patients (10 males, aged 15-72 years) have been examined. It was found that witchcraft delusions exist in passive and active forms. In a passive form, the patient is sure that unknown (mystic) power damaged him/her; in an active form the patient, possessing a gift for unusual abilities, can influence the others (bewitches, heals, etc). Five clinical syndromes, in the structure of which the above delusions were found, namely, paranoiac-hypochondriac, hallucination-paranoid, depressive-paranoid, paraphrenic and delirious, were identified. Psychoses of schizophrenia spectrum were diagnosed in 52 patients, organic--in 8, alcoholic--in 7 and recurrent depressive disorder--in 2. Clinical significance of witchcraft delusions is closely related to its social aspect. Being combined with ideas of persecution, poisoning and damage, it results in the brutal forms of delusions defense and may be considered as an unfavorable prognostic trait.

  15. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  16. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  17. Contrary to nature : Inuit conception of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Merkur

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution to the phenomenology of witchcraft will depend for its data on the traditional conceptions, rites, and folklore of witchcraft among the Inuit (Eskimo of Čanada and Greenland. A phenomenological definition of witchcraft may be obtained through recognition of its position within Inuit religion. Like many native North Americans, the Inuit epitomized their religion in the concept of balance. The Polar Inuit understood religion to have the function "to keep a right balance between mankind and the rest of the world". Without exception, the rites of Inuit witchcraft were rites of Inuit religion that were made unnatural, through the alteration of one or more features. Because counterclockwise ritual motions were specific to witchcraft, the expression "contrary to nature" may be understood to epitomize the Inuit's own appreciation of witchcraft. Whether witchcraft depended on deliberate violations of traditional observances, on malicious uses of magic formulae and songs, and/or on ritual motions, witchcraft proceeded "contrary to nature". Thus, witchcraft can be defined as special practices, which together with the beliefs and folklore surrounding them, are believed to be innately disruptive of the balance between mankind and the numina. Because it is contrary to nature, witchcraft is innately anti-social. The disruption of the balance of mankind with the numina is not the private act of the witch against a victim, but a danger for the entire community.

  18. Analyzing Tibetan Monastic Conceptions of the Universe Through Individual Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin; Impey, Chris David

    2017-01-01

    Every culture and tradition has its own representation of the universe that continues to evolve due to the influence of new technologies, discoveries, and cultural exchanges. With the recent introduction of Western science into the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India, this study explores monastic conceptions of the universe prior to formal instruction in astronomy. The drawings of 59 Buddhist monks and nuns were analyzed using Tversky’s three criteria for drawing analysis—segmentation, order, and hierarchical structure of knowledge. We found that 22 out of 59 monastics drew a geocentric model of the universe with the Solar System as the dominant physical system, reflecting little influence of modern astronomical knowledge. Only six monastics drew the traditional Buddhist model of the world, generally known as the Mount Meru Cosmology. The implication of the monastics' representation of the universe for their assimilation into modern science is discussed.

  19. The Superstitions of Today's College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Iu. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a study of superstitious notions and their role in the lives and activities of college students. The study was based on assumptions. On the whole, superstitions are widely prevalent among college students, but the superstitions that occur the most frequently are connected with final exams. The main motive for…

  20. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  1. The monastery rules: buddhist monastic organization in pre-modern Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Berthe Katrien

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the position of the monasteries in pre-1950s Tibetan societies and how that position was informed by Buddhist monastic ideology. The point of departure is the huge impact of monastic Buddhism on Tibetan society, economy, law, and culture. This work examines the impact of Buddhist monastic institutions on Tibetan societies by looking at their monastic policies with regard to organization, economy, justice, and public relations. The primary sources in which these policies c...

  2. Monastic retreat and pastoral care in the Dutch Reformed tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. (Kaaiman Schutte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there has been a growing interest in retreat among clergy and members of congregations in the Dutch Reformed tradition in South Africa. The article investigates the relevance of the monastic traditions for this growing interest in Reformed circles. It focuses on aspects of retreat such as the role of holy places in the monastic traditions (e.g., monasteries, cathedrals, retreat centers and the experience of silence, solitude, regeneration, divine presence and spiritual formation. Proceeding from an epistemological reflection on the subject as described in a previous article, the aim of this article is to explore the “action of retreat” as a narrative research journey and pilgrimage in order to investigate the relevance of the Benedictine, Franciscan and Taizé monastic-mystic traditions (seen as an associative/mystic spirituality for retreat in the Dutch Reformed tradition (which is seen as a disassociative/rational/ dogmatic spirituality.

  3. Analyzing Tibetan Monastics Conception of Universe Through Their Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin; Chris Impey

    2016-06-01

    Every culture and tradition has their own representation of the universe that continues to evolve through new technologies and discoveries, and as a result of cultural exchange. With the recent introduction of Western science into the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India, this study explores the monastics’ conception of the universe prior to their formal instruction in science. Their drawings were analyzed using Tversky’s three criteria for drawing analysis namely—segmentation, order, and hierarchical structure of knowledge. Among the sixty Buddhist monastics included in this study, we find that most of them draw a geocentric model of the universe with the Solar System as the dominant physical system, reflecting little influence of modern astronomical knowledge. A few monastics draw the traditional Buddhist model of the world. The implications of the monastics' representation of the universe for their assimilation of modern science is discussed.

  4. REVIEW: MONASTIC AND LAY TRADITIONS IN NORTH-EASTERN TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel (eds. 2013. Monastic and Lay Traditions of North-Eastern Tibet. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet, edited by Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel, is the product of a 2011 workshop convened at St. Michael's College, Llandaff, Cardiff. Although the conference's focus was the tantric practitioner community of the Reb kong region (Ch. Tongren, the resultant volume expands the scope of inquiry to include surrounding areas as well as monastic communities. The editors have organized the volume's nine chapters into three sections, the first on the Dge lugs pa monastic establishment, the second on Rnying ma pa and Bon tantric communities, and finally 'Ritual and Performance in Contemporary Reb kong'. While the chapters are all informative and scholarly, providing new, important empirical detail on an underresearched subject, several tend toward the descriptive. The most successful contributions, however, present their findings within larger analytical and contextual frameworks, giving their chapters explanatory weight beyond the more narrow confines of their studies.

  5. The Sermon to the Coenobitic Monastic Brotherhood: On the Formation of the Monastic Disciplinary Charter in Rus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Semiachko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of sources transmitting the Sermon to the Coenobitic Monastic Brotherhood and its spheres of influence. The article determines authentic copies of this text and considers several elements: charters of the founders of several Russian monasteries and lectures to the brotherhood of the coenobitic monasteries and to their new members. Authors of Old Russian disciplinary charters were guided by apostolic and patristic texts; these sources were used not in their original language but in translation. Quotations from these authoritative compositions were often incorporated into charters through other texts, both translated and Russian. In their borrowings, the authors of these charters also used material that had been borrowed by their predecessors, who relied on their own authoritative texts. The Sermon to the Coenobitic Monastic Brotherhood is known in the Russian manuscript tradition from the beginning of the 15th century. Among its sources, there are compositions by Basil of Caesarea, Ephrem the Syrian, and a certain anonymous author. The Sermon influenced the Charter of Cornelius of Komel and some texts from the starchestvo tradition. The Sermon to the Coenobitic Monastic Brotherhood functioned as a link, a bridge between the Byzantine and Russian tradition of the monastic disciplinary charter.

  6. Getting shot of elves: healing, witchcraft and fairies in the Scottish witchcraft trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Alaric

    2005-01-01

    This paper re-examines the evidence of the Scottish witchcraft trials for beliefs associated by scholars with "elf-shot." Some supposed evidence for elf-shot is dismissed, but other material illuminates the interplay between illness, healing and fairy-lore in early modern Scotland, and the relationship of these beliefs to witchcraft itself.

  7. Effects and impact of witchcraft on Sotho Reformed Churches and the Biblical view of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the effects and impact of witchcraft on members of the Basotho Reformed Church who ascribe to witchcraft. From the literature, it is clear that some members of the Basotho Reformed Church practise various forms of witchcraft. Some Christians do not directly involve themselves with practices linked to witchcraft but do participate in healing practices. This article highlights a number of such instances and provides a number of guidelines to churchgoers who are adhering to practices of witchcraft. These guidelines should be relevant to them when they are reflecting on their relationship with the Lord with the aim to live in obedience to God�s Word.

  8. The Greek evil eye, African witchcraft, and Western ethnocentrism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    between African witchcraft and the Greek evil eye from a sociology of religion .... psychology to explain human behaviour. .... Near East and Mediterranean regions. ..... preventative measure as well as a reversal of witchcraft (see Manala.

  9. Reversing the gaze: constructing European race discourse as modern witchcraft practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, James W

    2004-01-01

    In keeping with the challenge of (African American) historian of religions Charles Long to develop a mode of postcolonial encounter that is a process of mutual hermeneusis, I am proposing in this article to think "race" in terms of "indigenous ritual." At the very least it is an effort to relativize the western scientific paradigm and the universalizing humanities discourses that have nestled close to that paradigm. It is not an attempt to repudiate such an episteme but, rather-to borrow a jazz term-to "swing" it, to put it in antiphonal and improvisational circulation. More specifically, this article will trace a thought experiment, probing the historical emergence of white supremacist practice as a kind of modernist embodiment of "witchcraft discourse," which functions-in the institutional grammar it has left on deposit in contemporary social practice and the "intention to consume" (the substance of others) that it "rationalizes"-very much like the "primitive superstitions" it seeks to name and repudiate in positing its own rationalizing superiority. In such an enterprise, witchcraft, I am arguing, can be "good to think with" as a mode of communicative action, signifying with a kind of "boomerang effect" in the intercultural space of rupture between the West and the rest.

  10. The Evil Eye--an ancient superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and cultures. Some of the methods used to thwart the negative effects of the Evil Eye are enumerated. Relevant psychodynamics and common expressions of the Evil Eye superstition are elucidated upon.

  11. The Sermon to the Coenobitic Monastic Brotherhood: On the Formation of the Monastic Disciplinary Charter in Rus’

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana A. Semiachko

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the study of sources transmitting the Sermon to the Coenobitic Monastic Brotherhood and its spheres of influence. The article determines authentic copies of this text and considers several elements: charters of the founders of several Russian monasteries and lectures to the brotherhood of the coenobitic monasteries and to their new members. Authors of Old Russian disciplinary charters were guided by apostolic and patristic texts; these sources were used not in their...

  12. SUPERSTITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PLANTS IN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Tapan; Aulakh, Gian Singh

    1983-01-01

    In this article, superstitions prevailing in India. attached to medicinal plants have been compiled. The author opines that there must be some rationale behind each of these superstitious practices which merits painstaking study to understand thm in the proper perspective. PMID:22557377

  13. Techno-Optimism and Rational Superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    -causation, where the future is held to somehow have a retroactive effect on the past. This suggests, I argue, that the underlying mechanism by which techno-optimism is supposed to be instrumental in bringing about the future is fundamentally superstitious. But does this superstition not go against our common...

  14. Construction and behavioral validation of superstition scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to create an instrument for assessing tendency towards superstition-related beliefs and behavior and validate it in real life situations. Superstition was considered and analyzed as an attitude toward specific objects of the superstition. In the first part of the study, a sample of superstitious beliefs and behaviors was collected, after which the former list was reduced to 44 descriptions, based on the average familiarity. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 266 participants. The factor analysis suggested a presence of one main factor and three highly correlated sub-factors. In the last part of the study, in order to validate the instrument through behavioral variables, the final version of the instrument was administered to a different sample and subjects were put in two situations that challenged their potential superstitious behavior (passing below or going around a ladder in a computer laboratory; forward a chain e-mail for good luck. Group of participants that exhibited at least one superstitious behavior and the group of participants that did not, differed significantly in the average superstition score.

  15. Research into witchcraft in psychoanalysis and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alf

    2011-01-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunting have been a topic for numerous historical and psychoanalytical research projects. But until now, most of these projects have remained rather isolated from one from the other, each in their own context. In this article I shall attempt to set up a dialogue between psychoanalysis and history by way of the example of research into witchcraft. However, I make no claim to covering the different psychoanalytical and historical approaches in full. As a historical 'layman', my interest lies in picking out some of the approaches that seem to me particularly well suited to contribute to reciprocal enhancement.

  16. The monastery rules : buddhist monastic organization in pre-modern Tibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Berthe Katrien

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the position of the monasteries in pre-1950s Tibetan societies and how that position was informed by Buddhist monastic ideology. The point of departure is the huge impact of monastic Buddhism on Tibetan society, economy, law, and culture. This work examines the impact of Buddhis

  17. The monastery rules : buddhist monastic organization in pre-modern Tibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Berthe Katrien

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the position of the monasteries in pre-1950s Tibetan societies and how that position was informed by Buddhist monastic ideology. The point of departure is the huge impact of monastic Buddhism on Tibetan society, economy, law, and culture. This work examines the impact of Buddhis

  18. Witchcraft, intimacy and trust: Africa in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Dante’s Inferno, the lowest circle of Hell is reserved for traitors, those who betrayed their closest companions. In a wide range of literatures and mythologies such intimate aggression is a source of ultimate terror, and in Witchcraft, Intimacy, and Trust, Peter Geschiere masterfully sketches it

  19. Witchcraft, intimacy and trust: Africa in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Dante’s Inferno, the lowest circle of Hell is reserved for traitors, those who betrayed their closest companions. In a wide range of literatures and mythologies such intimate aggression is a source of ultimate terror, and in Witchcraft, Intimacy, and Trust, Peter Geschiere masterfully sketches it

  20. Probing the neural basis of superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Despite much evidence questioning its validity, superstitious belief continues to be rooted in the human mind. We used functional MRI to directly compare participants' neural responses to monetary attractiveness with their responses to the value of an auspicious date. We found that the right middle/superior frontal gyrus showed greater deactivation whenever an auspicious-based choice was made and that the contrast between the auspicious-based and economics-based choices was negatively correlated with the participants' rated wedding date-related superstitious belief, suggesting that a specific brain region carries decision signals which contribute to making decisions based on superstition and may be able to account for individual differences in superstitious behavior. The present investigation helps to reveal how the brain handles superstition.

  1. Keep your fingers crossed!: how superstition improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damisch, Lysann; Stoberock, Barbara; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Superstitions are typically seen as inconsequential creations of irrational minds. Nevertheless, many people rely on superstitious thoughts and practices in their daily routines in order to gain good luck. To date, little is known about the consequences and potential benefits of such superstitions. The present research closes this gap by demonstrating performance benefits of superstitions and identifying their underlying psychological mechanisms. Specifically, Experiments 1 through 4 show that activating good-luck-related superstitions via a common saying or action (e.g., "break a leg," keeping one's fingers crossed) or a lucky charm improves subsequent performance in golfing, motor dexterity, memory, and anagram games. Furthermore, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that these performance benefits are produced by changes in perceived self-efficacy. Activating a superstition boosts participants' confidence in mastering upcoming tasks, which in turn improves performance. Finally, Experiment 4 shows that increased task persistence constitutes one means by which self-efficacy, enhanced by superstition, improves performance.

  2. Witchcraft accusations and economic tension in precolonial old Calabar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, A J

    1972-01-01

    Relevant anthropological studies have offered insight into the way in which witchcraft and witchcraft accusations may have operated in Old Calabar society (Africa) in pre-colonial times, and it is hoped that this discussion of witchcraft accusations and economic tension in pre-colonial Calabar will be of value to other historians of pre-colonial African societies. M. G. Marwick has suggested that witchcraft accusations reveal where the tensions lie in the societies in which they occur, and he intimates that in Africa witchcraft accusations only occur between persons in close social contact. Analysis of the cases of Efik witchcraft - for which there is evidence in the 18th and 19th centuries - support this claim. Their witchcraft accusations for the most part involved relations by blood or marriage. G.I. Jones has suggested that the underlying tensions which provoked witchcraft accusations in the eastern areas of Nigeria today arise from a contracting economic situation, but this was not true of old Calabar. In fact its economy was expanding under the stimulus of overseas trade. The expansion was responsible for the tension. Successful business men acquired wealth and slaves, and, consequently, status, which contradicted their position in the traditional status system, based on age and place in lineage instead of wealth. At the highest political level these tensions manifested themselves in election disputes; witchcraft accusations were made against candidates in order that they take the poison ordeal and be eliminated from the election. In the neighboring states of the Oil Rivers, where participation in the international economy was as great as old Calabar, witchcraft accusations were rare. For there the traditional descent groups had already broken up, and because of this there was no great need for covert forms of aggression, such as witchcraft.

  3. Living Religious Heritage and Challenges to Museum Ethics: Reflections from the Monastic Community of Mount Athos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgios Alexopoulos

    2013-01-01

    .... Drawing on extensive research conducted in the monastic community of Mount Athos, Greece, this study outlines the development of the museum concept through the organisation of treasury displays and exhibitions...

  4. The Contemporary Evidence for Early Medieval Witchcraft-Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    'The Contemporary Evidence for Early Medieval Witchcraft-Beliefs' is a note drawing attention to a group of early medieval texts relevant to the history of European witchcraft, and the reasons why they have been overlooked. The main texts are the Life of St Samson, the Old English medical text Wið færstice and the Life of St Swithun.

  5. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  6. Interest in sports and belief in sports superstitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, Duane G

    2004-06-01

    51 nonathletes, students (45 women) at a medium-sized southern university, were administered a survey containing three scales: an Interest in Sports Scale, a Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale, and Tobacyk and Milford's Paranormal Belief Scale (1983). Scores on the Interest in Sports Scale were significantly correlated with scores on the Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale, which measured adherence specifically to sports superstitions, but not with scores on the Paranormal Belief Scale, which measured a wide variety of irrational beliefs. Thus, participants with high interest in sports showed a tendency to subscribe to the type of irrational belief associated specifically with sports. Scores on the Belief in Sports Superstitions Scale were positively correlated with scores on the Paranormal Belief Scale.

  7. Watching the witching world: The role of superstition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watching the witching world: The role of superstition in… 113. The Malawian .... not yet been placed in a specific genre, quite a number of Nigerian films also deal with the ..... O. Okome (Eds.), Global Nollywood: The Transnational Dimensions.

  8. The Caries Phenomenon: A Timeline from Witchcraft and Superstition to Opinions of the 1500s to Today's Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, John D; Cox, Charles F; Akimoto, Naotake; Meada, Nobuko; Momoi, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries-holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.

  9. The Caries Phenomenon: A Timeline from Witchcraft and Superstition to Opinions of the 1500s to Today's Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Ruby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries—holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.

  10. WITCHCRAFT IN WEST AFRICAN BELIEF SYSTEM – MEDICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. OKECHUKWU NWAFOR

    Department of Philosophy. Nnamdi ... Witchcraft is defined as the use of magic powers, especially evil ones. It is the ... There was this story told by a certain university undergraduate from Igala in the Benue State ..... Governance in Africa.

  11. Abracadabra-Sorcery and Witchcraft in European History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The history of witchcraft offers an interesting avenue to the study and teaching of important historical and social phenomena. Valuable research contributions by historians is discussed and listed in the bibliography. (JB)

  12. Facebook as a monastic place? The new use of internet by Catholic monks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jonveaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Catholic monasteries are theoretically out of the world, monks and nuns more and more use the internet, both for religious and non-religious reasons. While society at large often takes it for granted that monks are out of modernity, monastic communities have been adopted media from relatively early on, and we cannot say that they have come late to its use. The internet can offer monasteries a lot of advantages because it allows monks to be in the world without going out of the cloister. Nevertheless, the introduction of this new media in monasteries also raises a lot of questions about the potential contradictions it poses with other aspects of monastic life. The paper seeks to research the use of the medium by monks and nuns even in their daily lives, and attempts especially to investigate the potential changes it brings to monastic life.

  13. Encomium to the Monastic Life: An Unedited Poem of Alexios Makrembolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Nikou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first critical edition of a metrical Encomium to the monastic life written by the fourteenth-century Byzantine author Alexios Makrembolites. The text is preserved in only one manuscript (Hierosolymitanus Sabbaiticus gr. 417. Makrembolites, after referring to the constant rejuvenation of the nature, wonders why people are drawn towards material goods and not to spiritual ones, distancing themselves from the immortality offered by a life close to God. After apologizing for his sinful life, he praises monastic life which he believes he should follow in order to bring an end to all his pains.

  14. Does superstition help? A study of the role of superstitions and death beliefs on death anxiety amongst Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that traditional Chinese death beliefs, which mostly consisted of superstitious thoughts, are related to death anxiety. However, other studies have shown that superstitions may help people cope with uncertainty and, therefore, reduce uncertainty-induced anxiety. The role of superstitions, whether related to heightened death anxiety or reduced death anxiety, is unclear. This study attempted to address the knowledge gap by examining the relationships among superstitions and Chinese death beliefs on death anxiety in the Chinese context. One hundred twenty-four undergraduates in Hong Kong completed measures of superstition (R-PBS), death anxiety (MFODS), and Chinese death beliefs scale. Superstition was found to be predictor of death anxiety, as expected. With superstitions highly prevalent in Chinese societies, the study has practical implications in end-of-life care, bereavement support, and death education in the Chinese context.

  15. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  16. Dynamics of liquefaction during the 1987 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Youd, T.L.; Hanks, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of seismically induced pore-water pressure changes and surface and subsurface accelerations at a site undergoing liquefaction caused by the Superstition Hills, California, earthquake (24 November 1987; M = 6.6) reveal that total pore pressures approached lithostatic conditions, but, unexpectedly, after most of the strong motion ceased. Excess pore pressures were generated once horizontal acceleration exceeded a threshold value.

  17. Religiosity and Superstition: Are They Related or Separate Phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee

    1988-01-01

    Correlated responses to three items designed to measure superstition to 10 religiosity items among 355 college students. Found that religiosity items showed few significant relationships to either self-perceived superstitiousness or to use of horoscopes. Results suggest that most superstitious respondents tended to be least religious. (Author/NB)

  18. Living Religious Heritage and Challenges to Museum Ethics: Reflections from the Monastic Community of Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Alexopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the challenges living religious heritage poses to contemporary museum ethics and specifically with regard to public display and accessibility. Drawing on extensive research conducted in the monastic community of Mount Athos, Greece, this study outlines the development of the museum concept through the organisation of treasury displays and exhibitions. It examines the ethics that underlie current approaches in the monastic community towards displaying and providing access to collections. It is emphasised that the perceived threats of touristification and museumification are at the centre of an apparent reluctance towards embracing widely adhered to principles of contemporary museology. Nevertheless, it is argued that the role of museum and heritage professionals is crucial in respecting the different value systems of the monasteries while advocating solutions that render Athonite heritage more open to the public.

  19. The distinction between witchcraft and madness in colonial Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Lawrence B

    2002-12-01

    This essay argues two points in regard to early New England: first, that witchcraft is not a significant aspect of the history of mental illness; and second, that seventeenth-century society had a cultural protocol for distinguishing one from the other. The examples discussed in detail are from Connecticut, but they are representative of colonial New England as a whole.

  20. Witchcraft, territories and marginal resistances in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Birman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their everyday references to witchcraft, allegedly emanating from Afro-Brazilian cults, Evangelical pastors denounce heinous crimes and acts of barbarity that provoke horror and terror in their listeners in church and on radio and television. I describe two allegations of witchcraft by Pentecostal groups, which connect marginality, crime and the presence of diabolical evil in two communities. Witchcraft provides an entry point to examine some of the problems faced by those living in 'communities:' the 'demonization' of peripheral territories provoked by the state's identification of their populations with criminality, on one hand, and the Evangelical battle against diabolical evil, on the other. I look to show that in the community of believers and the favela alike the Evangelicals' battle with the devil is a response to the State's interpellations associated with its modalities of identifying peripheral spaces. In the process, I analyze the meaning assumed by witchcraft within the wider Evangelical project of salvation and the social future it aims to build.

  1. "Passions" in the Discourses on Witchcraft in Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabout, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    International audience; This paper is about misfortune as elaborated in the narratives of (counter-) witchcraft practitioners and consultants. Their statements can be read from different perspectives, and I choose here to look at them specifically in terms of "passions" and their control.

  2. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (i): "Macbeth" and the "Witchcraft" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom study of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" which concentrates on the Weird Sisters and the question of witchcraft. Advocates utilizing pupils' experience of powerful images from the general culture, introducing a selection of well-documented historical evidence to support textual study, and avoiding misguided conventional…

  3. Socio-Missiological Significance of Witchcraft Belief and Practice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    on people's houses on their way back from a meeting. Promotion is ... The psychic power of witchcraft enables a witch to remove the soul of her victim and transform ... It is also believed that one can be a witch and not be conscious of it. Such a.

  4. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (i): "Macbeth" and the "Witchcraft" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom study of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" which concentrates on the Weird Sisters and the question of witchcraft. Advocates utilizing pupils' experience of powerful images from the general culture, introducing a selection of well-documented historical evidence to support textual study, and avoiding misguided conventional wisdom…

  5. heroes, villains and the state in south africa's witchcraft zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were the laws on witchcraft in the Statute books copied wholesale from. Indian colonial ..... body of an adult and that person was then identified as one Jim. Nephalama, an .... other hand, Nephalama is a known self-confessed witch in his community. ' ..... Is There a Role for Traditional Healers in Health Care in South Africa?

  6. [Criminal superstition, pregnancy and infants at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2012-01-01

    Around 1900, various crimes were still caused by criminal superstition. Criminologists like Hans Gross, Albert Hellwig and August Löwenstimm were engaged in the exploration of this topic aiming at the complete explanation of criminal behaviour linked to superstition. Crimes against pregnant women and infants are particularly good examples to illustrate the problems arising from crimes motivated by superstition. When assessing superstition under scientific and legal aspects, the criminologists applied different approaches, although positivistic rationalization was the most common tendency. In the forensic and legal evaluation of crimes related to superstition the problematical questions were whether the perpetrator was criminally responsible and how the offence was to be legally qualified. In many cases, criminals motivated by superstition were treated with more lenience.

  7. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  8. THE EMBODIMENT OF BRITISH WITCHCRAFT CULTURE IN HARRY POTTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阅

    2015-01-01

    The series novel Harry Potter was created by English woman writer J.K.Rowling. It contains the rich mythical factor, the witchcraft fantasy component and the folk cultural factor. It has inherited England traditional culture, fantastic novel and children literature. This essay mainly discuss the reason of Harry Potter regarded with great favor in the west from the perspective of traditional culture of British and Europe. It started from the witchcraft culture and Christian Culture. These two points are expounded the western culture details by means of the analyzing on culture background. Both of them layed the culture foundations for the success of the series. At last,the depiction of the heroism of nobody is in sharp contrast with the traditional heroism, thereby reflected the commendable, which makes people realised to carish the worth of peaceful life.

  9. Biblical principles as an answer to the African people�s questioning of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Witchcraft is still an enormous and serious issue in African culture. The media, including the entertainment component (e.g. African Magic programmes on satellite television, portray witchcraft as an issue that needs to be addressed. Witchcraft has in a sense been integrated into the system and context of the Nigerian community because most of the programming originates from this country. The same can be said of the South African milieu. It would be remarkable to read a tabloid such as the Daily Sun without at least one reference to witchcraft. Between 1994 and 1996 several hundred people were killed in the Limpopo Province on suspicion of witchcraft, to which the response from the Christian sector was diverse and varied. De Vries (2010:35 argues that Christians believe that upon becoming a member of this faith, witchcraft is powerless; yet there are indeed Christians who consider bewitchment possible, despite a belief in God. This being the case, the question that arises is, �What does the Bible teach in this regard�? The most compelling evidence for the existence of witchcraft is its mention in both the Old Testament (OT and the New Testament (NT. Although all Christians read the same Bible, the interpretation of its teachings on witchcraft differ greatly. This article has attempted to identify, from a historical-grammatical exegetical point of view, a number of biblical principles on witchcraft that could be set as guidelines for addressing witchcraft-related matters and to obtain a clearer picture on Scripture�s teachings regarding witchcraft. (This topic has also been explored from a meta-theoretical perspective in a follow-up article.

  10. Christianity or Superstition? Effects on Locus of Control and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McDonald, Ana; Gorsuch, Richard L.

    Various studies have related superstition to religion, describing the two terms synonymously. However, religion is a highly variable construct which must be measured more discriminately. In this study, superstition was examined in relation to God Concepts, locus of control, and Spiritual Well-Being. Results obtained from 151 Christian…

  11. Palm tree justice in the Bertoua court of appeal : the witchcraft cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisiy, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines thirty witchcraft cases reviewed by the Court of Appeal of Bertoua (East Province, Cameroon) during the period 1981-1984. The basic aim is to highlight the nature and sources of witchcraft accusations, the process of securing a conviction (i.e. proof), and finally, the magnitude

  12. Religious Education and the Feminisation of Witchcraft: A Study of Three Secondary Schools in Kumasi, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted during the summer of 2008 in Kumasi, Ghana analysed the role of religious and moral education (RME) in ameliorating the witchcraft discourse in three Ghanaian junior secondary schools. Although the syllabus acknowledges the pernicious effects of witchcraft allegations, it adopts a "Thou shalt not" approach that…

  13. Social suffering and anxiety: deciphering coughs and colds at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Jane

    2011-12-01

    In treating illness and suffering, the Akan anti-witchcraft shrine is often presented as a model of unchanging, tightly bounded and antiquated ideals. This fails to acknowledge the extensive repertoire of Ghanaian witchcraft discourses and contemporary divinatory practices uncovered at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines. This paper analyses how one of the most popular Akan anti-witchcraft shrine in Europe, in an eastern banlieue of Paris, diagnoses the seemingly common and innocuous coughs and colds suffered by recently arrived, unskilled female Ghanaian migrants as something more socially and economically malignant, witchcraft. Successful treatment combines divinatory techniques, paracetamol medicines and positive thinking in order to empower clients and present them with the possibility of new social and gainful employment prospects.

  14. Salem witchcraft and lessons for contemporary forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Howie, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 1692 and 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts, more than 150 colonists were accused of witchcraft, resulting in 19 being hanged and one man being crushed to death. Contributions to these events included: historical, religious and cultural belief systems; social and community concerns; economic, gender, and political factors; and local family grievances. Child witnessing, certainty of physician diagnosis, use of special evidence in the absence of scholarly and legal scrutiny, and tautological reasoning were important factors, as well. For forensic psychiatry, the events at Salem in 1692 still hold contemporary implications. These events of three centuries ago call to mind more recent daycare sexual abuse scandals.

  15. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.

  16. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions in delusions and hallucinations of Chinese schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-06-01

    Religious beliefs and superstitions have an important impact on the psychopathology of psychiatric patients. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions, such as fortune telling, Buddhist gods, Taoist gods, historical heroic gods and ancestor worship, have important influence on subjective psychotic experiences, in particular delusions and hallucinations. By means of empirical phenomenological case narration, the writer shows that all these traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions tend to affect the contents, manifestation and meaningfulness of delusion and hallucination. They also serve as a means to replace clients' self-identity. They appear in the form of a supernatural force to resolve all difficulties, cause of troubles and misfortune, stress and coping mechanisms.

  17. Monastic Customaries and the Promotion of Dge lugs Scholasticism in A Mdo and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Sullivan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brenton Sullivan. 2015. Monastic Customaries and the Promotion of Dge lugs Scholasticism in A Mdo and Beyond IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 82-105, 301-332. The relationships that existed over multiple generations between the Wang incarnate lama lineage based at Dgon lung Monastery in Northeastern Tibet and various polities in Inner Mongolia are presented. Dgon lung Monastery in general, and the Wang Khutugtu in particular, were responsible for promoting and maintaining orthodox Dge lugs scholasticism and liturgy in Dpa' ris and beyond in Inner Mongolia. Particular attention is given to the customary composed by the Fourth Wang Khutugtu (1846-1906 for Eren Monastery in Inner Mongolia, which prescribed the system for nominating, testing, and awarding candidates for scholastic degrees.

  18. Quand le terrain est un monastère bouddhique tibétain

    OpenAIRE

    Helffer, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    La fréquentation régulière de nombreux monastères tibétains, en Inde (Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka) et au Népal, permet de procéder à une évaluation de l’évolution d’une pratique de terrain qui s’étend sur plus de deux décennies. Après une période de collecte « extensive » de matériaux écrits (notations musicales, textes de rituels) et sonores (des dizaines d’heures d’enregistrements) permettant une approche comparative du domaine, s’est fait sentir le besoin d’une connaissance plus ap...

  19. Witchcraft in Transkei Region of South African: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, B L

    2009-03-01

    Witchcraft and witch-hunt have been practiced widely almost all over the world. It is known as magic in Europe, maleficium (wrong-doing) in Latin America, and superpower in Asia. In Africa those accused of being witches often face execution. A range of accusations are leveled against witches such as causing impotence, turning milk sour, causing disease and death.Three cases are presented here to highlight the issues related to witch craft in Transkei area. The information was given by the next of kin at the time of autopsy. All were elderly women over 50 years of age. The first was related to tuberculosis of the brother of the perpetrator the second, death of the culprit's relative and third the death of culprits brother in Johannesburg. The first and third victims were brutally chopped by axe and in the second it was a firearm injury. The case history, the type of wounds, and medico-legal aspects of death are discussed in these reports. There law related to witchcraft and their implementations to prevent such deaths are discussed.

  20. The Greek evil eye, African witchcraft, and Western ethnocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Apostolides

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to illustrate the ethnocentrism of Western thought by projecting its own science-oriented culture onto cultures with different beliefs. A comparative study between African witchcraft and the Greek phenomenon of the evil eye will be done to investigate whether similar reasons can be given for their existence today. The article reflects on the view that has been prevalent since the Enlightenment, namely that belief in the supernatural is “primitive” and has no place in a world where most things can be explained or solved scientifically. Against this background, contemporary Western perspectives on evil are explained and compared with those of the Greek Orthodox worldview, which shows similarities with New Testament textual evidence. This correlation is demonstrated by an anthropological perspective on the phenomenon of the evil eye as seen from a social, cultural and ecological point of view. These insights are compared with the belief in witchcraft, demonic possession and exorcism within African tradition and spirituality.

  1. Radioactivity - superstition and science; Radioaktivitaet - Aberglaube und Wissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  2. Elusive or Illuminating: Using the Web To Explore the Salem Witchcraft Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Stephanie R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents Web sites useful for teaching about the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Includes Web sites that offer primary source material, collections of Web sites, teaching material, and sites that are interactive, including features, such as QuickTime movies. (CMK)

  3. Witchcraft beliefs and witch hunts: an interdisciplinary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Niek

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary environment of small foraging bands but became overstimulated by the consequences of the Agricultural Revolution, leading to witch paranoia. State formation, civilization, and economic development abated the fear of witches and replaced it in part with more collectivist forms of social paranoia. However, demographic-economic crises could rekindle fear of witches-resulting, for example, in the witch craze of early modern Europe. The Industrial Revolution broke the Malthusian shackles, but modern economic growth requires agricultural development as a starting point. In sub-Saharan Africa, witch paranoia has resurged because the conditions for agricultural development are lacking, leading to fighting for opportunities and an erosion of intergenerational reciprocity.

  4. Rewriting the Salem Witchcraft Trials in Contemporary Popular Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta María Gutiérrez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692 have received a lot of attention from history and literature, although there are very few critical analysis of how this historical event has entered the literary field. Many works of historical fiction – considered the most suitable literary genre to talk about an historical event - have used it in their storylines; however, popular genres such as romance, crime fiction, fantasy and science fiction have also shown an interest in this witch hunt. The main reason for this interest can be found in the lack of final conclusions as regards what really happened in Salem. The main objective of this paper is to show how what happened in Salem has entered contemporary popular fiction with the aim of showing the interest that it still arises and to vindicate the production of more critical works about the literary construction of one of the events that most dramatically has affected the configuration of the American mind.

  5. The Bargarran witchcraft trial--a psychiatric reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S W; Thom, A; Thom, A

    1996-10-01

    In 1697, seven people were condemned at Paisley for using witchcraft to torment Christian Shaw, daughter of the laird of Bargarran. For seven months, Christian had bizarre seizures during which she claimed to see the Devil and her tormentors assaulting her. She also exhibited pica and said that the foreign material had been forced into her mouth by her invisible assailants. The notable Glasgow physician, Matthew Brisbane, was consulted and gave evidence at the trial; he could find no natural explanation for the pica. It is likely that Christian had a dissociative (conversion) disorder after being cursed by a servant. Christian recovered and later married the minister of Kilmaurs. After his untimely death, she established a highly successful spinning business which lead to the Paisley cotton industry.

  6. Inverting measurements of surface slip on the Superstition Hills fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatwright, J.; Budding, K.E.; Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    We derive and test a set of inversions of surface-slip measurements based on the empirical relation u(t)=uf/(1 + T/t)c proposed by Sharp and Saxton (1989) to estimate the final slip uf, the power-law exponent c, and the power-law duration T. At short times, Sharp's relation behaves like the simple power law, u(t)~u1tc, where u1 is the initial slip, that is, the slip at 1 day after the earthquake. At long times, the slip approaches the final slip asymptotically. The inversions are designed in part to exploit the accuracy of measurements of differential slip; that is, measurements of surface slip which are made relative to a set of nails or stakes emplaced after the earthquake. We apply the inversions to slip measurements made at 53 sites along the Superstition Hills fault for the 11 months following the M=6.2 and 6.6 earthqakes of 24 November 1987. -from Authors

  7. GPS measurements of deformation associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: Evidence for conjugate faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert; Neugebauer, Helen; Strange, William

    1991-01-01

    Large station displacements observed from Imperial Valley Global Positioning System (GPS) campaigns are attributed to the November 24, 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Thirty sites from a 42 station GPS network established in 1986 were reoccupied during 1988 and/or 1990. Displacements at three sites within 3 kilometers of the surface rupture approach 0.5 m. Eight additional stations within 20 km of the seismic zone are displaced at least 10 cm. This is the first occurrence of a large earthquake (M(sub S) 6.6) within a preexisting GPS network. Best-fitting uniform slip models of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space indicate 130 + or - 8 cm right-lateral displacement along the northwest-trending Superstition Hills fault and 30 + or - 10 cm left-lateral displacement along the conjugate northeast-trending Elmore Ranch fault. The geodetic moments are 9.4 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm and 2.3 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm for the Superstition Hills and Elmore Ranch faults, respectively, consistent with teleseismic source parameters. The data also suggest the post seismic slip along the Superstition Hills fault is concentrated at shallow depths. Distributed slip solutions using Singular Value Decomposition indicate near uniform displacement along the Elmore Ranch fault and concentrated slip to the northwest and southeast along the Superstition Hills fault. A significant component of non-seismic displacement is observed across the Imperial Valley, which is attributed in part to interseismic plate-boundary deformation.

  8. Paesaggi monastici della Basilicata altomedievale / Monastic landscapes of the Early Medieval Basilicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sogliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Le ricerche sul paesaggio altomedievale e medievale della Basilicata, disegnato dalle fonti documentarie e da quelle materiali, sono state incentrate di recente sulla lettura archeologica delle trasformazioni insediative del territorio. Ai precedenti sistemi di gestione, rappresentati da pochi centri urbani e dalle ville rurali che mantengono il loro assetto fino all’età tardoantica, pur se con alcune a volte sostanziali modifiche, si sostituiscono a partire dall’VIII secolo altre realtà: nuovi centri urbani, siti fortificati, villaggi e chiese rurali, insediamenti monastici. Questi ultimi, sia di rito latino che di rito greco, giocheranno un ruolo fondamentale nello sfruttamento delle risorse del territorio rurale nonché nella riorganizzazione della compagine demografica ed economica della regione, all’indomani dei conflitti politici e delle crisi istituzionali rappresentati dal conflitto greco-gotico e dalle lotte tra potere longobardo, bizantino e normanno. The researches on early medieval and medieval landscape of Basilicata, drawn from documentary and archaeological sources, have been focused recently on the settlement transformations of the territory. Previous systems of land management, consisting of a few urban centers and rural villas that retain their structure, while offering some significant changes at times, until Late Antiquity, are replaced from the 8th c. by new items: new urban centers, fortified sites, villages and rural churches and monastic settlements. These last, both Latin and Greek, will play a key role in the exploitation of the resources of rural areas as well as in the reorganization of the demographic and economic structure of the region, in the aftermath of the political conflicts and institutional crisis represented by the Gothic war and power struggles between the Lombard, Byzantine and Norman role.

  9. The influence of numerical superstition on IPO underpricing in the People’s Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Dieben, E.V.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese culture, certain digits are considered lucky and others unlucky. This thesis evaluates how numerical superstition affects financial decision-making in the Chinese A-share IPO market for the period between 2003-2015. Evidence has been found that suggests that numerical superstition influences the initial return on the issuing day of A-share IPOs on the Shanghai exchange. On this exchange newly listed firms with the unlucky number 4 and lucky numbers 6 and 8 in their ticker are initi...

  10. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe.

  11. The isles of great silence monastic life on Lake Scutari under the patronage of the Balšićs

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    Tomić-Đurić Marka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time Zeta was ruled by the local lords of the Balšić family, in the late fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth century, the islets in Lake Scutari (Skadarsko jezero in Zeta were lively centres of monastic life. The paper looks at the forms of monastic life as suggested by the spatial organization and architecture of the monastic complexes founded by the Balšićs, and by the surviving written sources. The most important documentary source is the correspondence between Jelena Balšić and her spiritual father, Nikon, preserved in the manuscript known as Gorički zbornik (Gorica Collection. The letters show that Lake Scutari was a centre of monasticism touched by hesychast-inspired spirituality where both the eremitic and coenobitic ways of life were practised. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177003: Medieval heritage of the Balkans: Institutions and culture

  12. From total institution to extitution? Discussions on the future of monastic life in the Benedictine women's monasteries of Catalonia (Spain

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    Collet-Sabé, Jordi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Federation of Benedictine Women’s Monasteries of Catalonia (Spain, the five monasteries represented are discussing the following question: what will monastic life be like in the future? This question is added to the debate about “new forms of monasticism”, “urban monastic life” and, in a more general sense, to the modernisations and “the opening up” of the precepts and practices of monastic life at this time. Faced with the ambitious monastic questioning, the author “responds” with five deliberately provocative debates developed out of a consideration of various chapters of the Rule of St. Benedict that raise profound questions when it comes to responding to the question presented here. Having described these five debates, by way of a summary, the article presents three ideal types of monastery in relation to the current processes of deinstitutionalisation that represent, in an overall way, three provisional responses and serve as a focus for the question discussed here.En motivo del 50 aniversario de la creación de la Federación de Monasterios Benedictinos de Cataluña, los cinco monasterios miembros se plantean la siguiente pregunta: ¿cómo será la vida monacal en el futuro? Esta cuestión se enmarca en los debates sobre las “nuevas formas de monaquismo”, “monaquismo urbano”, y, de forma más general en la puesta al día de los preceptos y las practicas de la vida monástica hoy. Ante la ambiciosa pregunta de los monasterios, el autor responde con cinco debates que se desarrollan partiendo de la Regla de San Benito. Estos cinco debates propuestos a las comunidades monásticas en una metodología cercana a la investigación —acción, desembocan a modo de resumen, en la propuesta de tres modelos ideales de vida monástica en relación con los procesos de desinstitucionalización y extitucionalización que viven los mismos. Estos tres modelos ideales representan la

  13. [Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-yan

    2010-03-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore. A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures. The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases') could be divided into supplication, Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc. Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of ('Prescriptions for fifty-two diseases').

  14. Use of Superstition and Fatalism by Secondary Students in Explaining Problems in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Gregory E.

    1981-01-01

    Students, whether they are academic or vocational-technical majors, need to interpret social studies problems by use of the scientific approach rather than by the use of fatalism, supernaturalism, and superstition. To ensure this outcome, secondary school curricula must provide enriching experiences through modern instructional techniques which…

  15. Cultural evolution of a belief controlling human mate choice: dynamic modeling of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Cinthia Marie; Iwasa, Yoh

    2012-09-21

    We develop a simple cultural dynamics model to dicuss the spread of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan. A large drop in the number of newborn babies observed in 1966 was attributed mainly to parents' avoiding having a child born in a hinoeuma year. Presumably, Japanese parents were afraid that a daughter born in 1966 (a hinoeuma year) might later have difficulty finding a mate. We construct mathematical models to examine whether the hinoeuma superstition would likely become extinct or be stably maintained in the population. We classify members of a population according to whether they believed the hinoeuma superstition (believer or nonbeliever), their gender (male or female), and their year of birth (born in a hinoeuma year or not). We compare several cases that differ according to (1) whether the belief in the superstition was transmitted to children by matrilineal, patrilineal, or Mendelian inheritance; (2) which parent controlled the timing of pregnancy and childbirth (maternal or paternal birth control); and (3) the probability of birth control failure. Our results show that the hinoeuma superstition is likely to spread if the mother has a strong influence on birth control and on the belief of their children. In contrast, if birth control is paternal and the belief is passed down from father to child, the hinoeuma superstition is likely to become extinct. In between these extremes, whether the superstition becomes extinct or fixed in the population depends on the initial frequency of believers in the population.

  16. Surface faulting along the Superstition Hills fault zone and nearby faults associated with the earthquakes of 24 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The M6.2 Elmore Desert Ranch earthquake of 24 November 1987 was associated spatially and probably temporally with left-lateral surface rupture on many northeast-trending faults in and near the Superstition Hills in western Imperial Valley. Three curving discontinuous principal zones of rupture among these breaks extended northeastward from near the Superstition Hills fault zone as far as 9km; the maximum observed surface slip, 12.5cm, was on the northern of the three, the Elmore Ranch fault, at a point near the epicenter. Twelve hours after the Elmore Ranch earthquake, the M6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake occurred near the northwest end of the right-lateral Superstition Hills fault zone. We measured displacements over 339 days at as many as 296 sites along the Superstition Hills fault zone, and repeated measurements at 49 sites provided sufficient data to fit with a simple power law. The overall distributions of right-lateral displacement at 1 day and the estimated final slip are nearly symmetrical about the midpoint of the surface rupture. The average estimated final right-lateral slip for the Superstition Hills fault zone is ~54cm. The average left-lateral slip for the conjugate faults trending northeastward is ~23cm. The southernmost ruptured member of the Superstition Hills fault zone, newly named the Wienert fault, extends the known length of the zone by about 4km. -from Authors

  17. Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances in Adolescents Involved in Witchcraft and Satanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burket, Roger C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined inpatient medical records of 157 consecutive adolescent admissions to private psychiatric hospital. Ten patients with interest in witchcraft and Satanism had significantly more diagnoses of identity disorder, alcohol abuse, and hallucinogen abuse. One-half reported history of self-mutilation. Found no significant difference in criminal…

  18. What American Schools Can Learn from Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Booth, Grace Marie

    2003-01-01

    A mother and daughter share their insights on what American schools can learn about cooperative, student-centered, problem-solving approaches to instruction from the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the Harry Potter books. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  19. Matilda Joslyn Gage: A Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Historian Looks at Witchcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ideas of the nineteenth century female historian, Matilda Joslyn Gage, who authored the book, "Woman, Church, and State." Focuses on Gage's ideas about women's history, particularly related to the role of the church and women persecuted for witchcraft. (CMK)

  20. Women, Wit, and Witchcraft: The Burden of Stereotypes. Working Paper No. 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barbara

    This paper examines the negative stereotypes so long foisted on witty women and the move of contemporary witty women writers into a comic vision beyond the imposed connection of female wit to sly cleverness and witchcraft. To illustrate how the woman writer had to cope with a prejudice against and a fear of her wit, the paper considers three…

  1. Linguocultural analysis of superstitions used in the communicative situation Christmas holiday in the Pyrenean national variant of the Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Анатольевна Фролкова

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals both with the linguocultural analysis of superstitions used in the communicative situation Christmas holyday in the Pyrenean national variant of the Spanish language and their structural classification.

  2. De nouveau sur les peintures de l’église-"bolnitsa" du monastère de Cozia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Iancovescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L’identité des zôgraphes David et Raduslav qui, en 1542-1543, ont réalisé la peinture de la bolnitsa du monastère de Cozia, est controversée : à force d’arguments stylistiques, les chercheurs ont émis plusieurs hypothèses sur leur possible formation « sudslave » ou crétoise. Mais plusieurs détails iconographiques, à savoir les mélodes qui accompagnent la Dormition de la Vierge, ou les saints militaires en habits longs rappellent les modèles byzantins. Les similitudes déjà enrégistrées avec plusieurs monuments balkaniques seraient donc plutôt l’héritage d’une tradition commune, que des emprunts de la peinture contemporaine.

  3. Cultural evolution of hinoeuma superstition controlling human mate choice: The role of half-believer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Makoto; Lee, Joung-Hun; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-11-21

    In this study, we used a cultural dynamic model to explain the persistence of the hinoeuma superstition in traditional Japan. Men with this superstition avoid marrying women born in a hinoeuma year (or hinoeuma-women). Parents avoided childbirth during the last hinoeuma year out of the concern that their daughter would have trouble finding a husband in the future, and this resulted in a large drop in the number of babies born in 1966. A previous theoretical analysis of the hinoeuma superstition considered two alternative cultural factors: believers and nonbelievers. In the present study, we considered a third cultural factor, the half-believer. A man that is a half-believer accepts a hinoeuma-woman as his wife, but parents that are half-believers avoid childbirth during hinoeuma years. With these three cultural factors, there are two possible outcomes for the population. In the first outcome, [1] non-believers become extinct, with the population consisting of believers and half-believers; some men refuse hinoeuma-women as their mate choice, and most parents attempt to avoid childbirth during hinoeuma years. In the second outcome, [2] believers become extinct, and the remaining population consists of non-believers and half-believers; no man refuses hinoeuma-women, and some parents avoid childbirth in hinoeuma years to prevent potential harm to their daughters. If birth control fails at a steady rate, believers will become extinct eventually. The superstition is more likely to be maintained if the mother has a stronger influence on the beliefs of her children than the father.

  4. The Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills earthquakes of 24 November 1987: Introduction to the special issue

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Allen, Clarence R.

    1989-01-01

    On 24 November 1987, two significant earthquakes occurred along the southern San Jacinto fault zone and related structural elements in southern California, not far from the International Border. These two events, the Elmore Ranch earthquake (M = 6.2 at 0154 GMT) and the Superstition Hills earthquake (M = 6.6 at 1315 GMT, both moment magnitudes from Sipkin, 1989), and their aftershocks have yielded a rich harvest of geological, seismological, and engineering data pertinent to the cause and ...

  5. Faith and Superstitions in the Frontline and in the Rear in Wartime (1941-1945

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    Evgeny F. Krinko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the faith and superstitions of the Soviet citizens in the frontline and in the rear during the Great Patriotic War. The study of the religion history in the USSR in 1941-1945 was significantly influenced by ideology. This theme has been thoroughly studied in recent years, but the attention is mainly attached to its institutional aspects and the role of religion in lives of Soviet citizens is still little-studied. Nevertheless, by the start of war, considerable part of the population maintained its religious beliefs, despite the anti-religious policy of the Soviet authorities. The war increased the faith of Soviet citizens in the frontline, in the rear and within the occupied territory. It was mainly caused by the extreme wartime situation. Different superstitions and omens gained a wide circulation. Despite the fact that they had different content, both rites and prayers, acknowledged by the church and the omens and superstitions, rejected by the church have become the necessary ways of people psychological adaptation to wartime severities and hardships. The conclusions, which were made with the help of different sources, such as official documents, statistical data, both published and collected in the course of work under the theme of participants and eyewitnesses’ recollections, help us to imagine the collective consciousness of the Soviet society during the Great Patriotic War.

  6. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management.

  7. To Converse with the Devil? Speech, Sexuality, and Witchcraft in Early Modern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Rose Dye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Scotland, thousands of people were accused and tried for the crime of witchcraft, many of whom were women. This paper examines the particular qualities associated with witches in Scottish belief – specifically speech and sexuality – in order to better understand how and why the witch hunts occurred. This research suggests that the growing emphasis on the words of witches during this period was a reflection of a mounting concern over the power and control of speech in early modern society. In looking at witchcraft as a speech crime, it is possible to explain not only why accused witches were more frequently women, but also how the persecution of individuals – both male and female – functioned to ensure that local and state authorities maintained a monopoly on powerful speech.

  8. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  9. Le site du monastère d’Annegray (Haute-Saône : les prospections géophysiques

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    Sébastien Bully

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PrésentationLe hameau d’Annegray, sur la commune de la Voivre, est traditionnellement identifié comme le site du monastère d’Anagrates ; la découverte des fondations de l’église romane Saint-Jean-Baptiste et de sarcophages mérovingiens par le docteur Cugnier en 1958 participe à cette identification . Annegray est situé dans la vallée supérieure du Breuchin, pénétrant les premiers contreforts méridionaux du massif vosgien. Le monastère était également à proximité de la cluse de Faucogney, verr...

  10. Global positioning system measurements of deformations associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake - Evidence for conjugate faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert; Neugebauer, Helen; Strange, William

    1992-01-01

    Large station displacements observed from Imperial Valley Global Positioning System (GPS) compaigns are attributed to the November 24, 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Thirty sites from a 42 station GPS network established in 1986 were reoccupied during 1988 and/or 1990. Displacements at three sites within 3 kilometers of the surface rupture approach 0.5 m. Eight additional stations within 20 km of the seismic zone are displaced at least 10 cm. This is the first occurrence of a large earthquake (M(sub S) 6.6) within a preexisting GPS network. Best-fitting uniform slip models of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space indicate 130 + or - 8 cm right-lateral displacement along the northwest-trending Superstition Hills fault and 30 + or - 10 cm left-lateral displacement along the conjugate northeast-trending Elmore Ranch fault. The geodetic moments are 9.4 x 10 (exp 25) dyne-cm and 2.3 x 10 (exp 25) dyne-cm for the Superstition Hills and Elmore Ranch faults, respectively, consistent with teleseismic source parameters. The data also suggest the post seismic slip along the Superstition Hills fault is concentrated at shallow depths. Distributed slip solutions using Singular Value Decomposition indicate near uniform displacement along the Elmore Ranch fault and concentrated slip to the northwest and southeast along the Superstition Hills fault. A significant component of non-seismic displacement is observed across the Imperial Valley, which is attributed in part to interseismic plate-boundary deformation.

  11. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  12. "How Could They Believe That?": Explaining to Students Why Accusation of Witchcraft Made Good Sense in Seventeenth-Century New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbeer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)

  13. Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo Al Volturno: an early Medieval monastic complex in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibille, Nadine; Freestone, Ian C

    2013-01-01

    136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the "ritual economy" founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time.

  14. Composition, production and procurement of glass at San Vincenzo Al Volturno: an early Medieval monastic complex in Southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available 136 glasses from the ninth-century monastery of San Vincenzo and its workshops have been analysed by electron microprobe in order to situate the assemblage within the first millennium CE glass making tradition. The majority of the glass compositions can be paralleled by Roman glass from the first to third centuries, with very few samples consistent with later compositional groups. Colours for trailed decoration on vessels, for vessel bodies and for sheet glass for windows were largely produced by melting the glass tesserae from old Roman mosaics. Some weakly-coloured transparent glass was obtained by re-melting Roman window glass, while some was produced by melting and mixing of tesserae, excluding the strongly coloured cobalt blues. Our data suggest that to feed the needs of the glass workshop, the bulk of the glass was removed as tesserae and windows from a large Roman building. This is consistent with a historical account according to which the granite columns of the monastic church were spolia from a Roman temple in the region. The purported shortage of natron from Egypt does not appear to explain the dependency of San Vincenzo on old Roman glass. Rather, the absence of contemporary primary glass may reflect the downturn in long-distance trade in the later first millennium C.E., and the role of patronage in the "ritual economy" founded upon donations and gift-giving of the time.

  15. The social charity function of Tibetan monastic%藏区寺院的社会慈善功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲生华

    2012-01-01

      藏族基本上是属于全民信教的一个民族,藏传佛教几乎渗透到了藏族群众生活得一切方面,从某种程度上说藏传佛教是信教僧俗价值观、人生观、世界观的折射,是精神世界的核心。藏区寺院把佛教教义中的转世成佛与慈悲为怀,普渡众生有机的结合起来,把天国理想世界与世俗社会结合起来,把天国理想境界和世俗需要结合起来,积极承担着一定的社会慈善救助功能。%  Tibetan basically belongs to the universal religion, Tibetan Buddhism penetrates into almost all aspects of life of the Tibetan people, to the extent that Tibetan Buddhism is the refraction of the religion and values, outlook on life, the world outlook, is the core of the spirit world. The Tibetan monastic combines the reincarnation of Buddha and compassion, and Purdue beings combines the ideal world with secular society, combines the kingdom of heaven ideal state and secular need, to actively take the certain social charity function.

  16. STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Леонидович Ульянченко

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-7

  17. STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanchenko Anton Leonidovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.

  18. 'Our Families are Killing Us': HIV/AIDS, Witchcraft and Social Tensions in the Caprivi Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity

    2007-12-01

    The importance of exploring 'indigenous' constructions of illness is vital when explanatory models of ill health differ markedly from dominant biomedical paradigms. In the Caprivi region of Namibia, an upsurge of witchcraft accusations can be seen as a direct reaction to increasing AIDS-related illness and deaths, and to changes in socio-economic attitudes and expectations. The mobilization of witchcraft narratives provides a socially acceptable explanation for illness, and can positively influence decisions regarding the care and identity of the ill person. However, drawing upon data collected at kin and village level, this paper demonstrates that while witchcraft accusations can avert stigma and blame away from the ill person, they can also result in significant disruption to livelihoods, and place considerable tension upon key social capital networks at a time when the household is particularly vulnerable. Such findings have significant implications for the effectiveness of HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation initiatives, and for livelihood security.

  19. Women as easy scapegoats: witchcraft accusations and women as targets in tea plantations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Soma

    2012-10-01

    This article revisits a much-debated question: Why are women popular targets during witch hunts? By using in-depth interviews this article provides an answer. Women are easy targets or scapegoats for two reasons. First, it is widely believed in the community that was studied that witches do, in fact, exist, and the images of witches are always female. Second, tribal women hold lower positions than men in all social, political, and ritual matters, and this contributes to their vulnerability during the hunt for scapegoats. This article also highlights the roles that rumors play during manipulation of witchcraft accusations to gather support for witch hunts.

  20. A pastoral examination of the Christian Church’s response to fears of and reactions to witchcraft amongst African people in the Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elijah Baloyi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amongst other things, African culture (societies has been characterised by its perception and fear of witchcraft. Even though the belief in witchcraft is an old phenomenon, its growth is revealed and to some extent mitigated by videos, films and accounts and stories of church ministers. Whilst some Christian worship services have been turned into witchcraft-centred campaigns against witchcraft, a second group perceive witchcraft as a way of getting rid of one’s enemies and a third group see it as the root of human misfortune. Indeed ministers (including preachers and pastoral caregivers are almost ‘measured’ by their ability to successfully ward off demons (believed to have been sent by witches, as a yardstick for determining whether they are good ministers with a good following or congregation. The first group of people attend church to pray for protection against ‘the enemy’, the second group approach native doctors to protect their households from attacks by witches, and the third group rid themselves of witches by burning them along with their personal belongings. This article investigates the impact and consequences of a fear of witchcraft amongst Christians in African societies, particularly those in the Limpopo province of South Africa. It also offers pastoral guidelines for a theological response to witchcraft and its life-threatening influence on people in the affected communities.

  1. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  2. Influence of superstition on the date of hospital discharge and medical cost in Japan: retrospective and descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Kenji; Fukui, Tsuguya; Endoh, Akira; Rahman, Mahbubur; Maekawa, Munetaka

    1998-01-01

    Objectives To determine the influence of superstition about Taian (a lucky day)-Butsumetsu (an unlucky day) on decision to leave hospital. To estimate the costs of the effect of this superstition. Design Retrospective and descriptive study. Setting University hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Subjects Patients who were discharged alive from Kyoto University Hospital from 1 April 1992 to 31 March 1995. Main outcome measures Mean number, age, and hospital stay of patients discharged on each day of six day cycle. Results The mean number, age, and hospital stay of discharged patients were highest on Taian and lowest on Butsumetsu (25.8 v 19.3 patients/day, P=0.0001; 43.9 v 41.4 years, P=0.0001; and 43.1 v 33.3 days, P=0.0001 respectively). The effect of this difference on the hospital’s costs was estimated to be 7.4 million yen (£31 000). Conclusion The superstition influenced the decision to leave hospital, contributing to higher medical care costs in Japan. Although hospital stays need to be kept as short as possible to minimise costs, doctors should not ignore the possible psychological effects on patients’ health caused by dismissing the superstition. Key messagesBelief in Taian-Butsumetsu, a superstition relating to the six day lunar calendar, is common among Japanese peopleThis study showed that the mean number of patients discharged on Taian (a lucky day) is the highest and that on Butsumetsu (an unlucky day) is the lowestPatients discharged on Taian were older, were more likely to be female, and had longer hospital stays than those discharged on other daysThe findings suggest that patients were extending their stay to leave hospital on TaianThis superstitious belief increased the cost of medical care in Japan PMID:9857123

  3. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifes

  4. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children’s enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as

  5. Malinowski goes to college: factors influencing students' use of ritual and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Ashleigh

    2007-10-01

    Anthropologists have long noted that the use of ritual and magic is linked to conditions of risk and uncertainty. In this study, the authors examined how perceived task difficulty, participants' level of preparation, and the value of the outcome interact to influence the self-reporting of superstition and ritual. College students rated the likelihood of their using charms or rituals for various scenarios involving academic, artistic, and athletic performances. Reports of use of ritual increased as the stakes of the event increased and decreased with perceived expertise or level of preparation. Additional findings included participants' reporting frequent use of ritual while denying any causal effectiveness. The authors discuss results in terms of the rituals providing participants with an illusion of control.

  6. Absurdist Witchcraft in Truman Capote’s “Children on their Birthdays”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Dumas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available “Children on their Birthdays” was published at the end of the 1940’s, at a time that was seeing the rise of the theater of the absurd. The short story is about the unexpected arrival of an extraordinary young girl, Miss Bobbit, in a small place in Alabama. Her strange ways quickly cause quite a stir in the whole community. This paper aims to show that Miss Bobbit’s witch-like characteristics make her an absurdist character capable of revealing fundamental American truths that carry universal significance. Her witchcraft echoes the author’s in his creation of a theatrical approach to social delusions in a context of metaphysical and cosmic absurdity.

  7. “Better do not touch” and other superstitions concerning melanoma: the cross-sectional web-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Gajda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :To the authors’ best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Material and methods : Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154 and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. Results : A total of 4,104 (83.4% respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that “it is better not to touch naevi”. Moreover, 3,510 (71.3% individuals believed that naevi located in “harmed places” may turn into melanoma. Conclusions : Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life.

  8. “Better do not touch” and other superstitions concerning melanoma: the cross-sectional web-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Maksymilian; Wydmański, Jerzy; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To the authors’ best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. Aim To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Material and methods Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154) and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. Results A total of 4,104 (83.4%) respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that “it is better not to touch naevi”. Moreover, 3,510 (71.3%) individuals believed that naevi located in “harmed places” may turn into melanoma. Conclusions Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life. PMID:27881937

  9. "Better do not touch" and other superstitions concerning melanoma: the cross-sectional web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Maksymilian; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna; Wydmański, Jerzy; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    To the authors' best knowledge, there are no data regarding the prevalence of superstitions concerning melanoma among internet users. To evaluate the prevalence and identify reasons for superstitions associated with excision of pigmented skin lesions as well as to assess the frequency of this procedure. Readers of the scientific portal were invited to complete a fully anonymous e-questionnaire. After collection of questionnaires (5,154) and eliminating incomplete ones, 4,919 surveys were analysed. A total of 4,104 (83.4%) respondents have been aware that the total surgical excision is the only efficient way of melanoma treatment. This familiarity was related to increased skin cancer awareness but was not linked to regular skin self-examination. Over half of the surveyed agreed that "it is better not to touch naevi". Moreover, 3,510 (71.3%) individuals believed that naevi located in "harmed places" may turn into melanoma. Superstitions associated with surgical treatment of melanoma are widespread. Conducting educational campaigns is necessary, particularly among young people, whose dangerous tanning behaviours are important risk factors for melanoma occurrence in their later life.

  10. Children enacting idioms of witchcraft and spirit possession as a response to trauma: therapeutically beneficial, and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    This article examines children's enactment of spirit possession idioms and witchcraft in Africa including the meanings such idioms provide and the local healing resources they mobilize. Idioms of haunting spirits in Northern Uganda and witch-children elsewhere in Africa can be interpreted as manifestations of social crises and mass traumatic stress. On the other hand, such idioms also allow children to articulate, reflect upon, and communicate the complex feelings resulting from their precarious positions within families and communities under duress. With the help of Dow's transactional model of symbolic healing, this article explores obstacles to the effectivity of the rich variety of symbolic healing available for haunting spirits in Uganda and points to the generational gap between children and their families and communities. Elsewhere, witchcraft idioms may act as a healing resource at the group level, but at the expense of the accused child. The idioms of evil spirits and witchcraft speak of these children's navigation of the moral universe of their postconflict communities. Given that children's appraisal of their experiences through these notions may also exacerbate their anxiety, interdisciplinary research examining the microprocesses that lead to children being haunted or accused, including emotional and physiological levels effects, is urgently needed.

  11. Moment-tensor solutions for the 24 November 1987 Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The teleseismic long-period waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network from the two largest Superstition Hills earthquakes are inverted using an algorithm based on optimal filter theory. These solutions differ slightly from those published in the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters Monthly Listing because a somewhat different, improved data set was used in the inversions and a time-dependent moment-tensor algorithm was used to investigate the complexity of the main shock. The foreshock (origin time 01:54:14.5, mb 5.7, Ms6.2) had a scalar moment of 2.3 ?? 1025 dyne-cm, a depth of 8km, and a mechanism of strike 217??, dip 79??, rake 4??. The main shock (origin time 13:15:56.4, mb 6.0, Ms6.6) was a complex event, consisting of at least two subevents, with a combined scalar moment of 1.0 ?? 1026 dyne-cm, a depth of 10km, and a mechanism of strike 303??, dip 89??, rake -180??. -Authors

  12. Surface displacement on the Imperial and Superstition Hills faults triggered by the Westmorland, California, earthquake of 26 April 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; Rymer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Parts of the Imperial and the Superstition Hills faults moved right-laterally at the ground surface at the time of or shortly following the ML 5.6 Westmorland earthquake of 26 April 1981. The displacements occurred prior to any significant aftershocks on either fault and thus are classed as sympathetic. Although the main shock was located in an exceptionally seismogenic part of Imperial Valley, about 20 km distant from either fault, no clear evidence of surface faulting has yet been found in the epicentral area. Horizontal displacement on the Imperial and Superstition Hills faults, southeast and southwest of the epicenter, respectively, reached maxima of 8 mm and 14 mm, and the discontinuous surface ruptures formed along approximately equal lengths of northern segments of the two structures (16.8 km and 15.7 km, respectively). The maximum vertical component of slip on the Imperial fault, 6 ram, was observed 3.4 km north of the point of largest horizontal slip. Vertical movement on the Superstition Hills fault was less than 1 mm. No new displacement was found along the traces of the Brawley fault zone, the San Andreas fault, or the part of the Coyote Creek fault that slipped during the 1968 Borrego Mountain earthquake. A careful search in the epicentral area of the main shock failed to locate any definite evidence of surface faulting. Concentrations of late aftershocks north and northeast of Calipatria near the southeastward projection of the San Andreas fault occurred mostly after our field check; this area was not investigated.

  13. 彝族“撮泰吉”的巫术内蕴及其社会功能%Witchcraft Connotations of Yi Cuotaiji and Its Social Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白伟伟

    2016-01-01

    Cuotaiji is a kind of extremely rich ancient witchcraft properties of exorcising opera. Cuotaiji witchcraft intrinsic optimism, to be good, such characteristics as subjectivity, at the same time Cuotaiji intrin⁃sic witchcraft culture has continuously strengthen the main body of self-worth, maintain social stability, strong social function.%“撮泰吉”是一种极富巫术性质的古傩戏“。撮泰吉”的巫术内蕴具有乐观性、向善性、主体性等特点,同时“撮泰吉”内蕴的巫术文化具有不断强化主体的自我价值,维护社会稳定的强大的社会功能。

  14. The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties%秦汉时期巫医术的方术化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 柳长华

    2014-01-01

    巫术是指幻想依靠“超自然力”对客体加强影响或控制的活动.上古巫术应用范围很广,其中用于医疗者,称为“巫医术”,大致包括祝由、厌劾、禁忌数种.秦汉时期,巫医术被阴阳五行理论改造成为医方术的一部分.其中,巫术鬼神系统被方士鬼神系统取代;祝由术、禁忌法被渗入术数思维;厌劾术基本被符篆术取代.巫医术改造不彻的残留,亦为秦汉方技家所兼收并用.%By witchcraft,it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through" supernatural power".Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery,praying,superstitious art of anti-disaster,and tabooing,were collectively called" medical witchcraft".During the Qin-Han periods,witchcraft was transformed by the theory of YinYang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession.Among them,the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation.The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  15. "The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about early modern society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of early modern conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained.

  16. On Witchcrafts inRecords of Huayang Kingdom%论《华阳国志》中的巫术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗业恺

    2012-01-01

    As the first local chronicles, Records of Huayang Kingdom has kept a large amount of materials concerning witchcrafts. From the pre-Qin to Wei and Jin periods, our ancestors in Southwest China dealt with interpersonal relationship and the one between human and nature through witchcrafts which were diversified in forms and effective in practice and had brought great help to both common people and governors.%作为中国第一部地方志,《华阳国志》中保存了大量有关巫术的资料。先秦到魏晋时期的西南地区先民通过巫术处理着人与自然、人与人之间的各种关系。这些巫术形式多样、"行之有效",给当时普通民众和统治者都带来了极大帮助。

  17. Analysis of the Popularity of Witchcraft among the Miao People in West Hunan%湘西苗族地区蛊的流行原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉宝; 麻友世

    2013-01-01

    明清以来巫蛊一直流传在湘西苗族地区,至今还有很多苗族群众依然相信蛊的存在,其根本原因是科学技术落后,但是同样是处在落后的地区,巫蛊在苗族地区更为流行,其主要原因是,在认识论上,巫蛊流行迎合了苗族的阴阳思想;在制度上,过去苗族地区缺乏制止巫蛊流行的社会管理制度;从其产生和流传来看,苗族地区有“匠嘎”对“蛊病”的诊治和社会舆论对巫蛊流行的推波助澜。%Witchcraft has been popular in the western areas of Hunan from the time of Ming and Qing dynasty . Even in modern times , there are many Miao people who still believe in witchcraft in the world . The basic reason is they have little modern knowledge . However , many people who also live in western underdeveloped areas of Hunan do not believe in witchcraft . The other reason may lie in the fact that witchcraft caters to the Miao people's Yin-yang concept , the Miao people lacked the anti -witchcraft system , and the traditional Miao doctor who can diagnose the so called Gu-disease and the public opinion usually propagates it and make it more popular .

  18. THE WITCHCRAFT, BELIEF AND THE FORMATION OF ORDER:A Survey to the Phenomenon of “Witchcraft Infection” in M Township in Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture%巫蛊、信仰与秩序的形成--以湘西M乡“中蛊”现象为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寒非

    2015-01-01

    本文从湘西自治州M乡的“中蛊”现象出发,重点讨论巫蛊信仰、巫蛊功能以及巫蛊规则等问题。通过田野调查及个案研究发现,巫蛊信仰应该被认为是一种内心的确信,这构成了巫蛊文化的心理基础。巫蛊具有社会整合和社会控制功能,巫蛊功能的发挥一方面依靠作为心理基础的巫蛊信仰,另一方面依靠具体的巫蛊规则。巫蛊规则符合“另类规范”的特征,应该被视为一种典型的“另类规范”,“另类规范”对于地方“小传统”社会秩序的形成及维系起着极为重要的作用。%This paper focuses on witchcraft beliefs, functions, and rules as well as other issues of the phenomenon of “witchcraft infection” in M township, Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture.It is found from fieldwork and case studies that witchcraft beliefs should be considered as a confidant in heart, constituting the psychological foundation of witchcraft culture.Witchcraft plays functions of social integration and social control, relying on the psychological basis of witchcraft beliefs on the one hand, and on the specific rules of witchcraft on the other.The witchcraft rules are in line with the features of “alternative rules”, which should be regarded as a typical “alternative rules” .The “alternative rules” play an extremely important role to form and maintain social order in the local “little tradition” .

  19. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles.

  20. 鬼神病因观与巫术疗法的沿革%Studyonthe Continuity of Witchcraft Therapy Basedon Etiology of Ghosts and Gods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾

    2015-01-01

    虽然对“巫”的抵制历代不绝,然而在我国古代医疗活动中,巫术疗法仍长期占有一席之地。传统的鬼神信仰是这一现象的思想根源,人们相信疾病可由鬼神作祟而致,由此导致了社会对巫术治疗的需求。医学领域中亦形成了相应的鬼神病因观,一些巫术疗法在一定范围内得到医家以及律法的认可。虽然当巫术治疗成为借鬼神诈财惑众的工具时,“巫”会受到严厉的打击,而“医”作为有效的打击手段得到一定的宣扬。但这些打击所针对的并非鬼神信仰本身,由此不可能实现真正意义上的“禁巫”。%Although the prohibition of witchcraft was often carried out , the witchcraft was a long‐term phenomenon in ancient Chinese medical activities .The traditional thought of ghosts and gods was the root of this phenomenon .People believed that the disease can be caused by the ghost haunting and god’s punishment ,which led to the demand for witchcraft therapy .The corresponding idea was formed in the medical field from a pathogenic point of view ,and some witchcraft therapies were applied by the medical community and permitted by law in a certain range .Witchcraft would be energetically prohibited when people used it as tools to defraud the public .As a weapon ,medicine would be promoted .While those fights were not aimed at supernatural beliefs ,it is impossible to realize the prohibition of witchcraft in the true sense .

  1. Notes on the Witchcraft Classification of the Miao People of the East Dialect%东部方言苗族之巫分类说明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻勇斌

    2016-01-01

    苗族之巫是最具神圣性的古老文化之一,对其进行分类说明,是对其开展调查研究的基础工作。民间和专家学者已然形成的分类,均存在缺陷与不足。本文依据民间形成的关于苗族之巫的内涵最大的概念和苗巫知识体系构造,按照七种分类方法将其进行逐一分类说明。同时,对苗族之巫的核心内容:“巴狄”,进行分类说明。%The Miao people’s witchcraft is the most sacred ancient culture,whose classification is a fundamental job for survey and research. The folk and expert classifications have their own shortcomings. Based on seven types,this paper attempts to make notes on the classification by means of the most extensive folk concept and the Miao witchcraft knowledge system. Meanwhile,Badi,the core content of Miao witchcraft,is illustrated by types.

  2. Scapegoating Non-Conforming Identities: Witchcraft Hysteria in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and Caryl Churchill’s Vinegar Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Yılmaz Demirkaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scapegoating Non-Conforming Identities: Witchcraft Hysteria in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and Caryl Churchill’s Vinegar Tom Abstract When people are faced with different takes on their traditions that they firmly cling to so as to remain being who they purport to be, they are generally inclined to ostracise those who are different. In this sense, ostracising people by discarding them from their community is, metaphorically speaking, the same as leaving the goat in the wilderness as the verses from Leviticus explain the history of scapegoating. Just as the goat story from Leviticus, political and patriarchal power groups blame non-conforming individuals for all the problems in society, and ostracise them as witches only to take the upper hand, and enjoy absolute power. The pattern of punishment proves to be the same, that is, to leave the victim alone in a place away from home, be it the wilderness for a goat, or the loneliness and isolation for an individual. Besides, one of the most used and most efficient ways of scapegoating people, as the evidence shows, is to rekindle the tall-tale of witchcraft. This paper explores how and why witchcraft is deployed as a scapegoating strategy to silence and stigmatise non-conforming individuals on the pretext of maintaining order in society in Arthur Miler’s The Crucible (1953 and Caryl Churchill’s Vinegar Tom (1976 respectively.

  3. Rupture process of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake determined from strong-motion recordings: application of tomographic source inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Wennerberg, Leif

    1989-01-01

    We analyze strong-motion recordings of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake to determine the timing, location, spatial extent, and rupture velocity of the subevents that produced the bulk of the high-frequency (0.5 to 4 Hz) seismic energy radiated by this shock. The earthquake can be characterized by three principal subevents, the largest ones occurring about 3 and 10 sec after initiation of rupture. Timing relationships between pulses on the seismograms indicate that the three subevents are located within 8 km of each other along the northern portion of the Superstition Hills fault. The two largest subevents display different directivity effects. We apply a tomographic source inversion to the integrated accelerograms to determine the slip acceleration on the fault as a function of time and distance, based on a one-dimensional fault model. The azimuthal distribution of amplitudes for the second subevent can be largely explained by a rupture that propagated about 2 km to the southeast along the Superstition Hills fault at a velocity about equal to the P-wave velocity. An alternative model with rupture propagating to the northeast along a conjugate fault plane can also account for the observed directivity of this subevent, but it is not supported by the aftershock distribution. The third subevent ruptured to the southeast along an 8-km long portion of the Superstition Hills fault at about the shear-wave velocity. This rupture propagation caused the relatively large accelerations and velocities observed in strong-motion records for stations southeast of the hypocenter. The long time intervals between the subevents and their relative proximity to each other indicate a very slow component to the rupture development. The southern half of the Superstition Hills fault did not generate significant high-frequency strong ground motion, although it showed substantial co-seismic surface displacement. The subevents are situated along the same northern portion of the fault

  4. How to Know whether a Dog is Dangerous: Myth, Superstition and its Influence on the Human-dog Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kovačič

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humans and dogs is complex and ambivalent. The dog was the first animal that Homo sapiens domesticated. This means that the human-dog relationship has lasted longer than any other human-animal relationships. Despite all this, mythological, symbolic and folkloristic traditions often depict dogs in a negative light and as a dangerous and threatening force from the underworld. Due to the belief that seeing an unknown dog can lead to misfortune, accident or even death, people were often afraid of dogs. People had to invent certain rules that could help them determine which dog was dangerous and which was not. Those rules had to change over time based on the fact that human-dog relationship is culturally and historically defined. The author analyses stories from in the Glasovi (Voices collection to show that, in the last few centuries in the territory of modern Slovenia, black dogs where most feared by humans. In contrast, nowadays the most feared dogs are those of the Pit Bull and some other breeds. Nevertheless, the folk superstitions and prejudice toward black dogs is still present in modern Western societies. In the English language “black dog” symbolizes depression. And some are still reluctant to adopt large black dogs from the animal shelters.

  5. Culture as a monastic rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    2016-01-01

    A conference paper about Peter Sloterdijk's erratic interpretation of the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as an example of cultural elitism.......A conference paper about Peter Sloterdijk's erratic interpretation of the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as an example of cultural elitism....

  6. Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poujeau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie. En juillet 2004, j’ai assisté aux funérailles d’un jeune homme de la famille au sein de laquelle je vivais à Damas. À l’époque, l’intense émotion suscitée par cet événement empêcha que je m’y intéresse de plus près. Ce n’est que deux ans plus tard, en juillet 2006, que j’ai décidé d’enquêter sur l’un des aspects majeurs de la cérémonie : les lamentations funèbres féminines. Lors de ce dernier terrain, les femmes de la famille que j’interrogeais, que j’accompagnais aux funérailles et dont j’enregistrais les chants m’assignèrent alors une place tout à fait particulière. Puisque, moi aussi, « je m’habillais en noir et je venais aux funérailles », je ne pouvais plus être considérée comme une étrangère. Dès lors, elles firent de moi la fille d’une de leur sœur émigrée à Paris et mariée avec un Français. Ce statut me fut par ailleurs confirmé lorsqu’elles m’attribuèrent une place dans leurs plaisanteries entre sœurs, tantes et neveux matrilatéraux.Dans cet article, je souhaite engager une double réflexion : sur la position et l’implication de l’ethnologue sur un terrain où l’émotion est au premier plan, ainsi que sur la façon dont être assignée à une place dans la parenté de ses informateurs donne enfin toute liberté d’action à l’ethnologue sur son terrain.From monasteries to funerals. The construction of ethnographical relations with the Christians of Damascus (Syria. In July 2004, I attended the funeral of a young man from the family with whom I was staying in Damascus. At the time, the intense emotion provoked by that event prevented me from immediately examining it more closely. It was only two years later, in July 2006, that I decided to study one of the main features of the ceremony: the women’s lamentations. During this

  7. Saint Néophyte Le Reclus, Œuvres, vol. I-V. Édition du Monastère de saint Néophyte, Paphos 1966-2005, 429+499+619+743+503 pages[en grec].

    OpenAIRE

    Argyriou, Astérios

    2014-01-01

    D’après le Typikon ou Règle monastique (révisée probablement en 1214) du couvent, l’Enkleistra, fondé par Néophyte le Reclus (1134-1219), les moines se voient confier les seize volumes de ses œuvres. Depuis la première édition de la Règle monastique (Venise, 1779), œuvre fondamentale pour la vie de Néophyte et pour l’histoire de son monastère et de son époque, les spécialistes cherchaient à identifier, à reconstituer et à publier les œuvres nommées et cataloguées par leur auteur même. La tâche ...

  8. THE EFFECTS OF RELIGION, SUPERSTITION, AND PERCEIVED GENDER INEQUALITY ON THE DEGREE OF SUICIDE INTENT: A STUDY OF SERIOUS ATTEMPTERS IN CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JIE; XU, HUILAN

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecutively sampled serious attempters of suicide hospitalized to emergency rooms immediately after the suicidal act in Dalian areas, China. Both univariate analyses and the multiple regression model have found that the higher the degree the religiosity and superstition on metempsychosis, the stronger the suicide intent Chinese women had. The perceived gender inequality is positively correlated with suicide intent, and it is especially true for Chinese women. The socio-psychological traits and traditional culture values and norms have important impacts on suicide patterns in Chinese societies. PMID:18214067

  9. Estimates of velocity structure and source depth using multiple P waves from aftershocks of the 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Event record sections, which are constructed by plotting seismograms from many closely spaced earthquakes recorded on a few stations, show multiple free-surface reflections (PP, PPP, PPPP) of the P wave in the Imperial Valley. The relative timing of these arrivals is used to estimate the strength of the P-wave velocity gradient within the upper 5 km of the sediment layer. Consistent with previous studies, a velocity model with a value of 1.8 km/sec at the surface increasing linearly to 5.8 km/sec at a depth of 5.5 km fits the data well. The relative amplitudes of the P and PP arrivals are used to estimate the source depth for the aftershock distributions of the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills main shocks. Although the depth determination has large uncertainties, both the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills aftershock sequencs appear to have similar depth distribution in the range of 4 to 10 km. -Author

  10. Three-dimensional records of surface displacement on the Superstition Hills fault zone associated with the earthquakes of 24 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.; Saxton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Seven quadrilaterals, constructed at broadly distributed points on surface breaks within the Superstition Hills fault zone, were repeatedly remeasured after the pair of 24 November 1987 earthquakes to monitor the growing surface displacement. Changes in the dimensions of the quadrilaterals are recalculated to right-lateral and extensional components at millimeter resolution, and vertical components of change are resolved at 0.2mm precision. The displacement component data for four of the seven quadrilaterals record the complete fault movement with respect to an October 1986 base. The three-dimensional motion vectors all describe nearly linear trajectories throughout the observation period, and they indicate smooth shearing on their respective fault surfaces. The inclination of the shear surfaces is generally nearly vertical, except near the south end of the Superstition Hills fault zone where two strands dip northeastward at about 70??. Surface displacement on these strands is right reverse. Another kind of deformation, superimposed on the fault displacements, has been recorded at all quadrilateral sites. It consists of a northwest-southeast contraction or component of contraction that ranged from 0 to 0.1% of the quadrilateral lengths between November 1987 and April 1988. -from Authors

  11. 《五十二病方》中的巫术与民俗%Witchcraft medicine and folklore in Wushierbingfang (Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海燕

    2010-01-01

    One important characteristic of early stage of TCM is the intermixture of witches medicine and folklore.A few witch prescriptions in Wushierbingfang (Prescriptions for Fifty -two Diseases ) indicated the residual traces of the mixture of witch and medicine in the medical literatures.The witch prescriptions recorded in Wushierbingfang( Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases ) could be divided into supplication,Yu-step, exorcism, Nuo ritual and peach wood charms etc.Witchcraft developed into folklore and the application of witchcraft sometimes manifested as the form of folklore, which were also reflected in the records of Wushierbingfang ( Prescriptions for Fifty-two Diseases).%巫医混杂是古代早期医学的一个重要特征.战国时期中的少量巫方的保留,正是医混杂现象在医学文献中残留的痕迹.中记载的巫方可分为祝由、禹步、祓除、傩礼、桃符等.巫同时又演变为民风民俗,术的实施常常表现民风民俗的形式,的记载对此也有一定反映.

  12. Sylvie Duval, Observance religieuse, confinement social et culture féminine. L’insertion des nouveaux monastères de dominicaines de stricte clôture dans les sociétés urbaines italiennes, 1380-1430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Duval

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le cœur de cette recherche est constitué par l’étude de trois monastères de moniales dominicaines constitués en « réseau » dans trois villes importantes, et qui sont à l’origine du mouvement de l’observance dominicaine en Italie : Pise (Saint-Dominique, 1385, Venise (le Corpus-Christi, 1394, Florence (Saint-Pierre-Martyr, 1417. La fondation de ces monastères s’inscrit très largement dans le mouvement des « caterinati » ou disciples de Catherine de Sienne (Raymond de Capoue, Jean Dominici e...

  13. Above and beyond superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    revitalizing of the body's own vis medicatrix naturae, from the early 20th century onwards medical anthropologists (especially those who became interested in the `savage mind') have built up an equally rigorous theory of symbolic efficacy in terms of narratives, symbols and a kind of cognitive homeostasis....... It was precisely as a mediating link between the somatic and the symbolic that I suggest a decriminalized placebo effect (as opposed to suggestion) could emerge in the middle of the 20th century. Taking the example of St John's Wort, I go on to show how notions of symbolic efficacy, spillover placebo efficacy...

  14. [Superstitions around teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, H

    1996-12-01

    Popular beliefs in magical medicines or manneuvers to cure dental pains, have been at every time subject of curiosity and even of credulity for common people. Writers and story-tellers describe medicines and habits used to relief or get rid of toothache, in interesting and humorous tales.

  15. Above and beyond superstition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Does it work? This question lies at the very heart of the kinds of controversies that have surrounded complementary and alternative medicines (such as herbal medicine) in recent decades. In this article, I argue that medical anthropology has played a pivotal and largely overlooked role in taking ...

  16. Superstitions Endanger Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾名之

    2002-01-01

    泰国妇女择日分娩,为了让子女在“黄道吉日”来到这个世界,泰国1/5以上的孕妇实行了剖腹产。殊不知,此举将严重影响孩子大脑的发育。可怜天下父母心!本则消息出现“剖腹产”一词:caesarean/caesarean section([医]剖腹生产术)。另如:Their first baby was born by caesarean。/他们的头胎婴儿是剖腹产的。需注意的是,首字母大写的Cesarean却别具含义:凯撒的;皇帝的。 此外,文中一个way,用法新鲜,别具含义。

  17. 武术演进过程中原始巫术的影响%The influence of primitive witchcraft in the process of evolution of Wushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王校中; 谭广鑫

    2014-01-01

    幅员辽阔的中华大地,孕育了世界上唯一没有被中止的文化传统,而这种历史悠久,连绵不断的文化形式,保存了太多的文化遗留,主流文化很早便完成了从蒙昧向文明的转变,而未被理性教化的民间社会却从未脱离原始思维,充斥于民间的神话、巫术、神坛祭祀等“迷信”活动,无不显露出这些原始信仰在民间社会的重要地位。武术根植于民间,在充满遗留文化的神秘环境中完成了自身的演进,从神话传说与神灵崇拜、巫术仪式、巫术修炼的角度解析武术,以一种文化遗存的态度来对待武术,将会扩展了解武术的视野。%The vast land of China had given birth to the only cultural tradition in the world which has never been interrupted, and such a form of culture with a long history and ceaseless development contains numerous cultural legacies; mainstream culture had completed the transformation from an uncivilized state to a civilized state a long time ago, yet the civil society that has not been enlightened by ration has never broken away from primitive think-ing; such activities of “superstition” as myths, witchcraft and altar sacrifice all over the folk world have unexcep-tionally revealed the important status of these primitive beliefs in the civil society. Wushu is rooted in the folk world, has completed its own evolution in a mysterious environment full of passed on cultures; analyzing Wushu from the perspectives of myths and legends, god worship, witchcraft rituals and witchcraft practice, as well as treat-ing Wushu with an attitude of cultural relic, will expand the field of vision to understand Wushu.

  18. 浅议巫术说--艺术的另类解读%Discussion on witchcraft--the offbeat interpretation of art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于川东

    2013-01-01

    This paper starts from the views of western academic circles to the origin of the art, development and evolution from the relationship between art and witchcraft, proves a masterstroke, expounds the historical relationship between art and magic always as the shadow follows the form influence each other, mining culture art behind from different angles.%本文从西方学术界对艺术起源的观点入手,从艺术与巫术之间关系的发展演变,探明一条主线,阐述历史上艺术与巫术总是如影随形相互影响的关系,从不一样的角度挖掘艺术品背后的文化。

  19. The Historical Paradigm,Periodization of Witchcraft Anxiety and Art Therapy and Its Contemporary Response%巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的历史范型、分期及当代应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世武; 张冰焱

    2015-01-01

    艺术治疗的疗法按伦理标准可分为两种类型:一种是以治愈焦虑为目的的疗法,一种是以加剧焦虑为目的的疗法。可以从历史维度大致勾勒出巫术焦虑与艺术治疗所经历的几个阶段:巫术论占绝对优势的时期、巫术论的知识观与科学知识观彼此博弈的时期、巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的衰落期、巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的复兴期。应当将对巫术焦虑与艺术治疗的研究作为现代艺术治疗理论研究和治疗实践的突破口;在现实的文化政策中,对不同类型的巫术焦虑与艺术治疗模式采取不同的措施;继续改善社会福利,用现代治疗技术来治疗民众的生存焦虑。%According to ethical standards,there are two types of art therapy:one is to cure the anxiety,the other to intensify it.A historical review of witchcraft anxiety and art therapy sketches out the following stages it has experienced:the predominance of witch-craft theory,the co-existence of witchcraft knowledge and science knowledge,the decline of witchcraft anxiety and art therapy and the renaissance of it.In the theoretical research and practice of modern art therapy,we should take the study of witchcraft anxiety and art therapy as a breakthrough.In implementation of culture policy,different measures be adopted for different types of witchcraft anxie-ty.Besides,we should continue to improve social welfare and apply modern techniques to treat people’s survival anxiety.

  20. To Discuss Three Kinds of Witchcraft about Yu in RiShu%秦简《日书》涉禹出行巫术考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫喜琴

    2011-01-01

    The reason that Yu's some behaviors had been used by the Pre-Qin sorcerer as witchcraft in RiShu, first, had lied in Pre-Qin sorcerer to want to obtain Yu's authority by imitating his behavior; Next, Yu had played an important role in witchcraft history;%秦简《日书》涉禹出行巫术的产生,首先是由于禹在长期的行旅生涯中,立下了赫赫的功绩,确立了崇高的威望,故而先秦巫师在作法之时,意欲通过模仿禹的行为以获得禹所拥有的无上权威;其次禹既是一个伟大的君主,也是一个在巫术发展史上曾经起到过举足轻重作用的大巫,故巫师施展法术之时,视禹之巫术为正宗并效法之;第三,相信鬼神巫术、在先秦社会影响极大的显学墨家对禹倍加推崇,所以涉禹巫术自然也就会得到他们的信奉并宣扬。总之,由于以上三种原因,使禹的一些行为遂为先秦巫师所采纳,作为其解决与出行相关的问题时的重要巫术加以利用。此后

  1. Superstition, religion and the political / Superstição, religião e o político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Despland

    2011-01-01

    religious realms in modern Western civilization, provides us with “a good context for the confrontation with some of the fundamental problems of justice that remain before us today”. Religion as he sees it, therefore, is finally to be understood as psychologically and historically contingent human action. All the same, it takes place over against the irrational-rational background of some philosophically resilient categories: superstition and morality. Resumo/apresentaçãoCientista da religião reconhecido e respeitado em ambientes intelectuais da América do Norte e da Europa, Michel Despland é ainda pouco conhecido pela academia brasileira. Entre suas publicações estão, por exemplo: Kant on history and religion: with a translation of Kant's On the failure of all attempted philosophical theodicies (McGillQueen's University Press, 1973; The education of desire, Plato and the philosophy of religion (University of Toronto Press, 1985; Les hierarchies sont ebranlees, politiques et theologies au XIXe siècle, (Fides, 1998; Comparatisme et Christianisme: questions d'histoire et de methode (L'Harmattan, 2002. No texto ora publicado, apresentado durante o XII Simpósio da Associação Brasileira de História das Religiões (2011, UFJF, o prof. Despland assume a premissa antropológica de que “a religião é algo que as pessoas fazem.” Baseando-se em Espinosa, Despland elege a categoria da “superstição” como um instrumento de análise mais adequado para a análise do religioso do que, por exemplo, a do “sagrado”. O objetivo mais imediato de Despland é primeiramente entender como o próprio Espinosa constrói os âmbitos político e religioso em sua inter-relação, em continuidade e ruptura com as tradições herdadas da teologia política do Ocidente/do cristianismo. A partir daí, ele passa a sondar historiograficamente as dimensões morais e sociais da religião diante do Estado, tanto em suas próprias instituições, quanto no cada vez mais consp

  2. Pre-earthquake displacement and triggered displacement on the Imperial fault associated with the Superstition Hills earthquake of 24 November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two right-lateral slip events, about 3 weeks apart in November 1987, broke the surface discontinuously along probably similar, nearly 20km lengths of the northern Imperial fault. The first displacement, at about the beginning of November, was accompanied by a surface tilt representing deep vertical motion or distributed strain. The later surface offset was triggered, probably by the second main shock of the 24 November earthquakes located in the Superstition Hills, about 37km northwest of the Imperial fault. Pre-earthquake resurveys of short-length leveling lines indicated combined surface displacement and an eastward tilt at two locations between surveys 7 1/2 months apart and 13 months apart; the tilt at Harris Road during this pre-earthquake interval is modeled as a 1.4cm vertical component of slip deeper than 100m on a 70?? northeastward-dipping fault. Later surveys showed a marked reduction of deep movement in the time period including the triggered slip, and between December 1987 and January 1988, it had ceased. No definite evidence of surface fracturing was found in the Brawley fault zone during either period of time when the Imperial fault moved. -from Authors

  3. “Cruel sacrifices of popish preests”. Theology and the Eucharist debate in Reginald Scot´s The Discoverie of Witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Méndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The next pages will attempt to shed light on the theology developed by Reginald Scot in his The Discoverie of Witchcraft from one of the key topics of the 16th century: the Eucharistic affair. One of the goals is to demonstrate that the way the Englishman understands the divinity is not only the cause of his dismantling of radical demonology, but also of a similar approach to the catholic dogma of transubstantiation. It is suggested here that Scot rejected the intellectual basis of the witch-hunts for the very same reason he negates the transformation of bread and wine into Christ’s body and blood. As a result of the historical context of his intellectual production, the author uses his theology as an anti-catholic proselitism tool, relating papism with every religious error. Furthermore, it became possible to find out if Reginald Scot propounds a positive Eucharistic stance, and –if he does– how it relates with that of the English church and the continental Reform mainstream

  4. Bruxas e índias filhas de Saturno: arte, bruxaria e canibalismo Witches and indian women, daughters of Saturn: arts, witchcraft and cannibalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo indaga pela representação da mulher nas pinturas e gravuras sobre a bruxaria dos séculos XVI e XVII, procurando estabelecer uma tipologia iconográfica e percorrendo a construção de estigmas negativos imputados no corpo feminino e na sua degradação natural. O texto, apoiado em fontes visuais como pinturas e gravuras, principalmente da Renascença alemã, demonstra como as índias do Novo Mundo foram associadas com as bruxas da Europa e com o deus clássico Saturno, através do mito do canibalismo.The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation. Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches of Europe and with the classic god Saturn, through the myth of cannibalism.

  5. 厌胜观念对中国传统建筑装饰的影响%The Witchcraft Concept Impact on Chinese Traditional Architectural Decoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永新

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, Chinese ancient architect-ure has formed a building system mainly created by timberwo-rk. This method of using structures as a decoration, at the same time reflects the ancient Chinese cultural concept for building decoration. In this article, the author bases on the fol owing se-veral kinds of traditional Chinese architecture structure to ela-borate the witchcraft concept of Chinese traditional architectu-ral decoration.%我国古代建筑几千年来形成了以木结构为主的建筑体系,这种用结构构件作为装饰的方式,同时反映了中国古人对于建筑装饰的文化观念。以下通过几种中国传统建筑构件,来阐述中国传统建筑装饰中的厌胜观念。

  6. A Discussion of Witchcraft Incident from the Perspective of Rebellion of Prince Wei%从卫太子起兵反叛谈巫蛊之祸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海龙

    2014-01-01

    The witchcraft incident was a significant event which occurred in Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty . Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty did not want to kill Prince Wei before Prince Wei rebelled , until Prince Wei reb-elled, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty ordered to kill Prince Wei , and it sparked a continuing unrest within the ruling class.The prosperity of the Han Dynasty had gone , starting a political situation of rehabilitation .%巫蛊之祸是汉武帝末年发生的重大事件。汉武帝在卫太子举兵反叛之前并未有诛杀太子之意,直至太子起兵反叛,武帝才下令诛杀,并由此引发了统治阶级内部的持续动荡。汉朝盛世局面一去不复返,由此开始了休养生息的政局。

  7. Research on Witches and Their Witchcraft in Shakespeare's Plays%莎士比亚戏剧中的女巫及其巫术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋玲

    2011-01-01

    文艺复兴时期.处于萌芽时期的科学与伪科学如魔术、巫术、占星术等并存,这一现象在莎士比亚的戏剧中也有所反映。本文对莎剧中众多女巫形象进行了分析,指出女巫虽然具有预知祸福等超自然能力,但她们的本质仍然是人。在莎士比亚戏剧中,女巫是人世间诱人堕入罪恶的邪恶力量,女巫的预言则象征了人内心的欲望。%During the Renaissance, the developing science coexisted with pseudoscience such as magic, witchcraft, astrology and so on, which is also reflected in Shakespeare's plays. This paper analyses the image of the witches in Shakespeare's plays, and points out that although the witches have supernatural power they are essentially human beings rather than goddesses or Fates. The witches are actually the malicious forces that make use of the weakness of human beings to induce them to evil. The prophecy of the witches is actually the embodiment of the inner desire in the human soul.

  8. Origin of Miocene andesite and dacite in the Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province, central Arizona: Hybrids of mafic and silicic magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, R. V.; Johnson, Kelly G.

    2016-07-01

    The Miocene Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province (G-SVP), ∼8000 km2 in central Arizona, is composed largely of silicic pyroclastic rocks and lavas, and smaller volumes of alkalic basalt and intermediate-composition lavas. Volcanism began ∼20.5 Ma as sparse rhyolitic and mainly basaltic lavas followed by intermediate lavas, lasting until ∼19 Ma. At that time, ∼1 m.y. of silicic eruptions began, creating most of the G-SVP. Petrologic studies are available for basalts and some for silicic rocks, but petrologic/geochemical information is sparse for intermediate-composition lavas. These latter, andesites and dacites, are the focus of this study, in which we present the processes and sources responsible for their origins. Goldfield-Superstition andesites and dacites have SiO2 ∼56-70 wt.% and Na2O + K2O that qualifies some as trachy-andesite and -dacite. A prominent petrographic feature is plagioclase-phyric texture (∼11-30 vol% plagioclase), where oligoclase-andesine phenocrysts have cores surrounded by corroded, or reacted, zones, mantled by higher An% plagioclase. Where corroded zones are absent, margins are etched, curved, or embayed. Groundmass plagioclase is labradorite, also more calcic than the phenocrysts. Other minerals are quartz (subrounded; embayed), clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, and rare titanite and zircon. A salient compositional characteristic that provides insight to andesite-dacite origins with respect to other G-SVP rocks is revealed when using SiO2 as an index. Namely, abundances of many incompatible elements, mainly HFSE and REE, decrease over the low to high SiO2 range (i.e., abundances are lower in dacites than in co-eruptive andesites and underlying alkalic basalts). As examples: G-SVP basalts have ∼50-70 ppm La, and andesites-dacites have ∼59-22 ppm La; for Zr, basalts have ∼225-170 ppm, but most andesites-dacites have ∼180-50; for Y, basalts >20 ppm, andesites-dacites ∼18-9 ppm. To understand these trends of lower

  9. While the Devil Climbs a Post, the Priest Climbs Ten. The Witchcraft and Maneuver of Nuo Altar%魔高一尺,道高一丈——傩坛巫术与特技

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹修明

    2012-01-01

    Nuo altar is to exorcise the ghost and diseases and to bless mortals. The sacrifice ceremo- ny, pray, witchcraft, the song and dance are the necessary "soft Kung Fu" of a wizard, used to rec- oncile with the ghost and God. If reconciliation can not be achieved, a wizard must use force to drive the ghost and diseases away. A wizard must master the "hard Kung Fu" witchcraft to drive them away. Witchcraft is the important and practical skill as well as means of a wizard to communicate with the ghost and God. It is also called Nuo skill from the perspective of performance. While the devil climbs a post, the priest climbs ten. The level of Nuo skills is a vital standard to measure the prestige and status of a wizard and a Nuo altar. "Climbing a mountain of swords", "plunging into a sea of flames", "KAI HONG SHAN" are the performance for the mortals and for shocking the ghosts and God. The witchcrafts have a multitude of names and types for different aims respectively.%傩坛是要驱鬼逐疫,祈福纳吉的。献牲、仪式、祈求巫术,搬演歌舞戏、媚神是与鬼神“和解”,是巫师必备的“软功夫”,和解不成则要武力驱赶、消灾。巫师必须掌握与鬼神较量的“硬功夫”——巫术。巫术是巫师沟通神鬼的重要手段和技能,具有可操作性。从表演的角度看也可以叫傩技。“魔高一尺,道高一丈”。傩坛和巫师声望和地位的高低,巫术、傩技水平是重要的衡量标准。“上刀山”“下火海”、“开红山”等是表演给凡人看的也是为了震撼鬼神的。巫术名目繁多,各有所用。

  10. The Witchcraft of Praying for Rain of the Sorceress in Shang and Zhou Dynasties%商周时期女巫祈雨巫术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高畅

    2015-01-01

    在以农耕生产为经济支柱且生产力不够发达的商周社会,风调雨顺往往意味着农业的丰收、人民生活的安康乃至国家政权的稳定,因此,祈雨禳灾成为当时最重要的宗教活动之一。商周时期的女巫在两大祈雨仪式雩祀和燎祭中发挥了十分重要的作用,但祈雨仪式中她们并不处于垄断地位,无论是女巫本身还是她们的祈雨巫术,都是可以被君主替代的。%The ceremony of praying for rain to eliminate the disaster has become one of the most impor‐tant religious activities because the rich rain often lead to the agricultural harvest and the stable life 、solid state power in Shang and Zhou Dynasties when is the farming production as the pillar of the economy and without advanced productivity .Sorceress play a very important role in the two rain praying ceremonies“Dancing Sacrifice” and“Fire Sacrifice”but without a monopoly position for the reasons that they can be replaced by monarch both themselves and their rain witchcraft .

  11. On lntergrowth of Witchcraft and Art in Nowadays Bai Villages from Perspective of Religion%当代白族乡村巫术与艺术共生的宗教维度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世武

    2012-01-01

    当代白族乡村巫术艺术共生现象的研究不能在西方艺术考古学、艺术人类学或艺术哲学的学科范式内进行,“原始艺术”这一术语与当代白族乡村民间艺术之间是不可通约的。从宗教维度来阐释当代白族乡村巫术与艺术共生的现象,是将此现象视为一种社会行为,可以发现巫术、艺术、宗教等文化事象之间的微妙关系。%The study on the intergrowth of witchcraft and art in nowadays Bai people villages should not be done in the mode of western Artistic Archaeology, Anthropology of Art or Philosophy of Art. The term ' primitive art' is different from the art in contemporary Bai rural areas. Interpre- ting the intergrowth from religion regards the phenomena as a social behavior to discover the subtle relation between witchcraft, art and religion.

  12. A Inquisição e a Feitiçaria: A Ritualização do Interrogatório e da Tortura * The Inquisition and Witchcraft: the Ritualization of Inquiries and Torture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO DAVI AVELAR PIRES

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho se propõe a pensar a Inquisição, principalmente a medieval, como uma extensão ou organização católica que buscava a erradicação daqueles que se opunham aos dogmas e a moral pregadas pela Igreja. Fundamentados pelo conceito de ritual, apresentamos a relação entre a Inquisição e as mulheres acusadas de feitiçaria como um ritual, que se inicia desde o momento da captura das acusadas, passando pelos interrogatórios, pela tortura e chegando até o auto-de-fé, onde era queimada num local público, geralmente em feriados ou dias santos.Palavras-chave: Inquisição – Feitiçaria – Ritual. Abstract: his paper proposes to think the Inquisition, mainly medieval, as an extension or Catholic organization that sought to eradicate those who opposed the beliefs and morality preached by the Church. Basing on the concept of ritual, we present the relationship between the Inquisition and women accused of witchcraft as a ritual, which begins from the moment of capture of the accused, throughout the  inquiry and torture until  reaching the act of faith, where she  was burnt  at a public place, usually on holidays.Keywords: Inquisition – Witchcraft – Ritual.

  13. [Astronomical bodies, disasters and superstitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Elena; Hugli, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    The belief that a full moon or Friday the 13th or some specific doctors are associated with busier shifts in the emergency room is still widespread among caregivers. Although such a topic may seem anecdotal, even folkloric, it has been the subject of several studies that have shown that there is no association between these factors and the number of emergency room admissions or type of pathology. It is not certain that an evidence-based approach is sufficient to eliminate such beliefs because their existence also responds to an attempt to put some semblance of meaning into the chaotic and stressful activity of emergencies.

  14. On Creative Design of Witchcraft Culture and Remodeling the Mysterious Tourism of West Hunan%巫傩文化创意设计与重塑神秘湘西旅游探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柏山

    2012-01-01

    Culture breeds brand,which in turn breeds value of products.Landscape touring in west Hunan has been initiated,but the potential of cultural brand is to be tapped.Remodeling the mysterious tourism in West Hunan has been on the agenda,which will surely contribute to the economic growth.West Hunan boasts mysterious culture in Taoism,Buddhist culture as well as in the Confucian culture,of which the witchcraft of Huaihua is the most typical of its kind.By taking the advantage of preferential policies of revitalizing Hunan culturally,we attach great importance to the creative design of products,focusing on remodeling mysterious culture of west Hunan,esp.Huaihua witchcraft culture.Joint efforts should also be made to promote marketing and to foster uniqueness in developing tourism resources.%文化形成品牌,品牌形成价值,湘西的山水旅游已经打响,但文化品牌旅游还显得无力。重塑神秘湘西旅游资源品牌已经成了当前经济的新增长点,湘西神秘文化不在道教文化,不在佛教文化,也不在儒教文化,而在五溪大地的巫傩文化。抓住"文化强省"政策机遇,利用文化创意设计产品,重点重塑湘西神秘文化——五溪巫傩文化,充分借助五溪巫傩文化,合力营销升级,打造"怀化独有、湖湘特色、中国风格、国际气派"的神秘湘西旅游资源品牌。

  15. Les Sentences des Pères du désert, des confesseurs, des anachorètes et des stylites peints sur la façade méridionale de l’église de l’Annonciation de la Vierge du monastère de Moldoviţa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin I. Ciobanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Les saints moines (Pères du désert, confesseurs, anachorètes, fondateurs d’institutions ou des règlements monastiques etc. occupent la rangée inférieure de l’immense vision de l’Église triomphante qui couvre les parties orientales – y compris les absides latérales – des façades des églises moldaves à peinture extérieure. À l’église de l’Annonciation de la Vierge du monastère de Moldoviţa se sont conservées (en langue slavonne les sentences écrites sur les phylactères des saints Théodore le Sanctifié, Théodote, Gélase, Georges de Maléon, Domentien, Jean le Fol-en-Christ, Hilarion, Joasaph, Bessarion, Abraham, Paul de Thèbes, Nikon, Jean de la laure de Saint-Sabas, Gérasime, Théophane, Antoine, de l’ange vu par Pacôme, du stylite Luc et de l’ermite David de Tessalonique. Le but de notre recherche est de trouver les sources littéraires des ces sentences. Nous allons voir ci-dessous, que leur majeure partie est tirée soit des Saintes Écritures, soit des recueils rassemblant les citations des saints Pères. Le recueil appelé Paterikon palestinien traduit du grec en russe par Théophane le Reclus – comprend environ 80% des dits des moines peints à Moldoviţa. L’existence aux monastères de Humor et de Moldoviţa d’un nombre de citations, qu’on ne trouve plus qu’en traduction russe dans le texte de ce Paterikon – prouve le fait qu’au XVIe en Moldavie existaient déjà des traductions en slavon moyen-bulgare de certains recueils grec – aujourd’hui perdus ou oubliés – qui étaient similaires ou identiques aux recueils consultés et copiés par Théophane le Reclus à la laure de Saint-Sabas pendant sa mission (de 1847 à 1853 en Terre Sainte.

  16. Hopi Indian Witchcraft and Healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hekseri, sygdom og helbredelse hos hopi-indianerne dels på baggrund af egne indsamlede interviews og af litteraturen. Hekseri anskues delvis som narrativ strategi således at sladder fungerer som en omvendt etisk redskab. Desuden inddrages kognitive teorier....

  17. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Thomas; Rolke, Yvonne; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics. However, ergot alkaloids, the toxic components of Claviceps sclerotia, have been used intensively (and misused) as pharmaceutical drugs, and efficient biotechnological processes have been developed for their in vitro production. Molecular genetics has provided detailed insight into the genetic basis of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis and opened up perspectives for the design of new alkaloids and the improvement of production strains; it has also revealed the refined infection strategy of this biotrophic pathogen, opening up the way for better control. Nevertheless, Claviceps remains an important pathogen worldwide, and a source for potential new drugs for central nervous system diseases.

  18. 论巫术在契丹对外战争中的作用--以契丹与中原政权的战争为中心%On the Role of Witchcraft in Khitan’s Foreign Wars with the Regimes of the Central Plains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马驰原

    2014-01-01

    巫术在契丹社会中占有重要地位,对其历史文化产生重要影响。结合人类学、宗教学的相关理论,以契丹与中原政权的战争为中心,分析巫术在契丹对外战争中的作用对了解契丹历史大有裨益。巫术在契丹对外战争中的作用表现为:战前为进行战争提供合法性,战时诅敌求胜、鼓舞士气,战后进行祈福消灾。澶渊之盟后,契丹巫术逐渐走向分化和消亡。%Witchcraft,which played an important role in Khitan society,had a significant influence on Khitan’s history and culture.The analysis of Khitan’s witchcraft in the foreign wars is conducive to stud-ying the history of Khitan.Referring to the related theories of anthropology and religion,this paper analy-zes and discusses the impact of witchcraft,which was providing legitimacy before the war,cursing the ene-my for victory during wartime,and blessing to eliminate the evil after the war,on the Khitan’s wars with the regimes of the Central Plains in ancient China.After the Chanyuan Treaty the Khitan’s witchcraft gradually became divided and died out.

  19. On Yi Nationality' s Soul Concepts and the Ghost- God Ideas in Witchcraft Society in Pre- Qin Period%彝族灵魂观念与先秦巫术社会中的魂魄鬼神观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文

    2011-01-01

    弗雷泽《金枝》中铺陈了灵魂出身观念在世界各地巫术社会中的种种迹象,而这一观念又实为巫术实践操作之一理论基础:灵魂离体,必要有所安顿处,或要招之回身,否则视为不祥。然而,西南民族的人类学资料表明,灵魂离体时会因内部性质的不同而产生分离。笔者运用彝族文献、民俗资料中记载的灵魂离体分离,与先秦文献中的魂和魄分离进行比较,详细诠释灵魂离体的情形,并重新审视先秦社会中,对鬼神概念及祖先祭祀的理解。%In his famous work Golden Bough, Fraser listed the phenomena in witchcraft socie-ties around the world with an idea that soul can leave the body. The idea contributes to the basic theories of the witchcraft practice that the soul out of body will be ominous without a place to settle in, or it should be called back to the body. Moreover, some Anthropology materials from Southwest of China demonstrate that when the soul leaves body, it will separate. This paper compares the literatures and the folk materials of Yi nationality which record the separating soul out of body with the ' Hun (soul, spirit)' and ' Po(vigor, spirit)' in the literatures of pre- Qin period, and analyzes how the soul detaches from the body in details to understand better the ghost - god concepts and sacrifice to ancestors in the pre- Qin society.

  20. Study of Number Seven and its Witchcraft in the Slips of Qin and Han Dynasty%秦汉简帛文献中的“七”及其巫术性蠡测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕亚虎

    2012-01-01

    数字是人类对宇宙时空及其运行规律进行描述的感性符号,数字"七"便是此类具有象征作用和神秘性能的数字之一。从出土简帛医方资料看,"七"不仅常常被用作巫术性疗法中的象征性动作如摩擦、击打以及唾的动量标准,而且常常成为巫方用药的剂量、物量以及对不同性别患者进行象征性动作及用药多少的一个标准,说明至迟在战国时期,数字"七"已成为中国早期数文化中富含神秘性和巫术性的"模式数字"。"七"之所以具有"模式数字"的性质,这与早期先民对于宇宙空间、宇宙天体的运行规律以及人体生命节律的认知等因素有关,而简帛医方中"七"的大量出现也正是此类文化信仰在心理的反映。%The digital is a kind of notation to describe the works of the universe by the human being,and the number of seven was one of them.The number of seven had been always used the times of rubs and impacts in the witchcraft prescription in the slips of medical precription in Qin and Han Dynasty,which proved that the seven has been endowed the model figure at least the Warring States.The model figure "seven" had been used in the medical descriptions of the slips reflects not only the limitation of the knowledge to universe but also is the reveal of the witchcraft culture.

  1. The Cosmology of Witchcraft:the Spiritual Beliefs of Alangan-Mangyan people in the Philippines%巫术的世界观:菲律宾阿拉安人的精神信仰和巫术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史阳

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the cosmology,spiritual beliefs and related witchcraft rituals of Alangan natives, who dwell in the central ridge forest of Mindoro Island,the Philippines.In daily life,Alangan people practice witchcraft rituals very often,calling spirits for help in order to heal the disease of patients and avoid the misfortune of the community. The Alangan cosmology is based on the bilateral conflict between the good and the evil,which clearly explains the logic of their supernatural healing practice,as they call for good spirits to fight against evil spirits in various rituals so that disease can be treated.From a lot of thick description and detailed analysis about the spiritual beliefs and ritual language,this pa-per also shows the interaction between the ideological notion of Alangan people and their practical behavior.%本文探讨了菲律宾民都洛岛山区原住民阿拉安人的世界观、精神信仰和相应的巫术仪式。阿拉安人经常举行巫术仪式,向神灵求助,以便让病人得到善灵的救治,或让善灵祓除人们遭遇的灾祸。阿拉安人的世界观是善与恶二元对立的,它很好地解释了巫术治疗的原理,即通过巫术仪式来呼唤善灵、驱赶恶灵,从而达到治疗的目的。本文通过大量对于神灵信仰和仪式语言等细节的深描和分析,诠释了在巫术治疗领域,阿拉安人的观念层面与行为实践之间是如何互动的。

  2. A Study for the Dimensions and Organization of Superstition Belief Scale in Middle School Students%中学生迷信信念的维度探索及量表编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦嘉; 张进辅; 王亚琨

    2012-01-01

    目的:编制符合中学生特点的本土化迷信信念量表.方法:以中学生群体为被试,通过7次抽样,共计调查3064人次.在参考已有文献、专家意见和开放式问卷调查的基础上,通过通俗度检验和3次探索性因素分析,编制出正式量表.结果:中学生迷信信念量表共24题项,有6个一阶维度和2个二阶维度.总量表和各分量表的α系数在0.66-0.92之间;四周重测信度在0.80-0.90之间;验证性因素分析适配度指标x2/df=2.711,GFI=0.928,CFI=0.917,NNFI=0.907,RMSEA=0.048,与津巴多时间观念量表的积极过去时间观分量表的相关为0.09-0.26.结论:信效度检验表明,该量表是测量中学生迷信信念的适宜工具.%Objective: To make a superstition belief scale for middle school students and to explore its dimensions. Methods: There were 3064 subjects participated in this investigation for seven times in Chongqing city and Sichuan province. Base on open-ended questionnaire and the popular test and three times of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the formal scale with 24 items is made. Succeeding, the researchers investigated 743 students for confirmatory factor analy-sis(CFA), 67 students for the four weeks' test-retest reliability test and 236 students for the test of discriminant validity. Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Superstition Belief Scale (SBS) and each sub-scales were from 0.66 to 0.92; and the test-retest reliability of the SBS and each sub-scales were from 0.80 to 0.90. The CFA showed that the structure of the SBS was rational:x2ldf=2.711, GFI=0.928, CFI=0.917, NNFI=0.907, RMSEA=0.048. The correlation between the SBS and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory's positive past subscale was from 0.09 to 0.26. Conclusion: The SBS can be used as a reliable and effective tool to assess middle school students' superstitious beliefs.

  3. On the Mongolian Shamanism“Zhada”Witchcraft and Its Mythological Root%论蒙古族萨满教“札答”巫术及其神话根源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜木罕

    2015-01-01

    在蒙古族萨满教神论中,最引人关注的莫过于札答(J∨ad)巫术(dom )。博额(böge)可以获得这种巫术,并能施行札答(J∨ad)巫术(dom),把宇宙万物及其生命能量聚集于自身,从而能够施行“呼风唤雨”的活动。萨满教巫师通过这种语言及其“隐喻”形式,将普遍生命(ami)想象成世界(yirtinc∨ü)的关联,从而将自身的生命意识推延至神话“对象”上。于是,就产生了事物均有其生命能量的想象。%In Mongolian Shamanism ,the most noticeable is the“Zhada” witchcraft ,namely Jad dom in Mongolian language .Boge could obtain this craft and perform jad dom to gather all the life forms and their energy into himself ,thus carrying out the magic activity of summoning wind and calling for rain .The Shamanist witches imagine the common life as the universal association through this kind of language and its form of metaphor ,thus extend their ideas of life to the mythological“object” .Therefore ,the imagina-tion that all things have their energy of life is created .

  4. A Study on the Meaning and Value of the Sacrificing Witchcraft Rites in the Folk Dancing of Tujia People in Wuling Regio%对武陵地区土家族民间歌舞中巫祀内涵与价值的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊文

    2011-01-01

    由于武陵地区土家族特殊的地域文化背景,使土家族民间歌舞无论在表现形式和内容上都是以巫祀内容和巫祀行为为核心进行,这些歌舞不仅表现出时刻的巫祀内涵,更反应土家人的历史文化和世界观,本文从巫祀歌舞的产生背景、表现内容与形式等方面探究土家族歌舞对巫祀内涵的表现,分析巫祀内涵中的祈福成分;研究巫祀内涵与其歌舞之间的紧密关系,探讨巫祀性歌舞产生的价值体系。%The specific regional cultural background of Tujia people in Wuling region enables Tujia folk dancing to center on sacrificing witchcraft rites in both content and form.Their dancing reveals not only the connotation of these sacrificing witchcraft rites,b

  5. Afon : monastõrskaja zhizn na svjatoi gore / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Bütsantsi kunsti näitusest "Athos - kloostrielu Pühal Mäel" Helsingi Tennisepalee (Tennispalatsi) kunstimuuseumis. Näha Kirde-Kreekas Athose mäel asuvatest õigeusukloostritest ja Euroopa kunstimuuseumidest toodud ikoone, käsikirju, kirikuriistu, tekstiile ja maale

  6. Monastic incorporation of classical botanic medicines into the Renaissance pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucelli, R J

    1994-01-01

    Ancient Greek physicians believed that health resulted from a balance of natural forces. Many, including Dioscorides, made compilations of plants and medicines derived from them, giving prominence to diuretics, cathartics and emetics. During the Roman Empire, although Greek physicians were highly valued, the Roman matron performed many medical functions and magic and astrology were increasingly used. In Judaic and later Christian societies disease was equated with divine disfavor. After the fall of Rome, the classical Greek medical texts were mainly preserved in Latin translation by the Benedictine monasteries, which were based around a patient infirmary, a herb garden and a library. Local plants were often substituted for the classical ones, however, and the compilations became confused and inaccurate. Greek medicine survived better in the remains of the Eastern Roman Empire, and benefitted from the influence of Arab medicine. Intellectual revival, when it came to Europe, did so on the fringes of the Moslem world, and Montpellier and Salerno were among the first of the new medical centers. Rather than relying on ancient experts, the new experimental method reported the tested effects of substances from identified plants. This advance was fostered by the foundation of universities and greatly aided by the later invention of the printing press, which also allowed wider dissemination of the classical texts.

  7. Should Government Decisions Buy Into Superstition?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Traffic authorities in Haikou,cap-ital of China’s southernmost island province of Hainan,have removed the number"four"from all its vehicle number plates,as four,a Chinese homonym of death,is consid-ered bad luck by most local residents.New

  8. Dispelling superstitions in Nepalese society with astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rishi

    2011-06-01

    Throughout human history, astronomy has played crucial rôle in the development of our civilization, culture and daily chores of lives that have been influenced by observations of Sun, moon, planets, stars and other cosmic entities. Our ancestors who were hunting and gathering and foraging food while living in caves learned to think logically by gazing at the twinkling stars in the heavens. Seasons for crops plantation were determined, time concept was introduced, entire sky was charted and the motions of celestial objects were meaningfully understood. With the advent of telescopes, the geocentric model of universe was replaced by the revolutionary heliocentric concept of our Solar System. Astronomy dispelled superstitious beliefs strongly prevailing in societies. Closely associated with numerous disciplines of science astronomy is still flourishing worldwide and is attempting to fly us away to those habitable cosmic bodies of our universe. By establishing well-equipped observational infrastructure local and international astronomy research and development could be enhanced. Introduction of astronomy in education system right from school would attract and encourage students to pursue higher studies for enabling them for participating in future international scientific and exploration programmes. Astronomy has helped our society to progress peacefully and efficiently.

  9. Breaking Magic: Foreign Language Suppresses Superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Geipel, Janet; Surian, Luca

    2017-08-24

    In three studies we found that reading information in a foreign language can suppress common superstitious beliefs. Participants read scenarios either in their native or a foreign language. In each scenario, participants were asked to imagine performing an action (e.g., submitting a job application) under a superstitious circumstance (e.g., broken mirror; four-leaf clover) and to rate how they would feel. Overall, foreign language prompted less negative feelings towards bad-luck scenarios, less positive feelings towards good-luck scenarios, while it exerted no influence on non-superstitious, control scenarios. We attribute these findings to language-dependent memory. Superstitious beliefs are typically acquired and used in contexts involving the native language. As a result, the native language evokes them more forcefully than a foreign language.

  10. "Like Melody or Witchcraft": Empowerment through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This document, written by a Native American woman, examines the authors' personal feelings of writing about being a child of color in a white world. The author hopes to evoke a resonance within her readers through her writing. She discusses quotes from two of her favorite poets, Emily Dickinson and Linda Hogan.

  11. "Like Melody or Witchcraft": Empowerment through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This document, written by a Native American woman, examines the authors' personal feelings of writing about being a child of color in a white world. The author hopes to evoke a resonance within her readers through her writing. She discusses quotes from two of her favorite poets, Emily Dickinson and Linda Hogan.

  12. Kurat, pattulangemine ja nõidus. Kristlike nõidade demonoloogia ja teoloogiline antropoloogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Harmening

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Christian Europe, witches are usually spoken about in the context of inquisition and court. The concept of witches in Christian Europe is perhaps best described in Malleus Maleficarium. The topics listed there originate from the western theological tradition, not the fantasy of the book's author. The present article deals with statements concerning witches, dividing these into mythological, demonological and anthropological. Western demonology and concept of witchcraft is based on late Antique Neoplatonistic cosmology. According to this model, witching uses heavenly influences and powers, partly found in different cosmic elements and the nature of which corresponds the desired result. This scheme was adopted by early Christianity and modified to depict demons as fallen angels and their cosmic habitat to signify the place they had fallen to. They attempt to mislead people to become god-like. Witchcraft is thus treated as a set of symbols and signs to communicate with demons. Aquino Thomas introduces contracts with demons. By the 18th-century Enlightenment critics on superstition, significantly much of superstition is attributed to women, especially old women (e.g. the writings of Wilhelm of Paris, Johannes of Frankfurt and Nikolaus Jauer. Lactantius considers tendency towards superstition to be one of the weaknesses of the female nature. The terms connected with the old women's superstition include "old women's tales" (Ambrosius' aniles fabulae. Superstition is connected with worshipping idols. The 1487 Malleus Malleficarum represents the Augustinian teaching of sin, displayed in discussions of the credulity of women.

  13. HISTORY OF MEDICINE: FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Historically we can distinguish three important stages in the development of medicine. During the first stage which lasted for tens of thousand years, superstitions, witchcraft and rumours prevailed in medicine. In that period some useful herbs and chemical substances, such as aspirin, were discovered, but there was no any scientific method of searching new medicines and ways of treatment. The second stage of medicine development started in the 19th century when microbe theory of diseases app...

  14. Thinking with Montaigne: evidence, scepticism and meaning in early modern demonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In 1612 the Bordeaux witchcraft inquisitor Pierre de Lancre (1556–1631), himself linked by marriage to Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), revealed that the essayist and sceptic was related on his mother’s side to a leading authority on magic and superstition, the Flemish-Spanish Jesuit Martin Delrio (1551–1608). De Lancre confounded historians' expectations by using the revelation to defend Montaigne against his cousin's criticism. This article re-evaluates the relationships of De Lancre, Delrio and Montaigne in the light of recent scholarship, which casts demonology as a form of "resistance to scepticism" that conceals deep anxiety about the existence of the supernatural. It explores De Lancre’s and Delrio’s very different attitudes towards Montaigne and towards evidence and scepticism. This, in turn, reveals the different underlying preoccupations of their witchcraft treatises. It hence argues that no monocausal explanation linking scepticism to witchcraft belief is plausible.

  15. Los ejemplos sobre brujería en las relaciones del Auto de Fe de Logroño de 1610 editadas por Mongastón y Varesio: estudio comparativo = Examples about witchcraft in 1610 Auto de Fe of Logroños pamphlets, edited by Mongastón and Varesio: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Alberola, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el presente artículo se analizará, por primera vez, la relación sobre el Auto de Fe de Logroño de 1610 editada por Juan Bautista Varesio en Burgos, y se cotejará con la publicada por Juan de Mongastón en Logroño, atendiendo sobre todo a los ejemplos insertos, todos ellos sobre brujería, derivados de las confesiones de los acusados y conocidos a consecuencia de la lectura pública de los cargos durante las dos sesiones dedicadas al auto. El estudio de estos relatos y de su distribución en los dos textos ayudará a determinar las diferencias existentes entre las dos piezas, que presentan un interés no solo histórico o antropológico, sino también literario. = Abstract: This article analyzes, for the first time ever, the report on the 1610 Auto de fe of Logroño edited by Juan Bautista Varesio in Burgos, comparing it to the pamphlet published by Juan de Mongaston in Logroño. It pays special attention to the exempla that appear inserted, all of them on witchcraft, taken from the confessions of the accused and known by the public reading of the charges in the two sessions that were dedicated to the Auto. The study of these stories and their distribution in the two texts will help determine the differences between both documents, as they not only have a historical or anthropological interest but also literary value.

  16. Therapy,Divination,Necromancy,and Calamity Avoiding——Language Witchcraft in Bai Qiulian in the Book Strange Storie s from a Chinese Studio from the Perspective of Literary Anthropology%治疗·占卜·招魂·禳灾——《聊斋志异·白秋练》中语言巫术现象的文学人类学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏愔

    2015-01-01

    In terms of the human worship of language,language is endowed with huge supernatural forces,and thus it can be viewed as the communication medi-um between human and God. In this way,language,as a kind of divine tribute,has the same power with reality,which can control nature and human activity. This paper takes the story of Bai Qiulian in the Book Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio as a case study,analyzing some language witchcraft activities su-ch as reciting poetry as a treatment,divination and necromancy with poetry,and writing magic charms from the perspective of literary anthropology to show vari-ous functions of language,namely,narrative therapy,divination,necromancy,and calamity avoiding. It can be seen from those plot arrangements in the story that language is linked with several kinds of magic functions and language itself has been deified,which can help us know further about language witchcraft in an-cient times.%语言崇拜认为语言具有超自然的巨大力量,将语言视为人与神沟通的媒介,从而使语言拥有了近乎于实在的力量.本文以《聊斋志异·白秋练》为个案研究,从文学人类学这一角度对这一文本中的吟诗治病、以诗占卜和以诗招魂、以及符咒书写等由语言崇拜而产生的语言巫术现象进行了解读,探讨了语言巫术所呈现的叙事治疗、占卜、招魂以及禳灾等各种不同的神奇功能,这为我们能够进一步地了解远古社会中的语言巫术现象提供了启示.

  17. Geographies of superstition, myths, freedom: Ibsen and Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Torrissen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of 1891. Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career. Why? This article will explore how the North is represented in Ibsen’s prose plays. It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences.

  18. Marriage, Tradition and Superstition in Flora Nwapa's Efuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tammy

    The rapid development of feminine awareness in Nigerian literature in the 21 st ... Female characters are developed in line with their male counterparts so as to ... only seen but equally heard on matters that affect the mental, psychological and ...

  19. The Spell of Homo Informaticus: Two Superstitions and Three Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Povilas Saulauskas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Even at the dawn of a full-fledged information society Homo Informaticus as well as its netted counterpart - Homo Irretitus - already carries a handful of badly compatible fears and hopes. First, anxieties about an inevitable desolation of habitual patterns of human interaction and values,as well as an inexorably impending threat of horrifying global control. Second, evergreen optimism of rapidly approaching egalitarian era under the pledge of free universal access to information, cornucopian abundance of all imaginable material and spiritual goods, and unrestricted reign of knowledge once for all overthrowing unjust orders of power and brute force. The article puts under the close scrutiny the key pro et contra arguments involved in the theoretical articulation of these basic attitudes and examines the topical question: why can neither the dreadful fears nor the gay hopes of Homo Irretitus be reasonably sustained in the face of critical inquiry?

  20. Aleitamento materno e tabus alimentares Breastfeeding and nutritional superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a opinião de nutrizes sobre o consumo de alimentos em sua dieta durante o período de amamentação e identificar as possíveis restrições alimentares a que estão sujeitas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado por análise de questionário aplicado às mães de crianças, inscritas em Programas de Puericultura em Unidades Básicas de Saúde, com idade variando do nascimento a seis meses completos para identificar se existe algum alimento que essas mães consideram inapropriado durante o período de lactação, quais são esses alimentos e os motivos alegados para que não sejam consumidos. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistadas 504 mães das quais 296 (59% responderam acreditar que existem alimentos inapropriados para o período de lactação. Os motivos referidos foram: poderia fazer mal à criança (78%; indefinidos (16%; faz mal à mãe (5%. Os principais alimentos a serem evitados, segundo as mães, seriam: refrigerantes (17%, pimenta (17%, gordura de porco (11% e bebidas alcoólicas (10%. CONCLUSÕES: Mais da metade das lactantes entrevistadas considera que há alimentos que não devem ser consumidos durante o período de lactação, o que não encontra respaldo científico. Essas práticas restritivas podem interferir na nutrição da lactante e, conseqüentemente, na prática do aleitamento materno.OBJECTIVE: To know the opinion of lactating mothers about the consumption of food in their diet during the breastfeeding period and to identify possible alimentary restrictions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled mothers of children registered at Health Care Programs of Primary Health Care Centers, with ages varying from birth to six months. A questionnaire was applied in order to identify the foods considered by the mothers as improper during the breastfeeding period, and the reasons stated by them to justify such restriction. RESULTS: In a universe of 504 interviewed mothers, 296 (59% stated that some foods should not be consumed during the breastfeeding period. The reasons mentioned to avoid them were: they harm the child (78%, undefined (16% and they harm the mother (5%. The main deleterious foods mentioned were: soft drinks (17%, pepper (17%, pork fat (11% and alcoholic drinks (10%. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the interviewed mothers considered that there are some foods that are improper during the breastfeeding period. However, this opinion does not have scientific support. Restrictive practices can interfere in maternal nutrition and, as a consequence, interfere in breastfeeding practice.

  1. The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kevin R; Kokko, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Superstitious behaviours, which arise through the incorrect assignment of cause and effect, receive considerable attention in psychology and popular culture. Perhaps owing to their seeming irrationality, however, they receive little attention in evolutionary biology. Here we develop a simple model to define the condition under which natural selection will favour assigning causality between two events. This leads to an intuitive inequality—akin to an amalgam of Hamilton's rule and Pascal's wager—-that shows that natural selection can favour strategies that lead to frequent errors in assessment as long as the occasional correct response carries a large fitness benefit. It follows that incorrect responses are the most common when the probability that two events are really associated is low to moderate: very strong associations are rarely incorrect, while natural selection will rarely favour making very weak associations. Extending the model to include multiple events identifies conditions under which natural selection can favour associating events that are never causally related. Specifically, limitations on assigning causal probabilities to pairs of events can favour strategies that lump non-causal associations with causal ones. We conclude that behaviours which are, or appear, superstitious are an inevitable feature of adaptive behaviour in all organisms, including ourselves. PMID:18782752

  2. The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kevin R; Kokko, Hanna

    2009-01-07

    Superstitious behaviours, which arise through the incorrect assignment of cause and effect, receive considerable attention in psychology and popular culture. Perhaps owing to their seeming irrationality, however, they receive little attention in evolutionary biology. Here we develop a simple model to define the condition under which natural selection will favour assigning causality between two events. This leads to an intuitive inequality--akin to an amalgam of Hamilton's rule and Pascal's wager--that shows that natural selection can favour strategies that lead to frequent errors in assessment as long as the occasional correct response carries a large fitness benefit. It follows that incorrect responses are the most common when the probability that two events are really associated is low to moderate: very strong associations are rarely incorrect, while natural selection will rarely favour making very weak associations. Extending the model to include multiple events identifies conditions under which natural selection can favour associating events that are never causally related. Specifically, limitations on assigning causal probabilities to pairs of events can favour strategies that lump non-causal associations with causal ones. We conclude that behaviours which are, or appear, superstitious are an inevitable feature of adaptive behaviour in all organisms, including ourselves.

  3. The Excavation of a Monastic Fishing Establishment at Oldstead Grange, North Yorkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kemp (with a pottery report by Wendy Sherlock

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Excavations directed by the writer in 1982-3 for the University of York Archaeological Society uncovered the foundations of a small structure on the shores of a fishpond that belonged to Byland Abbey in the 14th century. The site's location, combined with a number of associated lead net weights, suggest that it was connected with organised, large-scale, fish farming.

  4. Monastères, images, pouvoirs et société à Byzance

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Le présent volume regroupe deux réflexions collectives. La première est issue de la table ronde organisée par Margaret Mullett lors du XXe Congrès international des Etudes byzantines, tenu à Paris du 19 au 25 août 2001. Les débats ont tenté d’aborder le monachisme byzantin par de nouveaux moyens et d’appréhender la place décisive que les moines occupent à toutes les époques dans la société byzantine. La seconde, issue d’un séminaire tenu à l’université Paris I, étudie le second iconoclasme e...

  5. The Monastic Schools of Burma and Siam during the Colonial Period, 1852-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan L.

    Prior to the colonial period, the rudiments of education consisting of religion, basic literacy, and arithmetic had been provided to male children in Burma and Siam through Buddhist monks that lived in local monasteries. Education commenced when the child reached five or six years of age and usually ended at puberty. Formal learning continued for…

  6. Hopi Indian Witchcraft and Healing: On Good, Evil, and Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2011-01-01

    One of the abiding problems in the study of American Indians is that it is plagued by stereotyping and romanticism. In the history of ideas in Europe and the United States, negative as well as positive stereotyping has been called "primitivism." Much of the author's work has been an attempt to get beyond primitivism in order to get to…

  7. 1 SEX, WITCHCRAFT AND POLITICS IN TANZANIAN KISWAHILI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    Tanzania are the main customers of the Kiswahili films. These are people who ... between buying food or a film (approx. US$ 3) or .... ambivalence of causes, intentions and effects. ... she might take his position in the following election. Women ...

  8. Language-Teaching as a Form of Witchcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antier, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    Language teaching involves many paradoxes and the language teacher has more handicaps than teachers of other subjects. The language teacher's way of overcoming his own problems of personality and psychological balance has a lot to do with the success or failure of his students. (CFM)

  9. Raising the Stakes: Writing about Witchcraft on Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Elizabeth Ann

    2008-01-01

    Wikiality, Wikimania, WikiGnomes, Wikitrolls, Wikibots, Wikipediaholism... all these neologisms have been coined in recent years to talk about Wikipedia, the online, open-source encyclopedia. In this article, the author describes a project that aims to craft a pedagogical approach that incorporated student-contribution to Wikipedia in order to…

  10. Political Science: Witchcraft or Craftsmanship? Standards for Good Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2008-01-01

    Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...

  11. Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

    2000-04-01

    The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat.

  12. It wasn't Witchcraft--It was Huntington Disease!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, Eribeth; Garcia, Angel; Montgomery, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant, incurable, progressive disorder that manifests with chorea and behavioral and cognitive impairment. The disease usually occurs during the fourth or fifth decade of life; however, it may present at any age. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by genetic testing. Death occurs, on average, 15 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms. Here we report about a Hispanic woman and her family who were affected by the disease; this case illustrates the role of cultural values and beliefs in the decision-making process, as well as the importance of the physician's cultural competency in fostering a trusting relationship that may lessen the burden of catastrophic diseases on individuals, families, and society at-large.

  13. Hopi Indian Witchcraft and Healing: On Good, Evil, and Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2011-01-01

    One of the abiding problems in the study of American Indians is that it is plagued by stereotyping and romanticism. In the history of ideas in Europe and the United States, negative as well as positive stereotyping has been called "primitivism." Much of the author's work has been an attempt to get beyond primitivism in order to get to…

  14. Witchcraft and modernity: perspectives from Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Geschiere

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: sorcery in the black Atlantic / Roger Sansi and Luis Nicolau Parés -- Sorcery and fetishism in the modern Atlantic / Roger Sansi -- Sorcery in Brazil: history and historiography / Laura de Mello e Souza -- Candomblé and slave resistance in nineteenth-century Bahia / João José Reis -- C

  15. Political Science: Witchcraft or Craftsmanship? Standards for Good Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2008-01-01

    Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...... is systematically determined by society. Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn? Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most...... difficult test possible. The binary opposites we are familiar with from the ‘Methodenstreit' of the social sciences are unproductive....

  16. Sons of the Buddha. Continuities and Ruptures in a Burmese Monastic Tradition, Jason A. Carbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Rozenberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Version sensiblement remaniée d’une thèse de doctorat, l’ouvrage de Jason Carbine envisage la « culture religieuse bouddhique birmane » sous l’angle de l’institution monastique, de ses représentations et de ses rouages. Il se concentre sur une branche particulière de la communauté monastique birmane, la branche Shwegyin, du nom du village natal de son fondateur, le moine Ashin Jāgara (1822-1894. Cette branche, établie vers 1860, comptait 40 000 membres (novices et moines en 1999, soit 10 % ...

  17. Religion, Spirituality and Folk Medicine/Superstition in a Neonatal Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloreda-Garcia, Jose María

    2017-05-04

    Beliefs and practices surrounding religion and spirituality (RS) feature in neonatal units, although healthcare professionals and families hold different views on their role in neonatal care. Descriptive study performed at the Neonatology Unit of Santa Lucía University Hospital, Cartagena. Separate forms concerning spirituality, religion and folk medicine were administered to professionals ascribed to the unit (n = 70) and parents (n = 93). 70% of professionals and 60.2% of parents perceive RS as playing a relevant role in neonatal care; however, 45% of professionals prefer that parents do not express their RS beliefs. Actual use of prayer by parents while in the unit was 55.9%, compared to the staff's estimation of 20.8% (p evil eye. Many families express RS while a member is hospitalized and, while staff recognize its importance, they often fail to respond correctly. The use of amulets and ritual objects is still common and can express the need for emotional and psychological support. Caregivers need to be aware of the medical, psychological and emotional implications of these practices.

  18. 'Away with all your superstitions!' : the end of communism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerrit

    1991-01-01

    On 5 June 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands dissolved itself, having decided to merge with the Pacifist‐Socialist Party and the Political Party of the Radicals. This was not a repercussion of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe associated with perestroika, but the result of the par

  19. Conceptual and Experimental Directions for Analyzing Superstition in the Behavioral Analysis of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina las nociones de ilusiones y creencias, discutiendo algunas ventajas que ofrece estudiar tales fenómenos basándose en los conceptos de conducta supersticiosa, superstición y reglas supersticiosas. El trabajo pone de relieve la posibilidad de investigar estas nociones en diferentes niveles de análisis, no sólo a nivel individual, centrándose en el nivel cultural; por otra parte, se presenta el Materialismo Cultural como una propuesta antropológica basada en principios adaptativos, la cual se adecua para tratar estos fenómenos en este nivel, además, discute el Análisis Experimental de las prácticas culturales y señala cómo estos análisis pueden ayudar a entender cómo la gente, en grupo, se comporta como si tuvieran control de su ambiente (cuando, a veces, de hecho, no lo tienen. Este trabajo ofrece una propuesta integradora que facilita el diálogo entre analistas de la conducta y psicólogos sociales y ofrece algunas rutas para un análisis cultural de las ilusiones y las creencias.

  20. How Superstition Won and Science Lost. Popularizing Science and Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, John C.

    This book studies the history of changing patterns in the dissemination, or popularization of scientific findings, to the general public since 1830. It focuses on three different areas of science: (1) health; (2) psychology; and (3) the natural sciences. The document explores the ways in which this process of popularization has deteriorated. It…

  1. 'Away with all your superstitions!' : the end of communism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerrit

    1991-01-01

    On 5 June 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands dissolved itself, having decided to merge with the Pacifist‐Socialist Party and the Political Party of the Radicals. This was not a repercussion of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe associated with perestroika, but the result of the

  2. Science and Superstition Minicourse, Career Oriented Pre-Technical Physics. Preliminary Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Bob; And Others

    This minicourse was prepared for use with secondary physics students in the Dallas Independent School District and is one option in a physics program which provides for the selection of topics on the basis of student career needs and interests. This minicourse was aimed at providing the student with the opportunity to compare scientific theory…

  3. Using Superstitions & Sayings To Teach Experimental Design in Beginning and Advanced Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Rippel, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a collaborative learning exercise intended to teach the unfamiliar terminology of experimental design both in biology classes and biochemistry laboratories. The exercise promotes discussion and debate, develops communication skills, and emphasizes peer review. The effectiveness of the exercise is supported by student surveys. (SOE)

  4. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  5. Skillful Revelation: Local Healers, Rationalists, and Their 'Trickery' in Chhattisgarh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    To understand the workings of medicine, healing, placebo, belief, and rationality, medical anthropologists need to pay attention to the complex relations of various forms of revelation, contemplation, and rejoining revelation that attach to illness and healing. In this article two performances of a healing technique located in the agricultural plain of Chhattisgarh, central India, are compared: one representing scientific rationality; the other 'blind' superstition. In both performances the practitioner's aim is to reveal: the local healer reveals witchcraft objects from the afflicted body; the local rationalist society reveals the healer's technique as a fraudulent trick. Each performance shares 'an aesthetics of revelation'-they rely on seeing or revealing to obtain their social effect. The interplay between forms of revelation, a reliance on aesthetics for the revelation, and the ways of seeing can indicate how distinctions are made (or not) between doctor and quack, expertise and gimmickry, and truth and falsehood.

  6. Menstruation in rural Igbo women of south east Nigeria: attitudes, beliefs and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeora, O U J; Egwuatu, V E

    2008-04-01

    Many cultures hold on to different beliefs and retain community-defined restrictions for menstruating women. The Igbo society of southeast Nigeria is rich in culture, myths and superstitions but, surprisingly no documentation exists on menstrual beliefs and practices among the population. This questionnaire-based cross sectional study supplemented with in-depth interviews evaluated the beliefs, myths and traditional practices associated with menstruation within rural Igbo communities. It revealed that the menstrual egress is of great significance in Igbo culture and must be disposed of carefully to avoid exposure to witchcraft and rituals. Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to maintain physical and spiritual cleanliness, lessen discomfort and avoid embarrassment. Gynaecologists working in this region should utilize the opportunities of clinical consultations to discuss menstrual health issues with their female patients and educate them on the physiology and significance of menstruation.

  7. Witchcraft Branding and the Abuse of African Children in the UK: Causes, Effects and Professional Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedam, Prospera

    2014-01-01

    The branding of children as "witches", capable of harming others is a widespread practice in some countries in Africa and across the world. There is evidence of this within specific communities and faith groups; however, the extent to which this phenomenon occurs in England is unclear as is the response by childcare professionals,…

  8. Making Sense of Education Change at Thistle College: The Existence of Witchcraft, Witches and Shamans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a complex and charged change program and its management at a Scottish higher education institution. Discusses the difficulties of the educational change process in higher education, the complexities surrounding notions of organizational cultures and communities of practice, and issues of power and management including the new…

  9. Glimpses at Shamanism Witchcraft%萨满巫技拾零

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    色音

    2003-01-01

    @@ 卜林在《达斡尔萨满跳神行巫见闻追忆》中谈道: 1934年春,我在铁匠屯舅父家里,还见过愣子萨满驱鬼的跳神,达语叫做"苏木苏扎日拜",这是私人请萨满给病人除鬼的跳神活动.

  10. Ergot alkaloids: From witchcraft till in silico analysis. Multi-receptor analysis of ergotamine metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Dellafiora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Ergot is referred to the sclerotium of ascomycetes – a protective kernel produced during resting stage of some fungi – which replaces seeds of susceptible cereals and plants intended for human and animal diet. It contains various composition of tryptophan-derived toxins defined ergot alkaloids. Since sclerotia can be harvested and milled together with cereals, they represent a source of food and feed contamination after breakage and spreading of mycotoxins into the various milling fractions. The effects of ergot alkaloids, including those adverse for human health, have been known since the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, as recently stated by the European Food Safety Authority, further information is needed on metabolism and target receptors-binding of common alkaloids in food. Unfortunately, the experimental investigation is challenging due to the high costs in terms of time and money. This study was thus aimed at assessing whether the in silico modeling can be an effective tool to investigate the interaction between multiple serotonin receptors and a wide set of ergotamine metabolites, including experimentally detected molecules and predicted derivatives. Validated models provided precious insights about the effects exerted by metabolic modifications on the receptor–ligand interaction. Such structural information may be useful to support the design of further experimental analysis.

  11. Temples of Witchcraft in the Song Dynasty%论宋代民间淫祠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明

    2004-01-01

    宋代民间淫祠泛滥成灾,成为一种严重的社会公害.民间淫祠泛滥与民间巫风盛行之间,有一种互为因果的关系;此外,由于宋代商业活动的兴盛,许多地方性的俗神迅速地向四面辐射;而两宋政权在对外关系方面的软弱无力,使得民众寄希望于神灵.为了维持社会的稳定,对民间淫祠的打击几乎一直与两宋政权相始终.由于难以尽述的种种压力与需求,宋代官方政权无法彻底割断与它的联系.

  12. From traditional medicine to witchcraft: why medical treatments are not always efficacious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Tanaka

    Full Text Available Complementary medicines, traditional remedies and home cures for medical ailments are used extensively world-wide, representing more than US$60 billion sales in the global market. With serious doubts about the efficacy and safety of many treatments, the industry remains steeped in controversy. Little is known about factors affecting the prevalence of efficacious and non-efficacious self-medicative treatments. Here we develop mathematical models which reveal that the most efficacious treatments are not necessarily those most likely to spread. Indeed, purely superstitious remedies, or even maladaptive practices, spread more readily than efficacious treatments under specified circumstances. Low-efficacy practices sometimes spread because their very ineffectiveness results in longer, more salient demonstration and a larger number of converts, which more than compensates for greater rates of abandonment. These models also illuminate a broader range of phenomena, including the spread of innovations, medical treatment of animals, foraging behaviour, and self-medication in non-human primates.

  13. From traditional medicine to witchcraft: why medical treatments are not always efficacious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mark M; Kendal, Jeremy R; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-01-01

    Complementary medicines, traditional remedies and home cures for medical ailments are used extensively world-wide, representing more than US$60 billion sales in the global market. With serious doubts about the efficacy and safety of many treatments, the industry remains steeped in controversy. Little is known about factors affecting the prevalence of efficacious and non-efficacious self-medicative treatments. Here we develop mathematical models which reveal that the most efficacious treatments are not necessarily those most likely to spread. Indeed, purely superstitious remedies, or even maladaptive practices, spread more readily than efficacious treatments under specified circumstances. Low-efficacy practices sometimes spread because their very ineffectiveness results in longer, more salient demonstration and a larger number of converts, which more than compensates for greater rates of abandonment. These models also illuminate a broader range of phenomena, including the spread of innovations, medical treatment of animals, foraging behaviour, and self-medication in non-human primates.

  14. Sankofa: Looking Back at my Practice Encounter with Witchcraft, HIV/AIDS and Disability in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyda Mamley Hervie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social work students are trained to develop and maintain a professional sense of integrity, particularly when working in environments beyond their control. Using critical reflection as an example, students are encouraged to pause and reflect during practice encounters, which entails a reassessment of the situation. The aim is to help transform taken for granted ways of thinking and doing things into best practices. In this sense, students are provided with perspectives on theoretical frameworks and encouraged to appreciate the essence of maximizing practice through a culture of learning and reflection. Through the approach of critical reflection, students are also encouraged to understand how power functions in society, especially through ways in which an individual attempts to maintain unequal social relations. Critical reflection therefore helps students to fill knowledge gaps on how to discover and address inequalities in practice situations.

  15. From healing to witchcraft: on ritual speech and roboticization in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Adrienne

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare Information Technology (HIT), touted as a panacea by U.S. political actors ranging from Newt Gingrich to Barack Obama, is central to emerging forms of healthcare governance which Holmes et al.-in their critique of the institutionalization of magical thinking brought about by Orwellian techno-Newspeak-have provocatively labeled fascistic. Drawing from data collected over 3 years of working with and teaching continuing education (CE) courses for thousands of registered nurses as lead political educator for the California Nurses Association/National Nurses Organizing Committee (CNA/NNOC), I argue that HIT is an integral component of a broader technological restructuring of healthcare and thus society, both of which are part of a social discourse that is tied to a transformative system of ritual speech, with profound implications for healthcare work, patient health, and democracy.

  16. "巫乐"研究的新探索%New Trends in Studies of Witchcraft Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明君; 萧梅

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、研究的合法性及取向 廖明君:(以下简称"廖"): 我注意到上海音乐学院出版神在2007年出版了(华东卷和华南卷).在华南卷中有三篇以广西境内瑶族和壮族民间信仰仪式音乐为考察和研究对象的音乐民族志,你的即为其中之一.

  17. El Negro, el Niño, witchcraft and the absence of rain in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, the remains of 'El Negro', a Tswana man who had died 170 years before and who, as a stuffed specimen, had been on display in Europe for over 160 years, were flown from Spain to Botswana and given a State funeral in the capital Gaborone. In early 2001, as it became clear that the rai

  18. Witchcraft-explained childhood tragedies in Tlaxcala, and their medical sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H; Nutini, H

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes results of a study in Tlaxcala, Mexico, involving the sudden death of infants and children that culturally are explained as resulting from the attack of blood-sucking witches. The attacks of the supernaturals are relatively common occurrences and an elaborate ideology has evolved to explain them. Such an ideology serves to explain what constitutes a major trauma of loss and supernatural assault. Data on a total of 47 cases were collected prospectively. The illness experiences of the parents following these traumas were recorded and their nature and consequences analyzed. The results of the study provide a 'folk medical' epidemiology of sudden infant death, a well identified cultural-ecological stressor. Ideas from cultural, psychological and medical anthropology as well as general medicine and psychiatry are used in the interpretation of the results.

  19. ARTICLES The.fear of witchcraft is not only a disturbing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the Yoruba believe that witches are the major causes of 1 man's misfortunes in the ... because of the fear that if, after they have enjoyed the contributions. 3 ..... will be education, but not just any type of education ... what ls wanted is a ...

  20. From Traditional Medicine to Witchcraft: Why Medical Treatments Are Not Always Efficacious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mark M.; Kendal, Jeremy R.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2009-01-01

    Complementary medicines, traditional remedies and home cures for medical ailments are used extensively world-wide, representing more than US$60 billion sales in the global market. With serious doubts about the efficacy and safety of many treatments, the industry remains steeped in controversy. Little is known about factors affecting the prevalence of efficacious and non-efficacious self-medicative treatments. Here we develop mathematical models which reveal that the most efficacious treatments are not necessarily those most likely to spread. Indeed, purely superstitious remedies, or even maladaptive practices, spread more readily than efficacious treatments under specified circumstances. Low-efficacy practices sometimes spread because their very ineffectiveness results in longer, more salient demonstration and a larger number of converts, which more than compensates for greater rates of abandonment. These models also illuminate a broader range of phenomena, including the spread of innovations, medical treatment of animals, foraging behaviour, and self-medication in non-human primates. PMID:19367333

  1. Un monument rupestre à l'image de son fondateur : le monastère de la Sainte-Croix à Chypre

    OpenAIRE

    Lamesa, Anaïs

    2011-01-01

    Publication en ligne : http://hicsa.univ-paris1.fr/page.php?r=133&id=500&lang=fr; National audience; A lire la définition de commanditaire dans le fameux The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, le terme ne possède pas d'équivalent dans le grec byzantin. Le commanditaire est identifié par l'épithète donateur le plus souvent. Le qualificatif ne relève pas d'un statut légal et il peut être utilisé pour différencier deux individus dont l'un est désigné plus spécifiquement comme ktetor.

  2. A Vital Monastic Centre of the Jonang Tradition: The Grand Lamasery of Dzamthang%觉囊派重要寺庙——扎塘大寺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Gruschke

    2008-01-01

    @@ The entire Ngolok-Seta country between what is present-day's Ngolok (mgo-log)prefecture (Chin.Cruoluo) in China's Qinghai province, Serta county in Kandse (dkar-mdzes)prefecture and the northwestern parts of modem Ngawa(rnga-ba) prefecture (Chin. Aba)in Sichuan was a white spot on the Ti-bet map until the mid-20th century Particularly the dis-tricts defined by the present Ngawa and Dzamthang(Chin. Rangtang) counties were inaccessible for any foreign traveller in his-toric time.

  3. The characteristics of Mandala in monastic architecture of Tibetan Buddhism%曼陀罗在藏传佛教寺院建筑中的体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓红; 王一丁

    2006-01-01

    寺院建筑的精神意义超越建筑空间的实际功能意义,曼陀罗的特征不仅体现在寺院建筑布局上也体现在建筑单体设计中,通过分析大昭寺、桑耶寺、贡嘎曲德寺这些建筑实例,解释藏传佛教寺院建筑所反映的曼陀罗的特征.

  4. 'Now away, with all your superstitions' : the deleninization of the CPN and its causesof communism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerrit

    1989-01-01

    On 5 June 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands dissolved itself, having decided to merge with the Pacifist‐Socialist Party and the Political Party of the Radicals. This was not a repercussion of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe associated with perestroika, but the result of the par

  5. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  6. 'Now away, with all your superstitions' : the deleninization of the CPN and its causesof communism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerrit

    1989-01-01

    On 5 June 1991 the Communist Party of the Netherlands dissolved itself, having decided to merge with the Pacifist‐Socialist Party and the Political Party of the Radicals. This was not a repercussion of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe associated with perestroika, but the result of the

  7. Symbolic Signs of Faiths in Folk Witchcraft%论民间巫术信仰的符号象征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪亚

    2003-01-01

    象征是人类的一种重要思维方式,特别是原始先民的一种重要思维方式.中国民间巫术中的符号象征,往往是通过作为符号的各种物体、事象、图像等来隐喻某种概念或某种思想感情,而且主要是运用图案、数字、色彩、方位等各种比较简单的符号来隐喻某种象征意义.

  8. 巫术与宋代民间节俗%Witchcraft and Song Dynasty Folk Festival Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕

    2005-01-01

    宋代民间节俗包含了大量巫术的因素,主要分为祈求、驱鬼、辟邪、祛病、祭祀五种形态,并贯穿了求生拒死、趋吉避凶的主题,在一定程度上表达了宋人的生命意识、生存意愿、伦理观念和价值取向.

  9. 明代的巫术和巫师%The Witchcraft and Wizards of Ming Dynasty in Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文涛; 岳宗霞

    2011-01-01

    明代的巫术从种类来分,大体可以分为禁气符咒、作祟或除祟、樟柳与灵哥、厌胜和厌镇以及幻术几大类.在科学尚不发达的明代,巫术活动逐渐世俗化,由圣人之术演变成为谋生的手段和工具.

  10. 看民间年画中的巫文化%On the Witchcraft Culture in Spring Festival Pictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东

    2006-01-01

    我国民间年画艺术这一绘画体裁,有它自身的美学原理.从民俗学、人类学来看,它留有人类早期巫文化的部分痕迹,是部分巫文化的绘画表现,有助于我们阐释中国传统民间年画的内涵.

  11. 论客家巫术文化的源流%On the Sources of Hakka Witchcraft Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖祥亮

    2007-01-01

    客家人作为河洛文化的传人,其巫术文化吸收了源自北方、曾盛行于黄河流域的萨满文化,中原礼仪文化和南方楚巫文化的营养,并融合客居地崇尚巫鬼的习俗,形成了独特的客家巫术文化,对客家人的思想价值现和生存状态产生了深远的影响.

  12. On Witchcraft of Praying for Children in Dunhuang%敦煌求子方术考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小明

    2013-01-01

    敦煌遗书中关于求子方术的记载,可以让我们更加直观的了解唐代敦煌地区民间的求子习俗状况.敦煌遗书中出现21种求子方术,寄托了唐代敦煌民间对求子的祈盼,同时通过对这些求子方术的来源与象征意义的探讨可看出敦煌求子方术与中原文化一脉相承.

  13. 论《离骚》中的巫文化特质%The Witchcraft Culture Trait of the Lament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪秀娟

    2015-01-01

    《离骚》中无论是对神巫降临的场面描绘还是意象的运用,以及祭歌模式、抒情方式等系列艺术问题的处理上,都借用了巫文化的资源.正是那弥漫在湘楚大地的巫风习俗奠定了屈原作品艺术特色的基础,遥远而陌生的巫祭淫风,赋予了楚辞独特而神秘的文化背景.

  14. 钱钟书评"信巫不信医"%Qian Zhongshu's Comments on Witchcraft and Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文钟

    2004-01-01

    @@ 司马迁在中叙述扁鹊"病有六不治"的议论,其中之一曰"信巫不信医".后世医家学者对此评论甚多.前不久读钱钟书先生,发现钱先生有一篇文章也专门谈论"信巫不信医",其所引材料之丰富,立论之精辟,见识之不群,为以前所罕见.现略作转述于下,愿与同道分享、体味.

  15. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    Women who made significant contributions in the chemical sciences prior to the 20th century do not come readily to mind. Yet, as this book relates so engagingly, women have been influential in chemistry since the earliest period of recorded history. However, Women in Chemistry is more than a dated collection of biographical sketches of notable women scientists. The book highlights the main periods of history when it was possible for women to have some measure of success in the chemical sciences and focuses on their changing roles from alchemical times to the mid-20th century. By glimpsing into the life and work of individuals in the context of the time in which they lived, the authors impart a credible and moving image of the restraints imposed on aspiring women scientists and the obstacles that confronted them-making the extent of their contributions all the more remarkable. Each chapter has a theme into which are woven selected biographical sketches. Chapter 1 offers a whirlwind tour of the centuries from Babylonian times (1200 B.C.E.) through the Middle Ages and into the 17th century, giving perspective on how the various civilizations did (or did not) consider women capable of intellectual achievement or permit such of them. This short but powerful chapter invokes appreciation for the major contributions made by women in the face of enormous obstacles of prejudice, superstition (witchcraft), monastic reprisals, pseudoscience (alchemy), and denial of education. The women featured include Maria Hebraea (around 300 C.E.famed for the water bath, bain Marie), Hypatia (mathematician, 400 C.E.), Western alchemists (de Gourney and Meudrac), and Chinese alchemists. By the 18th century, science had progressed and alchemy was at an end. Though enlightened scientifically, western society still considered women's intellect inferior. But, as Chapter 2 relates, the literary salons of France nurtured intellectual discussion in society women, and it was in this context that

  16. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Company (Superstition System), CAP, Arizona: Proposed Amendment No. 1 to Arizona Water Company's... Superstition System. 26. Valley Utilities Water Company, CAP, Arizona: Proposed transfer of Valley Utilities...

  17. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  18. Somnambulism in Verdi's Macbeth and Bellini's La Sonnambula: opera, sleepwalking, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Stanley; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Riva, Michele Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The arts can provide unique ways for determining how people not directly involved in medicine were viewing and informing others about physical and mental disorders. With operas, one need only think about how various perturbations of madness have been portrayed. Somnambulism has long been a particularly perplexing disorder, both to physicians and the laity, and it features in a number of operas. Two mid-nineteenth-century masterpieces are examined in detail in this contribution: Verdi's Macbeth and Bellini's La Sonnambula. In the former, the sleepwalking scene is faithful to what Shakespeare's had written early in the seventeenth century, a time of witchcraft, superstition, and the belief that nocturnal wanderings might be caused by guilt. In Bellini's opera, in contrast, the victim is an innocent girl who suffers from a quirk of nature, hence eliciting sympathy and compassion. By examining the early literature on somnambulism and comparing this disorder in these operas, we can see how thinking about this condition has changed and, more generally, how music was helping to generate new ways of thinking about specific diseases and medicine.

  19. Paranormal believers are more prone to illusory agency detection than skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2013-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs. In the present study a biological motion perception task was used to study illusory agency detection in a group of skeptics and a group of paranormal believers. Participants were required to detect the presence or absence of a human agent in a point-light display. It was found that paranormal believers had a lower perceptual sensitivity than skeptics, which was due to a response bias to 'yes' for stimuli in which no agent was present. The relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory agency detection held only for stimuli with low to intermediate ambiguity, but for stimuli with a high number of visual distractors responses of believers and skeptics were at the same level. Furthermore, it was found that illusory agency detection was unrelated to traditional religious belief and belief in witchcraft, whereas paranormal beliefs (i.e. Psi, spiritualism, precognition, superstition) were strongly related to illusory agency detection. These findings qualify the relation between illusory pattern perception and supernatural and paranormal beliefs and suggest that paranormal beliefs are strongly related to agency detection biases.

  20. Jamal Mahjoub’s The Carrier as a Re-writing of Shakespeare’s Othello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Awad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Arab British novelist Jamal Mahjoub appropriates and interpolates Shakespeare’s Othello. Specifically, this paper argues that Mahjoub’s historical novel The Carrier (1998 re-writes Shakespeare’s Othello in a way that enables the novelist to comment on some of the themes that remain unexplored in Shakespeare’s masterpiece. Mahjoub appropriates tropes, motifs and episodes from Shakespeare’s play which include places like Cyprus and Aleppo, Othello’s identity, abusive/foul language, animalistic imagery, and motifs like the eye, sorcery/witchcraft, the storm and adventurous travels. Unlike Othello’s fabled and mythical travels and adventures, Mahjoub renders Rashid al-Kenzy’s as realistic and true to life in a way that highlights his vulnerability. In addition, the ill-fated marriage between Othello and Desdemona is adapted in Mahjoub’s novel in the form of a Platonic love that is founded on a scientific dialogue between Rashid al-Kenzy and Sigrid Heinesen, a poet and philosopher woman from Jutland. In this way, Desdemona’s claim that she sees Othello’s visage in his mind, a claim that is strongly undermined by Othello’s irrationality, jealousy and belief in superstitions during the course of the play, is emphasized and foregrounded in Mahjoub’s novel.

  1. Archéologie des monastères du premier millénaire dans le Centre-Est de la France. Conditions d’implantation et de diffusion, topographie historique et organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bully

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’en 1997 le Conseil national de la recherche archéologique publiait le bilan 1990-1994 de la recherche en France et sa nouvelle programmation, figurait parmi les thèmes prioritaires : « Les origines et les fonctions des premiers bâtiments monastiques : églises et organisation des bâtiments communautaires, relations entre architecture et règle monastique » . Il était alors rappelé que l’on ne savait rien des fondations colombaniennes et très peu des abbayes carolingiennes. Depuis lors, d...

  2. Le monastère Saint-Pierre d’Osor (île de Cres : cinquième campagne d’études archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Jurković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La cinquième campagne s’est déroulée du 8 mai au 13 juin et du 14 au 19 juillet 2010. Elle a permis l’achèvement de la fouille du secteur funéraire au chevet de l’église, au terme de quatre chantiers successifs . Nous avons également ouvert deux larges sondages au sud et au nord de l’église – sur la base des résultats de la prospection géophysique réalisée au mois de février 2010 – et débuté la fouille de l’abside centrale de l’église Saint-Pierre. Dans ce secteur, les principales interrogati...

  3. Schizophrenia and the paranormal: more psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Wu, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between déjà vu experiences and paranormal beliefs in schizophrenic patients. A total of 522 participants (54.5% female; mean age=33.3, SD=16.02) were recruited, including 422 healthy adults (60.9% female; mean age=29.48, SD=15.07) and 100 medicated adult schizophrenic patients (27.3% female; mean age=48.98, SD=8.57). The Chinese version of the Inventory of Déjà-vu Experiences Assessment was created via back translation. Chinese versions of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (CRPB), Beck Anxiety Inventory (CBAI), and Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) were also used. After controlling for age, gender, education, and anxiety, the results supported the following three hypotheses. Schizophrenic persons have fewer déjà vu experiences than normal persons. These experiences are positively related to paranormal beliefs in healthy adults but not in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients have higher scores than healthy adults on the psi and superstitious subscales of the CRPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Cultural Differences in Superstitions and Taboos between Chinese and Russian%从迷信和禁忌谈中俄文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金花

    2014-01-01

    迷信和禁忌是世界各民族共有的现象,中俄两个民族由于不同的历史发展、地理位置、风俗习惯、宗教信仰,从而产生了文化差异,形成了不同的文化规范,迷信和禁忌也各不相同.本文试对俄汉两个民族就几种具有代表性的迷信禁忌进行对比、分析,旨在为跨文化交际提供有益的参考.

  5. Poems like Witchcraft: on Yu Jian's Poems%有诗如巫——于坚诗歌片论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅元峰

    2010-01-01

    @@ 因为确认诗歌不是可靠的知识,几乎是无原则地迷恋诗歌不择条件的蛊惑力,读于坚的诗,常常在诗中遭遇到与混沌亲和的、不求真解的抒情者.在于坚那里,诗歌不再是追求唯一答案的文化载体和思想载体.

  6. Which Women Were Executed for Witchcraft? And Which Pupils Cared? Low-Attaining Year 8 Use Fiction to Tackle Three Demons: Extended Reading, Diversity and Causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Paula Worth was concerned that her low-attaining set were only going through the motions when tackling causal explanation. Identifying, prioritising and weighing causes seemed an empty routine rather than a fascinating puzzle engaging intellect and imagination. She was also concerned that her usual efforts to solve this problem had been misplaced.…

  7. The Psychological Principle of Witchcraft and Hypnosis%巫术与催眠术的心理机制比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁贵勇

    2008-01-01

    巫术是原始人类对抗自然环境、祛病祈福的一种神秘社会现象,在世界各民族发展历史中都曾先后出现过.文章从基本理论和实际操作两个层面,对传统巫术与现代心理催眠术的异同进行了比较,并探讨了巫术对现代心理学研究的启示.

  8. Witchcraft of Ailao State --Nature of Slaver Owners'Politics%管窥哀牢国巫风的奴隶主政治性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云; 尹家正

    2010-01-01

    哀牢国是否有巫风存在?史籍无正面记载.但根据史籍中的只言片语、神话传述和考古出土大宗祭器,可以管窥到哀牢国已进入奴隶制社会,不仅巫风正盛,而且已具有奴隶主政治性质.

  9. Story Plots about Witchcraft in Tang Dynasty Classical Chinese Novels%唐代文言小说法术情节论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晓红; 王燕

    2010-01-01

    唐代文言小说对源于民间巫术和释道法术的"法术"现象多有表现,往往形成"施厄"或"释厄"的情节模式,承担着文本叙事的核心功能或辅助功能,反映了唐代崇信宗教法术的社会群体心理.

  10. The Witchcraft of "Praying for Rain with Dragon" in Ancient China%中国古代"以龙求雨"巫术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2007-01-01

    中国是一个农业古国,以农为本,农业与降雨有密切的联系,因此,自古以来,求雨巫术便是农业巫术中最重要的内容之一.龙自古被认为能够兴云布雨,从而成为求雨巫术中的主角."以龙求雨"巫术主要有两种形式:以龙形求雨、逼龙降雨.

  11. Social-Cultural Context of Childbearing Witchcraft in Song Dynasty%宋代生育巫术的社会和文化语境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕

    2007-01-01

    生育原本是一种自然的生物过程,但由于受到社会文化的规范和强制而转变成为一种社会过程.在宋代特定的社会文化背景下,生育巫术不失为解决女性天职与生育困扰之间冲突的一种方法.

  12. 中国古代巫术对科学方面的影响%The Impact of the Ancient Chinese Witchcraft on Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵容俊

    2004-01-01

    人类在远古生产活动的实践中所积累的科学知识,是人类科学的根本来源。在人类的初期,巫教与科学交织在一起,愈往前追溯历史,巫教信仰与科学的关系愈密切。巫术必然涉及科学的领域。中国古代的巫术对科学有巨大的影响,尤其在医学、天文学、数学等方面,保留了不少起源于巫术的影子。

  13. 青海"於菟"巫风调查报告%Investigation Report on Witchcraft of "wutu"(tiger) in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐仲山

    2003-01-01

    @@ 位于中国西北部的青海省黄南州同仁县年都乎乡年都乎村,迄今保留着一种当地人称为"於菟"的巫风遗俗.该习俗自上个世纪80年代被有关学者关注以来,其研究日益深入,取得了一些成果.与此同时,学者专家对此巫风源流及寓意见仁见智,说法歧异.

  14. 巫术与人生礼俗--以宋代为例%Witchcraft and Ceremonies of Life in the Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕

    2005-01-01

    巫术通常利用民俗作为载体,从宋代的催生礼、诞生礼到隆重的婚娶丧祭,无不反映出巫术与人生礼俗的密切关系,尽管其中掺杂了许多有悖礼制、荒谬和非理性的成分,却作为习俗融进了日常生活.

  15. 论六朝巫术文化传统的源起%On the Origin of Witchcrafts in the Liu Chao Period of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成国

    2009-01-01

    六朝时期巫风盛行,巫术广泛地存在于社会各阶层尤其是民间社会之中,对人们的生活产生着相当的影响.六朝实际统治地区,地当古代吴国、越国和楚国的大部地区,六朝深厚的巫术文化传统即源自楚文化的巫学传统和吴越巫文化传统.

  16. The Review of Witchcraft Study in Our Country during the Past 30 Years%近三十年我国巫术研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向轼

    2010-01-01

    近三十年来,巫术研究在我国历史学、民俗学、民族学、人类学等学科领域受到关注,并取得一定进展.本文从巫术理论研究,巫术历史研究,巫术具体类别研究,巫术跨学科、多角度、深层次的解读等四个方面进行阐述.

  17. 巫术:女子武侠的性别话语%Witchcraft:Gender Discourse of Woman Martial Arts Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纬纬

    2014-01-01

    作为一种新兴的文学现象,女子武侠有其独特性,其中武功系统中的巫术引人注目。从心理学层面来看,女子武侠对巫术的选择受社会心理、情感心理和行为心理的驱动,同时也是对它们的彰显。%Women’s martial arts novels as a new literary phenomenon is unique, among which the witchcraf t attract people’s attention. From a psychological perspective, the witchcraf t choice in women’s martial arts novels choice is driven by social psychology, emotion and behavior. In the meantime, it also relfects these three aspects.

  18. DRAGON ROUGE: The Rescue of Hostages in the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    to traditionalism in a rural Africian society was usually also accompanied by manifestations of witchcraft , magic, and sorcery to explain misfortune... Witchcraft , Sorcery, Magic, and other Psychological Phenomena and their Implications on Military and Paramilitary Operations in the Congo. Washington

  19. Conflict, Culture, and History Regional Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    with ancestral spirits, witchcraft or other supernational forces . All traditional structures of African political organization, whether associated...CONFLICT, CULTURE, AND HISTORY magical powers, ancestral spirits, or witchcraft . Society as an institution was perpetuated by continuous struggle

  20. Chemical and Electrochemical Studies in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-12

    Electrochemistry and Witchcraft ", Gordon Research Conference on Electrochemistry", Santa Barbara, CA, January, 1985. OR. A. Osteryoung, ’An Introduction to...Temperature Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids: Chemistry, Electrochemistry and Witchcraft ", Chemistry Department Colloquium, University of Alabama...Tuscaloosa, Alabama, December 1, 1988. OR. A. Osteryoung, "Ambient Temperature Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids: Chemistry, Electrochemistry and Witchcraft

  1. The lexicon manuscript by Dimitrije Čemerikić as a source for ethnolinguistic and ethnologic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of Dimitrije Čemerikić’s handwritten collection of words from the historic city of Prizren as a valuable resource for the ethnolinguistic and ethnologic study of its colorful, multicultural past. The manuscript, which contains around 16,000 lemmas with definitions and examples, was compiled in the middle of the 20th century. The original is nowadays archived at the Institute for the Serbian Language of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences, while a digital edition has been available since 2013 via the Platform for Transcription of Serbian Handwritten Heritage, http://prepis.org. The paper shows how Čemerikić’s lexicographic treatment of the Prizren dialect reflects various aspects of popular culture (customs, superstitions, witchcraft and urban life (guilds, social and ethnic relations, etc. by analyzing exemplary lexemes such dečanska neprelja (lazy female, lit. ‘woman from Dečani who doesn’t know how to weave’, martifal (divination on St. George’s Day, dete (child, kuče (dog, magareći mozak (potion, lit. ‘donkey’s brain’, meso govecko (beef, esnaf (guild, Kaljaja (fortress, Latinka (Albanian Catholic female, kisela mrva (pejorative for Aromanian, lit. ‘sour crumb’, kožuvar (slang for Russian, lit. ‘leather-worker’, Karafera, mladoženja (groom, mladanevesta (bride, and dati (to give. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije i izrada multimedijalnog internet portala „Pojmovnik srpske kulture“

  2. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  3. The Bhiksuni Buddhist Ceremonies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    At the Seventh Chuanjie Fahui (a Buddhist meeting to impart monastic disciplines) of the Buddhism Association of Sichuan Province held at Baoguang Temple in Chengdu and attended by 127 bhiksunL Dharmacarya Long Lian leads several bhik suni toward the Buddhist preaching hall to impart Erbuseng Jie (the highest monastic discipline for bhiksuni) to them.

  4. On "Man Is Superior to Woman"——Traditional Chinese Calendar and Superstition (Ⅵ)%谈男尊女卑--传统历和迷信之六

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡堇

    2004-01-01

    @@ 在我国长期的封建社会中,妇女除受皇权、神权的压迫外,还受夫权的压迫.汉唐时期,妇女还多少有一些自由,但自宋代起,妇女则完全处于受支配的地位.男尊女卑的现象随处可见,就连许多迷信活动也不例外.在同样的迷信活动中,对妇女的限制繁多,要求苛刻.现就与传统历有关的一些歧视妇女的陋俗加以剖析.

  5. Followup Analysis of 31 cases Mental Disorders Related with Superstition or Sorcery in 10 Years%与迷信巫术相关的精神障碍31例10年随访分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周甲龙; 唐江萍; 樊旭晖; 朱伟昂; 曹检化

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨"舆迷信巫术相关的精神障碍"的临床特征和转归.方法对我院1989年10月至1993年9月出院诊断为"舆迷信、巫术密切相关的精神障碍"的患者进行为期10年的随访.按中国精神疾病分类方案舆诊断标准第3版制定的诊断标准进行再诊断结果 14例(45.16%)的患者维持诊断为"舆迷信巫术相关的精神障碍";17例(54.84%)的患者修改诊断.结论舆迷信巫术相关的精神障碍的诊断应重视对病人临床隋访和病人的病程转归;更应强调其相关性是"密切"相关的.迷信巫术既是"舆迷信巫术相关的精神障碍"的致病因素,也是精神分裂症、心境障碍及其他精神障碍的诱发因素.

  6. Area Handbook Series: Zimbabwe: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    indigenous systems also invoke the notion of witchcraft . Underlying the attribution of suffering or death to a witch is the assumption that the...has invested him or her. In principle anyone may be a witch. In practice witchcraft among the Shona (and to a lesser extent among the Ndebele) is...spirits who deal with cases where witchcraft or the activity of a dangerous spirit (ngozi) is suspected. Some deal only with specific illnesses. An

  7. A Study of Cross-Cultural Communication for U.S. Military Application: Identifying Mind/Minefields and Avenues of Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    structure. In most cultures those with wealth hold a high social status and often use their wealth to influence internal boundaries. n. Witchcraft ... Witchcraft is not viewed by most Americans as an important contributor to internal social order, at least in this century, but in some cultures it plays a...event that occurred in the community to witchcraft . Xhosa life was surrounded by a thicket 161 Douglas

  8. Shakespeare for Analysts: Literature and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Witchcraft , murder and treason are all brought to play. One of the first conflicts developed is between the Duke of Gloucester, the lord protec- tor during...Political violence increases as factions solidify and extreme measures are taken, including treason, murder and resort to witchcraft , a kind of appeal to...All but Eleanor die violent deaths plot- ted by their opponents, and her fate—disgrace and exile for practicing witchcraft —is hardly better. This

  9. The Potential for Religious Conflict in the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Wicca traces its roots back to the late Gerald Gardner (1884-1964), ergo Gardnerian Witchcraft . This United Kingdom-based group came into existence...gain support for the practice of witchcraft . However, that effort only lasted a short time due to Wiccans’ independent nature. A group of Wiccans... witchcraft at DoD facilities. Shortly after this flare-up, there were hints of Wiccans wanting their own chaplain. In a letter to the Church of the

  10. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 465.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-24

    and the crimes of those who practice witchcraft for the purpose of spreading rumors or swindling people out of money. When practicing physiognomy... witchcraft also frequently fabricate rumors in order to swindle people out of money and property. If the case is serious in nature and if they violate...the criminal law, they can be dealt with according to Article 165 of the criminal law con- cerning "those who practice witchcraft for the purpose

  11. Saint-Germain d’Auxerre et ses dépendances : la place d’un monastère dans la société médiévale du milieu du Ve siècle à la fin du XIIIe siècle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Deflou-Leca

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cette thèse de doctorat est d’élaborer une enquête d’histoire monastique selon deux axes de recherche complémentaires. Le premier porte sur les dépendances monastiques qui viennent peu à peu s’inscrire dans la filiation de Saint-Germain entre le VIe siècle et le XIIe siècle et témoignent d’un certain rayonnement abbatial. D’une manière générale, ces établissements, appelés traditionnellement prieurés, sont très mal connus. On ignore à peu près tout des frères qui y vivaient et de ...

  12. Az ortodox kolostor mint önfenntartó ökológiai rendszer. Élet Besszarábia szerzetesi közösségeiben - The Ortodox Monastery as a Self-sustaining Ecological System-Life in the Monastic Communities of Bessarabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENGYEL, László

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I have visited monasteries in Moldovaten times between 2004 and 2013. In this paper, I would like to present my experiences that I have gained there. I am going to start my account witha briefintroduction of the history of Eastern Monasticism and the general way of life in the monasteries. Nowadays, monks in Moldova live according to medieval laws and rules, but not in thespiritual, but in the practical sense of these regulations. They produce their own food, raw materials and ritual accessories. They are involved in several merchant activities,such as icon painting, candle pouring and wine production. How is a communityorganized, maintained and provided with the goods it requires? How do people become members of these communities? What are the most important factsto know about Ortodox monasteries? These are the questionsI tried toanswer in my presentation.

  13. Doenças de feitiço: as Minas setecentistas e o imaginário das doenças Diseases from witchcraft: eighteenth century Minas Gerais captaincy/Brazil and the imaginary of the diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Lima Nogueira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetiva discutir a crença e o consenso em torno da ideia partilhada, entre aqueles que viveram nas Minas no curso do século XVIII, de que determinados indivíduos poderiam, por meio de feitiços, provocar uma série de males. Assim, as doenças de feitiço, conforme aparecem na documentação compulsada, pareciam bastante assíduas. Procurei igualmente analisar como eram descritos tais achaques provocados pelos feitiços: tolhimentos, dores, ligamentos, dentre outros. Estes se faziam presentes tanto nas denúncias levadas ao conhecimento de membros do clero no curso das devassas eclesiásticas (documentação sob a guarda do Arquivo Eclesiástico da Arquidiocese de Mariana como em tratados médicos publicados, sobretudo, nas primeiras décadas do setecentos.This article aims to discuss the belief and the consensus around the idea shared among those who lived in Minas in the course of the eighteenth century that certain individuals could, by spells, cause a variety of ailments. Thus, the spell of illness, as it appears in the documentation compelling seemed very assiduous. I also tried to analyze how they were described such ailments caused by spells: stunting, pain, ligaments, among others. These were present both in the complaints brought to the attention of members of the clergy during the wanton ecclesiastical (documentation in the custody of the ecclesiastical archives of the Archdiocese of Mariana as published in medical treatises, especially in the first decades of the 18th century.

  14. 试析商代巫、史以及贞卜机构的政治意向%The Political Intention of Witchcraft,Historiography and Divine Organs in the Shang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智勇

    1999-01-01

    商代存在着巫官合一现象,亦官亦巫是商代社会的一个特点.商代主管典册的史职机构兼行着某些神事.商代贞卜机构在运行过程中突出地表现为贞卜活动中的王权意向.

  15. The Historical Analysis on the Religious Cultural Phenomenon of Witchcraft in Zuozhuan%《左传》巫术宗教文化现象的历史性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪波

    2007-01-01

    本文从历史的角度探析了记载的春秋时期巫术宗教文化现象,这些现象是历史的客观存在,又与时代的主流文化及意识观念相融合,形成了具有时代特征的文化形态及内涵.同时本文也分析了记录这一现象的原因.

  16. 道教观念与法术系统中的巴巫成份分析%An Analysis on the Element of Ba People's Witchcraft in Taoist Concept and White Magic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑大鹏

    2006-01-01

    汉末,道教的世俗教祖张道陵选择了当时三峡巴人生活的腹心地带创生道教,使道教宿命式地与巴巫结下了不解之缘,巴人的诸多巫术操作模式及鬼灵观念都对道教起到了一种潜在的建构作用,在符箓派与丹鼎派中打下了深刻的烙印.

  17. The Evocative Images of Birds in The Book of Songs and the Ancient Witchcraft of Divination by Birds%《诗经》鸟类兴象与上古鸟占巫术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毓庆

    2001-01-01

    本文从上古有关鸟类记载所携带的文化信息入手,在考察鸟类兴象产生的观念背景的基础上,对中的鸟类兴象的起源与意义,作了新的认识,揭示了鸟类起兴意象与远古鸟情占卜习俗的部分联系.

  18. Analysis of Witchcraft: Investigation Centered on Female Procreation and Disease%巫术析论:以宋代女性生育、疾病为中心的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕

    2008-01-01

    宋代女性生活中的各种巫术事象,既是传统观念的叠现,又渗透着个人的情感和意愿;从当时特定的社会情境看,具有心理调节、行为规范、角色强化的功能;从理性角度看,纯属主观臆想,其消极性和局限性十分明显.

  19. 论巫文化对游仙文学艺术结构生成的影响%The influence of Witchcraft-culture on the structure of celestial literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树国

    2004-01-01

    本文将到魏晋的游仙诗创作分为文本形态与仪式形态,通过对其意象结构与表演形式的分析,揭示上古巫文化对游仙诗艺术结构生成的影响,展现了游仙诗由娱神到娱人,从巫术功利性到艺术审美性的浪漫历程.

  20. A talk about the Meishan Religion of Taoism Witchcraft in the Faith Phenomenon%论梅山道教文化中的巫觋崇信现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁峰

    2004-01-01

    在湘中古属梅山的地域内的民俗宗教活动中,人们对巫与巫术的信赖具有鲜明的历史与现时性原因.巫术及其宗教性规仪,对当地的民俗文化活动产生了重要的影响,崇信巫觋也成了梅山道教的一大表现特色.

  1. 宋代禁巫兴医原因之分析%Analysis on the Reason why Many Government Officials Prohibited Using Witchcrafts to Treat Disease and Took Measures to Develop Medicine of song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉清

    2008-01-01

    有宋一代,宋朝廷及官吏针对广南西路、川峡四路等地信巫不信医之风炽盛的情况,实行了禁巫兴医的举措.考其原因,有以下三点:巫觋所为有悖儒家伦常之举;防止有人利用巫术生事.有碍社会安定及威胁其政权;基于拯救百姓之性命之考虑,实行禁巫兴医之举.

  2. 论巫术对审美关系和审美心理建构的意义%Discussion on the Witchcraft's Significance for Constructing Aesthetic Relations and Aesthetic Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖

    2009-01-01

    原始巫术思维是建构天人合一审美关系的基础,而基于原始思维建立的天人合一关系,奠定了中国人审美心理的基础.原始巫术思维和巫术实践促进了原始先民审美心理的形成和发展.

  3. To Drive out Epidemic Disease by Nuo——A Study of Witchcraft Culture of the Ceremony of Tiger Festival%巫傩逐疫——彝族虎节仪式的巫术文化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和晓蓉

    2007-01-01

    虎节仪式是流传于云南省彝族罗罗人部分村落的一种巫傩逐疫仪式,蕴含看丰富的巫术文化内容.本文就行巫术的三要素、相似律发生原理在仪式过程中的呈现,以及虎节传说中的巫术文化内容和象征意义进行集中阐述.

  4. 汉匈西域战争中的"诅军"巫术%Witchcraft of "Ju Jun" in the War between the Han and Huns in the Western Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子今

    2009-01-01

    西域战争中汉王朝与匈奴双方都使用"诅军"巫术,是军事史记录中罕见的情形.透视其文化内质,可以获得有意义的发现.讨论汉匈西域"诅军"史例,不仅涉及汉王朝处理边疆与民族问题的军事行政方式,也有益于深化对当时数术文化的理解.

  5. 浅析中世纪英国之宗教信仰和巫术与巫术诉讼%Analysis of Medieval British Religion,Witchcraft and Sorcery Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇梦影

    2013-01-01

    巫术在现代人的思想里是神秘的,是多数人不愿相信也不敢触碰的,然而在中世纪的英国,它一度成为社会的主角.这里从探讨巫术的本源出发,就其神秘的功效作用和它与法术、宗教以及大众信仰之间的关系进行了探讨,并结合其与宗教的矛盾冲突和由此引发的中世纪欧洲轰轰烈烈的猎巫运动,分析了由猎巫转向法律巫术诉讼,以及巫术走向衰败终被禁止的原因和过程.

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    witchcraft ’ and so on". She said: "If you slaughter goats and tie your hands this and that, way, and use this magic, bullets will not penetrate your...to this belief in witchcraft , though we were com- batting it. When they came back in the afternoon, our soldiers panicked. These people

  7. Salem Witch Trials. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Lara

    Based on Arthur Miller' play "The Crucible," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that in 17th-century New England, people were persecuted for allegedly practicing witchcraft; students of this period have looked into the allegations and offer alternatives to witchcraft to explain the people's behavior; and…

  8. Colonial Legacy, Communist Nostalgia and Failure of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    desperation to acquire this wealth drove African slave owners to appeal to supernatural powers such as witchcraft and gods to assist them in accumulating...supernatural powers such as witchcraft , and gods to assist them in accumulating more slaves or wealth and sometimes this involved human sacrifices.42 The

  9. Strange, incredible and impossible things: the early anthropology of Reginald Scot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-06-01

    Reginald Scot has been acclaimed as an early rationalist for his critical consideration of witchcraft in 1584. At the same time, the Discoverie of Witchcraft appears organized much as later classic anthropological monographs. This article considers whether his methods and writing might indeed correspond to what we recognise as the procedures of medical or psychiatric anthropology.

  10. Contemporary Operations: Reflections on and of Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Sierra Leone was known for its witchcraft , and especially for its “leop- ard-men” of the forest who apparently stole young men and ate them in ritual...Others had no fondness for the British, but more damningly placed the blame on themselves and their culture, “The Blackman witchcraft , it only for spoil

  11. When in Doubt...?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2016-01-01

    Response to Hau Symposium on Bubandt, Nils. 2014. The empty seashell: Witchcraft and doubt on an Indonesian island. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.......Response to Hau Symposium on Bubandt, Nils. 2014. The empty seashell: Witchcraft and doubt on an Indonesian island. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press....

  12. Who believes in witches? Institutional flux in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijspaarde, Van de H.; Voors, M.J.; Bulte, E.H.; Richards, P.

    2013-01-01

    Witchcraft has been documented across the globe. The widespread occurrence of such beliefs in modern Africa affects politics, economic development, and poverty alleviation. Anthropologists have analysed the semiotics of African witchcraft, but there is less information on distributional issues. An i

  13. The Empty Seashell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils

    in the coastal, and predominantly Christian, community of Buli in the Indonesian province of North Maluku are both corporeally real and fundamentally unknowable. A detailed ethnography of the encompassing inaccessibility of Buli witchcraft leads Bubandt to the conclusion that much of the anthropological...... literature, which views witchcraft as a system of beliefs with genuine explanatory power, is off the mark. Witchcraft for the Buli people doesn't explain anything. In fact, it does the opposite: it confuses, obfuscates, and frustrates. Drawing upon Jacques Derrida’s concept of aporia—an interminable...... experience that remains continuously in doubt—Bubandt suggests the need to take seriously people’s experiential and epistemological doubts about witchcraft, and outlines, by extension, a novel way of thinking about witchcraft and its relation to modernity....

  14. Critical Thinking and Army Religious Leadership: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    nature of reality. One is the dismissal of religion as irrelevant. In fact, for some secularists religion bothers on superstition .98 Another is the...Prentice-Hall Publishers, 2003. Buckley, William F. God and Man at Yale: Superstitions of Academic Freedom. New York: Regnery Publishing, 1977

  15. Magia, brujería y violencia en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Uribe.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between magic, witchcraft, cure, and contemporary Colombian social conflict. Based on an ethnographic study of a clinical case of mental sickness, the argument seeks to show how a situation of social conflict and chaos offers a privileged scenario for witchcraft practices. Magic and witchcraft, it is argued, offer a via regiaforexploring the maze created bysuffering, repression and guilt (the pathos in our culture -i.e. an analytical road to explain what Sigmund Freud called "the malaise of civilization". In the discussion, the social pathology of the family -especially of the antioqueño family-receives a particular attention.

  16. Beliefs and attitudes toward Buruli ulcer in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Y; van der Graaf, WTA; Asamoa, K; van der Werf, TS

    Buruli ulcer is a devastating emerging disease in tropical countries. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by interviewing patients with this disease and control subjects in Ghana. Common perceived causes were witchcraft and curses. Other reported causes were personal hygiene,

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    witchcraft becomes real in the Karanga setting. .... The process that the patient undergoes enables heat and smoke to dry up .... The liberating power is manifest through the twitching and ... Karanga rely on the options of medicinal treatment.

  18. Amoraalsed filmid Polymeris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kultuuritehases Polymer Nongrata Kunstikonteineris näidatakse homme Benjamin Christenseni nõiakunsti filmi "Witchcraft through the ages" (1922/1968) ja Kenneth Angeri "Inauguration of the pleasure dome" (1966)

  19. Mothers' perception and management of childhood fevers at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of her anxiety and fear, and reflect on the way the fever is managed at home. ... common cause of fever while some reported teething (80%), witchcraft (26%), ... it could lead to blindness, anaemia, weakness, brain damage and death.

  20. Amoraalsed filmid Polymeris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kultuuritehases Polymer Nongrata Kunstikonteineris näidatakse homme Benjamin Christenseni nõiakunsti filmi "Witchcraft through the ages" (1922/1968) ja Kenneth Angeri "Inauguration of the pleasure dome" (1966)

  1. The temptation of Realpolitik and vox populi in the ecclesiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    overcome the flood of demonic activity in witchcraft, satanic seduction, occultic manipulation .... provides institutional cohesion to many groups.” ..... politics imposed by means of physical violence, political extortion or economic suppression or ...

  2. OCCULT POWER AND AFRICA'S SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    Occult powers are not provable by scientific experiments and experience. ... he possessed. African World View as Background to the Belief in Occult. Powers ..... on witchcraft and how to deal with it. What followed .... real occult power. Often the ...

  3. Rethinking the humanities in twenty-first century Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngwira's paper examines how the female body is portrayed in selected ... Mapatidwe – with the objective of illustrating how this daring representation ... film and on the phenomenon of witchcraft, from theological and philosophical perspectives ...

  4. Antichi dèi, oggi: la Ecate dei neo-pagani

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Hecate was an ambiguous deity in ancient Greece, who survived throughout late Antiquity and Early Medieval period without losing her terrifying and dark features. During the Early Modern era, assimilated to Diana and Herodias, she appears in demonologists’ treaties on witchcraft, being considered the patroness of witches. Nowadays, contemporary Neo-Paganism attaches a remarkable role to medieval folklore: thus, due to her special link to magic and witchcraft, the goddess Hecate is even now pa...

  5. In Search of the English Sabbat: Popular Conceptions of Witches’ Meetings in Early Modern England

    OpenAIRE

    James Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the evidence for belief in the witches’ sabbat in early modern England. England is generally thought of as a country where the concept of the sabbat did not exist, and it was certainly largely absent from elite thinking on witchcraft, as displayed in the witchcraft statutes of 1563 and 1604 and Elizabethan and Jacobean demonological writings. But evidence entering the historical record mainly via deposi- tions taken by justices of the peace suggests that there was a wide...

  6. Models Believe Astrology——Should We Popularize Scientific Knowledge,or Propaganda Superstitions in Astrology?%由《366天诞生星》说到模特的"洋属相"——是普及科学知识,还是宣扬星座迷信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秉翰

    2007-01-01

    @@ 同古代神话故事密不可分的西方占星术,正是适应众生对神秘星空和神话世界的诸多遐想以及对改变自身处境的渴望,比天文知识更广地流传开来.这种方术是把位于太阳黄道上的12个星座与人的生辰乃至性格和命运拉扯在一起,由之推测未来的"运势"会是如何如何.

  7. Halmokhoz fűződő történeti és hiedelemmondák a Közép-Tiszántúlon - Historical Legends and Superstitions about the Mounds of the Middle-Transtisza Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDE, Ádám

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The world of myths and legends about the mounds of the Great Hungarian Plain is unbelievably rich. This article discusses the ancient mounds (especially the ‘kurgans’ in the area of the Körös-Maros National Park Directorate and in the Transtisza Region of Csongrád County and in Békés County. The population of this area was always intrigued by questions about the mounds, such as what they hide inside or who they were built by. Human imagination has kept the mysterious stories alive, though many legends or details have been lost, deformed or transformed during the centuries. In spite of the fact that the oral tradition of the Ottoman era is full of mysterious elements, such as castles, tunnels, buried treasure, dragons, shaman-priests (‘táltos’ and witches, the stories were frequently based on historical facts. In the present article, the most beautiful and most interesting pieces of these myths are cited. Our aim was to present one or two examples of every myth-category, in order to give an overall picture about the folklore of the region. We quote most of these stories word for word, so as to honour the informants and the sources and to reveal the unique atmosphere of these tales.

  8. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions.

  9. The Role of the Altar in Medieval Liturgical Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the role of the altar in some representational Passion and Resurrection enactments prescribed – and described – in the English monastic agreement, Regularis Concordia, the outcome of the Winchester synod in the early to mid 970s, and a major source to the English monastic...... reform movement of the tenth century as well as to the beginning of what in modern times often has been called ‘dramatic liturgy’. The role of the altar in these ceremonies corroborates, emphasizes and to some extent supplements and narratively plays out main elements of traditional altar symbolism....

  10. The Liturgy and Meal in Version D of the Ακολουθία του ανοσίου τραγογένη Σπανού

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Newman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By applying Wolfgang Iser’s concept of the “implied reader” to the discussion of the person under attack in the Service of the Unholy, Goat Bearded Spanos (edited by Hans Eideneier, this paper attempts to show how the author uses the Spanos to create a variety of parodies, including a parody of the monastic holy man. This paper then offers a translation and interpretation of two sections of the D version of this text, which illustrates this attack on the monastics.

  11. Liturgie monastique et société médiévale

    OpenAIRE

    Rauwel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Entre 1971 et 1991, Barbara Rosenwein a publié trois études aux titres particulièrement significatifs : « Feudal war and monastic peace : Cluniac liturgy as ritual agression » (1971), « Social meaning in the monastic and mendicant spiritualities » (avec Lester Little, 1974), « Monks and their enemies : a comparative approach » (avec Sharon Farmer et Thomas Head, 1991). À chaque fois, un terme de caractère nettement religieux (liturgy / spirituality / monks) est associé à un indicateur de stru...

  12. Libros en los monasterios: producción y consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Linage

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the value of books in monastic life, with an overview of book.s production and consumption from the origins of monasticism to the late Middle Ages. The author focuses on various codex-related issues, surveying the most relevant codices and the monastery scriptoriums where they were produced. The parallelisms between codex production and the different approaches to it are also dealt with, as well as monastic life itself, through an analysis of script and decoration, together with the inflows and relationships among the most singular production centres

  13. Social, ethnical, cultural and confessional features of architectural heritage of monasteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monasteries, their activity and lifestyle have always played an important role in the culture of various nations. Monasteries are objects of cultural heritage. Their architecture is connected with national features on a nation, particular canons of Christian (orthodox, catholic, Buddhistic or other religion. The article describes ancient monasteries in Russia amid the global development, historical national characteristics monasteries are analyzed, as well as architectural ensembles, reflecting the function and role of monasteries in public life, showing their spiritual and cultural heritage, monastic tradition, the historical value of the monastic landscape and its conservation conditions, the inclusion of the monasteries in the world cultural heritage is noted.

  14. 论敦煌本《悉达太子修道因缘》中国化及其妇女怀孕巫术%Chinese tendencies and witchcraft of female pregnancy in Causes of Prince Xida's Practicing Austerities in Dunhuang manuscript

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国藩

    2009-01-01

    是敦煌佛教故事变文中的名篇.本文先由佛经对比它的本源与变体,然后从星云大师的著作解读它的中国化,再从押座文反映的敦煌民间婚俗中发掘出妇女怀孕巫术,最后归结到拓宽特殊营养品的投资渠道.利用中国中草药的文化遗产,制作出市场化特殊营养品.

  15. 从巫术到艺术的嬗变之思——云南纸马的受众定位研究%Some Notions on the Evolution from Witchcraft to Art——On the Audience Position of Yunnan Paper Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲艳玲

    2010-01-01

    云南纸马这种民间版画艺术形式在不同历史时期的不同人群中有着不同的理解.本文试图通过对云南纸马受众定位研究,找寻民间纸马由巫术向纯粹审美艺术嬗变的发展规律.

  16. Totem, Witchcraft and Art——The Aesthetic Evolution of Shui Ethnic People's "Tun-kou" in Fuyuan County of Yunnan%图腾、巫术、艺术——论富源水族“吞口”的审美演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧国书

    2013-01-01

    富源水族“吞口”,造型独特,浓缩、概括了水族悠久厚重的历史文化以及独具风格的民族艺术.“吞口”是图腾的产物,是驱邪镇恶的神灵;“吞口”是巫术的产物,被赋予避邪纳吉的功能;“吞口舞”是艺术的产物,被赋予了独特的审美意味.

  17. 历史人类学研究的经典之作--读《都铎和斯图亚特时期英国的巫术》%Alan Macfarlane and his Witchcraft in Tutor and Stuart England, A Regional and Comparative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊芳芳

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1970年英国历史人类学家麦克法伦出版了①一书,之后立即引起整个社会史和文化史学界的广泛兴趣和关注.称之为"一部极高水平的著作--真正的开创之作".②

  18. 绝地天通:上古社会巫觋政治的隐喻剖析%An Analysis of "Cutting off the Transport between Heaven and Earth"-a Metaphor of Witchcraft Politics in China′s Ancient Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树国

    2003-01-01

    "绝地天通"是中国上古社会信仰领域发生的重大事件.原初社会普泛性的巫术文化因此转变为以祖先崇拜为代表的宗教祭司文化,巫师沟通神人的权力最终为帝王所独占."绝地天通"是巫术向宗教演变的一个隐喻说法.

  19. Magic, Alchemy, Witchcraft and Humanity A Review of the Works of 1960s-born Tsinghua Architecture Alumni%神通、仙术、妖法、人道60后清华建筑学人工作评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周榕

    2013-01-01

    当代清华建筑学人的工作,很大程度上取决于清华建筑教育“文化先于形式”的建筑价值预设.神通、仙术、妖法、人道,构成了清华建筑学人工作的四个象限.

  20. [Popular wisdom: its existence in the university environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Alves; de Melo, Marcia Borges; Júnior, Raul Soares Silveira; Brasil, Virginia Visconde; Martins, Cleusa Alves; Bezerra, Ana Lúcia Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, myths and superstitions are present in spite of scientific and technological developments, especially when trying to solve problems that escape human understanding. This study was aimed at determining the existence of superstitions and myths in the university community, investigating their origins, influences, adoption and credibility, correlating them with people's level of knowledge. It is a descriptive/analytical research conducted at Teaching Units in the Area of Health of the Federal University of Goiás. The technique of content analysis was utilized for data analysis. Two categories have been created: Personal Attitudes related to Superstitions and Influences and Destruction of Superstitions. It was found out that there is a clash between popular and scientific knowledge, either leading to the exclusion of popular wisdom, to its 'veiled' maintenance, or even to an alliance between the two types of knowledge.

  1. The dark side of the moon: Impact of moon phases on long-term survival, mortality and morbidity of surgery for lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnl A; Herzog M; Schmidt M; Hornung H-M; Jauch K-W; Hatz RA; Graeb C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Superstition is common and causes discomfiture or fear, especially in patients who have to undergo surgery for cancer. One superstition is, that moon phases influence surgical outcome. This study was performed to analyse lunar impact on the outcome following lung cancer surgery. Methods 2411 patients underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer in the past 30 years at our institution. Intra-and postoperative complications as well as long-term follow-up data were entered in...

  2. Eeskuju järgimine vales filmis, valel ajal ja vales kohas / Paul Aguraiuja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aguraiuja, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Mängufilm "Jääminek" : stsenarist Aadu Hindi teose järgi Aleksandr Bortshagovski : režissöör Kaljo Kiisk : operaator Algimantas Mockus : Tallinnfilm 1962. Filmi võrreldakse ukraina režissööri Mark Donskoi filmiga "Vikerkaar" : operaator Boriss Monastõrski : Kiievi Kinostuudio 1943

  3. Muslim monasteries? Some aspects of religious culture in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary observations on Sufi Muslim shrines or retreats in the Ethiopian Wällo region, places where local Muslim holy men or 'saints' lead the faithful and act as religious mediators and advisors. Some of these retreats of Sufi Muslims have a 'monastic' character, and al

  4. Taevane ja maine kontseptualism : kontseptualism / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Andrei Monastõrski näitus Tallinna Kunstihoones kuni 12. X ja näitus "FLUXUS EAST. Fluxuse võrgustikud Ida-Euroopas" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis kuni 23. XI, kuraator Petra Stegmann. Moskva kontseptualistide rühmitusest Kollektiivsed Toimingud

  5. Tridentine renewal and spiritual education of women in the experience of female monasticism. The case of Verona in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Patrizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catholic world of the Sixteenth century, especially after the Council of Trent, exalted the condition of monastic life as the most perfect and noblest of the conditions of life traditionally reserved for women. The monastic state became the model to which the educational path of every woman had to conform to, even if she was destined to live in the world (as mother, virgin, widow, or married woman. The strong paradigmatic value exerted by the monastic condition of life is clear from the analysis of the pedagogical literature devoted to women published in this period.The present article focuses on two relevant examples of this literature: the Costituzioni per le monache (Constitutions for Nuns, 1539 by Gian Matteo Giberti and the Ricordi lasciati alle monache (Recollections left to nuns, 1575 by Agostino Valier. The two texts contain very interesting reasons for understanding the pedagogical directions of the time, which are highlighted by the author with specific references to the historical context and thanks to the support of documentary and published sources. These two works were written by two great reformer bishops, and are highly meaningful not only because they complement each other, since both were prepared for the religious women of the diocese of Verona, but mainly because they offer one very vivid insight into the growing importance assigned to the monastic modus vivendi in Sixteenth century Catholic society.

  6. NEWS IN BRIEF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Ceremony for Conferring Senior Tibetan Buddhist Degree On October 10th of 2006, the 2nd "mtho ramspa" degree conferring ceremony of the Tibetan monastic system was held at the Tibetan-language Senior Buddhist College in the Yellow Temple (Lhakhang Serpo). 11 monks are conferred with a "mtho ramspa" degree.

  7. Muslim monasteries? Some aspects of religious culture in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary observations on Sufi Muslim shrines or retreats in the Ethiopian Wällo region, places where local Muslim holy men or 'saints' lead the faithful and act as religious mediators and advisors. Some of these retreats of Sufi Muslims have a 'monastic' character, and

  8. Õhtupoolik Tallinna kunstigaleriides / Andreas Trossek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trossek, Andreas, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Moskva kunstniku Andrei Monastõrski isiknäitus Tallinna Kunstihoones. Austria kunstnike Thomas Hörl'i ja Peter Kozek'i näitus Tallinna Linnagaleriis. Näitus "Up Close and Personal" Draakoni ja Hobusepea galeriis, kuraator Marge Monko

  9. Education and Being: A Reflection of Thomas Merton's Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Thomas Del

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the significance of Thomas Merton's life and work for education. Describes Merton as a Trappist monk who originally sought spiritual self-containment through monastic life only to reemerge to participate in the world through his writings. Suggests that Merton's contribution to education is the idea of orienting education along spiritual…

  10. Pushing the Child Centred Approach in Myanmar: The Role of Cross National Policy Networks and the Effects in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Marie

    2011-01-01

    In Myanmar schools, rote learning is the norm. International aid and education organisations based in the country have been trying to promote the child centred approach (CCA) as a much more progressive form of teaching and learning. The CCA is being rolled out principally through monastic school networks aided by international and national…

  11. The Natural History of Some Intercultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Studies intercultural communication in a Buddhist monastic university in India. Oral communication involves an ensemble of speakers and hearers; an interpersonal relationship that underlies the motivation and effort among speakers and hearers is required for true dialog. Understanding meanings is sometimes subordinate to interactional…

  12. Rendering justice in witch trials: the case of the val de Lièpvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    The borderland of the val de Lièpvre, with lands in Alsace and in the Duchy of Lorraine, and divided by religion and language, offers a rich collection of sources for the history of witchcraft persecution. The territory sharply reveals what was undoubtedly characteristic of witchcraft trials more widely. The crime of witchcraft was considered abominable before the Christian community and God, and its prosecution justified abandoning many of the safeguards and constraints in legal procedure, whether restrictions on the use of torture, the reliance on dubious testimony or even denial of advocacy to the witches. The action of the judges was nonetheless, as they understood it, the rendering of true justice, by punishing the culprits with a harshness that would expiate their crimes before the community and preserve them from damnation in the face of God's judgment.

  13. Vovós feiticeiras: algumas reflexões sobre tristes relatos de idosas moçambicanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Sayagues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available : Particular attention is paid to the accusations of witchcraft, in which the Traditional Doctor´s Association of Mozambique (AMETRAMO and traditional healers play two roles: one as the accuser and instigator of violence, and the other as the target of that violence. The idea of witchcraft is an integral part of daily life and social relations, and many Mozambicans like to think it is the cause of their problems: in this sense older women are the scapegoats for their ills. At the same time the reality of high mortality rates among young adults due to HIV/AIDS and other causes, together with the number of older people who have survived these evils, gives rise to suspicions as to the reasons for their longevity, which is often attributed to witchcraft. Particular attention is paid to the accusations of witchcraft, in which the Traditional Doctor´s Association of Mozambique (AMETRAMO and traditional healers play two roles: one as the accuser and instigator of violence, and the other as the target of that violence. The idea of witchcraft is an integral part of daily life and social relations, and many Mozambicans like to think it is the cause of their problems: in this sense older women are the scapegoats for their ills. At the same time the reality of high mortality rates among young adults due to HIV/AIDS and other causes, together with the number of older people who have survived these evils, gives rise to suspicions as to the reasons for their longevity, which is often attributed to witchcraft.

  14. Hincmar of Reims and his contemporaries about the uxoricide: church teaching and social practice Incmaro di Reims e i suoi contemporanei sull’uxoricidio: l’insegnamento della Chiesa e la pratica sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Pieniądz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the early middle ages the customary practice of killing wifes who did not conformed to the accepted norms (by breaking sexual code, plotting against her husband, practicing witchcraft, or were only suspected of doing it, was generally considered legal and tolerable, as testified the legal sources from different parts of Europe. During the 8th and 9th centuries growing influence of the Church on the matrimonial matters and the consolidation of the doctrine about spiritual nature of christian marriage and marital relations inclined the ecclesiastical authorities to make efforts to eradicate this sinful practice from social life. The different texts of this period cast light on the tension between traditional morality based on the „economy of honour” and christian teaching. This tension disturbed the stability of value systems of early medieval society. Writings of Hincmar of Reims dealing with the theory of christian marriage and the limits of husband’s authority over his wife (De coercendo ed exstirpando raptu viduarum, puellarum ac sanctimonialium; De divortio Lotharii regis et Theutbergae reginae are here analysed in order to reveal that canonists and moralists of this period were aware of these conflicts, and tried to harmonize the contradictory norms. Such practices as mediation between the spouses, public penance and monastic exclusion of the adulterous wife can be considered as a model of the strategies proposed by ecclesiastical authorities to protect the woman’s life and at the same time to preserve honour of her husband. However, in spite of the Church condemnation of uxoricide and dissemination of the Christian concept of the marriage, the several cases from the narrative and diplomatic records from the 9th century clearly demonstrate that killing the wife in the name of family’s honour was not only the accepted tradition, but it was also considered as the moral obligation of the husband or

  15. Deserts and holy mountains of medieval Serbia: Written sources, spatial patterns, architectural designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential concepts in Christian thought and practice, the desert and holy mountain denote a particular kind of monastic and sacral space. They are secluded from the world, intended for asceticism, and ambivalent in nature they are inhospitable and menacing zones populated with demons, but also a monastic paradise, places for spiritual conversion and encounter with the divine. From earliest times, deserts and holy mountains had a few distinguishing characteristics. All forms of monastic life, from communal to solitary, were practiced side by side there. Monks of a special make-up and distinction known as holy men who were also often founders of illustrious communities, future saints and miracle-workers acted there. Furthermore these locales were important spiritual and bookmaking centre's, and therefore, strongholds of Orthodoxy. When trying to research Serbian material on this topic, we face a specific situation: few surviving sources on the one hand, and devastated monuments on the other. The ultimate consequence is that the entire subject has been neglected. Therefore the study of the Serbian deserts and holy mountains requires a very complex interdisciplinary approach with systematic field work as its essential part. It should address the following issues: corroboration, on the basis of written sources, of the reception of the concept of the monastic desert and holy mountain in a particular, regional, context; the distinct means and mechanisms employed in their physical realization; interpretation of their function; the recognition of patterns preserved in the surviving physical structures. Even the results obtained so far appear to be relevant enough to become included in the sacral topography of the Christian world. The author of this study gives particular attention to the detailed analysis of written sources of various genres - diplomatic sources, hagiographic material, liturgical texts, observation notes - in order to establish the

  16. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, Kathryn E; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2-11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman's correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative indices for

  17. From superstitious behavior to delusional thinking: the role of the hippocampus in misattributions of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, P; Dowdy, M A; Graves, R E

    1994-12-01

    Nearly half a century ago B. F. Skinner proposed the hypothesis that human superstitiousness would be equivalent to the 'superstitious' behavior displayed by animals in operant situations involving response-independent reinforcement. Surprisingly, no attempt has ever been made to test this equivalence hypothesis experimentally. In the light of recent evidence for a common neurological basis of both superstitious beliefs held by normal subjects and delusional ideas of psychotic patients, Skinner's hypothesis has become topical again. We present an extension of the hypothesis which assumes dysfunction of the medial temporal lobe, in particular of the hippocampus, to be responsible for conditioned superstitions in animals, for common everyday superstitions, and for schizophrenic delusions. This hypothesis is based on (1) the observation of an enhanced 'superstitious' reactivity in hippocampectomized animals, (2) findings of an increased occurrence of popular superstitions in patients with a temporal-limbic epileptic focus, and (3) morphological and pharmacological evidence for schizophrenic delusions to be causally related to hippocampal damage.

  18. User’s Guide - Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    SAM CLEMENTE PALOS VERDE NEVPORT- INGLEVOOD ROSE CANYON ELSINORE WITTIER SAN JACINTO COYOTE CREEK SUPERSTITION PT SUPERSTITION HILL IMPERIAL UAIINCI SAN...PT2 124.9 , 40.35 PT3 125.32 ,40.4 Figure A-30. F&ult reaurrenco. A-35 6 m 100.000 r4 1 .0100,, *14 a IIt 94 04 .01 Fault -MONO LAKE &HILTON Maximum...CA NAVFACENGCOM WESTDIV / CO, SAN BRUNO, CA PWC / PENSACOLA, FL PWC / GREAT LAKES , IL PWC / CO, PEARL HARBOR, HI NWC / CO, FPO AP PWC / CO, SAN DIEGO

  19. [Do regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief" exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koshi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context.

  20. Experimental control of superstitious responding inhumans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CATANIA, A C; CUTTS, D

    1963-04-01

    Superstitions were demonstrated with human subjects when presses on one button were reinforced on a VI 30-sec schedule while presses on a second were never reinforced. Superstitious responding, on the second button, was often maintained because presses on that button were frequently followed by reinforcement for a subsequent press on the first button. The introduction of a changeover delay (COD), which separated in time presses on the second button and subsequent reinforced presses on the first button, reduced or eliminated the superstitious responding of these subjects. Some complex superstitions were also demonstrated with other subjects for which the COD was in effect from the beginning of the session.

  1. Experimental control of superstitious responding in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A. Charles; Cutts, David

    1963-01-01

    Superstitions were demonstrated with human subjects when presses on one button were reinforced on a VI 30-sec schedule while presses on a second were never reinforced. Superstitious responding, on the second button, was often maintained because presses on that button were frequently followed by reinforcement for a subsequent press on the first button. The introduction of a changeover delay (COD), which separated in time presses on the second button and subsequent reinforced presses on the first button, reduced or eliminated the superstitious responding of these subjects. Some complex superstitions were also demonstrated with other subjects for which the COD was in effect from the beginning of the session. PMID:14019310

  2. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    characterized as witchcraft or occult. Reflecting upon earlier research and particularly on the choice of terminology of the occult in writing on religion and political change in Benin (PhD thesis 2008), this paper seeks to clarify some of the epistemological, academic and historical reasons that have formed...

  3. The astronomer and the witch Johannes Kepler's fight for his mother

    CERN Document Server

    Rublack, Ulinka

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary tale of Johannes Kepler, one of the most admired astronomers of all time, and the six long years spent defending his mother from her neighbours' accusations of witchcraft. A story which takes us to the heart of Kepler's changing world.

  4. Social Work Practice with Pagans, Witches, and Wiccans: Guidelines for Practice with Children and Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Meg

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces social workers to the beliefs and practices associated with Paganism, Witchcraft, and Wicca and describes how social workers can help to create a welcoming environment for children and youths belonging to these religious minority groups. Drawing on social science research, social work literature, and a case example, the…

  5. 试论吐蕃时期原始巫术中的“天灵盖镇厌”习俗(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍巍

    2009-01-01

    In Tibetan primitive witchcraft,it was a very popular practice to use the skulls(or the tops of skulls)of men or animals as"divine tools"to suppress evil spirits.This custom is still popular in Tibetan-inhabited areas and among the Qiang,Yi and other ethnic minori-

  6. A Sense of Courage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsing, Marie E.

    The history of the United States is one of the contradictory traditions of human rights and intolerance. Although human rights, diversity, and dissidence are inherent concepts in our constitution and in the Supreme Court system, this tendency has been invariably accompanied by intolerant uses of power. The Salem witchcraft trials, the Alien and…

  7. Bloodletting:a medical resource since the stone age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Zubieta-Calleja(Jr)

    2004-01-01

    @@ When traditional witchcraft's resources of herbs,ointments, animal sacrifices and rituals failed "to cure" in prehistoric times, a most impressive maneuver for the patient and on -lookers was bloodletting.Something was being done albeit useless from the biomedical point of view. Not disregarding the presence of healed bones in prehistoric man, a proof of surprisingly effective medicine.

  8. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets%《哈利·波特与密室》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kit Bowen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Harry Potter and his pals are back for their second year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft (魔法)and Wizardry(巫术), but thingsget a little dicey(冒险的) when students are suddenly turned into stone and a message on the school walls proclaims the Chamber of Secrets has been opened.

  9. Perspectives of Alternative Medicine in the Field of Rehabilitation Medicine in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae-il Chun,MD

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction 'Medicine' itself is not exactly a science, but it is an art a healing art. Throughout history the humankind have used shamanism,witchcraft,religions,metaphysics,philosophy,science and/or technology as a tool in making better understanding and further improvement of healing art.

  10. The Origin of American Black English: Be-Forms in the HOODOO Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Traute

    The study examines origins of the usage patterns of "be" forms (conjugated and invariant forms of the copula) in Black English as they developed over a period of about 30 years. The corpus studied consists of selected interviews from a collection of recordings about Hoodoo, conjuration, witchcraft, and rootwork made by a white priest with almost…

  11. Migração na África Ocidental e Cabo Verde: uma relação recente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufémia Vicente Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconstruct, from a eurocentric perspective, how migration is objectivated, today, in Cape Verde, the circumstances in which immigration is thought and the conditions to understand it out of the patterns that shape it into a Western form, static. Here, witchcraft appears as an obstacle to this relation of domination.

  12. Becoming a Woman through Wicca: Witches and Wiccans in Contemporary Teen Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The article examines Cate Tiernan's "Wicca" series. This series and the "Circle of Three" books by Isobel Bird explore the experiences of teenage girls who embrace the pagan religion, Wicca. The texts reflect the growing interest in spirituality expressed by many young people and extend the literary representation of witchcraft. Tiernan produces…

  13. Child Witch Hunts in Contemporary Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has…

  14. Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest. Christy G. Turner and Jacqueline A. Turner. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Kolb

    1999-01-01

    Human sacrifice and cannibalism, the potential for institutionalized violence or warfare, witchcraft or sorcery, and ritual executions are emotionally charged issues; but some anthropologists and other learned scholars now suggest that these activities and behaviors occurred in the American Southwest, a region usually depicted for peace, harmony, tranquility, and spirituality. Christy Turner, Regents' Professor in the ...

  15. The Trial of Katherine Harrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which the teacher and students participate in a mock trial of Katherine Harrison, who was accused of witchcraft in the seventeenth century. Provides background information about the trial, as well as primary sources of the testimonies given by witnesses during the trial. (CMK)

  16. Shosholoza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2012-01-01

    that legitimates specific forms of politics and the formation of political culture. I explore and illustrate the co-dependency and intertwining of these political strands through ethnographic data collected in Mpumalanga between 2002 and 2006 relating to witchcraft accusations. I relate this material to scholarly...

  17. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    especially the use of magic or sorcery: the exercise of supernatural power supposed ... influence supernatural powers to their advantage, the second contains ... living human beings” in “body, mind, or estate.”5 ... mystical forces of witchcraft “according to their utility,”9 ..... and yet want them to accept theirs without resistance?

  18. Beliefs and attitudes toward Buruli ulcer in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Y; van der Graaf, WTA; Asamoa, K; van der Werf, TS

    2002-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a devastating emerging disease in tropical countries. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by interviewing patients with this disease and control subjects in Ghana. Common perceived causes were witchcraft and curses. Other reported causes were personal hygiene, environment

  19. Life after dark in Kwahu Tafo, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.

    2008-01-01

    The author reflects on four nocturnal topics he observed during his research in Kwahu-Tafo, a rural Ghanaian town: witchcraft, sex, human waste removal and sleeping. Yet little of his fieldwork was in fact nocturnal. He also asked school students to write about their views of life after dark in thei

  20. Five Lessons of a Dumbledore Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Rusmir; Agans, Lyndsay J.

    2007-01-01

    Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the world of Harry Potter may help educators re-imagine their daily work and provide good reminders that intentional formal and informal mentoring, informed by educational theory, play an essential role in student learning and development. Mentoring principles at Hogwarts flow from Albus Dumbledore,…

  1. The Paranormal: A Selected Bibliography of Serials and Reference Works, with Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides bibliography of references and serials to assist acquisitions librarians in selection of the paranormal. Topics include alchemy, astrology, magic, conjuring, witchcraft, paganism, demonology, satanism, voodooism, sorcery, cults, shamanism, UFOs, exobiology, curious physical and biological phenomena, ghosts, poltergeists, haunted places,…

  2. The Trial of Katherine Harrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which the teacher and students participate in a mock trial of Katherine Harrison, who was accused of witchcraft in the seventeenth century. Provides background information about the trial, as well as primary sources of the testimonies given by witnesses during the trial. (CMK)

  3. Harry Potter and the Ghost Teacher: Resurrecting the Lost Art of Lecturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    A significant image of classroom lectures is the one presented in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. At Harry's Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the most torturous class is easily History of Magic, which is, incidentally, the only class in the school taught by a ghost. Being taught by a ghost could be quite exciting: not so in…

  4. Business Process Reengineering for Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    16 1.7.1. MANAGING THREAT OF CHANGE .................................................................... 17 1.7.2. DEFINITION OF BUSINESS SUCCESS ................................................................ 17...ESTABLISH AN EQUATION FOR BUSINESS SUCCESS ............................................. 29 2.3.1. SU R V IV AL...1.7.2. DEFINITION OF BUSINESS SUCCESS Even though BPR is not a science, it is also not "witchcraft". Most principles involve common sense business

  5. The Specter of Salem in American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials on U.S. society over the centuries, particularly in relation to the trials as a metaphor for persecution and witch-hunting. Explores different events in history, such as the anti-communism evident in the 1950's and abolitionism during the U.S. Civil War. (CMK)

  6. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

  7. Harry Potter Pedagogy: What We Learn about Teaching and Learning from J. K. Rowling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Being a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry is not very enchanted. Despite all of its charms, Hogwarts still requires its students to attend class, read books, write exercises, take tests, and be graded on a competitive scale. The teachers do not use veritaserum to check students' homework or studiousness. Nor do students…

  8. Harry Potter and the Ghost Teacher: Resurrecting the Lost Art of Lecturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    A significant image of classroom lectures is the one presented in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. At Harry's Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the most torturous class is easily History of Magic, which is, incidentally, the only class in the school taught by a ghost. Being taught by a ghost could be quite exciting: not so in…

  9. Harry Potter Versus Muggles: Literary Criticism and Legal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, John; DeMitchell, Todd

    2005-01-01

    J. K. Rowling's series about the young, orphaned Harry Potter who escapes his often hostile, nonmagical Muggle (or human) existence for a world of ghosts, spells, and potions, magical objects, and exotic creatures to be found at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry has captivated a worldwide audience. Since the publication in England of…

  10. Harry Potter Pedagogy: What We Learn about Teaching and Learning from J. K. Rowling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Being a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry is not very enchanted. Despite all of its charms, Hogwarts still requires its students to attend class, read books, write exercises, take tests, and be graded on a competitive scale. The teachers do not use veritaserum to check students' homework or studiousness. Nor do students…

  11. Harry Potter Versus Muggles: Literary Criticism and Legal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, John; DeMitchell, Todd

    2005-01-01

    J. K. Rowling's series about the young, orphaned Harry Potter who escapes his often hostile, nonmagical Muggle (or human) existence for a world of ghosts, spells, and potions, magical objects, and exotic creatures to be found at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry has captivated a worldwide audience. Since the publication in England of…

  12. "Sin falcones e sin adtores mudados": La cetrería en el Cantar de Mio Cid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Héctor Fuentes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The reference to the hunting birds at the beginning of CMC operates as an "anchorage" that anticipates to us that the events of the poem will be exclusively developed in a noble environment. Also the absence of hawks and goshawks also speaks us of a deprivation that affects not only to the Cid as far as its possessions, but, considering the symbolic value of the birds, to his honour in all its aspects. About the absence of hunting scenes in the Cantar, we can venture three concomitant reasons: a it works as a tacit critic directed against the uses of the court and also would indicate the distance of the Cid respect to this environment; b it indicates the closing of the class leisure of the Cid and his men; c it is a sign of the gradual incorporation of monastic practices and restrictions by the noble class, within the framework of the "monastization" of bellatores.

  13. Russkaja rukopis' "Postničeskih slov Vasilija Velikogo" rubeža XIV-XV vekov, RNB, F.p.I.40, i ej miniatjura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Engelina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the miniature from a manuscript containing St. Basil the Great’s “Asketikon”, written at the end of the fourteenth century (St. Petersburg, National Library of Russia, F.n.I.40. The miniature depicts St. Basil in monk’s attire, writing his text. The compact composition, sharp and tense contours, the dark colouring and the saint’s concentration, create a striking image of monastic virtue and dignity. The manuscript, which originates from one of the monasteries in northeastern Russia, confirms the importance of monastic figures in art in the countries of the Byzantine cultural circle, from the end of the fourteenth century.

  14. Milton and the ’New Philosophy’: An Historical-Literary Exploration of the Relationship between Science and the Humanities in the 17th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-20

    of Hippo. For the * next thirty-seven years, Augustine not only excercised primacy over the North , African Church, where he was noted for his monastic...blood aided in the formation of the animal spirits in the brain which were distributed via the nerves. The key to this system are Galen’s postulated...opposes an actively interested God who cares for his creation. These differences in tone, attitude, conception and function of the Divine Being in Plato

  15. Parables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette Birkedal

    navigates it in the character of peregrinus and viator.   The first part of the study addresses the spiritual topography and the hermeneutics of its mapping. The second and larger part examines each of Bernard's eight parables and the ways in which he reformulates issues central to monastic tradition...... - militia Christi, for example, God's image and likeness in man, contemptus mundi, the quest for beatitude - as voyages within spiritual landscapes....

  16. Ἱερὰ Μονὴ Δοχειαρίου. Κατάλογος τοῦ Ἀρχείου

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Νίκος ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΔΗΣ

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Ν. Oikonomidès Catalogue des archives grecques du monastère de Docheiariou au Mont Athos (1037-1695 Le présent catalogue fait suite à ceux des archives des monastères de Dionysiou, Kônstamonitou et Stavronikita, publiés dans Symmeikta I et II. Il est le résultat de quatre missions au Mont Athos (1961, 1967, 1968, 1969, pendant lesquelles tous les documents grecs antérieurs à 1700 et conservés au monastère de Docheiariou ont été photographiés et décrits.Les notices consacrées à chaque document comportent les éléments suivants: a type de document; b date; c description sommaire; d résumé, e incipit; f indication des éventuelles éditions ou de la bibliographie; g si nécessaire, notice explicative. L'ensemble a été classé suivant grosso modo le principe de chancelleries: actes des empereurs de Byzance (no 1-15, acte d'une impératrice de Byzance (no 16, acte d'un empereur Serbe (no 17, actes de fonctionnaires civils (no 18-39, actes de patriarches (no 40-47, actes de métropolites et d'évêques (no 48-51, actes des autorités du Mont Athos (no 52-92, actes de monastères et actes privés (no 93 -145. A la fin il y a un inventaire des documents classés d'après leur date et un index onomastique.

  17. [1848: Gregor Mendel, the monk who wanted to be a citizen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet, Christiane

    2006-04-01

    This article proposes a previously unpublished French translation of a petition, in German, addressed by six Augustinian friars to the Constitutional Parliament of Vienna in the revolutionary year 1848. The petition states that members of religious orders are deprived of civil rights and demands that they be given citizenship ; it also contains a bitter attack on the monastic institution. We suggest that Mendel was the author of this text, which he signed and actually hand-wrote.

  18. Etiopczycy w Ziemi Świętej

    OpenAIRE

    Paczkowski, Mieczysław Celestyn

    2009-01-01

    St. Frumentius made many converts to the faith in Christ and the Christianity became the official religion of Ethiopia. The traditional links with the Copts of Egypt explains the Ethiopian’s Church rejection of Chalcedon. The monastic tradition was introduced into Ethiopia and the monasteries became important intellectual and spiritual centers. This Church reached its zenith in the 15th century. The Ethiopic community is present in the Holy Land and preserves several Jewish practices.

  19. Mysticism and Greek monasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rinne

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available There is reason to assert that Christian mysticism is as old as Christianity itself. In the Pauline epistles, e.g., there are obvious signs of this fact. The later Christian mysticism has, in a high degree, been inspired by these elements and likewise by various corresponding thoughts in the Johannine writings, which traditionally are interpreted from this angle and which have played a central role especially for the Orthodox Church.'In the light of the above-mentioned circumstances, it seems fully natural that there exists, from the very beginning, a clear connection also between mysticism and Christian monasticism. It has been pointed out by certain authors that the role of mystical visions is of essential and decisive significance also as regards the development from the stage of the hermits of the deserts to that form of life which, in the proper sense of the word, is characterised as monastic. There is, generally speaking, no possibility to understand correctly the intentions and the thoughts of the great pioneers of monasticism, unless one takes into account the mystically visionary factors. To this end it is necessary, furthermore, to penetrate in an inner, spiritual way, into the holy symbolism of the monastic tradition and into the sacred legends of its history. In other words, it is necessary to keep constantly in mind the visionary factor and to remember that the pioneers of monastic life, as a rule, are men of which it may be said that they have their conversation in heaven: on the mystical level of vision they converse with the angels as the representatives of the heavenly world and as those organs, by means of which the principles of monastic life are transmitted and given to the men of mystical visions.

  20. Escrituras de Oseira (AHN sin relación con este monasterio (S. XI-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaní Martínez, Miguel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The edition of nine monastic documents never published previously in any form, belonging to the Osera fund, but without any apparent relation to this monastery, increases the knowledge about the referred monasteries.

    La edición de nueve documentos monásticos inéditos pertenecientes al fondo de Oseira, pero sin relación aparente con este monasterio, complementará el conocimiento de los monasterios referidos.

  1. Sixteenth-century Mexican Architecture : Transmission of Forms and Ideas between the Old and the New World

    OpenAIRE

    Brenišínová, Monika

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article deals with the subject of 16 th century Mexican monastic architecture and its artistic em-bellishments. Its aim is to present the architecture and its decoration program within an appropriate historical context, putting a particular emphasis on the process of cultural transmission and subsequent changes between the Old and the New World. Some attention is also paid to the European art of the modern age with regard to the discovery of America and its impact...

  2. The Christianization as the strategy of resistance: the representation of indigenous Christians in the art of the sixteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Pérez Flores

    2015-01-01

    In this article I will discuss the importance for indigenous charged under Spanish rule, represent themselves as Christians. I will show that after the conquest was compelling acquire legitimacy as a devout Christian; for this native attended the images codices and monastic mural painting, I will relate the cultural and political contexts with information from written sources and visual sources contained in tlaxcaltecas codices and the convent wall painting.

  3. Dido: Power and Indulgence in Le Roman d’Eneas

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    During the twelfth century, medieval Western Europe experienced a revival of interest in classical literature. Key Greek and Latin texts had been preserved in Rome’s public and private libraries during the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. In the sixth and seventh centuries, monastic Christian scholars such as Cassiodorus (born ca. 485 AD) and Benedict of Nursia (480 – 547 AD) established scriptoria, places for copying manuscripts, in their monasteries. There they transcribed and stor...

  4. The Christianization as the strategy of resistance: the representation of indigenous Christians in the art of the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Flores

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will discuss the importance for indigenous charged under Spanish rule, represent themselves as Christians. I will show that after the conquest was compelling acquire legitimacy as a devout Christian; for this native attended the images codices and monastic mural painting, I will relate the cultural and political contexts with information from written sources and visual sources contained in tlaxcaltecas codices and the convent wall painting.

  5. Discalced Carmelites as Focus of Attention of Polish People’s Republic Security Force in Cracow Voivodship in the Light of Preserved Reports Sent to Ministry of Public Security and Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Years 1947-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Marecki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the times of the Polish People’s Republic, national security issues and, at the same time, surveillance of the society and suppression of many institutions – the Catholic Church included - were in the hands of appropriate services, modelled on the Soviet NKVD. At first this was the Ministry of Public Security and since 1956 the Security Police. The first part of the article presents the organization of security units in the voivodship of Cracow and the distribution of monastic communities, while the second throws light on the activities of these units uh the basis of preserved reports sent from Cracow to the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Officials of the Security Police who worked in the voivodship and district departments took a close interest in the Discalced Carmelite monks, taking account of their wartime past, pastoral activity and connections with the Church hierarchy. To ensure influence upon the life of the Discalced Carmelite Province as well as access to information on monastic internal issues they gained several secret collaborators within the congregation itself and its lay associates. The article is the first attempt at showing the methods of the Security Police (SB and the Security Office (UB activities directed at monastic orders; methods aiming at subjugating to the authorities not only the orders themselves, but the whole Catholic Church in Poland.

  6. 'Ein furtrefflicher Munch': Luther and the Living out of Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    This article treats of main points in Luther's less known treaty on monastic vows, "De votis monasticis iudicium", from 1521. It is demonstrated how Luther bases his ideas on Bernard of Clairvaux's understanding of monastic life as a Christ-formed life in the faith in God. Luther values that also...... between "praecepta" and "consilia" (Bernard does not know such a differentiation, post his time; and Luther sharply confronts the arrogance he finds in such an epistemology). On the other hand, they have very different views on the raison d'être of monasticism. Bernard, who lives in a flourishing yet...... turbulent Europe of the11th century,  sees the monastery as a sublime greenhouse for growing a social and peaceful life in love of neighbour, which ought to be the ideal of all human life. Luther, living 400 years later, experiences a quite different ecclesial and monastic life, where he witnesses abuse...

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the human in caring for others is reflected in the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Superstition, divine intervention and finally science have contributed to the development of a technique which may allow any person to save another’s life. Fully 50% of the firs...

  8. Full moon: uh-oh?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollander, Dore

    2005-01-01

    ... of the moon, the researchers found no statistically significant differences in the number of births overall or of births to women who had had more than one pregnancy, in types of delivery or in complications. Nevertheless, with a nod to human nature, they expect that the superstition will endure and that some labor and delivery personnel "will continue to l...

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of the human in caring for others is reflected in the development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Superstition, divine intervention and finally science have contributed to the development of a technique which may allow any person to save another’s life. Fully 50% of the firs...

  10. The history of the evil eye and its influence on ophthalmology, medicine and social customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohigian, G H

    1997-01-01

    Belief in the evil eye is one of the oldest and most widespread superstitions in the world. The concept of the evil eye has influenced present day ophthalmology, medicine, and social customs. Oculus sinister (OS), the serpent and the staff of Asclepius, the symbol of RX, and many social customs are historically related to the evil eye.

  11. No religion and an end to war: how thinkers see the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Jha, Alok

    2007-01-01

    "People's fascination for religion and superstition will disappear within a few decades as television and the internet make it easier to get information, and scientists get closer to discovering a final theroy of everything, leading thinkers argue today." (1,5 page)

  12. On Dragon and Turkeys: Physics for Future Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Too often teachers describe physics solely as a technical discipline, which contributes concretely to changing our material world. In a society where prejudices and superstitions still play an important, sometimes tragic, role, there is much more to emphasise about physics. A physics teacher should introduce high school students to physics by…

  13. On Dragon and Turkeys: Physics for Future Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Too often teachers describe physics solely as a technical discipline, which contributes concretely to changing our material world. In a society where prejudices and superstitions still play an important, sometimes tragic, role, there is much more to emphasise about physics. A physics teacher should introduce high school students to physics by…

  14. El Espiritu Siempre Eterno Del Mexico Americano (The Always Eternal Spirit of the Mexican American).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Guadalupe C.; Silman, James B.

    Twenty stories and essays suitable for intermediate and secondary grades illustrate the enduring spirit of Mexican American life, legend, custom, and culture. The Spanish language book describes the ceremonies of baptism, engagement, marriage, and the "quinceanera" (a girl's 15th birthday). Folklore (magic spells, superstitions, "cuentos" or…

  15. United Native Instruction To Youth. An Indian Studies Curriculum for Grades K-5 and 8-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeson County Compensatory Indian Education Project, Lumberton, NC.

    Focusing on the heritage of the 14 predominantly Indian communities in Robeson County, North Carolina, the curriculum guide covers: Indian families (kindergarten); how the Indians lived (first grade); Indian customs, traditions, superstitions (second grade); North Carolina's Indian heritage (third grade); community and government (fourth and fifth…

  16. Idea-Centered Laboratory Science (I-CLS), [Unit] C, How a Scientist Expects His World To Behave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deventer, William C.; Duyser, Lucille

    The major ideas of this unit are: consistency and uniformity, cause and effect, and parsimony. Laboratory experiences consist of investigations into: projecting expectations, moon and stars, the relationships among different kinds of change (daily, monthly, annual temperature changes), force and motion, chemical reactions, superstitions, origin of…

  17. The Academy on the Firing Line: William F. Buckley, Jr.'s "God and Man at Yale" and the Modern Conservative Critique of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, John J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1951, William F. Buckley, Jr. was a recent alumnus of Yale University and former editor of the "Yale Daily News" when his first major work, "God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of 'Academic Freedom'," became a controversial polemic that attracted national attention. In his work, Buckley claimed Yale's faculty advanced…

  18. The Fortune of the House. Ştefania Cristescu-Golopentia's Perspective on Domestic Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA HULUBAŞ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia reorganized the structure of magic intentions by subsuming all human desires under the category of of household welfare. This view allows all rites and superstitions to coalesce around a coherent and unexpectedly modern cultural attitude towards life, for which women are directly responsible.

  19. Differing Levels of Superstitious Beliefs among Three Groups: Psychiatric Inpatients, Churchgoers, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sheryl L.

    This study investigated the level of superstitious belief among 175 persons in three categories: persons undergoing inpatient psychiatric treatment, churchgoers, and college students. A 50-item inventory consisting of positive and negative common superstitions, including a 5-item invalidity subscale, was administered. Using a 2 (male, female) x 3…

  20. THE FORTUNE OF THE HOUSE. ŞTEFANIA CRISTESCU-GOLOPENŢIA’S PERSPECTIVE ON DOMESTIC MAGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA HULUBAŞ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia reorganized the structure of magic intentions by subsuming all human desires under the category of household welfare. This view allows all rites and superstitions to coalesce around a coherent and unexpectedly modern cultural attitude towards life, for which women are directly responsible

  1. Issues in Science Education: Changing Purposes of Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Stan

    This paper addresses the role of science education in today's society and the objectives of instruction in science. Observing that science cannot solve all of the problems of the world, and that science education has had little effect on the willingness of the general public to accept superstitions, the author argues that instructional approaches…

  2. Computer Animations a Science Teaching Aid: Contemplating an Effective Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannu, Kirti

    2008-01-01

    To improve quality of science education, the author suggests use of entertaining and exciting technique of animation for better understanding of scientific principles. Latest technologies are being used with more vigour to spread venomous superstitions. Better understanding of science may help students to better their scientific temper. Keeping…

  3. 76 FR 33270 - Cancellation of the Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... geothermal energy development at Superstition Mountain on Naval Air Facility El Centro. The DoN will develop... proceed and will provide the DoN with information required to determine the DoN's geothermal energy... Statement for the Proposed Geothermal Development Program, Naval Air Facility El Centro, Imperial County,...

  4. Y: The Sources of Islamic Revolutionary Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Enlightenment thinker thought that reli- gion would disappear in the 20th century, because religion was fetish - ism and animistic superstition. Well, it’s...will be subject to pangs of conscience, anguish , and despair.”183 Hell is a place where the intensity of the physical torments will only be supplanted

  5. The Occult Today: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Gary E.

    1975-01-01

    Author offered some reflections on the "why" of the contemporary interest in the occult. He attempted to convince the reader that, if he or she has been surprised by the recent rise of occultism, sober reflection will dispell some fears and, perhaps, even convince him or her that occultism is not merely superstition. (Author/RK)

  6. Superstitious behavior in sport: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. El Espiritu Siempre Eterno Del Mexico Americano (The Always Eternal Spirit of the Mexican American).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Guadalupe C.; Silman, James B.

    Twenty stories and essays suitable for intermediate and secondary grades illustrate the enduring spirit of Mexican American life, legend, custom, and culture. The Spanish language book describes the ceremonies of baptism, engagement, marriage, and the "quinceanera" (a girl's 15th birthday). Folklore (magic spells, superstitions, "cuentos" or…

  8. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  9. Non-Scientific Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2012-01-01

    A survey of over 11 000 undergraduate students' knowledge and attitudes related to science and technology over a 22-year period included statements that probed faith-based beliefs and various aspects of pseudoscience belief and superstition. The results reveal that nonscientific ways of thinking are resistant to formal instruction, changing…

  10. Omnia totius regni sui monasteria: la Historia Legionense, llamada Silense y los monasterios de las infantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Reglero de la Fuente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Historia Legionense, llamada Silense, se interesa especialmente por aquellos monasterios que sirvieron como sepultura regia. Además ofrece una visión muy parcial sobre la herencia de las infantas Urraca y Elvira, atribuyéndolas todos los monasterios del reino. En realidad solo controlaron una parte, ni siquiera todos los del dominio regio. La visión del autor solo puede explicarse desde la perspectiva de un monasterio sujeto a las infantas. Este artículo analiza la relación de las infantas con diversos monasterios del reino, mostrando las grandes diferencias existentes. En los casos de Sahagún y Silos se limitaron a confirmar privilegios reales; en el de Oña a ello se suman algunas donaciones de Elvira. Por contra controlaron estrechamente San Pelayo de León (continuando el dominio de su madre y Eslonza (como resultado de la actividad política y judicial de Urraca.L’Historia Legionensis, dite Silensis, porte essentiellement sur les monastères ayant abrité des sépultures royales. Elle reflète en outre une vision très partiale de l’héritage des infantes Urraca et Elvira auxquelles sont attribués tous les monastères du royaume alors qu’elles n’en contrôlèrent qu’une partie, même pas tous ceux qui dépendaient du domaine de la couronne. La vision de l’auteur ne peut se comprendre que du point de vue d’un monastère relevant des infantes. Cet article analyse la relation des infantes avec divers monastères du royaume, et souligne les différences notables de l’un à l’autre. À Sahagún et à Silos par exemple, les infantes se contentèrent de confirmer des privilèges royaux ; Oña, pour sa part, bénéficia de plusieurs donations de l’infante Elvira. En revanche, elles contrôlèrent étroitement les monastères de San Pelayo de León (perpétuant la domination de leur mère et d’Eslonza (du fait du rôle politique et juridique joué par Urraca.

  11. Eine kritische Stimme zur Hexenverfolgung: Johannes Matthäus Meyfarts Christliche Erinnerung von 1635

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmied

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Markus Schmids bachelor thesis Eine kritische Stimme zur Hexenverfolgung: Johannes Matthäus Meyfarts Christliche Erinnerung von 1635 (A critical view on the persecution of witches: Johannes Matthäus Meyfarts Christian Commemoration of 1635 takes us back to early modern Europe and the age of witchtrials. With Johannes Matthäus Meyfarts Christliche Erinnerung Schmid presents a view opposed to the persecution of men and women, who have been accused of witchcraft. Schmid succeeds in demonstrating how Meyfarts personal experience led him to a different approach of criticizing this persecution: The criticism of the authorities and the methods used to prosecute those accused of witchcraft. Schmids conclusion reflects the importance of Meyfarts Christliche Erinnerung for the reappraisal of these dark times.

  12. A study in Renaissance psychotropic plant ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, D; Pollio, A

    1994-01-01

    Various historical sources from the Renaissance--including transcripts of trials for witchcraft, writings on demonology and textbooks of pharmaceutical botany--describe vegetal ointments prepared by women accused of witchcraft and endowed with marked psychoactive properties. Here, we examine the botanical composition and the possible pharmacological actions of these ointments. The results of our study suggest that recipes for narcotic and mind-altering salves were known to Renaissance folk healers, and were in part distinct from homologous preparations of educated medicine. In addition, our study reveals an unexpected connection of these vegetal psychotropes with archaic chtonic beliefs, confirming the tight association between rituals and cults entered on the Underworld and the image of the Medieval witch.

  13. Cine club

    CERN Document Server

    Cine club

    2016-01-01

    Wednesday 7 September 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Häxan (Witchcraft Through the Ages) Directed by Benjamin Christensen Sweden, 1922, 91 minutes Fictionalized documentary showing the evolution of witchcraft, from its pagan roots to its confusion with hysteria in modern Europe. Original version Swedish / Danish ; English subtitles Wednesday 14 September 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber A Sixth Part of the World   Directed by Dziga Vertov Soviet Union, 1926, 77 minutes "Sixth Part of the World" was the size of Soviet Union of the time. Many peoples of many customs composed it. Ice and desert, forest and ocean. Bread, furs, machines. All and everything is a part of great unity. Special event: Silent film with live post-rock music from Belgian neoclassical post-rockers “We Stood Like Kings” http://www.westoodlikekings.com/

  14. Electrocution attributed to supernatural forces in the Niger delta region of Nigeria: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Etebu, E N

    2005-01-01

    Accidental deaths from electrocution in this environment are sometimes related to charm and witchcraft caused by one's enemies. The aim of this article is to highlight the problems of beliefs and accidental electrocution. We report three cases of accidental electrocution which was believed to be associated with traditional beliefs of witchcraft and charm. Autopsy findings in two cases showed characteristic electric burns (the joule burn which is the area of entry) without obvious organ changes. The third case revealed no burn but investigation of the scene of incidence and other sources of information are consistent with a diagnosis of electrocution. Post mortem examination can assist to dispel misconception and unnecessary belief on cause of death in our community.

  15. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life in Benin as well as in academic research on the topic, the terms of vodun, witchcraft and the occult are often used in a non distinct way covering quite similar phenomena while at the same time referring to different kinds of beliefs and practices. The problem of understanding...... the magic, the mystical and the “occult” and particularly the difficulties of transmission in analytical terms of these phenomena have accompanied the production of anthropological knowledge since the early days of the discipline. However, in Benin, researchers in all domains of life are continuously...... characterized as witchcraft or occult. Reflecting upon earlier research and particularly on the choice of terminology of the occult in writing on religion and political change in Benin (PhD thesis 2008), this paper seeks to clarify some of the epistemological, academic and historical reasons that have formed...

  16. Chol understandings of suicide and human agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberton, Gracia

    2012-06-01

    According to ethnographic material collected since 2003, the Chol Mayan indigenous people in southern Mexico have different causal explanations for suicide. It can be attributed to witchcraft that forces victims to take their lives against their own will, to excessive drinking, or to fate determined by God. However, it can also be conceived of as a conscious decision made by a person overwhelmed by daily problems. Drawing from the theoretical framework developed by Laura M. Ahearn, inspired by practice theory, the paper contends that these different explanations operate within two different logics or understandings of human agency. The first logic attributes responsibility to supernatural causes such as witchcraft or divine destiny, and reflects Chol notions of personhood. The second logic accepts personal responsibility for suicide, and is related to processes of social change such as the introduction of wage labor, education and a market economy. The contemporary Chol resort to both logics to make sense of the human drama of suicide.

  17. 良渚文化玉琮为何上大下小

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志强

    2000-01-01

    Zong, as a popular kind of ancient jade, is one of the important ritual vessels in the preliminary age. Zong's shape is a cube with a hole drilled through the center, which is square outside and round inside, big-headed and small-ended. It reflects the naive worldview and belief in the preliminary age. The ritual function and witchcraft determine the shape of Zong.

  18. Tourette's syndrome: from demonic possession and psychoanalysis to the discovery of gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germiniani, Francisco M B; Miranda, Anna Paula P; Ferenczy, Peter; Munhoz, Renato P; Teive, Hélio A G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we make a brief historical review of the hypothesis concerning the etiology of Tourette's syndrome (TS), focusing on varying trends over time: at first, its presumed relation to witchcraft and demonic possessions, followed by the psychoanalytical theory, which attributed TS to a masturbatory equivalent. Then, progressing to modern time, to the immunological theory and finally the advent of genetics and their role in the etiology of TS.

  19. The Historic Panorama of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Humyra Tabasum; Tanzeel Ahmad; Farzana Anjum; Hina Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Although acne is described in very ancient writings dating back to Eber’s Papyrus, its clear description is found after Fuch’s coined the term ‘Acne Vulgaris’ and Erasmus Wilson separated it from acne rosacea. The early treatment of acne was based upon the witchcraft. Later new therapies got evolved with the discoveries in the field of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The following review focuses the historical overview of acne vulgaris, highlighting persons and discoveries in medival an...

  20. Kurat, pattulangemine ja nõidus. Kristlike nõidade demonoloogia ja teoloogiline antropoloogia

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Harmening

    2002-01-01

    In Christian Europe, witches are usually spoken about in the context of inquisition and court. The concept of witches in Christian Europe is perhaps best described in Malleus Maleficarium. The topics listed there originate from the western theological tradition, not the fantasy of the book's author. The present article deals with statements concerning witches, dividing these into mythological, demonological and anthropological. Western demonology and concept of witchcraft is based on late Ant...

  1. The Operational Calculus: It’s Not Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    of Pure Reason, trans. by J. M. D. Meiklejohn (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990), 3. 13 environment, before further exploration, becomes an...body. At the time of this writing, modern medicine is far from understanding all the ailments that could potentially affect the human body, and...tradecraft to the irrationality of being human, then modern medicine would consist of witchcraft and alchemy. Fortunately they do not. Researchers

  2. Malay health in context: humoral system, traditional medicine, reproduction and rites de passage

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela García, Hugo (Coordinador)

    2009-01-01

    The author introduces some of the foundations of Malay culture with respect to health and disease in a rural context. Malay cosmology is grounded in a syncretism of animistic beliefs with Islam. The cognitive and symbolic contents of this cosmology reveals general aspects of Malay culture (cosmology, social structure, gender relationships, witchcraft) as well as specific aspects of the same as they pertain to health and illness (understanding of the body, reproduction, disease). Ethnography i...

  3. This Land is Ours. The Shaping of Xhosa Resistance to European Expansion Along the Cape Colony’s Eastern Frontier, 1770-1820

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    deaf ears, as the young prophet told the people to reject witchcraft and bloodshed, for which God was punishing the Xhosa. He further attacked...the danger posed by the Cape Colony. Accesion For NTIS CRA&M DTIC TAB Unannounced Justification .............................. r. -r"r " By...well as to a clear idea among all the chiefdoms of the danger posed by the Cape Colony. "THIS LAND IS OURS!" THE SHAPING OF XHOSA RESISTANCE TO

  4. Chaplaincy at a Crossroads: Fundamentalist Chaplains in a Pluralistic Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    of the larger organizations of Wiccan followers in the United States, describe its practice and followers in this way: “ Wicca , as practiced today, is...other cultures. Modern Wicca or "Witchcraft" can be directly traced back to the writings of Margaret Murray, a cultural anthropologist,” see...History, Development, and Philosophy of Traditional Craft Wicca (TCW),” linked from Sacred Well Congregation Home Page, http://www.sacredwell.org

  5. O quem das coisas: etnografia e feitiçaria em Les mots, la mort, les sorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rodrigues Barbosa Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discorre sobre a relação entre a etnografia e a feitiçaria na obra Les mots, la mort, les sorts de Jeanne Favret-Saada. O seu objetivo inicial é apresentar os principais temas, e conceitos, propostos pela autora na descrição que faz da feitiçaria. Trata-se, nesse caso, de elaborar um comentário sobre o livro chamando a atenção para as inúmeras possibilidades que abre para uma "antropologia da feitiçaria". Destaco, entre muitas, o uso cuidadoso que a autora faz do que hoje chamaríamos de um "procedimento de equivalência" ou "princípio de simetria", a saber, do modo através do qual a etnografia e a feitiçaria, situadas em um mesmo "plano de imanência", descrevem-se mutuamente, dispondo-se em uma relação recíproca de transformação.This article discusses the relationship between ethnography and witchcraft in Jeanne Favret-Saada's Les mots, la mort, les sorts (Deadly words. Its first aim is to present the main themes and concepts proposed by the author's description of witchcraft. As such, its purpose is to offer a commentary on the book by drawing attention to the various possibilities that it provides for an 'anthropology of witchcraft'. Among these, the article highlights the author's use of what we could call a 'procedure of equivalence' or 'principle of symmetry', namely the mode through which ethnography and witchcraft, when located on the same 'plane of immanence', can describe each other in a reciprocal relationship of transformation.

  6. In Search of the English Sabbat: Popular Conceptions of Witches’ Meetings in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sharpe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the evidence for belief in the witches’ sabbat in early modern England. England is generally thought of as a country where the concept of the sabbat did not exist, and it was certainly largely absent from elite thinking on witchcraft, as displayed in the witchcraft statutes of 1563 and 1604 and Elizabethan and Jacobean demonological writings. But evidence entering the historical record mainly via deposi- tions taken by justices of the peace suggests that there was a widespread popular belief in the sabbat or in parallel forms of witches’ meetings, evidence that the concept of the sabbat existed in popular culture. In this, the English evidence seems to support Carlo Ginzburg’s model of the sabbat being essentially a popular construction in its origins. The article also examines a play based on one of the historical incidents analysed, Richard Brome and Thomas Heywood’s The Late Lancashire Witches (1634, and uses it as a starting point for a brief discussion of witchcraft motifs in contemporary drama, notably Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

  7. Conflict and compliance: Christianity and the occult in horticultural exporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C S

    1999-03-01

    The introduction of export horticulture in Meru District, Kenya, brought about disadvantageous effects on female farmers. Their workload increased while their earnings did not. Women reacted by turning to Christianity for support, and resorted to traditional witchcraft to regain control. In this article, Christianity and witchcraft are presented as ways of expressing discontent with the prevailing social norms, and as means to reclaim autonomy and security within their households. Since Kenyan women are entailed to meet the standards of being a good Christian wife, in which women are submissive to their husbands, the church became a means of escaping the confinements of their marriage. In Meru, Christian conversion offers a means of coping with life and an opportunity to interact with other women who share the same experience. Another strategy adopted by women is witchcraft, a traditional relic wherein women give "potions" to their husbands to induce psychosis and eventually death, which would then leave control of the household to the woman. In conclusion, the case presented here demonstrates how failure to recognize cultural dynamics leads to gender inequity and worsens women's well being, as well as men's security.

  8. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  9. Les nourritures substantielles du corps et de l’Esprit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne Roth-Haillote

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine, dans un monastère de contemplatives1, de quelles façons s’alternent ou se superposent les nourritures du corps et de l’esprit, fournissant aux épouses du Seigneur une préservation physique et spirituelle pour mieux atteindre la finalité de leur vocation.Taking place in a monastery of contemplative nuns2, this article looks at the various ways of feeding the mind and the body, thus giving the Lord’s wives both a physical and spiritual strengh to reach the highlight of their vocation.

  10. San Francisco y su tiempo. Carisma y obediencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Cánovas Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical tour from the XII century, going through the Middle Ages and announcing the times of the Renaissance. Concreting the different transformations in the fields: social, political, cultural and religious. With special emphasis on the teleological field, which undergoes a series of transformations, and highlighting the role of Franciscanism in the hand of Francis of Assisi. That introduces a new perspective and religious experience in front of the two forms of consecrated life present so far: the monastic and the canonical.

  11. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  12. «Gemelli cultores»: hagiographic couples in the 6th-century Latin literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Ferrarini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hagiographic sources, when carefully examined, can make a significant contribution to the study of the concept of amicitia (friendship in monastic life. The essay analyzes four couples of friends-saints who are included in the works of some of the leading figures of the 6th-century western literature: Pope Gregory I [Gregory I Magnus], the unknown author of Vita Fulgentii, Gregory of Tours and the poet Venantius Fortunatus. This study highlights that the friendship the Roman Senatorial aristocracy conceived and practiced was not different from this value as nourished by the early monasticism, besides stressing its strict connection to the hermit experience.

  13. San Pascual (2013) Año L, n. 366

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, María Dolores, O.S.C. (Directora)

    2013-01-01

    Editorial. Actualidad: Su Santidad el Papa Benedicto XVI y su renuncia. Peregrinos de la Fe con San Pascual Baylón. Efemérides Pascualinas: 15 de febrero de 1946. Se inaugura en el punte del Mar de Valencia el casilicio de San Pascual Baylón, obra del escultor José Pascual Ortells. Otras efemérides. San Pascual en la cerámica: El Retablo cerámico de San Pascual, Burriana. San Pascual y los Papas: Papa Benedicto XV. Año de la Fe: Exposición de crucifijos en el museo "Pouet del Sant" del Monast...

  14. Om de forskellige ordener og kald som findes i kirken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2002-01-01

    This essay discusses various clerical and monastic reflections on the nature and content of Christian spirituality in the High Middle Ages. Guided by the classifications made in an anonymous treaty - Libellus de diversis Ordinibus et Professionibus, qui sunt Ecclesia - the essay depicts several...... narrowly as distinct religious communities. These religious institutions, which differed from one another, often expressed themselves in polemic writings. On a personal level the themes included in these writings were for instance the development and nature of an introspective, psychological capacity used...

  15. Arte, técnica e política: a arquitetura régia de Juan de Herrera e o projeto político de Felipe II da Espanha (1572 - 1597)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Durante a Idade Moderna, na Espanha governada pela dinastia dos Habsburgos, religião e política se fundiam em muitos aspectos para criar a expressão característica da forma de governo desses monarcas, sobretudo durante o reinado de Felipe II (1556-1598). Junto a esse rei, importantes colaboradores criaram a imagem de seu governo. Nesta dissertação, chamamos a atenção para a atuação de Juan de Herrera, arquiteto de Felipe II, finalizador da obra emblemática do Monastério de San Lorenzo el Real...

  16. Precedents, fundació i primers anys del monestir de Vallbona (1154-1185

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sans i Travé, Josep Maria

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing the oldest documents related to the Cistercian monastery of Vallbona, this article analyzes its mixed —men and women— eremitic origin and the task and personality of its founder Ramon, who was also a promoter of other settlements in the Catalunya Nova (the lands recently conquered from the Muslims. In 1171 the community was incorporated to Cîteaux. As a consequence of that, it gained social prestige, which was increased after the visit of the Catalan king (February-March 1178 who supported the monastery with the concession of privileges and donations of lands and properties. Finally, this article studies the role played by abbess Oria, who came from the Cistercian monastery of Tulebras (Navarra to instruct the new community, and by the noble Berenguera de Cervera, who was one of the most important benefactress of the abbey.[fr] À partir d'une relecture des premiers documents relatifs au monastère cistercien de Vallbona, nous pouvons étudier ses origines érémitiques mixtes —d'hommes et de femmes— et la personnalité et la tâche de son fondateur, qui fût promoteur aussi même, d'autres centres à la Nouvelle Catalogne, les terres récemment conquises aux sarrasins. En 1171 la communauté fût incorporée à Cîteaux, ce qui lui comporta un gran prestige social spécialement après la visite des monarques catalans (février-mars 1178 qui ont favorisé le nouveau monastère avec la concession de privilèges et donations de terres et propriétés. Nous étudions, finalement, le rôle développé par l'abbesse Oria, arrivée du monastère cistercien de Tulebras (Navarra pour instruire la nouvelle communauté— et de la noble Berenguera de Cervera, une des bienfaitrices plus importantes du monastère.

  17. Review of Saint-Denis: A Town in the Middle Ages [Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Murray

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available How many of us, in teaching the history of medieval urbanism, or of Gothic architecture, have lamented the all-encompassing spread of suburbs and spaghetti highways that have obliterated the shape of the medieval city with its clearly defined walls and monastic bourgs? In the 1970s, Saint-Denis was a dreary smoke-blackened industrial suburb to the north of Paris, difficult to get to from downtown, and even dangerous for the unwary visitor. The glorious history of the site was represented only by the presence of the great abbey church (now a cathedral.

  18. Nobles and monks: the Osorios from Villafranca and the monasteries in El Bierzo (14th-15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Cavero Domínguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Middle Ages, in the northwest of the present day province of León, there occurred a special alliance between the nobility, represented by the Osorios, from the Count House of Lemos, and the traditional monasticism and mendicant friars. The powerful nobility would reach the peak of their economic growth and find a place for the eternal rest of their members in the numerous Bierzo monastic centres, whether male or female, urban or rural, like Santa María de Carracedo and San Francisco de Villafranca, among others.

  19. A Spanish Bishop Remembers the Future: Oral Traditions and Purgatory in Julian of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P. Stork

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stork considers Bishop Julian of Toledo and his seventh-century creation of one of the most influential works on Purgatory, the _Prognosticon Futuri Saeculi_. Enormously popular in Western Europe, it provided a convenient compendium of source material used by preachers and theologians for centuries. Though the work itself consists of citations from Patristic authors, Julian’s preface and the titles to each section reveal how, in a sort of spiritual “convivium” with his friend Idalius, he initially composed the book from memory. Surviving manuscripts show how the text was studied and transmitted in early monastic school settings.

  20. For the history of the Capuchin monastery libraries of Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Nepori

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper traces the history of the Capuchin monastery libraries of Genoa, since the 1535 to the present day. The main sources used are the Capuchin Constitutions, the documents kept at the Provincial Archives and the library catalogs of the cloisters (including the Bibliotheca Scriptorum Minorum Ordinis S. Francisci Capuccinorum p. Dionisio from Genoa and, finally, was some piece of news by private libraries. The story of the thirty-four cloister libraries is linked with the Provincial Library, which is representative of the Capuchin Province of Genoa and an important center for the conservation of all monastic book collections.

  1. The Sound of Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远征

    2002-01-01

    Maria,a postulont (见习修女) in a Salzburg Abbey(萨尔茨保修道院),is distracted(分散) from her religious duties by the majestic(雄伟的) Alpine landscape and her restless,passionate(热情的) spirit.The Mother Abbess, Believing that Maria's buoyant(快活的) personality may be incompatible(不相容的)with monastic(修道院的) life,wisely sends her away to discover her true calling.

  2. Ἱερὰ Μονὴ Κωνσταμονίτου. Κατάλογος τοῦ Ἀρχείου

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Νίκος ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΔΗΣ

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available N. OikonomidèsCatalogue des archives grecques du monastère de Kônstamonitou au Mont Athos (1047-1686 Le présent catalogue est le résultat de cinq missions effectuées au Mont Athos en 1966, 1967, 1968 et 1969 et du travail effectué dans les archives du monastère de Saint Stéphane, surnommé tou Kônstamonitou (appellation officielle d'aujourd'hui; le nom ancien est Kastamonitou. L'ensemble des archives (déjà classées et répertoriées suivant d'autres principes par les moines de Kônstamonitou Syméon et Spyridon a été examiné, la plus ancienne partie (avant 1700 a été photographiée. Les documents anciens ont été classés et rangés dans une armoire métallique, offerte au monastère par la Fondation Royale de la Recherche Scientifique. Les documents turcs antérieurs à l'an 1000 d'Hégire ont également été photographiés; leur étude a été confiée à Elizabeth Zachariadou-Oikonomidès.Dans le présent catalogue on a suivi le même système et princi-pes que dans le catalogue des archives grecques de Dionysiou, publié dans Symmeikta I: des notices séparées ont été consacrées à chaque document, avec les éléments suivants: a type de document: b date; c description sommaire; d résumé; e incipit ; f indication des éventuelles éditions ou de la bibliographie; g si nécessaire, notice explicative. L'ensemble a été classé suivant grosso modo le principe de chancelleries: actes des empereurs de Byzance (n° 1-2, actes des patriarches (n° 3-5, actes des prôtoi et du conseil de Karyés (n° 6-16, actes des monastères (n° 17-18 et copies collectives (n° 19-22. A la fin il y a un inventaire des documents classés d'après leur date et un index onomastique.

  3. Una empresa olvidada del primer gótico hispano: la fachada de la sala capitular de la Catedral de León

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ameijeiras, Rocío

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of six figurai slabs, representing a typical cloister program (Christ, Mary, Saint Peter dressed in monastic habit. Saint Paul and two leonese saint, reinstalled at the Museum of Leon cathedral can be dated at around 1200 and atributed to sculptors trained in first gothic French models. Both iconography and format let suppose that the figures' original disposition was in the portal of the chapter house. Unfortunately only written documentation remains about another decorated portal in the same cloister, that of the refectorium.No disponible

  4. De divinações xamânicas e acusações de feitiçaria: imagens Wauja da agência letal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles Barcelos Neto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo explora as diferenças e as relações entre feitiçaria e xamanismo entre os Wauja do Alto Xingu com ênfases nos processos de transformações corporais, nas noções de agência letal e na ontologia da predação. A feitiçaria é descrita como uma categoria de acusação de assassinato e de responsabilidade por malefícios de diversas ordens e como um dispositivo de contrapoder no cenário de chefias fortes e relativamente autoritárias. As acusações, sobretudo as de assassinato, tecem uma urdidura política que traz a feitiçaria para o centro da socialidade wauja. A hipótese principal é a de que a feitiçaria tenha um duplo efeito político, simultâneo ou sucessivo, na paisagem sociológica wauja: ela pode servir para perseguir, eliminar ou exilar os adversários de um chefe, bem como pode se voltar contra este para contestar seu status e comprometer seu prestígio. Tem também um duplo sentido estético: é a encarnação mais perfeita da fealdade e da tristeza-morte, por isso, profundamente oposta ao ritual e à matéria própria das realizações terapêuticas que caracterizam o xamanismo xinguano.This article discusses the differences and relations between witchcraft and shamanism among the Wauja Indians of the Upper Xingu river, focusing on the processes of body transformations, notions of lethal agency and the ontology of predation. Witchcraft is described as an accusation category referencing murder and also as an anti-power apparatus in the context of strong and relatively authoritarian chieftainships. Accusations, especially those of murder, weave a political plot that brings witchcraft to the center of Wauja sociality. Our main hypothesis is that witchcraft has a double political effect (simultaneous or successive in the Wauja sociological landscape: it can serve to persecute, eliminate, or exile a chief’s adversaries, but it also may turn against a chief, compromising his prestige and contesting his status

  5. The Javanese Lunar Calendar’s Effect on Indonesian Stock Returns

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    Robiyanto, Robiyanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is very possible for an investor to take a decision based on superstitions and common beliefs. Actually, Indonesia has a specific calendar system called the Javanese lunar calendar. The Javanese calendar contains several special days because of their sacred characteristics such as “Kamis Wage” (Thursday Wage and “Jum’at Kliwon” (Friday Kliwon. The day of Friday Kliwon is often considered to be the most frightening which is similar to Friday the Thirteenth in Western culture. This study tried to scrutinize the impact of those sacred days on Indonesian stock returns. By applying GARCH-M, the finding shows that the Javanese lunar calendar does not have any impact on the Indonesian stock returns, but does affect the investors’ risk aversion level. This study has proven that, in terms of risk aversion, investors’ behavior in Indonesia is influenced by superstition.

  6. Pedras, montes e protecções: a religião no norte pré-cristão

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    Maria do Carmo Serén

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Legends, beliefs, superstitions and folklore insinuate fragmentary images of ancient religions. In the North of the Iberian Peninsula, such as in Galicia, several series have been researched (funerary monuments, sanctuaries, inscriptions, sculpture that usually appear associated to studies and surveys on chapels, crosses or churches, which thus consecrated the new Christian space. This appropriation of the sacred space, since Saint Martin of Braga, was conducted against the Roman religion and embraced previous religions under the term of superstitions. The crossing of places of Castro civilisation, where pilgrimages and peregrinations gained relevance, establishes a significant series of sacred mounts and stones which are repeated in a seemingly unrelated series, the rocks and stones of Moors also shrouded in enchantment, which popular tradition and naming have conserved.

  7. [Influences of lunar cycle in labor: myth or scientific finding?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Aline; Iessi, Isabela Lovizutto; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Superstitions are found everywhere in our lives, and medicine, a profession that is prides itself on an evidence-based approach to treatment, is not exempt. A superstition that pervades the labor and delivery floor is that it is busier during certain phases of the lunar cycle, specifically the full moon. Although some studies have demonstrated an increase in deliveries that are related to the lunar cycle, there has been disagreement about when, in the lunar cycle, the peak volume occurs. Front to the divergence of the existent results in the literature to relate the events of the lunar cycle with deliveries, the aim of this review was to accomplish the literature in the attempt of explaining this popular culture with base in the results presented by different researchers.

  8. Ὑπερφυσικὲς δυνάμεις, φυσικὰ φαινόμενα καὶ δεισιδαιμονίες στὴν ἱστορία τοῦ Γεωργίου Παχυμέρη

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Στέλιος ΛΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available S. LampakisForces surnaturelles, phénomènes physiques et superstition dans les «Relations Historiques» de Georges PachymèreDans son oeuvre historique, Georges Pachymère, bien qu'extrêmement érudit, a la tendance de décrire en détail des phénomènes de la Nature, des rêves et des événements bizarres, hors du contrôle humain. Cette attitude typiquement médiévale démontre une profonde influence des superstitions de son temps. Dans l'étude sont présentés et commentés ces cas, ainsi que l'approche de Pachymère à chacun d'eux.

  9. Public Goods, Environmental Protection,and the Development Paradigm in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhou

    2004-01-01

    Ecological environment protection will and should not stop as regional public goods;instead, it has been gradually regarded as global public goods. That is why the responsibility of environment protection belongs to public institutions: government organizations (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO). The ecological environment protection problems in China's rural areas stem from the absence of government responsibilities with regard to consensuses on issues of rural public goods that are basically sourced from two superstitions on the government's development paradigm: one is attaching too much importance on economic growth; the other is relying entirely on market resource-allocation capacity. These two superstitions of China "s government obviously lead to the shortage of public goods in rural areas. It is necessary that GO's and NGO's clearly define their specific responsibilities, reflect on the development paradigm; establish a more scientific development model and take concrete actions based on it.

  10. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence.

  11. Catching Power: Race, Altered Solidarities, and Science in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In Trinidad, "catching power" indexes the embodiment of other-than-human force, a cultivated practice that anthropologists have typically referred to as "spirit possession." This dissertation examines how "catching power" recursively transforms social scientific theories of power, and how practices codified as illicit superstition, but called science by practitioners, alter the limits of the authoritative categories of modern rationalization. For more than two centuries, colonial and postco...

  12. "Making Sense of the Aurora: A Research Project"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Marc Friedman

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an introduction to a on-going research project based at University of Tromsø that seeks to analyze the history of efforts to make sense of the aurora borealis from the early 1700s through to the Cold War. Following brilliant displays of the northern lights in the early eighteenth century, natural philosophers strove to explain this phenomenon that evoked widespread fear and superstition. It was not until well into the twentieth century that consensual explanation emerged ...

  13. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    society. The Sejm’s expressions of respect are also addressed to party and social organizations, people’s councils, PRON cells, academic circles...youth. The mass media have a particularly important role in eliminating backward states of mind, prejudices and superstitions and ensuring that all...workers are realized as a value in the market under the conditions of socia - list commodity production and the working of economic laws and the market

  14. An Experimental Research on Causal Illusion (in Chinese)

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z. F.; Zhao, J.

    2004-01-01

    The research examined humans’ causal attribution of response-outcome under controllable and uncontrollable conditions respectively and attempted to find out whether providing appropriate external cues could be beneficial to them in making accurate judgments. The results indicate: 1) under controllable conditions, the delay of feedback might lead to causal illusion; 2) under uncontrollable conditions, the subjects developed superstition and illusion of control rather than helplessness; 3) prov...

  15. A confirmatory study of the relation between self-reported complex partial epileptic signs, peak experiences and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morneau, D M; MacDonald, D A; Holland, C J

    1996-11-01

    Data obtained from a sample of 102 university students were used to calculate Pearson product moment correlations between measures of complex partial epileptic signs, peak experiences and paranormal beliefs. Significant correlations ranging from .35 to .42 (p paranormal measure including precognition (r = .43), psi beliefs (r = .40), spiritualism (r = .40), extraordinary life forms (r = .26) and superstition (r = .22). The results are consistent with previous research linking temporal lobe signs to paranormal and peak experiences.

  16. La biografía de Aspasia de Focea de Eliano

    OpenAIRE

    Barrigón Fuentes, María del Carmen

    2001-01-01

    The story of the enigmatic Aspasia of Phocis, briefly related in the Greek literature since Xenophon, is specially developed in Aelian's Varia Historia. This paper intends to study the new data that Aelian added to Aspasia's literary biography, among them folk topics such as the presence of number three, healings through unconventional methods, warning dreams, magic transformations of animals into human beings ... , which were thought to provide readers, fond of superstition and pseudo-scient...

  17. St Sava and the cloud-chasers

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    Loma Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A gloss in the Nomocanon of St Sava condemns folk superstitions related to magically provoking hailstorms and eclipses. St Sava’s miracle with the king of Hungary as described in his Vitae seems to go back to the same complex of popular beliefs. Its acceptance by the hagiography was probably due to the influence of the figure of prince magician as common to the Serbian and the Russian oral epics.

  18. Menstruation in Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates James Joyce's fascination with a wide variety of medical texts, sexual folklores, religious beliefs, and persistent superstitions about menstruation. That fascination finds its way into Ulysses, which draws upon a number of intertexts to inform a curiosity about the female body most strikingly articulated by Bloom, Molly, and Gerty MacDowell. These intertexts are not simply imported into the novel but are dismantled and interrogated, as Joyce exposes, rather than endorses, clichés of essential femininity.

  19. Superstitious key pecking after three peck-produced reinforcements1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen J.

    1970-01-01

    The first three pecks on a response key by experimentally naive pigeons produced grain reinforcements. Thereafter, for approximately 50 experimental sessions and under a variety of schedule conditions, grain was presented independently of the subjects' behaviors. The pigeons continued to peck the response key “superstitiously” throughout the 50 sessions. The results suggest that superstitions are commonplace—not relatively infrequent or abnormal events—in the behavior of pigeons. PMID:16811432

  20. Superstitious key pecking after three peck-produced reinforcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, A J

    1970-03-01

    The first three pecks on a response key by experimentally naive pigeons produced grain reinforcements. Thereafter, for approximately 50 experimental sessions and under a variety of schedule conditions, grain was presented independently of the subjects' behaviors. The pigeons continued to peck the response key "superstitiously" throughout the 50 sessions. The results suggest that superstitions are commonplace-not relatively infrequent or abnormal events-in the behavior of pigeons.

  1. The Disjointed Historical Trajectory of Anorexia Nervosa Before 1970

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Responses in pre-modern eras to anorexia nervosa (as now understood) varied widely, from religious piety and sanctity through fear and superstition. While noting briefly the limited conceptualizations from pre-modern history this article is primarily focused from the late 19th century, commencing with helpful but tentative formulations of anorexia nervosa for early-modern medicine that were laid out, consistently between themselves, by Lesègue, Gull and Osler. Yet that promising biomedical ad...

  2. Everyday Magic: Some Mysteries of the Mantlepiece

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    Ralph Mills

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small mass-produced objects, such as ceramic figurines, that may have been displayed on mantelpieces, are found in working-class nineteenth and early twentieth century archaeological contexts. Above the hearth, at the heart of the home, objects located on the mantelpiece could be said to be central in reflecting a number of aspects of the lives of those who placed them there. These could include identity, resistance, memory and superstition.

  3. THE ELASTIC FIELD CASED BY TWO INCLUSIONS WITH UNI-FORM DILATATIONAL EIGENSTRAINS IN DISSIMILAR MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞家欢; 匡震邦

    2001-01-01

    The displacement and the stress states cased by single inclusion are achieved from the fundamental solutions such as nuclei of strain in bimaterals. The elastic field induced by multiple inclusions in dissimilar media could be found from the superstition of that of individual precipitate. In this paper, the effect of the planner interface with parameters of depth from the interface, both pairs of elastic moduli and also shapes of the inclusion are also given, which are of great significance in physical applications.

  4. Comparative Study of English and Chinese Taboos in Recent Times by Social Cultural Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宜华

    2014-01-01

    A taboo is something you should avoid doing or saying because a society thinks it is offensive, embarrassing or wrong.Different cultures do not all agree on what taboo is and what should be tabooed in a given context.Both Chinese and English have taboos on such things as sex,death, religion, superstition and so forth, but they follow different cultural norms.This thesis incorporates some anthropological and sociolinguistic ideas to analyze linguistic taboos in Chinese and English.

  5. Contemporary Leadership and Doctrine: The Utility of Analyzing the Outcome of Thucydides’ The Peloponnesian War Via Clausewitz’s Concepts as Articulated in On War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-03

    is, but introduces his work as an "inquiry" ( historia ). Herodotus clearly believes in the intervention of the gods in his description of historical...Cawkwell, Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War (New York: Routledge, 1997) 2-3. 9 The Greeks used superstition and religion to explain natural events...held deep religious beliefs, or believed in oracles and prophecy. He seems to treat religion more as a social institution. See Strassler’s introduction

  6. "Early baby teeth": Folklore and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, N Uma; Kumar, B P; Karunakaran; Kumaran, S Thanga

    2012-08-01

    Variations in the newborns' oral cavity have been an enduring interest to the pediatric dentist. The occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth is a rare anomaly, which for centuries has been associated with diverse superstitions among many different ethnic groups. Natal teeth are more frequent than neonatal teeth, the ratio being approximately 3:1. The purpose of this case report is to review the literature related to the natal teeth folklore and misconceptions and discuss their possible etiology and treatment.

  7. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  8. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

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    Tadayoshi Murakami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional—from Myanmar to Thailand— and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid border crossing of people, goods, and information in spite of rigid border control by the Thai government. In the religious sphere, the Thai government has been institutionalizing and standardizing “Thai Buddhism” since the early twentieth century. The government’s efforts seem to have succeeded, resulting in the unified organization of “State Sangha” and a systematized curriculum for monastic education. In the process, local Sanghas (Buddhist monastic communities in the kingdom have been integrated into the State Sangha of Thailand. However, Shan Buddhism in the border area has not been totally assimilated into Thai Buddhism and maintains its unique seasonal festivals, religious rites of passage, practices using Shan manuscripts, and temple architecture. By focusing on the movement of people in the border area, where strong state control and a porous border coexist, this paper analyzes the important role of border migration in the continuation and development of Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand.

  9. KISCH / UL AND DURABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONS THAT HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world of contemporary kitsch, a world that merges authentic and false, good taste and meets often with bad taste. This phenomenon is găseseşte everywhere: in art, in literature cheap in media productions, shows, dialogues streets, in homes, in politics, in other words, in everyday life. Ksch site came directly in tourism, being identified in all forms of tourism worldwide, but especially religious tourism, pilgrimage with unexpected success in recent years. This paper makes an analysis of progressive evolution tourist traffic religion on the ability of the destination of religious tourism to remain competitive against all the problems, to attract visitors for their loyalty, to remain unique in terms of cultural and be a permanent balance with the environment, taking into account the environment religious phenomenon invaded Kisch, it disgraceful mixing dangerously with authentic spirituality. How trade, and rather Kisch's commercial components affect the environment, reflected in terms of religious tourism offer representatives highlighted based on a survey of major monastic ensembles in North Oltenia. Research objectives achieved in work followed, on the one hand the contributions and effects of the high number of visitors on the regions that hold religious sites, and on the other hand weighting and effects of commercial activity carried out in or near monastic establishments, be it genuine or kisck the respective regions. The study conducted took into account the northern region of Oltenia, and where demand for tourism is predominantly oriented exclusively practicing religious tourism

  10. The temple vision in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Linda M

    2006-01-01

    Music-thanatology draws as much historical inspiration from the Asclepian ideal as it does from the practice of Cluniac monastic medicine. In both traditions, the patient initiates the social drama and is a most active agent in the healing process. In both traditions, the patient has the central voice and is listened to and responded to by the caregivers and clinicians, who facilitate and support in the spirit of service rather than direct/control. In both traditions, we may find death-bed healing without curing and be struck by the urgent, transcendental role of Beauty, as expressed in nature (human and elemental), the arts, architecture, and music. Clearly, our guest author envisions a profound end-of-life music-thanatology clinical practice in which the well-known, empirical Hippocratic and the lesser known, sacred Asclepian are integrated into the ideals of monastic medicine. In so doing, not only are pain and suffering uniquely met, but a blessed, peace-filled or conscious transitus may occur, and each death-bed setting has the potential to become nothing less than a sanctuary for completion.

  11. Espacios de espiritualidad: el monasterio de Moreruela

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    Bueno Domínguez, María Luisa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Santa María de Moreruela was a Monastery of the Cistercian Order built in Zamora lands.. This study starts in the situation of this monastery that I consider it is important to approach us –by means of the solitude of the place– to the basic rules of Monastic life: it is said Loneliness, Silence and Poverty. This work doesn´t pretend to study the monastery in itself but to find through it, the essence and spirit of monastic life. I want to tansmit that the Silence allows the monks to hear to themselves and to get in touch with their private life with God.Santa María de Moreruela fue un monasterio de la Orden Cisterciense en tierras zamoranas. El estudio parte de la ubicación de este monasterio, que considero importante para poder acercarnos, por medio de la soledad del lugar, a los elementos básicos de la vida monacal: Soledad, silencio y pobreza. No se trata de estudiar el monasterio citado, sino que, a través de él, se pueda uno encontrar con la esencia y el espíritu del monacato. Transmitir que el silencio permite al monje escucharse a si mismo y ponerse en contacto en su intimidad con Dios.

  12. Multiple 3d Approaches for the Architectural Study of the Medieval Abbey of Cormery in the Loire Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper will focus on the technical approaches used for a PhD thesis regarding architecture and spatial organization of benedict abbeys in Touraine in the Middle Ages, in particular the abbey of Cormery in the heart of the Loire Valley. Monastic space is approached in a diachronic way, from the early Middle Ages to the modern times using multi-sources data: architectural study, written sources, ancient maps, various iconographic documents… Many scales are used in the analysis, from the establishment of the abbeys in a territory to the scale of a building like the tower-entrance of the church of Cormery. These methodological axes have been developed in the research unit CITERES for many years and the 3D technology is now used to go further along in that field. The recording in 3D of the buildings of the abbey of Cormery allows us to work at the scale of the monastery and to produce useful data such as sections or orthoimages of the ground and the walls faces which are afterwards drawn and analysed. The study of these documents, crossed with the other historical sources, allowed us to emphasize the presence of walls older than what we thought and to discover construction elements that had not been recognized earlier and which enhance the debate about the construction date St Paul tower and associated the monastic church.

  13. De nouveau sur la peinture du skite des Saints-Apôtres de Hurezi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Iancovescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La peinture de l’église du skite des Saints-Apôtres près du monastère Hurezi, fondation de l’higoumène du monastère, l’archimandrite Jean, réalisée en 1700, présente nombre de particularités iconographiques. Un surprenant parallélisme avec certaines mosaïques de la cathédrale Sainte-Sophie de Constantinople - restées encore sur place au tournant du XVIIIe siècle – serait motivé par les tensions confessionnelles qui ravageaient à l’époque le monde orthodoxe et qui prêtèrent à l’ensemble valaque le même caractère témoignant sur la foi orthodoxe, que celui manifesté par le célèbre modèle byzantin.

  14. Remarques diplomàtiques al voltant del document de creació de la Biblioteca Reial de Poblet (Poblet, 20 d'agost de 1380

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno Blay, Francisco M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a copy of a document dated at the Monastery of Poblet, 20th August, 1380. It states that the King Pedro el Ceremonioso was in the process of establishing a library in it. The absence of the original document as well as the existence of a single copy and several textual irregularities required a diplomatic analysis of the text, so that it could be adequately used as a historical source.[fr] Le présent article analyse la copie du document daté au Monastère de Poblet le 20 août 1380, selon lequel le roi Pedro el Ceremonioso avrait fondé une bibliothèque à ce monastère. L'absence du document original, Texistence d'une seule copie, ainsi comme la présence de certes irrégularités exigeaient une analyse diplomatique du même en vue de son utilisation comme témoignage historique.

  15. Une collection authentiquée d'actes du couvent de Patmos et ses notices dorsales (XIe s.. Notes de diplomatique byzantine

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    Era L. VRANOUSSI

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available   Chryssa Maltézou Les documents latins du Couvent de Patmos Les archives du couvent de Patmos conservent 68 documents latins, qu'on peut diviser en trois catégories: 1. documents qui se rapportent, à une dépendance du monastère, le métoque de St. Jean de Stylos, en Crète; 2. documents qui se rapportent aux privilèges accordés au monastère de Patmos par des papes, des empereurs, des doges et des Hospitaliers de Rhodes et 3. documents qui se rapportent à la question de la quête (ζητεία, exercée par les moines de Patmos, pendant la domination turque, pour obtenir la protection des Etats catholiques.L'étude est un exposé des recherches effectuées par l'auteur pendant deux missions, l'une aux archives du couvent de Patmos (août 1970 et l'autre aux Archives d'État de Venise (septembre-novembre 1970. À Patmos l'auteur s'est efforcé d'identifier les documents latins du monastère avec ceux connus par l'édition de Miklosich-Müller et elle a découvert en outre 30 documents inédits, dont elle a fait la description totale. Aux Archives d'État de Venise l'auteur a pu constater que les copies des documents vénitiens, que possède lé couvent de Patmos, sont précieuses, les originaux provenant de la Chancellerie de La Canèe ayant disparu; en effet, Morosini, après la chute de Crète, transporta à Venise les archives de Candie et une partie seulement des archives de La Canèe. En outre l'auteur signale 20 documents inédits relatifs aux privilèges accordés par la République de Venise tant au monastère de Patmos, qu'au métoque de Stylos, et s'est efforcé d'identifier un document patmien inédit (de l'an 1577 très endommagé (cf. table n° 30 avec la copie officielle conservée à Venise.Suit l'édition des documents ci-dessous: un registre de Stylos, composé en 1506, comprenant la description des limites du métoque et de sa propriété terrienne (σώχωρα, μοῖραι; la lettre du doge Michael Steno (1401

  16. Les Dragaš et le mont Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živojinović Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski L'auteur de ce travail considère les rapports des Dragaš avec certains monastères athonites: Saint-Pantéléèmôn, Chilandar, Iviron, Kutlumus et Vatopédi. En l'occurrence, on sait qu'outre la confirmation d'anciens privilèges fonciers, ils ont octroyé de nouveaux droits à ces établissements à travers la donation de nombre de villages et d'églises sis sur le territoire de leur Etat, très agrandi après la bataille de la Maritsa (26 septembre 1371, et, le cas échéant, ont résolu les litiges fonciers les opposant entre eux. Cette activité est attestée par plusieurs documents délivrés à ces monastères, dont les indications chronologiques subsistant sur les originaux endommagés ne sont pas toujours fiables, alors qu'elles font totalement défaut sur les copies. L'auteur estime que Chilandar et Saint Pantéléèmôn sont les premiers monastères athonites à avoir sollicité l'intervention des nouveaux maîtres de la région de la Strumica, tout d'abord pour résoudre un litige concernant le village de Breznica, qui opposait ces deux établissements depuis approximativement 1364. On sait que ce village est vraisemblablement échu au monastère russe un peu après juin 1374. A cette époque, d'après des copies conservées, les frères Dragaš — le despote Jovan et gospodin Konstantin — ont offert à Saint-Pantéléèmôn une dizaine de villages sis dans la région de la Strumica, dont la majorité existent encore aujourd'hui, ainsi qu'un ou deux hameaux; la donation de ces villages incluait celle de neuf églises patrimoniales, auxquelles ils ont également ajouté une église située à Strumica et deux respectivement à Pétrie et dans les environs de cette ville. Pour sa part, le gospodin Konstantin semble avoir rattaché à Saint-Pantéléèmôn jusqu'à 18 villages, 3 hameaux et 6 églises sis dans la région de Tikveš. En fait, nous possédons uniquement une seule copie faisant état de la donation à cet

  17. “札答”考述--《蒙古秘史》所见名物考证之一%A Textual Research about “Zhada”---A Name in Secret History of Mongolians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白・特木尔巴根

    2013-01-01

    The word“Zhada (札答)”is seen in Chapter 13 of Secret History of Mongolians and is the record of the use of witchcraft in war by Mongolians .When making a textual research in Chinese and west‐ern literature ,such witchcraft has a long history .It is not only seen in many nomadic tribes in the ancient north of China but also very popular in Middle Asia and Northeast Asia .According to Wei Shu ,the use of Zhada witchcraft in the war could be traced back to the fifth century .As a nomadic nationality ,the Mon‐golians used it in wars ,production ,living ,medication and long distance journey .It is a historical fact worthy of notice .%  “札答”一词见于《蒙古秘史》第143节,是为蒙古人在战争中使用巫术的较早记载。然考诸中西文献,可知此巫术源远流长,不仅见诸中国古代北方诸多游牧部族中,在中亚、东北亚中亦颇流行。据《魏书》记载,我们可将在战争中使用札答术的事例上溯至公元5世纪。作为游牧民族,蒙古人曾在历史发展过程中将其功用从战争拓展到生产、生活、医疗及长途旅行中,这是应当予以正视的史实。

  18. A Review for the Custom of Celebrating the Birth in "A Slave Mother"%综述《为奴隶的母亲》中的庆生子习俗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范明燕

    2012-01-01

    "A Slave Mother" mentioned a lot of folk custom items,such as "pawning wife",the midwife,celebrating the birth, medicine witchcraft and so on. This paper mainly expounds the custom of celebrating the birth.%《为奴隶的母亲》中提到了大量的民俗事项,除了"典妻"以外,还提到了产婆、庆生子、医药巫术等。本文重点阐述了庆生子的习俗。

  19. "[N]ot subject to our sense” : Margaret Cavendish's fusion of Renaissance science, magic and fairy lore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This article explores Margaret Cavendish's depictions of alchemy, witchcraft and fairy lore in her scientific treatise Philosophical Letters and in fictional texts from Natures Pictures and Poems and Fancies. Though Cavendish was a dedicated materialist, she appropriates theories of magic from early modern science and folklore into her materialist epistemology. As Cavendish draws upon a fusion of early modern conceptions of magic, she creates a radical theory of matter which not only challenges patriarchy and binary oppositions, but also explores the plurality and mystery that can exist within an infinitely complex material world.

  20. "Satan’s Synagogue". Presences of Heresy in Leopoldo María Panero’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ruano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leopoldo María Panero’s poetry is set as a constant claiming of transgression in every order, from Moral to Epistemological. In the following lines we will study one particular transgression. We are speaking about heresy, as an image of the subversion of institutionalized knowledge, in Panero’s work. For this we drew three main lines, the most remarkable in Panero’s texts. The first one deals with the Gnostic heresy, which has its splendor in the first centuries of Christianity; after that Millenarianism will be studied; finally, we will see the huge treatment that witchcraft receives in Panero’s poetry.